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The main road system, which dates from 1828, previous to which there were only tracks, is good, and the roads well engineered; many of them are traversed daily by post vehicles.
The work of Farel, previous to his coming to Geneva, was almost entirely evangelistic, and his first work in Geneva was of a similar character.
Only faint outlines can be traced of the condition of Rajputana previous to the invasion of Upper India by the Mahommedans, and these indicate that the country was subject for the most part to two or three powerful tribal dynasties.
The instrument was described in over fifty publications 6 in various countries, and was well known to physicists previous to Bell's introduction of the electric telephone as a competitor with the electric telegraph.
Some idea of his activity as a writer on mathematical and physical subjects during these early years may be gathered from the fact that previous to this appointment he had contributed no less than three important memoirs to the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, and eight to the Cambridge Philosophical Society.Advertisement
The part played by Egypt proper in the ensuing anti-Assyrian combinations is not clearly known; with a number of petty dynasts fomenting discontent and revolt, there was an absence -of cohesion in that ancient empire previous to the rise of the Ethiopian dynasty.
The influence of Greek culture in northern India is fully recognized, and the distribution of Greek colonies previous to Alexander's time is attested by practical knowledge of the districts they were said to occupy.
This only begins with what Paulin Paris terms the Agravain section, all the part previous to Guenevere's rescue from Meleagant having been lost; but the text is an excellent one, agreeing closely with the Lenoire edition of 1533.
Voigt has traced the history of the Order previous to 1526 in his Geschichte Preussens (Konigsberg, 1827-1839), and he has dealt with the organization of the Order, and with its history in Germany from 1525 to 1858, in his Geschichte des deutschen Ritterorden in seinen zwolf Balleien in Deutschland (Berlin, 1857-1859).
Among the other writers previous to the Revolution mention must be made of John Ray the botanist and of John Evelyn, both men of great talent and research, whose works are still in high estimation.Advertisement
The fatal disease known as anthrax did not form the subject of official returns previous to the passing of the Anthrax Order of 1886.
As to Malta, the United Kingdom was to restore it to the order of St John (its possessors previous to 1798) when the Great Powers had guaranteed its independence.
Bedding up land previous to planting is almost universal.
Both facts are largely due to the opening (1882) of the St Gotthard railway, as merchandise collected from every part of north and central Europe is stored in Basel previous to being redistributed by means of that line.
It is still to be seen at Syracuse, but it was probably transplanted thither at a later time, and reared only as a curiosity, as there is no notice of it to be found previous to 1674.Advertisement
In the district that bore this designation, lying close to the Appian Way, the basilica of San Sebastiano was erected, and the extensive burial-vaults beneath that church - in which, according to tradition, the bodies of the apostles St Peter and St Paul rested for a year and seven months previous to their removal to the basilicas which bear their names - were, in very early times, called from it coemeterium ad catacumbas, or catacumbas alone.
The writers mentioned above are the most important previous to the capture of Constantinople; but there is little literature of real merit prior to that event.
It was a favourite residence of the princess Anne previous to her accession to the throne, and from that time became one of the chief resorts of London fashionable society.
The blossoms of the peach are formed the autumn previous to their expansion, and this fact, together with the peculiarities of their form and position, requires to be borne in mind by the gardener in his pruning and training operations.
The tenth canon tolerates the marriages of deacons who previous to ordination had reserved the right to take a wife; the thirteenth forbids chorepiscopi to ordain presbyters or deacons; the eighteenth safeguards the right of the people in objecting to the appointment of a bishop whom they do not wish.Advertisement
Although these conclusions were arrived at independently, and, as it would seem, several years previous to their publication, they were in great measure anticipated by the communications on the same subject of John Wallis and Christopher Wren, made respectively in November and December 1668.
One member of the supreme tribunal holds the position of 1 Previous to 1907 these two departments were united in one under the designation of " Industry, Communications and Public Works."
