Pretoria Sentence Examples
Railway connexion with Pretoria was established in 1907.
In the negotiations for peace he was associated with Lord Kitchener, and the terms of surrender, signed at Pretoria on the 31st of May 1902, were drafted by him.
He left Pretoria on the 2nd of April and sailed for Europe on the following day.
In the Boer War of1899-1902Winburg was one of the Boer centres in the guerrilla fighting which followed the fall of Pretoria.
The line to Pretoria was not opened until July 1895.Advertisement
But the new administration at Pretoria inherited many disputes with the Zulus, disputes which were in large measure the cause of the war of 187 9.
For some years Natal had watched with anxiety the attitude of increasing hostility towards the British adopted by the Pretoria administration, and, with bitter remembrance of the events of 1881, gauged with accuracy the intentions of the Boers.
But at the close of 1906 the Cape ministry formally reopened the question of federation, and at a railway conference held in Pretoria in May 1908 the Natal delegates agreed to a motion affirming the desirability of the early union of the self-governing colonies.
The Pretoria Series, formerly known as the Gatsrand series, consists of repeated alternations of flagstones and quartzites, shales and sheets of diabase.
Near Pretoria duplications of the beds, due to overthrusting, are not uncommon.Advertisement
The Waterberg Series lies unconformably on the Pretoria series.
They occur to the northeast of Pretoria and occupy still wide areas in the Waterberg district.
Remnants have been found of their former existence in the neighbourhood of Pretoria; and portions of the Bushveld Sandstone have recently been relegated to the Karroo formation.
Many trees have been introduced and considerable plantations made, as for instance on the slopes between Johannesburg and Pretoria.
The Dutch, as their usual designation, Boers, implies, are mainly farmers and stock-raisers and are still predominant elsewhere than in the Witwatersrand and Pretoria districts.Advertisement
The British element is chiefly gathered in Johannesburg and other towns on the Rand and in Pretoria.
The total white population in the Witwatersrand and in Pretoria in 1904 was 135,135, and the strength of the British in these districts is shown by the fact that only 20% was Transvaal born.
They were nearly all domiciled in the Witwatersrand and in the towns of Pretoria and Barberton, where they are engaged mainly in trade.
The capital of the province, and of the Union is Pretoria, with a population (1904) of 36,83 9 (of whom 21,114 were whites).
Besides Pretoria and the towns in the Witwatersrand district, there are few urban centres of any size.Advertisement
Middelburg (5085) is the largest town on the railway between Pretoria and Delagoa Bay; Barberton (2433), the centre of the De Kaap gold-fields, lies on the slopes of the Drakensberg overlooking the De Kaap valley.
In 1890 the construction of the Transvaal section of the railway to connect Pretoria with Delagoa Bay was begun, the line from Lourenco Marques having been completed to Komati Poort in December 1887.
Meantime, in September 1892, the Cape railway system had been extended to Johannesburg and in December 1895 the through line between Durban and Pretoria was completed.
The chief diamond fields are in the Pretoria district.
Besides the Pretoria fields there are diamondiferous areas (alluvial diggings) in the Bloemhof district on the Vaal river north-east of Kimberley, and in other regions.Advertisement
Silver is found in many districts, and mines near Pretoria have yielded in one year ore worth £30,000.
The chief method employed for their destruction is spraying the swarms with arsenic. The districts with the greatest area under cultivation are Heidelberg, Witwatersrand, Pretoria, Standerton and Krugersdorp. The chief crops grown for grain are wheat, maize (mealie) and kaffir corn, but the harvest is inadequate to meet local demands.
Oranges are cultivated chiefly in the Rustenburg, Waterberg, Zoutpansberg and Pretoria districts, grapes in Potchefstroom, Pretoria and Marico, as well as in the Zoutpansberg and Waterberg, to which northern regions the cultivation of the banana is confined.
There is a provincial division of the Supreme Court of South Africa sitting at Pretoria (consisting of a judge president and six puisne justices) with original and appellate jurisdiction in civil and criminal matters.
Pretoria and Johannesburg have their own police forces.
There are University colleges at Pretoria and Johannesburg.
At the head of the community is the bishop of Pretoria.
A strong garrison of the British army is maintained in the province, the headquarters of all the imperial military forces in South Africa being at Pretoria.
Within the Transvaal the forces making for union gained strength notwithstanding these events, and by the year i 860 Zoutpansberg and Lydenburg had become incorporated with the republic. Pretoria, newly founded, and named in honour of the elder Pretorius, was made the seat of government and capital of the country.
Having driven Schoeman and his followers from Pretoria, