How to use Previously in a sentence

previously
  • She opened the door and the bright daylight in that previously darkened room startled her.

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  • Previously, the child was under the protection of her mother.

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  • For some years previously the pastoral industry had been declining Drought.

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  • They had known each other previously in Petersburg, but had become more intimate when Prince Andrew was in Vienna with Kutuzov.

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  • He employed all his ability and strength to do the best he could for himself and his army, as he had done previously and as he did subsequently in 1813.

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  • Now he stood forth to the world as an unscrupulous aggressor; moral force, previously marshalled on the side of France, now began to pass to the side of his opponents.

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  • The " wild-cat " wells, sunk by speculators on untested territory or on lands which had not previously proved productive, played an important part in the earlier mapping out of the petroleum fields.

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  • The extinction of the western caliphate and the dispersion of the once noble heritage of the Ommayads into numerous petty independent states, had taken place some thirty years previously, so that Castilian and Moslem were once again upon equal terms, the country being almost equally divided between them.

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  • Parts of them had been discovered previously.

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  • Napoleon's perfidy at Bayonne was so flagrant as to strip from him the mask of a champion of popular liberty which had previously been of priceless worth.

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  • He announced a complete reorganization of the navy, which was to be grouped in four fleets, three being for home defence, based on home ports (the third being the Atlantic fleet previously based on Gibraltar), and the fourth, based on Gibraltar, to operate either in home waters or in the Mediterranean.

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  • As previously mentioned, a pair of minute jaws - the maxillulae- are present in the lowest order of insects, between the mandibles and the first maxillae.

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  • It has been previously remarked that the phenomena of holometabolism are connected with the development of wings inside the body (except in the case of the fleas, where there are no wings in the perfect insect).

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  • Previously there had not been enough business done in cotton to make it worth any person's while to devote himself to the buying and selling on commission of cotton only.

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  • Then, according as the spinner wants immediate delivery or delivery in some future month, he pays the price of current " futures," or of " futures " of the month in which he requires delivery, plus or minus the " points on or off " previously fixed.

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  • Verona had previously fallen under the power of a less able despot, Ezzelino da Romano, who died in 1259.

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  • These were conspicuously superior to anything previously manufactured.

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  • Six hours earlier his conclusion would have been correct, but early that morning the Prussian headquarters, alarmed for the safety of their line of retreat on Berlin by the presence of the French in Naumburg, decided to leave Hohenlohe and Rachel to act as rear-guard, and with the main body to commence their retreat towards the river Unstrutt and the Eckhardtsberge where Massenbach had previously reconnoitred an " ideal " battlefield.

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  • On the 23rd of December operations were commenced, but the difficulties of securing information and maintaining communication between the respective columns, so unlike what any of the French had previously encountered, led to a very partial success.

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  • At the same time he heard that Pahlen's Cossacks had been withdrawn forty-eight hours previously, thus completely exposing his flank.

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  • Ambriz was, previously to 1884, the northernmost point of Africa south of the equator acknowledged as Portuguese territory.

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  • The Euphrates Valley (or Bagdad) railway scheme, which had previously been discussed, was brought forward prominently in 1899, and Russian proposals to undertake it were rejected.

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  • Since the beginning of the 19th century they have been bigoted Wahhabis, though previously regarded by their neighbours as very lax Mahommedans; during Mehemet Ali's occupation of Nejd their constant raids on the Egyptian communications compelled him to send several punitive expeditions into the district, which, however, met with little success.

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  • When it was entirely consumed, the boundary stone, which had been previously anointed and crowned with garlands, was placed upon the hot ashes and fixed in the ground.

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  • Previously to this he had served, in 1855, upon the commission for organizing the Exhibition of 1855, and his services there led to his forming one of the French jury of awards in the London Exhibition of 1862.

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  • The last four years of his unquiet life were spent at Samoa, in circumstances of such health and vigour as he had never previously enjoyed, and in surroundings singularly picturesque.

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  • The power to bless in this ecclesiastical sense is reserved to priests alone; the blessing of the paschal candle on Holy Saturday by the deacon being the one exception that proves the rule, for he uses for the purpose grains of incense previously blessed by the priest at the altar.

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  • The state capitol, an imposing structure built on a bluff above the river, was built in1838-1842and enlarged in 1887-1888; it was first occupied in 1840 by the legislature, which previously had met (after 1837) in the county court house.

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  • Wellington fell back before him down the left bank, ordering up Rowland Hill's force from the Badajoz road, the peasantry having been previously called upon to destroy their crops and retire within the lines of Torres Vedras.

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  • Rather than subject themselves to the tyranny of Ali Pasha, the Pargiotes decided to forsake their country; and accordingly in 1819, having previously exhumed and burned the remains of their ancestors, they migrated to the Ionian Islands.

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  • He had shown previously that decomposition of water could be effected although the two poles were placed in separate vessels connected by moistened threads.

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  • In 1807 he decomposed potash and soda, previously considered to be elements, by passing the current from a powerful battery through the moistened solids, and thus isolated the metals potassium and sodium.

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  • The interpretation of the phenomena of gaseous conduction was rendered possible by the knowledge previously acquired of conduction through liquids; the newer subject is now reaching a position whence it can repay its debt to the older.

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  • The liquid is now run into neutralizing tanks containing sodium carbonate, and, after settling, the supernatant liquid, termed "light liquor," is run through bag filters and then on to bone-char filters, which have been previously used for the "heavy liquor."

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  • In 1861, while conducting a spectroscopic examination of the residue left in the manufacture of sulphuric acid, he observed a bright green line which had not been noticed previously, and by following up the indication thus given he succeeded in isolating a new element, thallium, a specimen of which was shown in public for the first time at the exhibition of 1862.

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  • He had previously been recalled by the optimates, but ignored the order.

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  • The highest induction reached in these experiments was 45,350 units, more than twice the value of any previously recorded.

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  • In one case the hysteresis loss per cubic centimetre per cycle was 16,100 ergs for B =1 5,900, and only 1200 ergs for B = 20,200, the highest induction obtained in the experiment; possibly it would have vanished before B had reached 21,000.2 These experiments prove that actual friction must be almost entirely absent, and, as Baily remarks, the agreement of the results with the previously suggested deduction affords a strong verification of Ewing's form of the molecular theory.

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  • Thomson has demonstrated the existence under many different conditions of particles more minute than anything previously known to science.

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  • Rowland,' whose careful experiments led to general recognition of the fact previously ignored by nearly all investigators, that magnetic susceptibility and permeability are by no means constants (at least in the case of the ferromagnetic metals) but functions of the magnetizing force.

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  • The various comparisons previously made between the structure of Limulus and the Eurypterines on the one hand, and that of a typical Arachnid, such as Scorpio, on the other, had been vitiated by erroneous notions as to the origin of the nerves supplying the anterior appendages of Limulus (which were finally removed by Alphonse Milne-Edwards in his beautiful memoir (6) on the structure of that animal), and secondly by the erroneous identification of the double sternal plates of Limulus, called " chilaria," by Owen, with a pair of appendages (7).

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  • On the other hand, it may well be doubted whether the pygidial or posterior carapace is primarily due to a fusion of the tergites of somites which were previously movable and well developed.

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  • The discovery of the Coptic translation of these Acts in 1897, and its publication by C. Schmidt (Acta Pauli aus der Heidelberger koptischen Papyrushandschrift herausgegeben, Leipzig, 1894), have confirmed what had been previously only a hypothesis that the Acts of Thecla had formed a part of the larger Acts of Paul.

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  • Harnack, who was the first to show that these Acts were Catholic in character and not Gnostic as had previously been alleged, assigns their composition to this period mainly on the ground that Hippolytus was not acquainted with them; but even were this assumption true, it would not prove the non-existence of the Acts in question.