Some particulars follow as to the financial position of Natal previous to the establishment of the 15nion.
During the six weeks previous to the relief, 200 deaths had occurred from disease alone, and altogether as many as 8424 were reported to have passed through the hospitals.
Nothing definite is known of him previous to the outbreak of the peasant revolt in 1381, but Froissart says he had served as a soldier in the French War, and a Kentishman in the retinue of Richard II.Advertisement
Ten days previous to the disaster at Majuba Sir Evelyn Wood had arrived at Newcastle with reinforcements.
At some time previous to the discovery of America, Ancon had a large aboriginal population.
The growth and population of London previous to the Igth century is considered under Histor y, ad fin.
It was decided in the affirmative previous to his return; but he approved with astonishing eloquence, and thereafter was ever in the front rank in maintaining intercommunication between all churches holding the main doctrines of the Reformation.
The head-gear is often combined with ore-bins and machinery for breaking and sizing the lump ore previous to shipment to the reduction works.
Mirror plates previous to the invention had been made from blown " sheet " glass, and were consequently very limited in size.
A cell when filled with fresh slices becomes the head of the battery, and where skilled scientific control can be relied upon to regulate the process, the best and most economical way of heating the slices, previous to admitting the hot liquor from the next cell, is by direct steam; but as the slightest inattention or carelessness in the admission of direct steam might have the effect of inverting sugar and thereby causing the loss of some portion of saccharine in the slices, water heaters are generally used, through which water is passed and heated up previous to admission to the freshly-filled cell.
In the treatment of a case where the parasite is already present, for two days previous to the employment of a vermifuge a light diet should be given and the bowels moved by a purgative.
The glare of these seemed to the allies to betoken the familiar device of lighting fires previous to a retreat, and thus confirmed them in the impression which Napoleon's calculated timidity had given.
The keep is doubtfully assigned to a date previous to the Conquest; the important position on the Welsh March led to several subsequent additions, especially in the 14th century, and the castle was only dismantled by order of the Parliamentarians after it had strongly resisted their arms on behalf of Charles I.
Chretien left his poem unfinished, and we do not know how he intended to complete the adventures of his hero; but those writers who undertook the task, Wauchier de Denain, Gerbert de Montreuil and Manessier, carried it out with such variety of detail, and such a bewildering indifference to Chretien's version, that it seems practically certain that there must have been, previous to Chretien's work, more than one poem dealing with the same theme.
Although numerous reinforcements arrived, he would have found it very difficult to storm the place previous to the inundation of the Nile but for treachery within the citadel; the Greeks who remained there were either made prisoners or put to the sword.
Astronomers denote the year which preceded the first of our era by o, and the year previous to that by 1 B.C.; but chronologers, in conformity with common notions, call the year preceding the era 1 B.C., the previous year 2 B.C., and so on.
The earliest tombs (tombe a pozzo, shaft tombs) are previous to the beginning of Greek importation.
To Fraunhofer, some time not long previous to 1820, is due, so far as we can ascertain, the construction of the first heliometer with an achromatic divided object-glass, i.e.
Polished rocks outside the cavern and pictographs in the vicinity indicate the work of a prehistoric race earlier than the Osage Indians, who were the historic owners previous to the advent of the white man.
The upper town preserves some part of the fortifications which protected it when, previous to the plague of 1630, the city had upwards of 30,000 inhabitants.
Its members, 236 in number, were selected from all the different political parties in proportion to their strength as shown by the last parliamentary election previous to the war.
The Constructio therefore may have been written a good many years previous to the publication of the Descriptio in 1614.
The president and vice-president are elected indirectly through an electoral college chosen by popular vote, and serve for a period of six years (the term was four years previous to 1904), the vice-president succeeding to the office in case of the death or permanent disability of the president.
The name Knutsford (Cunetesford, Knotesford) is said to signify Cnut's ford, but there is no evidence of a settlement here previous to Domesday.
