How to use Previous in a sentence
The night was dark but starry, the road showed black in the snow that had fallen the previous day--the day of the battle.
Nothing remained of the previous day's thoughts.
She paused in the hallway to gaze at a picture of Jonny and her from the previous summer.
He recalled her outburst at him the previous day.
In the kitchen she paused, remembering a previous conversation with Alex.Advertisement
Certainly, he would never be able to return to his previous lifestyle.
On the previous Sunday the old count had given his son two thousand rubles, and though he always disliked speaking of money difficulties had told Nicholas that this was all he could let him have till May, and asked him to be more economical this time.
In my previous life, I was nearly invincible.
I had no plans to share with Howie what I'd learned of his previous life.
It was his reckless drunkenness which ultimately ruined him in the estimation of Peter the Great, despite his previous inestimable services.Advertisement
While the previous two points focused at the macro level and the overall costs of war, I speak here of consumers' perspective on war.
They had accomplished quite a bit the previous day, and Sarah felt comfortable about being away for the next two days.
Looking back on the previous chapters of my life, I am very thankful for my family's love and support.
On the following day the festival of the unity of Italy was celebrated, but neither this nor the previous meeting had any practical result.
The work of Farel, previous to his coming to Geneva, was almost entirely evangelistic, and his first work in Geneva was of a similar character.Advertisement
The deaths from it dropped in that year to 2376, from 3054 in the previous year and 3788 in 1900.
His defeat before Gela and his consequent decision that both Gela and Camarina should be evacuated, and left for the Carthaginians to plunder, were no doubt due to previous arrangement with the latter.
We shall find the velocity of propagation, just as in previous cases, from the consideration of transfer of momentum.
There are a number of theatres, but the city had no large theatre of architectural merit previous to the construction of the Municipal Theatre at the intersection of the Avenida Central with Rua 13 de Maio, with an elegant marble facade in the French Renaissance style.
The North-West Frontier Province differs from the older provinces of India in having been artificially built up out of part of a previous province together with new districts for a definite administrative purpose.Advertisement
At that time monochromatic photographs of the sun were first made on Mount Wilson with the red (Ha) line of hydrogen, previous hydrogen photographs having been taken with H/3, Hy or HS in the blue or violet.
Previous to Stark's investigation P. Lenard 2 had concluded that the carriers of certain of the lines of the flame spectra of the alkali metals are positively charged.
Then the king began to come himself to More's house at Chelsea, and would dine with him without previous notice.
At a date no doubt previous to the foundation of Syracuse it was peopled by settlers from Corinth, but it appears to have previously received a stream of emigrants from Eretria.
In his Metaphysik (1879), as in his earlier Mikrokosmus (1856-1864), Lotze vindicated the contingency of freedom by assigning to God a miraculous power of unconditional commencement, whereby not only at the very beginning but in the course of nature there may be new beginnings, which are not effects of previous causes, though once started they produce effects according to law.Advertisement
This act further defines the duties and powers of the inspectors of the Board of Trade, and also authorizes the Board to dispense with the notice which the previous act requires to be given prior to the opening of a railway.
This must be exerted in addition to the horse-power calculated in the previous section, so that the total indicated horse-power which must be developed in the cylinders is now 354+223 =577.
The victims were often feted for a whole year and treated as divine; the heart was an offering to the god, the body was eaten by the priests and nobles and the head was preserved with those of previous victims.
Writers, savants, poets, artists, noble and plebeian, layman and cleric, without any previous concert, or obvious connexion, were working towards that ideal of political liberty which was to unite all the Magyars.
On the previous day the Hungarian parliament had adopted a proposal in favour of an address to the crown asking for a separate state bank.Advertisement
John Hetenyi and Gustavus Szontagh must be rather regarded as adopters and developers of the ethical teaching of Samuel Koteles in the previous period.
Nothing definite is known of him previous to the outbreak of the peasant revolt in 1381, but Froissart says he had served as a soldier in the French War, and a Kentishman in the retinue of Richard II.
The stock may be destroyed, killed out by adverse conditions, but its quality is not directly affected, and if removed to more favourable conditions it will show no hereditary results of the previous adversity; indeed it will probably have been strengthened in some ways by the destruction in severe conditions of its weaker members and the survival of the stronger individuals.
It must be admitted that the gorgeousness of ritual described by the Chronicler is far more in harmony with the days of Simon than with any previous post-exilic period.
Moreover, the menace of attack on the Zulu side was a serious one, however able the Boers may have been to meet a foe who fought in the open, and who had been beaten by them in previous wars.Advertisement
Ten days previous to the disaster at Majuba Sir Evelyn Wood had arrived at Newcastle with reinforcements.
In the previous month certain native territories between Tongaland and Swaziland had been annexed by Great Britain.
To one or two men this scheme, subsequently known as The the Jameson Plan, had been revealed in the previous June, but to the majority even of the small group of leaders it was not known till October or November 1895.
Cronje, the latter having posted down from Maf eking with 2000 men and arrived on the previous night.
In 1691 he was received into the French Academy in spite of the determined efforts of the partisans of the ancients in this quarrel, especially of Racine and Boileau, who on four previous occasions had secured his rejection.Advertisement
The system was soon adapted to police methods, as the immense value of being able to fix a person's identity was fully realized, both in preventing false personation and in bringing home to any one charged with an offence his responsibility for previous wrongdoing.
His private record was not as good as his public. In December 1660 he admitted to having contracted, under discreditable circumstances, a secret marriage with Anne Hyde (1637-1671), daughter of Lord Clarendon, in the previous September.
At some time previous to the discovery of America, Ancon had a large aboriginal population.
Its immediate task was to neutralize the after-effects of the schism, which had only been terminated in the previous year by the death of Anacletus II.
In 1661 the corporation of Cardiff complained of Cardiff's impoverishment by reason of a fair held every three weeks for the previous four years at Caerphilly, though "no Borough."Advertisement
There is, on the other hand, no conclusive evidence for the previous existence of a ' Strabo goes on to say that Archias fell in with certain men who had come from the Sicilian Megara, and took them with him to share in his enterprise.
Gela had in the previous year received the fugitive inhabitants of Acragas (Agrigentum), which had been sacked by the Carthaginians.
The character of modern medicine cannot be summed in a word, as, with more or less aptness, that of some previous periods may be.
His premiership was the reward of undoubted services rendered to his party; it may be said, however, that, in contradistinction to the prime ministers for some time previous, he represented the party, rather than that the party represented him.
Although they made some concessions, .the Beaujeus succeeded in maintaining the results of the previous reign, and in triumphing over the feudal intrigues and coalitions, as was seen from the meeting of the estates general in 1484, and the results of the "Mad War" (1485) and the war with Brittany (1488); and in spite of the efforts of Maximilian of Austria they concluded the marriage of Charles VIII.Advertisement
At the coronation of George III., one of the king's grooms appeared "in a scarlet dress, holding a perfuming pan, burning perfumes, as at previous coronations."