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  • The place was previously known as Corrego Secco, which Dr George Gardner described in 1837 as "a small, miserable village."

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  • To Lagrange, perhaps more than to any other, the theory of differential equations is indebted for its position as a science, rather than a collection of ingenious artifices for the solution of particular problems. To the calculus of finite differences he contributed the beautiful formula of interpolation which bears his name; although substantially the same result seems to have been previously obtained by Euler.

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  • Fredrikshald is close to the Swedish frontier, and had previously (1660) withstood invasion, after which its name was changed from Halden to the present form in 1665 in honour of Frederick III.

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  • In 510 B.C. Crotona was strong enough to defeat the Sybarites, with whom it had previously been on friendly terms, and raze their city to the ground.

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  • The question turned upon the true construction of certain treaties between theEuropeanpowers and Japan which had been made a few years previously.

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  • In 1855, ignorant of what Wailer had done ten years previously, he succeeded in obtaining metallic aluminium, and ultimately he devised a method by which the metal could be prepared on a large scale by the aid of sodium, the manufacture of which he also developed.

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  • The remainder of the presidency of Dr Moraes was uneventful; and on the 15th of November 1898 he was succeeded by Dr Campos Salles, who had previously been governor of the state of Sao Paulo.

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  • The twelve who replaced the council of nine (as these had previously replaced the council of the nobles) consisted - both as individuals and as a party - of ignorant, incapable, turbulent men, who could neither rule the state with firmness nor confer prosperity on the republic. They speedily broke with the nobles, for whose manoeuvres they had at first been useful tools, and then split into two factions, one siding with the Tolomei, the other, the more restless and violent, with the Salimbeni and the noveschi (partisans of the nine), who, having still some influence in the city, probably fomented these dissensions, and, as we shall see later on, skilfully availed themselves of every chance likely to restore them to power.

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  • Through the favour of Leo X., he was succeeded by his cousin Raffaello Petrucci, previously governor of St Angelo and afterwards a cardinal.

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  • The bulk of these exports are to the Transvaal and neighbouring countries, and previously figure as imports, other exports, largely wool and hides, are first imported from the Transvaal.

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  • As one result of the war, an addition was made to the territory comprised in Natal, consisting of a portion of what had previously been included in the Transvaal.

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  • Previously Natal had only 221% of the traffic, and this agreement led to a revival in trade.

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  • The most conspicuous event of Andrew's reign was the promulgation in 1222 of the so-called Golden Bull, which has aptly been called the Magna Carta of Hungary, and is in some of its provisions strikingly reminiscent of that signed seven years previously by the English king John.

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  • Charles married Elizabeth, the sister of Casimir the Great of Poland, with whom he was connected by ties of close friendship, and Louis, by virtue of a compact made by his father thirty-one years previously, added the Polish crown to that of Hungary in 1370.

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  • Previously to 1320, what is now Vlachs towards combating or averting it.

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  • He had previously confirmed the treaty of Vienna, and the day after his election he appointed Illeshazy, now reinstated in all his possessions and dignities, palatine of Hungary.'

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  • This was Lucas Paciolus (Lucas de Burgo), a Minorite friar, who, having previously written works on algebra, arithmetic and geometry, published, in 1494, his principal work, entitled Summa de Arithmetica, Geometria, Proportioni et Proportionalita.

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  • Stifel introduced the sign (+) for addition or a positive quantity, which was previously denoted by plus, pia, or the letter p. Subtraction, previously written as minus, mene or the letter m, was symbolized by the sign (-) which is still in use.

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  • Darwin's introduction of thremmatology into the domain of scientific biology was accompanied by a new and special development of a branch of study which had previously been known as teleology, the study of the adaptation of organic structures to the service of the organisms in which they occur.

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  • It cannot be said that previously to Darwin there had been any very profound study of teleology, but it had been the delight of a certain type of mind - that of the lovers of nature or naturalists par excellence, as they were sometimes termed - to watch the habits of living animals and plants, and to point out the remarkable ways in which the structure of each variety of organic life was adapted to the special circumstances of life of the variety or species.

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  • Structures previously inexplicable were now explained as survivals from a past age, no longer useful though once of value.

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  • A chief merit of Ray is to have limited the term " species " and to have assigned to Ray it the significance which it bore till the Darwinian era, whereas previously it was loosely and vaguely applied.

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  • Previously to Linnaeus long many-worded names had been used, sometimes with one additional adjective, sometimes with another, so that no true names were fixed and accepted.

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  • Cuvier dissected many Molluscs and other animals which had not previously been anatomized; of others he gave more correct accounts than had been given by earlier writers.

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  • His recent discovery of the " fixed lines " allowed a precision of observation previously impossible.

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  • Previously to the introduction of the plate we have an effect corresponding to wave-lengths closely grouped around the principal wave-length, viz.

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  • It was incorporated as a town in 1894, having previously been a part of Mayfield township; in 1909 it was chartered as a city.

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  • His travels had begotten in him a love of geography, and he published in 1633 a "Kosmografi," previously revised by the astronomer Longomontanus.

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  • A " Scouts " Church was formed at the end of the war of1899-1902by burghers who had previously acted as " National Scouts " and were ostracized by the synods of their former Churches.

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  • In reviewing an incident so important in the history of the Transvaal as the appointment of the Potchefstroom assembly it is of interest to note the gist of the complaint among the Boers which led to this revolution in the government of the country as it had previously existed.

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  • Bartolus, although written some twenty years previously, contains a chapter entitled "Vera iridis tota generatis explicatur," in which it is shown how the primary bow is formed by two refractions and one reflection, and the secondary bow by two refractions and two reflections.

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  • In the same way, he showed that the secondary bow has a greater radius than that previously assigned to it.

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  • The Martyrdom had been previously edited by Assemani and by Bedjan.

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  • In 1896, though previously unreported in Germany, 107 cases were registered there, and the number rose to 295 in 1900, and 1030 in 1901.

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  • Garments were multiplied, and the cape and long mantle, which had previously been uncommon, were now usual.

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  • At the time these products were thought to be related to the nitrated starch obtained a little previously by Henri Braconnot and called xyloidin; they are only related in so far as they are nitrates.

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  • We learn from this statement not only that Goujon had been taken into the royal service on the accession of Henry II., but also that he had been previously employed under Bullant on the château of Ecouen.

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  • Official nominees are as a rule returned without any opposition, the details of the voting having been previously arranged by the local authorities in conformity with instructions from headquarters.

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  • By this a definite number of tolls, at fixed rates, was substituted for the often arbitrary tolls which had been exacted previously.

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  • The origin of the corpuscles, previously a matter of so much difference of opinion, is now pretty fairly set at rest, and has proved the key to the interpretation of the pathology of many diseases of the blood, such as the different forms of anaemia, of leucocythaemia, &c.

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  • This splitting up of the fats previously combined with albumin in the cell by the action of natural ferments - lipases - and the setting free of the fats under the influence of toxins represent the normal and the pathological process in the production of so-called fatty degeneration.

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  • Oddi in 1894 isolated from the amyloid liver a substance which Schmiedeberg had previously obtained from cartilage and named " chondroitinic-sulphuric acid " (Chondroitinschwefelsaure).

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  • Bainbridge suggests that a retention of metabolic products may cause the oedema in renal disease, Bradford having previously shown that loss of a certain amount of renal tissue caused retention of metabolic products in the tissues.

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  • Previously consumptive individuals were carefully excluded from contact with fresh air, and were advised to live in rooms almost hermetically sealed and kept at a high temperature.

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  • The district was one of the chief centres of the Methodist revival of the 18th century, the first synod of the Calvinistic Methodists being held in 1743 at Watford farm close to the town, from which place George Whitefield was married at Eglwysilan church two years previously.

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  • From this point southwards the shore of the Great Harbour, previously low and marshy, begins to rise, until the rocky promontory of Plemmyrium is reached, which closes it on the south.

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  • As the reign of Louis Philippe went on, Lamartine, who had previously been a liberal royalist, something after the fashion of Chateaubriand, became more and more democratic in his opinions.

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  • In the subject of diseases of the skin much has been done, in the minuter observation of their forms, in the description of forms previously unrecognized, and in respect of bacterial and other causation and of treatment.

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  • By the laryngoscope, invented about 1850 by Manuel Garcia the celebrated singingmaster, and perfected by Johann Czermak (1828-1873) and others, the diseases of the larynx also have been brought into the general light which has been shed on all fields of disease; and many of them, previously known more or less empirically, submitted to precise definition and cure.

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  • Discontent in Ireland was now rapidly becoming dangerous, and was finding a focus in the Society of the United Irishmen, and in the Catholic Committee, an organization formed a few years previously, chiefly under the direction of Lord Kenmare, to watch the interests of the Catholics.

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  • Before he was sixteen he attended lectures at Owens College, and at eighteen he gained a mathematical scholarship at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated in 1871 as senior wrangler and first Smith's prizeman, having previously taken the degree of D.Sc. at London University and won a Whitworth scholarship. Although elected a fellow and tutor of his college, he stayed up at Cambridge only for a very short time, preferring to learn practical engineering as a pupil in the works in which his father was a partner.

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  • At this time Eata was abbot there, and Boisel, who is mentioned as his instructor, prior, in which office Cuthbert succeeded him about 661, having previously spent some time at the monastery of Ripon with Eata.

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  • The former company combined with the Great Western Company as regards the electrification of, and provision of stock for, the lines which they had previously worked jointly, from Edgware Road by Bishop's Road to Hammersmith, &c. The Baker Street & Waterloo railway (known as the " Bakerloo ") was opened in 1906 and subsequently extended in one direction to Paddington and in the other to the Elephant and Castle.

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  • City, the vestries and district boards, and the previously established local board of Woolwich (q.v.).

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  • The bishopric of Southwark was created in 1904, having been previously a suffragan bishopric in the diocese of Rochester.

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  • Under the act of 1899 all these rates are consolidated into a single rate, called the general rate, which is assessed, made, collected and levied as the poor rate, but the interests of persons previously entitled to exemptions are safeguarded.

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  • Previously the first magistrates lived in several different houses.

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  • On again raising the piston, more liquid enters the lower part of the cylinder, whilst the previously raised liquid is ejected from the delivery pipe.

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  • Sprengel, although the idea had been previously conceived by Magnus and Buff.

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  • Previously to their holding office, Daniel Manning (1831-1887), secretary of the treasury in President Cleveland's cabinet, was president of the Argus company, and Daniel Scott Lamont (1851-1905), secretary of war during President Cleveland's second administration, was managing editor of the newspaper.

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  • In 1797, at the instance of English statesmen, he published a translation of a history of French finance by Francois d'Ivernois (1757-1842), an eminent Genevese exile naturalized and knighted in England, extracts from which he had previously given in his journal.

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  • Kolbe was a very successful teacher, a ready and vigorous writer, and a brilliant experimentalist whose work revealed the nature of many compounds the composition of which had not previously been understood.

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  • The empty crucible, having first been gradually dried and heated to a bright red heat in a subsidiary furnace, is taken up by means of massive iron tongs and introduced into the previously heated furnace, the temperature of which is then gradually raised.

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  • The colours previously available for English table-glass were ruby, canary-yellow, emerald-green, dark peacock-green, light peacock-blue, dark purple-blue and a dark purple.

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  • In an American process the glass is drawn direct from the molten mass in the tank in a cylindrical form by means of an iron ring previously immersed in the glass, and is kept in shape by means of special devices for cooling it rapidly as it leaves the molten bath.

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  • An effort at a more direct mechanical process is embodied in the inventions of Foucault which are at present being developed in Germany and Belgium; in this process the glass is drawn from the molten bath in the shape of flat sheets, by the aid of a bar of iron, previously immersed in the glass, the glass receiving its form by being drawn through slots in large fire-bricks, and being kept in shape by rapid chilling produced by the action of air-blasts.

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  • Peace was made when the pope agreed to come to terms in 1486, and in 1487 Lorenzo regained Sarzana, which Genoa had taken from Florence nine years previously.

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  • The commission appointed to try him on charges of heresy and treason was composed of his enemies, including Doffo Spini, who had previously attempted to murder him; many irregularities were committed during the three trials, and the prisoner was repeatedly tortured.

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  • Bestuzhev had previously rejected with scorn the proposals of the French government to mediate between Russia and Sweden on the basis of a territorial surrender on the part of the former; and he conducted the war so vigorously that by the end of 1742 Sweden lay at the mercy of the empress.

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  • He was president of the Union Pacific railroad from 1884 to 1890, having previously become widely known as an authority on the management of railways.

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  • When a sufficient number are not available for a two hours' defecation, it is the practice in some factories to skim off the scums that rise to the top, and then boil up the juice for a few minutes and skim again, and, after repeating the operation once or twice, to run off the juice to separators or subsiders of any of the kinds previously described.

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  • He assumed the title of Alphonso XII.; for although no king of united Spain had previously borne the name, the Spanish monarchy was regarded as continuous with the more ancient monarchy, represented by the eleven kings of Leon and Castile already referred to.

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  • For twelve hours previously to its administration no food should be given, in order that the intestinal tract should be empty so as to expose the tapeworm to the full action of the drug.

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  • The poet willingly obeyed, all the more because he had previously received a divine command to undertake the task.

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  • The Himyarites were, however, still active, and after a struggle succeeded in establishing a Jewish Sabaean kingdom, having previously accepted Judaism as their religion.

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  • Coxe of Philadelphia published a description and coloured figure taken from living plants sent him two years previously from Mexico.

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  • Concentrated nitric acid attacks them violently, producing various oxidation products, but if the amino group be "protected" by being previously acetylated, then nitro derivatives are obtained.

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  • But others had previously used it in a similar connexion, e.g.

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  • The Bavarian dukes of the Wittelsbach house occasionally resided at Munich, and in 1255 Duke Louis made it his capital, having previously surrounded it with walls and a moat.

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  • He merely took orders to enable him to ascend the papal chair, having previously been a consul and senator.

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  • Taking magnesia alba, which he distinguished from limestone with which it had previously been confused, he showed that on being heated it lost weight owing to the escape of this fixed air (named carbonic acid by Lavoisier in 1781), and that the weight was regained when the calcined product was made to reabsorb the fixed air with which it had parted.

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  • The latter had been cast away, many years previously, on the coast of the United States and had become a naturalized American citizen.

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  • Hirado That, however, is an achievement of no small consequence, especially since it had never previously been essayed outside China.

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  • Previously to that time, one of the Seto experts, Kato Gosuke, had developed remarkable ability in the manufacture of cladon, though in that field he was subsequently distanced by SeifO of KiOto.

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  • Iyeyasu, the founder of the Tokugawa dynasty of shoguns, directed that his body should be interred at NikkO, a place of exceptional beauty, consecrated eight hundred years previously.

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  • The convenience also with which the energy of waterfalls can be converted into electric energy has led to the introduction of chemical industries into countries and districts where, owing to the absence of coal, they were previously unknown.

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  • Dr Samuel Jebb included antiquarian notices as well as literary reviews in his Bibliotheca literaria (1722-1724), previously mentioned, but the Gentleman's Magazine, founded in 1731, fully established, through the tact and energy of the publisher Edward Cave, the type of the magazine, from that time so marked a feature of English periodical literature.

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  • The North American Review, the oldest and most famous of all the American reviews, dates from 1815, and was founded by William Tudor, a member of the previously mentioned Anthology Club.

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  • Leibnitz, although Newton had discovered it some years previously.

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  • Newton gave no proof, and it was in the Ars Conjectandi (1713) that James Bernoulli's proof for positive integral values of the exponent was first published, although Bernoulli must have discovered it many years previously.

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  • He left no will, all his property having been previously assigned, and letters of administration were taken out by a creditor.

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  • Scott had previously in 1809 edited for Ballantyne some of the novels, in twelve volumes.

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  • Previously he had begun a small periodical, Miscellanea Mathematica, which extended only to thirteen numbers; subsequently he published in five volumes The Diarian Miscellany, which contained large extracts from the Diary.

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  • Rockland was erected into a township in 1874, having been previously a part of Abington.

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  • An informal French protection had, however, been exercised over them for some time previously, and with it began the feud of Maronites and Druses, the latter incited and spasmodically supported by Ottoman pashas.

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  • Excavations had been made previously in some parts of the precinct; for example, the portico of the Athenians was laid bare in 1860.

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  • If the ball is discharged and touched against the other tray, and then afterwards against the previously charged electroscope, the leaves will collapse.

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  • Blaine, who had previously opposed greenback inflation now resisted depreciated silver coinage.

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  • Kelvin had previously proposed to define an absolute scale of temperature independent of the properties of any particular substance in terms of Carnot's function by making F'(t) constant.

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  • Our remarks are therefore based mainly on considerable personal study of "scrying" among normal British subjects of both sexes, to whom the topic was previously unknown.

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  • Among the regions not previously important as gold-producers which now contribute to the annual output, the most remarkable are the goldfields of South Africa (Transvaal and Rhodesia, the former of which were discovered in 1885).

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  • The stuff, previously broken to about 2-in.

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  • In the Knox and Boss mills, which are also employed for the amalgamation of silver ores, the grinding is effected between flat horizontal surfaces instead of conical or curved surfaces as in the previously described forms.

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  • The Reformers gave the sermon a higher place in the ordinary service than it had previously held, and they laid special stress upon the interpretation and application of Scripture.

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  • Weizsacker's short essays are extremely valuable, and have elucidated several important points previously overlooked.

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  • He had previously been called on to clear himself from charges of heterodoxy brought against him in the Quarterly Review (1851), and had been acquitted by a committee of inquiry.

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  • In 395 the domineering attitude of Sparta impelled the Corinthians to conclude an alliance with Argos which they had previously contemplated on occasions of friction with the former city, as well as with Thebes and with Athens, whose commercial rivalry they no longer dreaded.

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  • A previously unknown tribe, the Chingmis, were discovered in Eastern Bhutan, who are socially on a higher level than the Bhutias, and differ from them chiefly in the matter of wearing pigtails.

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  • Dispensations, however, could be easily obtained from Rome, before the reformation of the Church of England, to enable a clerk to hold several ecclesiastical dignities or benefices at the same time, and by the Peterpence, Dispensations, &c. Act 1534, the power to grant such dispensations, which had been exercised previously by the court of Rome, was transferred to the archbishop of Canterbury, certain ecclesiastical persons having been declared by a previous statute (1529) to be entitled to such dispensations.

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  • Though rumours of the existence of the lake had previously reached the east coast, Tanganyika was not visited by any European until, in 1858, the famous expedition of Burton and Speke reached the Arab settlement of Ujiji and partially explored the northern portion.

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  • The "annihilation" of the Guard at St Privat has become historic. Yet, heavy as were the losses of the 1st Guard division they were not excessive compared to those previously endured.

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  • Exact dates are fixed for long series of events that previously were quite unknown.

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  • In 1863 Herat, which for fifty years previously had been independent of Kabul, was incorporated by Dost Mahomed Khan in the Afghan monarchy, and the Amir, Habibullah of Afghanistan, like his father Abdur Rahman before him, remained Amir of Herat and Kandahar, as well as Kabul.

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  • During this period they became a united people, having previously been a confederacy of five tribes, the principal of which, the Kushans (or Kwei-Shwang), supplied the new national name.

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  • These are hollow glass beads of variable density; they may be prepared by melting off pieces of very thin capillary tubing, and determining the density in each case by the method just previously described.

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  • Acting on a principle quite different from any previously discussed is the capillary hydrometer or staktometer of Brewster, which is based upon the difference in the surface tension and density of pure water, and of mixtures of alcohol and water in varying proportions.

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  • Dealing freely with the outline of Castruccio's career, as he had previously dealt with Cesare Borgia, he sketched his own ideal of the successful prince.

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  • Yet no imported vine has ever lived there more than five years, and in 1890 the phylloxera crossed the Rocky Mountains, and seriously damaged the vineyards of California, where it had previously been unknown.

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  • Charles had previously contracted a union, probably of an irregular nature, with a Frankish lady named Himiltrude, who had borne him a son Pippin, the " Hunchback."

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  • He accepted the dignity at any rate without demur, and there seems little doubt that the question of assuming, or obtaining, this title had previously been discussed.

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  • But it is still more curious that it was not afterwards carried out, for the communication of automatic symmetrical motion to both segments only involves a simple alteration previously described.

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  • Only one duke had been created in England before, and that was fourteen years previously, when the king's son Edward, the Black Prince, was made duke of Cornwall.

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  • A second epoch comparable to that of the " Challenger " and resulting like it in a leap forward in the precision of the methods previously employed was marked by the institution in 1901 of the International Council for the Study of the Sea.

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  • The brine is cooled in a tank filled with spiral pipes, in which anhydrous ammonia, previously liquefied by compression, is vaporized in vacuo at the atmospheric temperature by the sensible heat of the returncurrent of brine, whose temperature has been slightly raised in its passage through the circulating tubes.

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  • It consists of a small hydraulic press, which forces a set of expanding bits or wedges into a bore-hole previously bored by a long screw augur or drill, worked by hand, the action of the press being continued until a sufficient strain is obtained to bring down the coal.

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  • When, after various journalistic indiscretions, James Franklin in 1722 was forbidden to publish the Courant, it appeared with Benjamin's name as that of the publisher and was received with much favour, chiefly because of the cleverness of his articles signed " Dr Janus," which, like those previously signed " Mistress Silence Dogood," gave promise of " Poor Richard."

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  • On his father's return from Gibraltar, David, who had previously been educated at the grammar school of Lichfield, was, largely by the advice of Gilbert Walmley, registrar of the ecclesiastical court, sent with his brother George to the " academy " at Edial, just opened in June or July 1736 by Samuel Johnson, the senior by seven years of David, who was then nineteen.

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  • He married Gudrun (Kriemhild), the sister of that king, and won for him by a stratagem the hand of the Valkyrie Brynhildr, with whom he had himself previously exchanged vows of love.

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  • At regular intervals the steamers of the Dutch Royal Steam Packet Company call at Dorey and other points, while administrative posts have been established elsewhere in lieu of others previously attempted but abandoned.

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  • In Strabo's time they appear to have been ruled by a single king, though previously there were twenty-six, each one ruling over a community distinct only in point of language.

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  • Ossicles somewhat resembling large coffee-berries had been previously found in association with the bones of Mylodon, and in Glossotherium nearly similar ossicles occur embedded on the inner side of the thick hide.

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  • This provision, introducing an entirely new principle into the American governmental system, came into effect in January 1903, and was employed in the following year when a previously elected councilman who was "recalled" by petition and was unsuccessful in the 1904 election brought suit to hold his office, and on a mere technicality the Supreme Court of the state declared the recall election invalid.

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  • Individuals, often large groups, and even whole districts, had indeed earlier rejected some portions of the Roman Catholic faith, or refused obedience to the ecclesiastical government; but previously to the burning of the canon law by Luther no prince had openly and permanently cast off his allegiance to the international conceived them is found in his Dictatus.

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  • Everything was, however, replaced in the exact position it had previously occupied.

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  • It had previously narrowly escaped absorption by Napoleon, who passed through the town during the pursuit of the Prussians after the battle of Jena in 1806, and was only dissuaded from abolishing the duchy by the tact and courage of the duchess Louisa.

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  • It was previously known by name from lists of canonical and extracanonical books compiled by Eusebius and other writers.

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  • In 1882 a critical reconstruction of this book was made by Adam Krawutzcky with marvellous accuracy, as was shown when in the very next year the Greek bishop and metropolitan, Philotheus Bryennius, published The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles from the same manuscript from which he had previously published the complete form of the Epistle of Clement.'

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  • Nero admitted the old inhabitants to the privileges of the colony, thus uniting in one the two previously distinct communities.

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  • He had previously been made lord of La Roche-Tesson (1361) and chamberlain (1364); he was now made count of Longueville and lieutenant of Normandy.

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  • Miller discovered that they undergo a metamorphosis, and that the minute worm-like lamperns previously known under the name of Ammocoetes, and abundant in the sand and mud of many streams, were nothing but the undeveloped young of the river-lampreys and small lamperns.

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  • Later (1883) a large committee, previously appointed, framed a more full confession of faith (the " Commission Creed,"), with the same end in view.

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  • C. Vogel's spectroscopic measures in 1889.2 Previously to each obscuration, the star was found to be moving rapidly away from the earth; its velocity then diminished to zero pari passu with the loss of light, and reversed its direction during the process of recovery.

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  • The king had, however, previously concluded treaties of "commerce and friendship" with the French, and by the Anglo-French agreement of August 1889 Jaman, with Bontuku, was recognized as French territory.

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  • We find in him other corrections or new presentations of views previously accepted, and some useful suggestions for the improvement of nomenclature.

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  • The ruins were brought to European notice by Pierre Belon in 1 555, though previously visited, in 1507, by Martin von Baumgarten.

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  • If, for instance, a note is struck and held down on a piano, a little practice enables us to hear both the octave and the twelfth with the fundamental, especially if we have previously directed our attention to these tones by sounding them.

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  • Boshof, one of the voortrekkers, who had previously taken an active part in the affairs of Natal.

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  • Previously to his becoming president of the Free State he had acted as its Chief Justice and still earlier in life had practised as an advocate in Cape Colony.

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  • This organization, known as the Oranjie Unie, was formally constituted in May 1906, but had been in existence for some months previously.

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  • Mr Roosevelt, however, received a larger proportion of the total vote cast than any mayoralty candidate of the Republican party had previously received in New York City.

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  • The statutory definition of the grounds of reduction was intended, however, merely to put an end to the practice which had previously obtained of reviewing awards on their merits, and it does not prevent the courts from setting aside an award where the arbitrator has exceeded his jurisdiction, or disregarded any one of the expressed conditions of the submission, or been guilty of misconduct.

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  • Hence the formula is more useful in the form w = (w i +w2)1 2 / (Kd -1 2) = (wl +w 2)lr/ (K -lr) where k= (wl+w2-1-w3)lr/w3 is to be deduced from the data of some bridge previously designed with the same working stresses.

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  • Previously to 1885 it formed part of the parliamentary borough of Stoke, but it is now included in that of Hanley.

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  • He had previously published a catechism in Latin verse dedicated to the king, a work highly approved even by his opponents, and also a Latin translation of the Scottish Confession of Faith.

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  • Similarly, the dissolution of the German Reichstag in December 1906 was a weapon directed against Ultramontanism; and, though the elections of 1907 failed to diminish the numbers of the Centre, they rendered possible the formation of a majority, in face of which that system forfeited the influence it had previously possessed.

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  • In 1899 her grandson, the hereditary prince of Coburg, had succumbed to phthisis, and in 1900 his father, the duke of Coburg, the queen's second son, previously known as the duke of Edinburgh, also died (July 30).

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  • He had previously (1717), in an historical tract on the war with Charles XII., in which Peter himself collaborated, epitomized, in a high panegyric style, some of the greatest exploits of the tsar-regenerator.

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  • On June r 1, 1762, Emile was condemned by the parlement of Paris, and two days previously Madame de Luxembourg and the prince de Conti gave the author information that he would be arrested if he did not fly.

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  • Previously a certain amount of regular instruction had no doubt been given here and there by individual physicians and surgeons; lectures to nurses were delivered in the New York Hospital as early as 1790.

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  • It is true that state training schools for male nurses had previously existed in Prussia, the oldest having been founded at Magdeburg in 1799; but the employment of men in hospital wards is a feature of the German system which has not been copied by other advanced countries, and seems to be in process of abandonment in Germany.

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  • In the meantime several nursing societies, in addition to those previously mentioned, had been founded in England, and elsewhere.

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  • What may be termed the ancestral Appalachian system was formed during the post-carboniferous revolution, though certain of its elements had been previously outlined, and perhaps at different dates.

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  • Such an utterance from such a man greatly excited the hopes of Nonconformists, who had previously published a manifesto under the title of "The Case for Disestablishment."

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  • In 101 Marius was elected consul a fifth time (previously in 107, 104, 103, 102), hailed as the "saviour of his country," and honoured with a triumph of unprecedented splendour.

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  • But, although they then received perhaps their earliest quasiscientific organization, the mansions of the moon had for ages previously figured in the popular lore of the Bedouin.

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  • But after the civil wars of the 18th century the Burmese, having previously taken Chieng-mai, which appealed to Siam for help, entered Tenasserim and took Mergui and Tavoy in 1764, and then advancing simultaneously from the north and the west captured and destroyed Ayuthia after a two years' siege (1767).

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  • On the 13th of October 1648 he was made lieutenant of Dover castle, of which he had previously been appointed governor.

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  • About the year 1670 Dr Robert Morison 1 (1620-1683), the first professor of botany at Oxford, published a systematic arrangement of plants, largely on the lines previously suggested by Caesalpinus.

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  • He showed that the gaseous constituents of the air contribute largely to the nourishment of plants, and that the leaves are the organs which elaborate the food; the importance of leaves in nutrition had been previously pointed out by Malpighi in a short account of nutrition which forms an appendix to his anatomical work.

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  • Goussen (though members of the Archbishop of Canterbury's Mission to the Assyrian Christians had previously been acquainted with the book).

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  • Long previously Lord Kelvin himself came nearer this view, in offering the opinion that magnetism consisted, in some way, in the angular momentum of the material molecules, of which the energy of irregular translations constitutes.

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  • Since the period, a century ago, when Dalton and his contemporaries constructed from this idea a scientific basis for chemistry, the progress of that subject has been wonderful beyond any conception that could previously have been entertained; and the atomic theory in some form appears to be an indispensable part of the framework of physical science.

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  • It was not, indeed, till the settlement of Westphalia in 1648, after the Thirty Years' War, that this territorial division of Christendom became stereotyped, but the process had been going on for a hundred years previously; in some states, as in England and Scotland, it had long been completed; in others, as in South Germany, Bohemia and Poland, it was defeated by the political and missionary efforts of the Jesuits and other agents of the counter-Reformation.