The structure of the region previous to faulting was dependent on long antecedent processes of accumulation and deformation and the surface of the region then was dependent on the amount of erosion suffered in the prefaulting cycle.
Gold occurs in quartz veins traversing various formations (some as young as Jurassic), and also in gravels, which were for the most part deposited previous to the uplift of the Sierra block.
The lead production of the Missouri mines had for some years been nearly stationary, or had declined slightly from its former importance; while that of the upper Mississippi region, which in the years just previous to 1850 had risen to from 20,000 to 25,000 tons a year, was declining, having in 1850 sunk to less than 18,000 tons.
In the course of time the status of the ceorl was probably reduced; but although his political power was never large, and in some directions his freedom was restricted, it hardly seems possible previous to the Norman Conquest to class him among the unfree.
With Regard To The Numeration Of The Years Previous To The Commencement Of The Era, The Practice Is Not Uniform.
There are a number of theatres, but the city had no large theatre of architectural merit previous to the construction of the Municipal Theatre at the intersection of the Avenida Central with Rua 13 de Maio, with an elegant marble facade in the French Renaissance style.
At a date no doubt previous to the foundation of Syracuse it was peopled by settlers from Corinth, but it appears to have previously received a stream of emigrants from Eretria.
Arnault collaborated in a Vie politique et militaire de Napoleon (1822), and wrote some very interesting Souvenirs d'un sexagenaire (1833), which contain much out-of-the-way information about the history of the years previous to 1804.
Again, it appears that compasses of a primitive description, which can hardly be supposed to have been brought from Europe, were employed in the East Indies certainly as early as several years previous to the close of the 16th century.
Meeting with no opposition, he was received at Viterbo by Innocent, but refused the papal demand that he should concede to the church all the territories which, previous to 1197, had been in dispute between the Empire and the Papacy, consenting, however, not to claim supremacy over Sicily.
Attempts have been made to find a setting for the epistle within the apostle's life previous to his Roman imprisonment (as recorded in Acts), but by common consent s it is now held that the epistle (if written by the apostle) must fall later, during the period of missionary enterprise which is supposed to have followed his release from the first captivity.
The foundation was laid on which the Republic of the 3 For the history of the Netherlands previous to the confederacy of the northern provinces in 1579 see Netherlands.
For six centuries previous to about 800, European interest in practical geographical expansion was at a standstill.
Of this description was the irrigation of Lower Egypt previous to 1883.
Of this extensive work there are still extant only the first five books, treating of the mythic history of the Egyptians, Assyrians, Ethiopians and Greeks; and also the i i th to the 20th books inclusive, beginning with the second Persian War, and ending with the history of the successors of Alexander, previous to the partition of the Macedonian empire (302).
For several centuries previous to the Union it returned two members to the Irish parliament.
In fact the whole history of Mahomet previous to the Flight is so imperfectly related that we are not even sure in what year he appeared as a prophet.
These three salient facts are practically the sum of our knowledge of early Danish history previous to the Viking period.
In the Gigartinales it is already differentiated previous to fertilization; in Rhodymeniales it arises subsequent to fertilization.
Armagh itself fell before the king Brian Boroime, who was buried here; and before Edward Bruce in 1315, while previous to the English war after the Reformation, it had witnessed the struggles of Shane O'Neill (1564).
In caverns and superficial deposits of South America occur remains of extinct species more or less closely related to modern llamas; but previous to the Upper Pliocene the group is unknown in South America, which it reached from the north.
A common ground previous to the Samaritan schism is ignored; it is found only in the period before the rival kingdoms. The political history of these ' In the art.
And one of the Afghan histories, quoted by Mr Bellew, relates " a current tradition " that, previous to the time of Kais, Bilo the father of the Biluchis, Uzbak (evidently the father of the Usbegs) and Afghana were considered as brethren.
But it is quite certain that previous to 1600 the telescope was unknown, except possibly to individuals who failed to see its practical importance, and who confined its use to "curious practices" or to demonstrations of "natural magic."