The growth and population of London previous to the Igth century is considered under Histor y, ad fin.
Previous to the act of 1903 the County Council had educational powers under the Technical Technical Instructions Acts which enabled it to provide Technical technical education through a special board, merged by the act of 1903 in the education committee.
Previous deputies had addressed the king on their bended knees, whereas the representatives of the Catholics had been permitted to stand.
It was decided in the affirmative previous to his return; but he approved with astonishing eloquence, and thereafter was ever in the front rank in maintaining intercommunication between all churches holding the main doctrines of the Reformation.
The head-gear is often combined with ore-bins and machinery for breaking and sizing the lump ore previous to shipment to the reduction works.
Under the common law the owner of the surface possesses all mining rights as well, unless these have been reserved by some previous owner of the property.
It had always been assumed during previous discussions on the question that warships adventuring the passage would try a rush, that they would endeavour to steam by the, batteries and drive the `defending gunners from their guns by concentrated fire.
Meyer in a pamphlet Ueber das geschichtete electrische Licht surpassed all previous forms in both simplicity and efficiency.
In the previous year he had massacred the English of the establishment of Negrais, whom he suspected of assisting the Peguans.
Mirror plates previous to the invention had been made from blown " sheet " glass, and were consequently very limited in size.
He mentions in it only one previous enterprise of the same kind (though there had in fact been others) - that, namely, of Nicholas Francois Canard (c. 1750-1833 ), whose book, Principes d'economie politique (Paris, 1802), was crowned by the French Academy, though "its principles were radically false as well as erroneously applied."
This varies in metals from 594 (lithium) to 22.48 (osmium), and in one and the same species is a function of temperature and of previous physical and mechanical treatment.
By a previous Anglo-Belgian protocol (May 1910) the Congo-Uganda frontier had been modified so as to give Belgium the western shores of Albert Nyanza and in Feb.
From a collection of the best experiments by previous workers he selected eighty-two (fifty-one on the velocity of water in conduit pipes, and thirty-one on its velocity in open canals); and, discussing these on physical and mechanical principles, he succeeded in drawing up general formulae, which afforded a simple expression for the velocity of running water.
The circulation being always zero round a small plane curve passing through the axis of spin in vortical motion, it follows conversely that a vortex filament is composed always of the same fluid particles; and since the circulation round a cross-section of a vortex filament is constant, not changing with the time, it follows from the previous kinematical theorem that aw is constant for all time, and the same for every cross-section of the vortex filament.
Also Kiliani found that the lactone derived from the cyanhydrin of natural arabinose (laevo) was identical with the previous lactone except that its rotation was equal and opposite.
The bagasse so used is now commonly taken straight from the cane mill to furnaces specially designed for burning it, in its moist state and without previous drying, and delivering the hot gases from it to suitable boilers, such as those of the multitubular type or of the water-tube type.
A cell when filled with fresh slices becomes the head of the battery, and where skilled scientific control can be relied upon to regulate the process, the best and most economical way of heating the slices, previous to admitting the hot liquor from the next cell, is by direct steam; but as the slightest inattention or carelessness in the admission of direct steam might have the effect of inverting sugar and thereby causing the loss of some portion of saccharine in the slices, water heaters are generally used, through which water is passed and heated up previous to admission to the freshly-filled cell.
In the treatment of a case where the parasite is already present, for two days previous to the employment of a vermifuge a light diet should be given and the bowels moved by a purgative.
It will be useful to consider the nature of the four chief constituents just mentioned and their bearing upon the texture, water-holding capacity and other characters which were referred to in the previous section.
The questions naturally suggest themselves - Are the reappearances due to a revival of the contagion derived from previous outbreaks in the same place, or to some favouring condition which the place offers for the development of infection derived from some other quarter; and have favouring conditions any dependence upon the character and state of the soil?
In their previous travels in Syria they had gained the confidence and friendship of a young sheikh whose family, though long settled at Tadmur, came originally from Nejd, and who was anxious to renew the connexion with his kinsmen by seeking a bride among them.
Previous to the loss of the Italian provinces, a considerable proportion came from Italy (30,000 in 1859), including artists, members of the learned professions and artisans who left their mark on Viennese art and taste.
Previous to the adoption of the single gold standard in 1897 the monetary history of Peru had been unfortunate.
He notes the convenience of the method for solar observations and its previous use by some of the observers already mentioned, as well as its advantages for easily and accurately copying on an enlarged or reduced scale, especially for chorographical or topographical documents.
There is a great deal of practical information on lenses in connexion with the camera and other optical instruments, and the book is valuable as a repertory of early practical optics, also for the numerous references to and extracts from previous writers.
The glare of these seemed to the allies to betoken the familiar device of lighting fires previous to a retreat, and thus confirmed them in the impression which Napoleon's calculated timidity had given.
The keep is doubtfully assigned to a date previous to the Conquest; the important position on the Welsh March led to several subsequent additions, especially in the 14th century, and the castle was only dismantled by order of the Parliamentarians after it had strongly resisted their arms on behalf of Charles I.
The most important domestic event of Grant's first term as president was the adoption of the fifteenth amendment to the Constitution on the 30th of March 1870, providing that suffrage throughout the United States should not be restricted on account of race, colour or previous condition of servitude.
This is formed as a two-layered "polypide-bud," which usually develops from the inner side of the zooecial wall, and soon occupies the place of the previous polypide.
In the previous year the earl of Auckland, governor-general, had yielded to the "Orientalists" who opposed Duff, and adopted a policy which was a compromise between the two.
At the beginning of the Christian era, and for many previous centuries, no eruption had been known to take place from the mountain, and the volcanic nature of the locality was perhaps not even suspected by the inhabitants who planted their vineyards along its fertile slopes, and built their numerous villages and towns around its base.
In 1829 he entered upon his life's work, having been licensed to preach during the summer vacation of the previous year.
The system for which the Positive Philosophy is alleged to have been the scientific preparation contains a Polity and a Religion; a complete arrangement of life in all its aspects, giving a wider sphere to Intellect, Energy and Feeling than could be found in any of the previous organic types, - Greek, Roman or Catholic-feudal.
Chretien left his poem unfinished, and we do not know how he intended to complete the adventures of his hero; but those writers who undertook the task, Wauchier de Denain, Gerbert de Montreuil and Manessier, carried it out with such variety of detail, and such a bewildering indifference to Chretien's version, that it seems practically certain that there must have been, previous to Chretien's work, more than one poem dealing with the same theme.
The Jews, who had been attacked by the popular party, were solemnly reinstated by imperial command in all their previous privileges, and received full compensation for their losses.
The present generation is more systematically commercial in its glyptic produce than any previous age.
How his affairs fell into this condition, why he did not die in his own house, and why in the previous summer he had been in hiding, as we know he was from a letter still extant, are points not clearly explained.
To do justice to his idea Virgil enters into rivalry with a greater poet than those whom he had equalled or surpassed in his previous works.