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  • For this work he was in 1889 awarded a Davy medal by the Royal Society, which ten years previously had bestowed upon him a Royal medal in recognition of his investigations in the coal-tar colours.

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  • The tariff of the Zollverein was, in essentials, the Prussian tariff of 1818, and was moderate as compared with most of the separate tariffs previously existing.

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  • Meanwhile the district of Khiva, previously subject to Bokhara, was made an independent khanate by Abdul-Gazi Bahadur Khan; and in the reign of Subhankuli, who ascended the throne in 1680, the political power of Bokhara was still further lessened, though it continued to enjoy the unbounded respect of the Sunnite Mahommedans.

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  • Five years previously he had defeated a Tatar raid upon Moscow, for which service he received the title of sluga, 1 Brough, Mine Surveying, pp. 276-278; Marriott, Trans.

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  • He had previously taken holy orders, though he only become priest in 1840, and he had a strong religious influence with the boys.

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  • It seems justly alleged against this system by Dr Thomas Brown that "the moral sentiments, the origin of which it ascribes to our secondary feelings of mere sympathy, are assumed as previously existing in the original emotions with which the secondary feelings are said to be in unison."

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  • They both urged society towards the abolition of the previously prevailing industrial policy of European governments; and their arguments against that policy rested essentially on the same grounds.

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  • In the department of natural theology and the Christian evidences he ably advocated that method of reconciling the Mosaic narrative with the indefinite antiquity of the globe which William Buckland (1784-1856) advanced in his Bridgewater Treatise, and which Dr Chalmers had previously communicated to him.

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  • In the construction of the natural trigonometrical tables Great Britain had taken no part, and it is remarkable that the discovery of the principles and the formation of the tables that were to revolutionize or supersede all the methods of calculation then in use should have been so rapidly effected and developed in a country in which so little attention had been previously devoted to such questions.

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  • The word "awakening" in this sense was frequently (and possibly first) used by Jonathan Edwards at the time of the Northampton revival of 1734-1735, which spread through the Connecticut Valley and prepared the way for the work in Rhode Island, Massachusetts and Connecticut (1740-1741) of GeorgeWhitefield, who had previously been preaching in the South, especially at Savannah, Georgia.

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  • Thus the Gnostic systems make great use of the idea of a fall of the Deity himself; by the fall of the Godhead into the world of matter, this matter, previously insensible, is animated into life and activity, and then arise the powers, both partly and wholly hostile, who hold sway over this world.

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  • He returned almost immediately, on the pretext that Spain was intriguing against Mexican independence, and on landing (having been previously outlawed) was arrested and executed (July r, 1824).

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  • Lummis, " The Awakening of a Nation " (New York, 1898, previously in Harper's Magazine), are valuable as giving information (especially the last named) and points of view.

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  • Adrianople had previously been the commercial headquarters of all Thrace, and of a large portion of the region between the Balkans and the Danube, now Bulgaria.

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  • The menhir of Men-er-H`roeck (Fairy stone), which was broken into four pieces by lightning in the 18th century, previously measured about 67 ft.

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  • He died on the 29th of May 1861 in Paris, whither he had removed a few days previously.

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  • C. Lister (Lord Masham) introduced the silk and velvet manufacture, having invented a process of manipulating silk waste, whereby what was previously treated as refuse is made into goods that will compete with those manufactured from the perfect cocoon.

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  • The most i m important developments of the cult are in East Asia p p among the Siberian tribes; among the Ainu of Sakhalin a young bear is caught at the end of winter and fed for some nine months; then after receiving honours it is killed, and the people, who previously show marks of grief at its approaching fate, dance merrily and feast on its body.

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  • A Trypanosome usually produces markedly harmful effects upon gaining an entry into animals which have never been, by their distribution, liable to its invasion previously.

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  • Comprehensive researches (1905, seq.) have made it evident that Trypanosomes have a much more varied and complex development and life-history than was previously supposed.

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  • Under Nicholas I., in the years 1840 and 1850, the Doukhobors, who on religious grounds refused to participate in military service, were all banished from the government of Tauris - whither they had been previously transported from various parts of Russia by Alexander I.

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  • As on his outward voyage, Leif was again driven far out of his course by contrary weather - this time to lands (in America) "of which he had previously had no knowledge," where "self-sown" wheat grew, and vines, and "m&sur" (maple?) wood.

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  • His observations on the three comets of 1618 were published in De Cometis, contemporaneously with De Harmonice Mundi (Augsburg, 1619), of which the first lineaments had been traced twenty years previously at Gratz.

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  • The Nubian goat, which is met with in Nubia, Upper Egypt and Abyssinia, differs greatly in appearance from those previously described.

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  • Iodic Acid, H10 3, can be prepared by dissolving iodine pentoxide in water; by boiling iodine with fuming nitric acid, 61+10HN03= 6H10 3 +10N0+2H 2 O; by decomposing barium iodate with the calculated quantity of sulphuric acid, previously diluted with water, or by suspending iodine in water and passing in chlorine, 12+5C12+ 6H 2 0=2H10 3 +10HC1.

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  • Modalistic monarchianism, conceiving that the whole fullness of the Godhead dwelt in Christ, took exception to the "subordinatianism" of some Church writers, and maintained that the names Father and Son were only two different designations of the same subject, the one God, who "with reference to the relations in which He had previously stood to the world is called the Father, but in reference to His appearance in humanity is called the Son."

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  • After a rough estimate of the perturbations it must sustain from the attraction of the planets, he predicted its return for 1757,-a bold prediction at that time, but justified by the event, for the comet again made its appearance as was expected, though it did not pass through its perihelion till the month of March 1759, the attraction of Jupiter and Saturn having caused, as was computed by Clairault previously to its return, a retardation of 618 days.

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  • In 1848 he was chosen president of the Manchester Philosophical Society, of which he had been a member since 1826, and to which, both previously and subsequently, he contributed many of the more important results of his discoveries.

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  • A Persian tradition says that he had previously been a Christian presbyter, but this is certainly incorrect.

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  • The central section of the plains thus presents a marked contrast to the northern section; for while the northern section owes its smoothness to the removal of local gravels and sands from a formerly uneven surface by the action of degrading rivers and their inflowing tributaries, the southern section owes its smoothness to the deposition of imported gravels and sands upon a previously I uneven surface by the action of aggrading rivers and their outgoing distributaries.

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  • When, the region was broken into fault blocks and the blocks were uplifted and tilted, the back slope of each block was a part of the previously eroded surface and the face of the block was a surface of fracture; the present form of the higher blocks is more or less affected by erosion since faulting, while many of the lower blocks have been buried under the waste of the higher ones.

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  • The northernmost part of the coast ranges, in Washington, is often given independent rank as the Olympic Range (Mt Olympus, 8150 ft.); it is a picturesque mountain group, bearing snowfields and glaciers, and suggestive of the dome-like uplift of a previously worn-down mass; but it is now so maturely dissected as to make the suggested origin uncertain.

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  • In rural districts little difficulty arises, because it is known what citizens belong to each party; but in cities, and especially in large cities, where men do not know their neighbors by sight, it becomes necessary to have regular lists of the party voters entitled to attend a primary; and these lists are either prepared and kept by the local party committee, or are settled by the votes of the persons previously on the party rolls.

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  • The weir is opened by joining the needles of each bay by a chain passed through the eyes at the top and a line of wire through the central rings, so that when released at the top by the tilting of the escape bar by the derrick, they float down as a raft, and are caught by a man in a boat, or, when the cur rent is strong, they are 'mopes ?o drawn to the bank by a rope attached to them previously to their release.

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  • In 1762, at the express desire of the pope, he accepted the bishopric of Sant' Agata dei Goti, a small town in the province of Benevent; though he had previously refused the archbishopric of Palermo.