It has been used by some surgeons for the production of anaesthesia previous to the administration of ether or chloroform, but the use of the method is now more usually relegated to obstetric practice.
The sultan, however, had ceased to have any power in the town some time previous to the French occupation.
The encroachments of Russia upon Turkey, previous to the Crimean War, are registered in a series of treaties beginning with that of Kuchuk-Kainarji, 1774, and ending with that of Adrianople in.
It is certain from the symbols which they develop or drop that the people of Campania and Samnium borrowed their alphabet from the Etruscans, who held dominion in Campania from the 8th to the 5th century B.C. Previous to the Punic wars Campania had reached a higher stage of civilization than Rome.
It was according to tradition in a tower which, previous to 1584, stood near the church of the Annunziata that Boethius wrote his De consolatione philosophiae; the legal school of Pavia was rendered celebrated in the 11th century by Lanfranc (afterwards archbishop of Canterbury); Petrarch was frequently here as the guest of Galeazzo II., and his grandson died and was buried here.
No painting bottom to be, 1 allowed if the bottom has not been painted within six months previous to the date of accident.
This is considerably more than the average produced previous to the phylloxera period (1882-1887).
It is then ready for bottling, but previous to this operation it is necessary to ascertain whether the wine contains sufficient remanent sugar to develop the " gas " necessary for effervescence.
The cathedral church of All Saints occupies a very ancient site, but only slight traces of buildings previous to the 14th century can be seen.
The Volga was not improbably known to the early Greeks, though it is not mentioned by any writer previous to Ptolemy.
When finally taken out, it is unloosed and put up in cones, instead of being grassed, and when quite dry it is stored for some time previous to undergoing the operation of scutching.
There was no civil parish of Bridgend previous to 1905, when one was formed out of portions of the parishes of Newcastle and Coity.
The fibre is separated from the stalks by a process of retting similar to that for flax and hemp. In certain districts of Bengal it is the practice to stack the crop for a few days previous to retting in order to allow the leaves to dry and to drop off the stalks.
Although its territory lies open on the west and east, its physical features unite it to Judah, and what is known of its mixed population 1 makes it difficult to determine how far the youngest of the tribes of Israel enjoyed any independent position previous to the monarchy.
For the value of imports and exports previous to 1901 the oni statistics available were the figures given in consular reports, whic were not always correct.
When the attack is periodic the administration of a large dose of quinine two or three hours previous to the usual time of the seizure will often mitigate, and may even prevent the paroxysm.
The older part of the town, being the whole of the municipal borough previous to 1836, occupies the west bank of the Taw& near its mouth and is now wholly given up to business.
The earliest known form of the name is Sweynesse, which occurs in a charter granted by William earl of Warwick some time previous to 1184; in King John's charter (1215) it appears as Sweyneshe, and in the town seal, the origin of which is supposed to date from about the same period, it is given as "Sweyse."
This was doubtless previous to his going to Cranbrook.
For several years previous to 1876 a clause of the constitution prohibited the sale of intoxicating liquors within the state.
He taught, previous to the Polish physicist Witclo, that vision does not result from the emission of rays from the eye, and wrote also on the refraction of light, especially on atmospheric refraction, showing, e.g.
There was a settlement of the Teutonic Order here, and for some years previous to 1848 the town was the capital of the small principality of Reuss-Schleiz.
Very little was known about Alaska previous to 1896, when the gold discoveries in the Klondike stimulated public interest regarding it.
When Mr Hovey visited this cave in 1855 he found many extinct torches, charcoal embers, poles and pounders, as well as numerous footprints, in the soft nitreous earth of certain avenues, which were left by exploring parties previous to the coming of the white man.
The first reference to the "town" of Trowbridge occurs early in the 16th century; previous to that date mention is made of the manor and castle only.
For some time previous to 1811 the Kaffirs, however, had taken possession of the neutral ground and committed depredations on the colonists.