Chabrias had already been killed in an attack on Chios in the previous autumn, and the fleet was under the command of Timotheus, Iphicrates and Chares, who sailed against Byzantium.
The reader possessed of no previous knowledge of electrical phenomena will best appreciate the meaning of the terms employed by the aid of a few simple experiments.
Hence the total flux is - (+ d2V d 2 V d2V dye + dz2) dy dz, dx2 and by the previous theorem this must be equal to 4'rrp dxdydz.
Although numerous reinforcements arrived, he would have found it very difficult to storm the place previous to the inundation of the Nile but for treachery within the citadel; the Greeks who remained there were either made prisoners or put to the sword.
Dispensations, however, could be easily obtained from Rome, before the reformation of the Church of England, to enable a clerk to hold several ecclesiastical dignities or benefices at the same time, and by the Peterpence, Dispensations, &c. Act 1534, the power to grant such dispensations, which had been exercised previously by the court of Rome, was transferred to the archbishop of Canterbury, certain ecclesiastical persons having been declared by a previous statute (1529) to be entitled to such dispensations.
Ramsay found that a wide level plain, which had before been covered by water, intervened between Ujiji and the lake, but stated that no further sinking had taken place during the two previous years.
Corps, which had been summoned overnight from its position about Courcelles towards the battlefield of Gravelotte and had almost reached the Moselle before this move could be counterordered, the remainder kept their places of the previous night, only following the French retreat with a screen of outposts.
Astronomers denote the year which preceded the first of our era by o, and the year previous to that by 1 B.C.; but chronologers, in conformity with common notions, call the year preceding the era 1 B.C., the previous year 2 B.C., and so on.
If Hallam can ever be said to have deviated from perfect fairness, it was in the tacit assumption that the 19th-century theory of the constitution was the right theory in previous centuries, and that those who departed from it on one side or the other were in the wrong.
After its exertions and achievements during the previous five days of incessant fighting the Canadian Corps was in urgent need of rest and refitment.
On the other hand, if the effects arose from balanced stresses set up inside the globe by the radiation, the effects on the vanes and on the case would be of the nature of action and reaction, so that the establishment of motion of the vanes in one direction would involve impulsion of the case in the opposite direction; but when the motion became steady there would no longer be any torque either on the vanes or on the case, and the latter would therefore come back to its previous position of equilibrium; finally, when the light was turned off, the decay of the motion of the vanes would involve impulsion of the case in the direction of their motion until the moment of the restoring torque arising from the suspension of the case had absorbed the angular momentum in the system.
The earliest tombs (tombe a pozzo, shaft tombs) are previous to the beginning of Greek importation.
During the year there was a brisk war in the West Indies, and also in Catalonia, where the French maintained the ground won by Schomberg in the previous campaign.
The previous years of his manhood had been spent in continual activity.
Like the previous constitutions of 1776, 1792 and 1831, it was promulgated by a constitutional convention without submission to the people for ratification, and amendments may be adopted by a two-thirds vote of each house in two consecutive legislatures.
His previous departure is perhaps foreshadowed in vii.
Here, in order to fulfil the purposes of the previous models, the distance of the centres of the lenses from each other should only slightly exceed the tangent of sun's diameter X focal length of lenses.
To Fraunhofer, some time not long previous to 1820, is due, so far as we can ascertain, the construction of the first heliometer with an achromatic divided object-glass, i.e.
Fragment Hypothesis.-The previous theories have brought to light and emphasized the fact that within the Apocalypse there are passages inconsistent with the tone and character of the whole.
Then the execution, in March 1531, at Leeuwarden, of the tailor Sicke Freerks, who had been rebaptized in the previous December at Emden, introduced further questions.
Although in the years 1870-1903 the amount raised was 5,694,928,507 tons, this later estimate was higher by 10,707,382,769 tons than that of the previous commission, the excess being accounted for partly by the difference in the areas regarded as productive by the two commissions, and partly by new discoveries and more accurate knowledge of the coal seams. In addition it was estimated that in the proved coalfields at depths greater than 4000 ft.
Till 48, the date of his mother's execution, he was looked upon as the heir presumptive; but Agrippina, the new wife of Claudius, soon persuaded the feeble emperor to adopt Lucius Domitius, known later as Nero, her son by a previous marriage.
On the 8th of June the propositions extracted from the De Ecclesia were again taken up with some fulness of detail; some of these he repudiated as incorrectly given, others he defended; but when asked to make a general recantation he steadfastly declined, on the ground that to do so would be a dishonest admission of previous guilt.
Previous to this dukes had been invested at their creation by the girding on of a sword only.
A peculiar literary feud in Germany served, about 1515, to throw into sharp contrast the humanistic party, which had been gradually developing during the previous fifty years, and the conservative, monkish, scholastic group, who found their leader among the Dominicans of the university of Cologne.
The first parliament of the reign swept away almost all the species of treasons created during the previous two centuries, the heresy acts, including the Six 1547- Articles, all limitations on printing the Scriptures in 1553.
The edict of Nantes recapitulated and codified the provisions of a series of earlier edicts of toleration, which had come with each truce during the previous generation.
His marriage took place at Alexandria in 403; in the previous year he had visited Athens.
The upper town preserves some part of the fortifications which protected it when, previous to the plague of 1630, the city had upwards of 30,000 inhabitants.
The church of St Michael dates from 1750, the abbey church having collapsed in the previous year.
Making it his main object in his "introduction" to set before his readers the previous history of the two nations who were the actors in the great war, he is able in tracing their history to bring into his narrative some account of almost all the nations of the known world, and has room to expatiate freely upon their geography, antiquities, manners and customs and the like, thus giving his work a "universal" character, and securing for it, without trenching upon unity, that variety, richness and fulness which are a principal charm of the best histories, and of none more than his.
There was no restriction on the regent's authority over treaties, peace and war, or parliament, as in the previous acts, but his power of granting peerages, offices and pensions was limited.
But on the r 5th the critical nature of the situation dawned on them, and naturally on Blucher first, as his headquarters were nearer to the frontier than Wellington's, and Blucher had had previous experience of Napoleon's powers.
Previous to that date, the only step towards compilation of the census results of the empire had been a bare statement of area and population, appended without analysis, comparison or comment, to the reports for England and Wales, from the year 1861 onwards.
The course of events has clearly established the fact that the authority of the Federal government in this field is greater than the strict constructionists of a previous generation as represented by General Walker in the passage already quoted believed it to be.
In 1901 the population was 249,117, showing an increase of 12% since 1891, compared with an increase of 43% in the previous decade.
As a result of the importance both of the formulae obtained by elementary methods and of those which have involved the previous use of analysis, there is a tendency to dissociate the former, like the latter, from the methods by which they have been obtained, and to regard mensuration as consisting of those mathematical formulae which are concerned with the measurement of geometrical magnitudes (including lengths), or, in a slightly wider sense, as being the art of applying these formulae to specific cases.