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  • West of the province of Ontario, then inaccurately defined, the provinces of Manitoba and British Columbia were the only organized divisions of the western territory, but in 1882 the provisional districts of Assiniboia, Athabasca, Alberta and Saskatchewan were formed, leaving the remainder of the north-west as unorganized territories, a certain portion of the north-east, called Keewatin, having previously been placed under the lieutenant-governor of Manitoba.

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  • Previously, it had numbered about 1000 (artillery, dragoons, infantry) quartered in various schools, chiefly to aid in the training of the militia.

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  • The discovery of large deposits of nickel at Sudbury; of extremely rich gold mines on the head-waters of the Yukon, in a region previously considered well-nigh worthless for human habitation; of extensive areas of gold, copper and silver ores in the mountain regions of British Columbia; of immense coal deposits in the Crow's Nest Pass of the same province and on the prairies; of veins of silver and cobalt of extraordinary richness in northern Ontario - all deeply affected the industrial condition of the country and illustrated the vastness of its undeveloped resources.

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  • Previously to Hoek's discovery a brown-coloured investment of the auricles of the heart of the oyster had been supposed to represent the nephridia in a rudimentary state.

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  • The service to the text is the same, what was previously dark being now made clear.

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  • It is far more probable that he was previously composing them at his leisure and in the vigour of manhood, precisely as his contemporary Demosthenes composed all his great speeches except the De Corona before he was fifty.

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  • He himself never acted as judge in parliament; but in 1415 he was appointed to preside at the judgment of peers delivered in Southampton against Richard, earl of Cambridge, and Lord Scrope of Masham, who had been previously tried by commissioners of oyer and terminer.

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  • Another Had Previously Been Given By Gauss, But Inaccurately, Inasmuch As The Correction Depending On A Was Omitted.

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  • All The Tables Of This Kind Previously Published, Which Extend Beyond The Year 1900 Of The Christian Era, Are Erroneous, Not Excepting The Celebrated French Work, L'Art De Verifier Les Dates, So Justly Regarded As The Greatest Authority In Chronological Matters.

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  • The combination proved admirably adapted in Russia for the practical purpose of the overthrow of the previously existing order.

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  • The town of Alaja was the creation of this sultan, as previously there existed on that site only the fortress of Candelor, at that epoch in the possession of an Armenian chief, who was expelled by Kaikobad, and shared the fate of the Armenian and Frankish knights who possessed the fortresses along the coast of the Mediterranean as far as Selefke (Seleucia).

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  • He was compelled to take the lead in matters where Lightfoot's more practical nature had previously been predominant.

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  • Shortly afterwards, having previously resigned his canonry at Peterborough, he was appointed by the crown to a canonry at Westminster, and accepted the position of examining chaplain to Archbishop Benson.

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  • He finally found a permanent post in Bucharest as secretary to the prince of Walachia, Alexander Mavrocordato, whose work Hepc TWV KaefKOVTwv (De Of ciis) he had previously translated for Fritzsch, the Leipzig bookseller, by whom he had been employed as proof-reader and literary hack.

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  • By this laborious and painstaking method it has been found possible to re-establish a healthy stock of valuable races from previously highly-infected breeds.

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  • It had been previously pointed out by Captain Hutton.

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  • When about too lb of silk has been bagged, the whole is placed in a large wooden tub and covered with boiling water in which 12 to 20 lb of white curd soap has previously been dissolved.

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  • Although he had previously published meritorious researches on piezoelectricity, the magnetic properties of bodies at different temperatures, and other topics, he was chiefly known for his work on radium carried out jointly with his wife, Marie Sklodowska, who was born at Warsaw on the 7th of November 1867.

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  • Bradley had already perceived, in the case of the two stars previously scrutinized, that the apparent difference of declination from the maximum positions was nearly proportional to the sun's distance from the equinoctial points; and he realized the necessity for more observations before any generalization could be attempted.

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  • A re-examination of his previously considered hypotheses as to the cause of these phenomena was fruitless; the true theory was ultimately discovered by a pure accident, comparable in simplicity and importance with the association of a falling apple with the discovery of the principle of universal gravitation.

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  • In the census of 1901 the operations were extended for the first time to the Kurram Valley and the Sherani country, trans-frontier territories containing a population of 66,628 souls, which had not been previously enumerated.

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  • On account of the relatively great strength of Ha at a considerable distance from the photosphere, the new photographs recorded flocculi at high levels previously unexplored.

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  • In 1871 a new Lectionary was substituted for the previously existing one, into the merits and demerits of which it is not possible to enter here; and in 1872, by the Act of Uniformity Amendment Act, a shortened form of service was provided instead of the present form of Morning and Evening Prayer for optional use in other than cathedral churches on all days exeept Sunday, Christmas Day, Ash Wednesday, Good Friday and Ascension Day; provision was also statutably made for the separation of services, and for additional services, to be taken, however, except so far as anthems and hymns are concerned, entirely out of the Bible and the Book of Common Prayer.

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  • By the judicious mission of an embassy to Rome he now obtained confirmation of the alliance which his father had previously made with the growing western power; at the same time he availed himself of the weakened state of the Syrian monarchy under Demetrius II.

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  • Previously the entire collection had been published only in a Latin translation, Pappi alexandrini mathematicae collectiones a Federico Commandino Urbinate in latinum conversae et comentariis illustratae (Pesaro, 1588) (reprinted at Venice, 1589, and Pesaro, 1602).

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  • Some years previously he had expressed his conviction that "one of the chief needs of the age was to make inroad after the alien, to bring in the votaries of fashion, of literature, of sentiment, of policy and of rank, who are content in their several idolatries to do without piety to God and love to Him whom He hath sent"; and, with an abruptness which must have produced on him at first an effect almost astounding, he now had the satisfaction of beholding these various votaries thronging to hear from his lips the words of wisdom which would deliver them from their several idolatries and remodel their lives according to the fashion of apostolic times.

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  • Among a large number of biographies published previously, that by Washington Wilks (1854) has some merit.

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  • He was consulted a good deal by the government on such questions as England's attitude towards the council of Trent, and political considerations made him more and more hostile to Puritan demands with which he had previously sympathized.

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  • Even so, Peter, by the peace of the Pruth, had to sacrifice all that he had gained by the Azov expedition fifteen years previously.

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  • Various acts and payments which were previously lawful in the absence of any corrupt bargain or motive are now altogether forbidden under the name of " illegal practices " as distinguished from " corrupt practices."

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  • The report of the judges to the speaker is to contain particulars as to illegal practices similar to those previously required as to corrupt practices; and they are to report further whether any candidate has been guilty by his agents of an illegal practice, and whether certificates of indemnity have been given to persons reported guilty of corrupt or illegal practices.

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  • The initial hastening is due to a stimulation of the vagus terminals in the lung, as it does not occur if these nerves are previously divided.

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  • At a date no doubt previous to the foundation of Syracuse it was peopled by settlers from Corinth, but it appears to have previously received a stream of emigrants from Eretria.

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  • Indeed, Fichte had previously characterized the life of the Absolute by reason and will without consciousness; and, before Fichte, Leibnitz had asserted that the elements of Nature are monads with unconscious perception and appetition.

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  • No sooner is he overcome with sleep than Judith, seizing his sword, strikes off his head and gives it to her maid; both now leave the camp (as they had previously been accustomed to do, ostensibly for prayer) and return to Bethulia, where the trophy is displayed amid great rejoicings and thanksgivings.