The township was incorporated in 1778, previous to which it was a part of Wrentham (1673).
According to Professor Forster there were no Arthurian romances previous to Chretien, and equally, of course, no insular romantic tradition.
It was a royal borough previous to the Norman Conquest and returned two members to parliament in the reign of Edward I.
Hutton, who in 1881 wrote that the word "was suggested by Huxley at a meeting held previous to the formation of the now defunct Metaphysical Society at Mr Knowles's house on Clapham Common in 1869, in my hearing.
It is remarked by Pliny that, previous to the existence of the Indian demand, the Gauls were in the habit of using it for the ornamentation of their weapons of war and helmets; but in his day, so great was the Eastern demand, that it was very rarely seen even in the regions which produced it.
Since 1888 many bridges have been built; previous to that year there was none.
Ireland was left out of the Navigation Act of 1663 and in the same year was prohibited from exporting cattle to England in any month previous to July.
There is evidence for the existence of the names Abram, Jacob and Joseph previous to 900 B.C., but this does not prove the antiquity of the present narratives encircling them.
Philopator, who reigned in the century previous to the Maccabaean rising (222-205 B.C.).
Long previous to this, however, the word Shire, in connexion with horses, was used in the statutes of Henry VIII.
The church of the Holy Trinity and St Mary is principally Norman of various dates, but work of a date apparently previous to the Conquest appears in the tower.
For here" is the splendid and fantastic tomb erected to this lady, during her life and previous to the death of Sigismondo's second wife.
Any acts previous to my decision to take a walk are purely circumstantial in any link to myself.
Cuzco was the capital of a remarkable empire ruled by the Incas previous to the discovery of Peru, and it was one of the largest and most civilized of the native cities of the New World.
Although definite information on this point is required, it seems probable that the southern part of North America and South America possessed certain native domesticated breeds of cats previous to the European conquest of the country; and if this be so, it will be obvious that these breeds must be derived from indigenous wild species.
The usual tendency has been to regard it in the light of the criticism of early Israelite history, which demands some reconstruction (§ 8), and to discern distinct tribal movements previous to the union of Judah and Israel under David.
The statement made by Stephanus of Byzantium and Jerome, that the city was founded under the name of Dicaearchia by a colony of Samians about 520 B.C., is probably correct, for, though in the territory of Cumae, it does not appear to have been occupied previous to 520, Misenum having been the original port of Cumae.
Their political record previous to the presidency of Porfirio Diaz was one of incessant revolutionary strife, in which the idle, unsettled half-breeds took no unwilling part.
As to the expression jus canonicum, it implies the systematic codification of ecclesiastical legislation, and had no existence previous to the labours which resulted in the Corpus juris canonici.
With regard to the texts now in force, the name of jus antiquum, ancient law, has been given to the laws previous to the Corpus' juris canonici; the legislation of this Corpus has been called jus novum, new law; and finally, the name of recent law, jus novissimum, has been given to the law established by the council of Trent aid subsequent papal constitutions.
The greatest value of his work naturally lies in his account of transactions of which he had personal knowledge, notably in his relation of the church history of Scotland, of the Popish Plot, of the proceedings at the Hague previous to the expedition of William and Mary, and of the personal relations between the joint sovereigns.
The only words she had learned to pronounce with any degree of distinctness previous to March, 1890, were PAPA, MAMMA, BABY, SISTER.
This event happened previous to the expulsion of the tyrant Christiern the Second from Sweden.
Applications are accepted through January 31st of the academic year previous to the one you are applying for.
Afterwards it is usual to bring them on in heat, and finally to harden them off previous to planting out in the middle of May.
About a month previous to planting the bed should be prepared to a depth of 15 inches, and planting should take place about the last half of February; in some seasons it may take place in October, though such an early date is not the best.
Pompeo enjoyed some guest roles on Friends and Law and Order previous to her role as Dr. Grey.
Of the latter journal he was principal editor for some time previous to his death.