Adolfo Bonilla y San Martin's Luis Vives y la filosofia del renacimiento (Madrid, 1903) is a valuable and interesting study which includes an exhaustive bibliography of Vives's writings and a critical estimate of previous monographs.
The troops in the capital were won over (the same troops who had effected the revolution of the previous year), and on April 1 2 they demanded that the constitution should be subject to Mahommedan sacred law, and great demonstrations, attended by fighting, taking place against the Government.
The franchise is adult suffrage, conditional on a previous residence in the colony for a year, including six months in the electoral district for which a claim to vote is registered.
And its third stage, Jesus' prophecies to Peter and to the beloved disciple concerning their future, and the declaration " This is the disciple who testifies to these things and who has written them, and we know that his testimony is true," is doubtless written by the redactor of the previous two stages.
During the winter of1791-1792he built another fort on Nootka Sound and mounted four cannon from the ship. With the coming of spring he sailed southward, determined to settle definitely the existence of the great river, which he had vainly attempted to enter the previous summer.
The direction, too, in which the new wave travels is different from the previous one.
It is easy to deduce the modes of vibration from stationary waves as in the previous cases.
The previous (Conservative) government had in March 1905 made public a form of representative govern- government, intended to lead up to self-government meat* for the Transvaal, and had intimated that a similar constitution would be subsequently conferred on the Orange Colony.
Politically, however, it was important to hold Mukden, the Manchurian capital, and since the Japanese, as on previous occasions, reorganized instead of pursuing, he decided to stand his ground, a resolution which had an excellent effect on his army.
Still the result of Stakelberg's attack, for which he was unable to deploy his whole force, was disappointing, but the main Japanese attack on Bilderling was not much more satisfactory, for the Russians had entrenched every step of their previous advance, and fought splendidly.
No previous president had entered the office at so early an age as forty-three.
To compare this with the previous table, tp _ (A+B)/A = r +P. Except when the limiting stresses are of opposite sign, the two tables agree very well.
Previous to this, however, in 1851, the first train ran over the Chicago Milwaukee & St Paul railway to Waukesha, and in 1857 through trains were run over the same road to the Mississippi at Prairie du Chien.
But it was arranged that the sovereign's procession to the abbey through the streets should be made a finer show than on previous occasions; and it drew to London 400,000 country visitors.
In the previous November the queen had had the pleasure of receiving, on a private visit, her grandson, the German Emperor, who came accompanied by the empress and by two of their sons.
In 1758 appeared his Lettre a d'Alembert contre les spectacles, written in the winter of the previous year at Montlouis.
But there is no doubt that, whatever may be the view taken as to the extreme theory of vegetarianism, it has had considerable effect in modifying the excessive meat-consuming regime of previous days, and in introducing new varieties of vegetable cooking into the service of the table.
The revenue of Netherlands India has been derived mainly from customs, excise, ground-tax, licences, poll-tax, &c., from monopolies - opium, salt and pawn-shops (the management of which began to be taken over by the government in 1903, in place of the previous system of farming-out), coffee, &c., railways, tin mines and forests, and from agricultural and other concessions.
These conditions cannot be consistent with sensible convection of the aether near the earth without involving discontinuity in its motion at some intermediate distance, so that we are thrown back on the previous theory.
Previous to the 5th century B.C. he was represented as fullbearded, grim-featured and in full armour.
But there are references which suggest its previous award in Piers Plowman and Chaucer.
In November 1343 he obtained the town and castle of Copenhagen from King Magnus Smek of Sweden, by reconfirming in still more stringent terms the previous surrender of the rich Scanian provinces, and by the end of the following year he had recovered the whole of North Zealand.
Its members, 236 in number, were selected from all the different political parties in proportion to their strength as shown by the last parliamentary election previous to the war.
Previous to 1918 the territories now composing the Czechoslovak Republic were of course subject to the Austrian or Hungarian code of laws respectively.
Previous to the war the present Czechoslovak territories were responsible for 92% of the sugar produced by Austria-Hungary, for 46% of the spirits, beer 57%, malt 87%, foodstuffs 50%, chemicals 75%, metals 60%, porcelain too %, glass 90%, cotton goods 75%, woollen goods 80%, jute 90%, leather 70%, gloves 90%, boots 75%, paper 60%.
In 1842, however, Sir Robert Peel made the first important concession, by modifying the sliding scale, his opponent, Lord John Russell, having proposed in the previous year a fixed duty of 8s.
The silk manufacture, as to which the first great changes had been made in 1824, and on whose products the duties had been kept higher in previous acts than on other manufactures, was thus compelled, notwithstanding violent opposition, to face unfettered foreign competition.
The last of the Khoja revolts (1857) was of about equal duration with the previous one, and took place under Wali-Khan, a degraded debauchee, and the murderer of the lamented traveller Adolf Schlagintweit.
First, however, it is necessary to describe briefly the origin and previous history of these romantic freebooters who during the second half of the 17th century were the determining factor of Polish and Muscovite politics.
Felix Jezierski, the previous editor of the above-mentioned journal, published in it translr tions of parts of Homer, and is also the author of an excellent version of Faust.
At the present day tulips of all kinds are much more extensively grown than at any previous period.
Tulips flourish in any good garden soil that has been deeply dug or trenched and manured the previous season.
The question of the position of Greek in secondary education has from time to time attracted attention in connexion with the requirement of Greek in Responsions at Oxford, and in the Previous Examination at Cambridge.
On the 9th of March 1871 a syndicate recommended that, in the Previous Examination, French and German (taken together) should be allowed in place of Greek; on the 27th of April this recommendation (which only affected candidates for honours or for medical degrees) was rejected by 51 votes to 48.
All the other proposals and votes relating to Greek in the Previous Examination in 1870-1873, 1878-1880, and 1891-1892 are set forth in the Cambridge University Reporter for November 11, 1904, pp. 202-205.
Milton, in his Tractate on Education (1644), advances further on Bacon's lines, protesting against the length of time spent on instruction in language, denouncing merely verbal knowledge, and recommending the study of a large number of classical authors for the sake of their subject appointed to consider the studies and examinations of the university, their report of November 1904 on the Previous Examination was fully discussed, and the speeches published in the Reporter for December 17, 1904.
On the 3rd of March 1905 a proposal for accepting either French or German as an alternative for either Latin or Greek in the Previous Examination was rejected by 1559 to 1052 votes, and on the 26th of May 1906 proposals distinguishing between students in letters and students in science, and (inter alia) requiring the latter to take either French or German for either Latin or Greek in the Previous Examination, were rejected b y 746 to 241.
Even at the close of the previous century the brilliant achievements of French literature had prompted La Bruyere vs.
In 1908 the General Assembly passed a law providing for annual direct primary elections (outside of Baltimore; and making the Baltimore special primary law applicable to state as well as city officials), but, as regards state officers, making only a slight improvement upon previous conditions inasmuch as the county or district is the unit and the vote of county or district merely " instructs " delegates to the party's state nominating convention, representation in which is not strictly in proportion to population, the rural counties having an advantage over Baltimore; no nomination petition is required.
The arrival of Johnston on the previous evening and his lieutenant Kirby Smith at the crisis of the battle (for Patterson's part in the plan had completely failed), turned the scale, and the Federals, not yet disciplined to bear the strain of a great battle, broke and fled in wild rout.
It is in any case evident that the accession of Jehu and Athaliah must be brought down from 884 to 842 B.C.; and this will involve, naturally, a corresponding reduction of the dates of the previous kings of both kingdoms, and of course, at the same time, of those of Solomon, David and Saul.
When the enterprise of Christian missionaries had gone on for some little time, especially in the regions outside Palestine where there was little or no previous knowledge of Christ and of Christian ideals, the wandering prophets and apostles by whom the missions were mainly conducted must have soon begun to feel the need for some sort of written manual to supplement their own personal teaching.
When, therefore, the breach came, and the struggle between reformers and conservatives within the undivided Church was transformed into a struggle between Protestants and Romanists, it was inevitable that the authority which in the previous centuries had been ascribed to the Church 1 E.g.
The Crucifixion at some previous Passover would then fall not later than A.D.
Unfortunately, even less agreement exists on this head than on the question whether the fourteen years of the last-mentioned visit are to be reckoned from the conversion or from the previous visit.
The Constructio therefore may have been written a good many years previous to the publication of the Descriptio in 1614.
Their previous docility and their entire submission to the Jesuits left no possible doubt as to the source of the rebellion, and gave the enemies of the Jesuits a handle against them that was not forgotten.
The president and vice-president are elected indirectly through an electoral college chosen by popular vote, and serve for a period of six years (the term was four years previous to 1904), the vice-president succeeding to the office in case of the death or permanent disability of the president.
Previous to the presidency of General Porfirio Diaz in 1877 political disorders and changes in government were frequent.
For sixty years there was no change whatever, and only three amendments, those of 1852 (removing the property qualifications of representatives, senators and the governor), were adopted until 1877, when twelve amendments were adopted, - the most important being those providing for biennial (instead of annual) state elections in November (instead of March), and those doing away with the previous requirement that representatives, senators and the governor " be of the Protestant religion."
This confirmed his previous conclusion that the rays increase in refrangibility from red to violet.
And,, secondly, with a laborious zeal then less common than now among, n 2 (I - K 2) = 2 n 2 = n 2 = I historians, he sought to bring to light fresh historical material by patient search for letters, diaries and other manuscripts of value which had escaped the notice of previous students.
On the French side the count de Guichen was sent with reinforcements to the West Indies to take command of the ships left in the previous year by d'Estaing.
Previous to his departure for England, Henry bestowed the government on Hugh de Lacy, having granted by charter "to his subjects of Bristol his city of Dublin to inhabit, and to hold of him and his heirs for ever, with all the liberties and free customs which his subjects of Bristol then enjoyed at Bristol and through all England."
Previous to the dissolution, a rood-screen bearing a gigantic rood, the object of many pilgrimages, stood to the west of the tower.
A commercial treaty was negotiated with Japan in 1854 after Perry's expedition in the previous year.
Desperate, as was the state of his finances, thanks to his previous extravagance, he found money to purchase the services of some three-and-twenty soldiers of the praetorian guard.
Here a council had been formally opened in January by the papal party, a bull of the previous year having promptly taken advantage of the death of the Emperor Sigismund by ordering the removal of the council of Basel to Ferrara; and one of the first acts of the assemblage at Ferrara had been to excommunicate the remnant at Basel.
The name Knutsford (Cunetesford, Knotesford) is said to signify Cnut's ford, but there is no evidence of a settlement here previous to Domesday.
In 'spring the horse and hand hoe must be used, and the previous application of r cwt.
With the renewal of uplift by which the earlier cycle of erosion was interrupted and the present cycle introduced, inequalities of surface due to renewed faulting were again introduced; these still appear as cliffs, of more nearly rectilinear front than the retreating escarpments formed in the previous cycle.
During the current cycle of erosion, several of the faults, whose scarps had been worn away in the previous cycle, have been brought to light again as topographic features by the removal of the weak strata along one side of the fault line, leaving the harder strata on the other side in relief; such scarps are known as fault-line scarps, in distinction from the original fault scarps.
The structure of the region previous to faulting was dependent on long antecedent processes of accumulation and deformation and the surface of the region then was dependent on the amount of erosion suffered in the prefaulting cycle.
Gold occurs in quartz veins traversing various formations (some as young as Jurassic), and also in gravels, which were for the most part deposited previous to the uplift of the Sierra block.
The lead production of the Missouri mines had for some years been nearly stationary, or had declined slightly from its former importance; while that of the upper Mississippi region, which in the years just previous to 1850 had risen to from 20,000 to 25,000 tons a year, was declining, having in 1850 sunk to less than 18,000 tons.
His writings are important as gathering together the results of previous English Freethinkers.
In the course of time the status of the ceorl was probably reduced; but although his political power was never large, and in some directions his freedom was restricted, it hardly seems possible previous to the Norman Conquest to class him among the unfree.
Previous to 1906 this coin was minted in England, but in that year a branch of the royal mint was established at Ottawa.
But in the end the American invasion failed and the treaty made at Ghent in 1814 left the previous status unaltered.
In his translations of Euripides' Cyclops, 381, "a bowl I Three cubits wide and four in depth, as much i As would contain four amphorae" the Greek original clearly points to "ten amphorae" and four may have come from the previous line.
Other kinds of repetition are Shelley's Witch of Atlas, 6 i i seq., "Like one asleep in a green hermitage, I With gentle sleep about its eyelids playing" (sleep for smiles has come from the previous line); Revolt of Islam, 4749, "Where" for "When" appears to have come from "Where" in 4750 or 4751.
B 2, 997 b 3-5, referring back to A 6 and 9 about Platonic forms. Sometimes, on the other hand, the reference only goes back to a previous part of a given topic, e.g.
In order to refer back to the Physics, the De Coelo, and the De Generatione, this work begins by stating that the first causes of all nature and all natural motion, the stars ordered according to celestial motion and the bodily elements with their transmutations, and generation and corruption have all been discussed; and by adding that there remains to complete this investigation, what previous investigators called meteorology.
But 0 and Z are a group interrupted by E, and H and 0 are another group unconnected with the previous group and with E, and are also distinguished in style by avoiding hiatus.
Here Aristotle, starting from the previous grammar of sentences in general, proceeded, for the first time in philosophical literature, to disengage the logic of the proposition, or that sentence which can alone be true or false, whereby it alone enters into reasoning.
It is more likely that Aristotle identified pleasure with activity in the De Anima, the Metaphysics and the three moral treatises, as we have seen; but that afterwards some subsequent Peripatetic, considering that the pleasure of perceiving or thinking is not the same as perceiving or thinking, declared the previous identification of pleasure with activity absurd.
With Regard To The Numeration Of The Years Previous To The Commencement Of The Era, The Practice Is Not Uniform.