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  • P. Lesson, who had previously (loc. cit.) made some blunders about it, placed it (Traite d'Ornithologie, p. 12), though only, as he says, "par analogie et a priori," in his first division of birds, "Oiseaux Anomaux," which is equivalent to what we now call Ratitae, making of it a separate family "Nullipennes."

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  • Those that finally perish in the sea, committing what appears to be a voluntary suicide, are only acting under the same blind impulse which has led them previously to cross shallower pieces of water with safety.

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  • Every compass and corrector supplied to the ships of the British navy is previously examined in detail at the Compass Observatory established by the admiralty at Deptford.

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  • In 1294, and again in 1303, they laid themselves under an obligation, previously to the election, to subscribe to the political engagements which each promised rigorously to observe in the event of his becoming pope.

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  • To give this supremacy a firmer basis, Boniface fortified the Vatican and the Capitol, and restored the castle of St Angelo - which had previously been used as a quarry - providing it with walls and battlements, and erecting a tower in the centre.

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  • King James I., who had coquetted twenty years previously with Clement VIII., and then had avenged the Gunpowder Plot (1605) by the most stringent regulation of his Roman Catholic subjects, was now dazzled by the project of the Spanish marriage.

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  • His strong, picturesque mode of seizing and expressing things gave him an immense living influence both in speech and writing, and disseminated a popular knowledge of physical science such as had not previously existed.

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  • He was finally compelled to take up arms against his Kumanian friends, whom he routed at Hodmezd (May 1282) with fearful loss; but, previously to this, he had arrested the legate, whom he subsequently attempted to starve into submission, and his conduct generally was regarded as so unsatisfactory that, after repeated warnings, the Holy See resolved to supersede him by his Angevin kinsfolk, whom he had also alienated, and on the 8th of August 1288 Pope Nicholas IV.

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  • It also had, previously to the constitution Sapienti, a certain jurisdiction in foro externo, such as over matrimonial dispensations for poor people.

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  • Western and southern Tibetan flora were partially explored previously to the advent of these travellers.

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  • After making a long detour north, often crossing the roads previously travelled by Bonvalot and Bower, and passing by Riwoche, he came to Chiamdo and Tachienlu.

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  • She appears to have followed about the same route on her way back to China, for she again went to Yekundo and thence by the high road, followed previously by A.-K.

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  • In the latter part of this remarkable journey Littledale's route lay parallel but to the south of the routes followed previously by Nain Sing, and more recently by Bower.

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  • His careful observations concerning the meteorology of this region are of great value, and his surveys between Kopa and the' Naichi Gol were in a country not previously explored.

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  • Rejoining his caravan he turned westward, and passing through the country previously traversed by Bower and Littledale he reached Leh on the 10th of December Igo 1.

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  • This indicates the appearance of a new compound, which should exist pure at E, the next maximum, and, led by these considerations, Roozeboom discovered and isolated a previously unknown hydrate, Fe 2 C1 6 7 H 2 0.

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  • The victim was slaughtered by the priest in the church porch before the crucifix, after it had been ritually wreathed and given the holy salt, by licking which it appropriated a sacramental purity or efficacy previously conveyed into the salt by exorcisms and consecration.

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  • Yet there was nothing inconsistent with any previously ascertained fact in the asserted presence of i o ho of a non-oxidizable gas about half as heavy again as nitrogen.

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  • Into this air, previously deprived of oxygen by red-hot copper and thoroughly dried, is led in a continuous stream.

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  • The same value had previously been found for mercury vapour by Kundt and Warburg, and had been regarded as confirmatory of the monatomic character attributed on chemical grounds to the mercury molecule.

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  • On arriving at the borders of Spain, Elizabeth was met by the Princess des Ursins, but received her sternly, and, perhaps in accordance with a plan previously concerted with the king, at once ordered her to be removed from her presence and from Spain.

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  • The town was unsuccessfully attacked by the Russians on the 9th of November 1877 after a victory gained by them a short time previously on the Deveboyun heights; it was occupied by them during the armistice (7th of February 1878) and restored to Turkey after the treaty of Berlin.

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  • This, and the sky searching previously mentioned, means increased internal gearing and a larger upper tube.

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  • Over and over again extended knowledge on this point and inferences drawn from other facts have shown the certainty or probability of examples of mimicry being in reality " Mullerian," which were previously accepted without question as " Batesian."

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  • Finn came to the conclusion that young birds have no instinctive knowledge of the unpalatability of distasteful insects, but that experimental tasting soon teaches them to recognize and avoid species they have previously rejected with dislike, and that having once learnt the lesson they long remember it.

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  • He also found that chickens that had been given meal moistened with quinine and placed upon glass slips banded black and yellow, afterwards refused to touch meal moistened with water and spread upon the same slips, although they had previously eaten it with readiness off plain coloured slips.

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  • But there is no doubt that as previously used it was merely a corrupt synonym for banneret, and not the name of any separate dignity.

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  • A critical edition of all the previously known fables, prepared by Carl von Halm from the collections of Furia, Coray and Schneider, was published in the Teubner series of Greek and Latin texts.

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  • Six years previously he had been made a corresponding member of the French Academy of Sciences, and in 1830 he was elected as one of its eight foreign associates in place of Davy.

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  • The whole was thrown in several portions on to the hearth of a furnace previously heated to low redness and was stirred at intervals for three hours.

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  • The solution of sodium aluminate, containing aluminium oxide and sodium oxide in the molecular proportion of 6 to 1, is next agitated for thirty-six hours with a small quantity of hydrated alumina previously obtained, which causes the liquor to decompose, and some 70% of the aluminium hydroxide to be thrown down.

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  • It was secularized in 1648, having been previously administered for some years by a member of the ruling family of Hesse.

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  • In connexion with these experiments he developed the electric furnace as a convenient means of obtaining very high temperatures in the laboratory; and by its aid he prepared many new compounds, especially carbides, silicides and borides, and melted and volatilized substances which had previously been regarded as infusible.

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  • In 1814 the Wesleyan Missionary Society was formed, Methodist effort of this kind having previously been left to the individual enterprise of Dr Thomas Coke.

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  • The numerous non-denominational missions previously referred to are differently worked.

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  • A world missionary conference was held at Edinburgh in June 1910, which aimed at making, on a scale far more comprehensive than had been previously attempted, a thorough and scientific study of the problems involved in the relation of Christianity to the nonChristian world.

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  • The Habsburgers, whose original home was in the lower valley of the Aar, where still stand the ruins of their ancestral castle, lost that district to the Swiss in 1415, as they had previously lost various other bits of what is now Switzerland.

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  • In taking a slip or cutting the gardener removes from the parent plant a shoot having one or more buds or " eyes," in the case of the vine one only, and places it in a moist and sufficiently warm situation, where, as previously mentioned, undue evaporation from the surface is prevented.

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  • Carrying out his share of the bargain by occupying Silesia and Lusatia, where he displayed much clemency, the Saxon elector had thus some part in driving Frederick V., elector palatine of the Rhine, from Bohemia and in crushing Protestantism in that country, the crown of which he himself had previously refused.

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  • He frequently appeared in behalf of fugitive slaves before the Pennsylvania courts, and previously, in the state constitutional convention of 1837, he had refused to sign the constitution limiting the suffrage to white freemen.

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  • The Liberty party had previously, in November 1847, nominated 3 See Helmholtz, op. cit.

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  • Hofmann having previously shown that oxidation of pure aniline alone or of pure toluidine yielded no fuchsine, whilst oxidation of a mixture of aniline and para-toluidine gave rise to the fine red dyestuff para-fuchsine (pararosaniline hydrochloride) CH 3 C 6 H 4 NH 2 +2C 6 H 5 NH 2 +30 = HOC(C 6 H 4 NH 2) 3 +2H20.

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