On the following day with Ioo horsemen he went out to the same tomb and obtained the unconditional surrender of the three princes, who had been left behind on the previous occasion.
Its previous mouth had been 10 m.
The larch is said not to succeed on arable land, especially where corn has been grown, but experience does not seem to support this view; that against the previous occupation of the ground by Scotch fir or Norway spruce is probably better founded, and, where timber is the object, it should not be planted with other conifers.
It was always the prayer that the soul (bai) should be able to revisit the corpse (khat), and some inscriptions show an expectation of the body itself being revivified, "the mouth speaking," "the legs walking," and everything conforming with its previous terrestrial life.
Each congregation had a plurality of elders, pastors or bishops, who were chosen according to what were believed to be the instructions of Paul, without regard to previous education or present occupation, and who enjoy a perfect equality in office.
The official language of the Institute is French, and its annual meetings are held wherever the members at the previous meeting decide to assemble.
The characteristics of Pappus's Collection are that it contains an account, systematically arranged, of the most important results obtained by his predecessors, and, secondly, notes explanatory of, or extending, previous discoveries.
His local connexions and the incidents of his previous career introduced him to the notice of his countrymen Lords Bute and Mansfield.
In order to prove this novel conclusion he started afresh from the Cartesian " I think " in the Kantian form of the synthetic unity of apperception acting by a priori categories; but instead of allowing, with all previous metaphysicians, that the Ego passively receives sensations from something different, and not contenting himself with Kant's view that the Ego, by synthetically combining the matter of sensations with a priori forms, partially constructs objects, and therefore Nature as we know it, he boldly asserted that the Ego, in its synthetic unity, entirely constructs things; that its act of spontaneity is not mere synthesis of passive sensations, but construction of sensations into an object within itself; and that therefore understanding makes as well as shapes Nature.
In accordance with his previous division of outer will into impulsive and decisive, he divides the inner will of apperception into passive apperception and active apperception.
From this fact of unity of Nature and of everything in Nature, combined with the two previous positions accepted, not from Nature, but from Kant, Green proceeded to argue, altogether beyond Kant, that Nature, being one, and also requiring unifying intelligence, requires one intelligence, an eternal intelligence, a single spiritual principle, prior to, and the condition of, our individual knowledge.
The ashes, obtained by burning the palms or their substitutes used in the ceremonial of the previous Palm Sunday, are placed in a vessel on the altar before High Mass.
These local councils, to which the propertied classes alone were eligible, were subdivided into four sections, resembling the prytaneis of the Athenian council, which took it in turns to take previous cognizance of all new measures.'
Again, it appears that compasses of a primitive description, which can hardly be supposed to have been brought from Europe, were employed in the East Indies certainly as early as several years previous to the close of the 16th century.
In general, these engagements bore upon the limitation of the number of cardinals, the prohibition to nominate new ones without previous notification to the Sacred College, the sharing between the cardinals and the pope of certain revenues specified by a bull of Nicholas IV., and the obligatory consultation of the consistories for the principal acts of the temporal and spiritual government.
He had long passed the traditional years of Peter's pontificate, had reigned longer than any previous wearer of the tiara, and had seen some brilliant days - days of illusory glory.
It is the result of the fusion of two previous commissions; that for the affairs of bishops, established by Gregory XIII., and that for the affairs of the regular clergy, founded by Sixtus V.; the fusion dates from Clement VIII.
Reaching Yekundo (or Giergundo) on the 21st of May 1894, the travellers started for the Koko Nor and Sining on the 1st of June; but the party was attacked near Tungbumdo (Tumbumdo of previous travellers), and Dutreuil de Rhins was killed on the 5th of June.
Endecott experienced some trouble with the previous settlers and with Thomas Morton's settlement at "Merry Mount" (Mount Wollaston, now Quincy), where, in accordance with his strict Puritanical tenets, he cut down the maypole and dispersed the merry makers.
Meeting with no opposition, he was received at Viterbo by Innocent, but refused the papal demand that he should concede to the church all the territories which, previous to 1197, had been in dispute between the Empire and the Papacy, consenting, however, not to claim supremacy over Sicily.
Attempts have been made to find a setting for the epistle within the apostle's life previous to his Roman imprisonment (as recorded in Acts), but by common consent s it is now held that the epistle (if written by the apostle) must fall later, during the period of missionary enterprise which is supposed to have followed his release from the first captivity.
When in 1747 "the Associate Synod," by a narrow majority, decided not to give full immediate effect to a judgment which had been passed in the previous year against the lawfulness of the "Burgess Oath," Gib led the protesting minority, who separated from their brethren and formed the Antiburgher Synod (April loth) in his own house in Edinburgh.
There is an excessive use of the ablative absolute, and ablative phrases are often appended in a kind of vague "apposition" to express the author's own opinion of an immediately previous statement, e.g.
On the 1st of June 1813 the capture of the U.S. frigate "Chesapeake" (38), by the British frigate "Shannon" (38), a vessel of equal force, counterbalanced the moral effect of previous disasters.
On the 19th of June a son was born to his wife, and in the face of his previous protestations he was induced to acknowledge himself the father.
On the 26th of October the charge of complicity in the murder of Darnley was distinctly brought forward against her in spite of Norfolk's reluctance and Murray's previous hesitation.
A third "Farmer's Letter" replied to Hamilton's View of the Controversy between Great Britain and her Colonies, in a broader and abler treatment than in the previous pamphlets.
The various amounts of these needed in different cases have to be adjusted by the gardener, according to the nature of the plant, its " habit" or general mode of growth in its native country, and the influence to which it is there subjected, as also in accordance with the purposes for which it is to be cultivated, &c. It is but rarely that direct information on all these points can be obtained; but inference from previous experience, especially with regard to allied forms, will go far to supply such deficiencies.
Standard trees, however, are budded on a sturdy young shoot close to the top. In either case the stocks should have been carefully planted at least the previous November when the work is to be done in the open air the following July or August.
One of the most important preliminaries to successful forcing is the securing to the plants a previous state of rest.
These beds are covered with a few inches of the fine old mould obtained from the decayed manure of previous years.
The foundation was laid on which the Republic of the 3 For the history of the Netherlands previous to the confederacy of the northern provinces in 1579 see Netherlands.
When the ascogonium (female organ) is present the ascogenous hyphae arise from it, with or without its previous fusion with an antheridium.
Gjers did this by setting the partly solidified ingot in a well-closed " pit " of brickwork, preheated by the excess heat of previous lots of ingots.
Previous to Professor Friedrich Delitzsch's masterly work on the origin of the most ancient Babylonian system of writing,' no one had correctly understood the facts regarding the beginnings of the cuneiform system, which is now generally recognized as having been originally a pure picture writing which later developed into a conventionalized ideographic and syllabic sign-list.
The wine production had declined by one-half from the previous year, exportation having fallen off in the whole country.
Gouldsbury on a mission to Eastern Akim, Juabin and Kumasi, to repair the effects of the previous inaction of the colonial government, but without success.
As in the case of the previous problem, it is unnecessary to follow the steps of his analysis, which are, for the most part, attempts to self substitute qualities of feeling for the relations of thought The .
He was acquainted moreover with Latin grammar, under the influence of which he resorted to the innovation of dividing the Hebrew vowels into five long vowels and five short, previous grammarians having simply spoken of seven vowels without distinction of quantity.
Previous to the Conquest, Macclesfield (Makesfeld, Mackerfeld, Macclesfeld, Meulefeld, Maxfield) was held by Edwin, earl of Mercia; and at the time of the Domesday Survey it formed a part of the lands of the earl of Chester.
In the charter of 1666 a market is included among the privileges confirmed to the borough as those which had been granted in 1605, or by any previous kings and queens of England.
These reforms resulted in a temporary increase of prosperity, or at any rate an alleviation of the previous misery of the peasants.
For six centuries previous to about 800, European interest in practical geographical expansion was at a standstill.
At last, at the famous sitting of the 9th Thermidor, he ventured to present as the report of the committees of General Security and Public Safety a document expressing his own views, a sight of which, however, had been refused to the other members of committee on the previous evening.
Cyprian is largely responsible for the change, though traces of it are found during the previous half century.
The majority of minerals are found commonly in masses which can with difficulty be recognized as aggregates of crystalline grains, and occur comparatively seldom as distinct crystals; but the diamond is almost always found in single crystals, which show no signs of previous attachment to any matrix; the stones were, until the discovery of the South African mines, almost entirely derived from sands or gravels, but owing to the hardness of the mineral it is rarely, if ever, water-worn, and the crystals are often very perfect.
But all previous records were surpassed in 1905 by a magnificent stone more than three times the size of any known diamond, which was found in the yellow ground at the newly discovered Premier mine in the Transvaal.
He received the kingdom of Judaea by the last will of his father, though a previous will had bequeathed it to his brother Antipas.
Some general idea of the resources of the Kandahar district may be gathered from the fact that it supplied the British troops with everything except luxuries during the entire period of occupation in 1879-81; and that, in spite of the great strain thrown on those resources by the presence of the two armies of Ayub Khan and of General Roberts, and after the total failure of the autumn crops and only a partial harvest the previous spring, the army was fed without great difficulty until the final evacuation, at one-third of the prices paid in Quetta for supplies drawn from India.
The conquests of the previous year were lost, and when Juan renewed his offers, John of Gaunt agreed to surrender his claims to his daughter by Constance of Castile, who was to marry Juan's heir.
This eminence is itself due to an outflow of lava from that mountain, during some previous eruption in prehistoric times, for we know from Strabo that Vesuvius had been quiescent ever since the first records of the Greek settlements in this part of Italy.
The engagement came to an end in 1631, when he was recalled to train the young earl of Devonshire, now thirteen years old, son of his previous pupil.
Hobbes was able to carry out his plan in some twenty years or more from the time of its conception, but the execution was so broken in upon by political events, and so complicated with other labours, that its stages can hardly be followed without some previous understanding of the relations of the parts of the scheme, as there is reason to believe they were sketched out from the beginning.
In this first public edition (12mo), the title was changed to Elementa philosophica de cive, the references in the text to the previous sections being omitted.
Wallis, who had deftly steered his course amid all the political changes of the previous years, managing ever to be on the side of the ruling power, was now apparently stung to fury by a wanton allusion in Hobbes's latest dialogue to a passage of his former life (his deciphering for the parliament the king's papers taken at Naseby), whereof he had once boasted but after the Restoration could not speak or hear too little.
It is doubtfully referred to in the book of ancient poems edited by Confucius, all of which are previous in date to 550 B.C. A tradition exists in China that a knowledge of tea travelled eastward to and in China, having been introduced S43 A.D.
These are the fainter images produced by repeated sensations, the " ideas " resulting from previous " impressions "- sensations at second-hand as it were, which are stored up in memory, and which a general name serves to recall.
Of this description was the irrigation of Lower Egypt previous to 1883.
Of this extensive work there are still extant only the first five books, treating of the mythic history of the Egyptians, Assyrians, Ethiopians and Greeks; and also the i i th to the 20th books inclusive, beginning with the second Persian War, and ending with the history of the successors of Alexander, previous to the partition of the Macedonian empire (302).
Men belonging to previous years who had been put back for re-examination, &c., still borne on the lists ..
By the growth of the cities in social, if not in political, importance the products of labor were more and more widely diffused; and it was easier than at any previous time for the nation to be moved by common ideas and impulses.
She was beaten, and the peace of Lunville added fresh humiliations to those imposed upon her by the previous war.
His previous advances had been interrupted Endof the by the Gastein convention, which seemed to the Italian Austro- government a betrayal of the Italian cause.
Subsequently he devoted himself wholly to the reformation of his diocese, which had fallen into a most unsatisfactory condition owing to the prolonged absences of its previous archbishops.
For several centuries previous to the Union it returned two members to the Irish parliament.
This would be at least a possible policy, and one to which Beust by his previous history would be inclined.
He had no previous experience of Austrian affairs, and was only anxious at once to bring about a settlement which would enable the empire to take a strong position in international politics.
The first settlement occupied two full years, from 1876, when the negotiations began, to June 1878, when at last all the bills were carried successfully through the two parliaments; and it was necessary to prolong the previous arrangements (which expired at the end of 1877) till the middle of 1878.
If it were not done, then no fresh treaties would be made extending beyond the year 1907, so that if the Commercial Union of Austria and Hungary were not renewed before 1907, each party would be able to determine its own policy unshackled by any previous treaties.
The constitution of 1867 laid down a principle of much importance, by which previous custom became established as a right.
In the new parliament, as in the previous session, he opposed legislation restricting the hours of labour, and, as a Nonconformist, spoke against clerical control of national education.
That even long portions of the Koran existed in written form from an early date may be pretty safely inferred from various indications; especially from the fact that in Mecca the Prophet had caused insertions to be made, and pieces to be erased in his previous revelations.
In fact the whole history of Mahomet previous to the Flight is so imperfectly related that we are not even sure in what year he appeared as a prophet.
In Nupe, on the northern side of the river, as the company was unable to occupy the territory conquered, things shortly reverted to their previous condition.
In the Pagan districts where no native machinery existed and no previous taxation had been in force, a nominal impost was levied and collected by the officers of the government through the agency of the village chiefs.
The image was put away after each occasion; every sixty years a large number of such images, which had served in previous celebrations, were carried in procession to the top of Mount Cithaeron, and were burned on an altar together with animals and the altar itself.
The bondholders gained a further material advantage by the consent of the Egyptian government to delay the conversion of the loans, which under previous arrangements they would have been free to do in 1905.
The annual growth of revenue for the previous five years averaged over ESoo,000.
In, a previous table it has been shown that under the Law of Liquidation of 1880 the total debt was L98,64o,000.
Previous explorers kept scientific aims in view, but the idea of scientific archaeology was not realized by them.
The XIIth Dynasty.This age overlaps the previous in its style.
Amenemh I., the first king, whose connection with the previous dynasty is not known, reigned for thirty years, ten of them being in partnership with his son Senwosri I.
His diplomatic relations were more extensive than those of any previous sultan, and included Bulgarian, Indian, and Abyssmn.ian potentates, as well as the pope, the king of Aragon and the king of France.
They next seized his boats conveying soldiers, servants, and his ammunition and baggage; and, following him, they demanded wherefore he brought with him so numerous a body of men, in opposition to usage and to their previous warning.
The young khedive was made therefore to understand that he must not make such changes in the administration without a previous agreement with the representative of the protecting power; and a compromise was effected by which Fakhri Pasha retired, and the post of premier was confided once more to Riaz.
The officers were told by their guide that they might shoot, but the villagers had not given permission and were incensed at the shooting of their pigeons by other officers in the previous year.
The Egyptians made quite as good a stand as could be expected, but were driven from their guns, which they were unable to use with adequate effect; and the bombardment of Alexandria confirms previous experience that the fire of ships cannot really compete with that of well-mounted and well-handled guns on shore.
On the 26th of February 1886 Emjn received despatches from Cairo via Zanzibar, from which he learned all that had occurred during the previous three years, and that he might take any step he liked, should he decide to leave the country.
But in the skeletal, voluntary or striped muscles a second stimulus succeeding a previous so quickly as to fall even during the continuance of the contraction excited by a first, elicits a second contraction.
This second contraction starts from whatever phase of previous contraction the muscle may have reached at the time.
These three salient facts are practically the sum of our knowledge of early Danish history previous to the Viking period.
To north and northeast was the land which had been visited in the reconnaissance of the previous year, but beyond it a water-sky appeared in the supposed position of Petermann Land.
The primary idea of sepulture appears to have been the provision of a habitation for the dead; and thus, in its perfect form, the barrow included a chamber or chambers where the tenant was surrounded with the prized possessions of his previous life.
He was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1858, was professor of political economy at University College from 1872 to 1875, and in December 1876, after a previous unsuccessful attempt, was elected to parliament for Liskeard in the Liberal interest.
No allusion, however, is made by Moses to this previous demand; he merely urges the same objection as that put forward in iv.
In this as in the previous studies a compendium is learned by heart, and explanations are given from commentaries and noted down by the students word for word.
A religion which subdues to itself a race with strongly marked individuality is always influenced in cultus and dogma by the previous views and tendencies of that race, to which it must in some measure accommodate itself.
In the Gigartinales it is already differentiated previous to fertilization; in Rhodymeniales it arises subsequent to fertilization.
But after travelling two years in various parts of Germany, where we are unable to follow him, the young Darer arrived at Colmar in 1492, only to find that Schongauer had died the previous year.
The previous treatment of the motion of a rigid body had in every case been purely analytical, and so gave no aid to the formation of a mental picture of the body's motion; and the great value of this work lies in the fact that, as Poinsot himself says in the introduction, it enables us to represent to ourselves the motion of a rigid body as clearly as that of a moving point.
A previous meeting with Irving, also a native of Annan, had led to a little passage of arms, but Irving now welcomed Carlyle with a generosity which entirely won his heart, and the rivals soon became the closest of friends.
They contemplated a marriage, and Irving endeavoured to obtain a release from his previous engagement.
Mill had made Carlyle's acquaintance in the previous visit to London, and had corresponded with him.
He declined very courteously, and felt some regret for previous remarks upon the minister.
The mountains in fact have been hewn out of the original bulk of the land in proportion as the valleys have been excavated_ The denudation would continue so long as the ground stood above the level of the sea; but there have been prolonged periods of depression, when the ground, instead of being eroded, lay below the sea-level and was buried sometimes under thousands of feet of accumulated sediment, which completely filled up and obliterated the previous drainage-lines.
A parliament in Argyll's and the preachers' interest met there in January 1649; only sixteen nobles were present, as against fifty-six in the previous year.
But Lord George's previous dealings with Cope inspired in Charles a distrust which was to prove fatal.
And the previous history of religious belief in India would tend to show that emphasis was laid on the fact, less as an explanation of the origin of evil, than as a protest against a then current pessimistic idea that salvation could not be reached on earth, and must therefore be sought for in a rebirth in heaven, in the Brahmaloka.
They are at the same time its distinctive doctrines; that is to say, the doctrines that distinguish it from all previous teaching in India.
In India it had already, before the rise of Buddhism, been raised into an ethical conception by the associated doctrine of Karma, according to which a man's socialpositioninlife and hisphysicaladvantages, or the reverse, were the result of his actions in a previous birth.
This is owing to his lust of the eye in a previous birth.
This is because he loved, in a previous birth, to listen to the preaching of the law.
The Buddha found it (as Plato also found it) 1 in the influence exercised upon one life by a desire felt in the previous life.
For as the Arahat had conquered the cravings that were supposed to produce the new body, his actions were no longer Karma, but only Kiriya, that led to no rebirth.4 Another point of Buddhist teaching adopted from previous belief was the practice of ecstatic meditation.
Another interesting collection is the Jataka book, a set of verses supposed to have been uttered by the Buddha in some of his previous births.
These are really 550 of the folk-tales current in India when the canon was being formed, the only thing Buddhist about them being that the Buddha, in a previous birth, is identified in each case with the hero in the little story.
The story begins with his previous births, in which also he was accumulating the Buddha qualities.
North-west of this another Asoka pillar has been discovered, recording his visit to the cairn erected by the Sakyas over the remains of Konagamana, one of the previous Buddhas or teachers, whose follower Gotama the Buddha had claimed to be.
He succeeded to the throne in 940, but had already played an active part in the previous reign, especially when he fought by the side of his half-brother in the great battle of Brunanburh.
Its summits were reached for the first time in 1880 by Edward Whymper, all previous attempts having failed.
A second campaign by the king in the autumn was defeated, like that of the previous year, through bad weather and the Fabian tactics of the Welsh.
Grounds for divorce are impotence of either party at time of marriage, previous marriage, adultery, wilful desertion for two years, habitual drunkenness, attempt on life, extreme and repeated cruelty, and conviction of felony or other infamous crime.
At Cambridge there is no intermediate examination between the " Previous Examination " (commonly called " Little-go "), which corresponds to Oxford " Responsions " or " Smalls " and the triposes and examinations for the " Poll " degree, which correspond to the Oxford final honours and pass examinations respectively.
A school desiring to be accredited is submitted to inspection without previous notice.
In caverns and superficial deposits of South America occur remains of extinct species more or less closely related to modern llamas; but previous to the Upper Pliocene the group is unknown in South America, which it reached from the north.
In 87 B.C. he was sent to Greece with a large army and fleet, and occupied the Peiraeus after three days' fighting with Bruttius Sura, prefect of Macedonia, who in the previous year had defeated Mithradates' fleet under Metrophanes and captured the island of Sciathus.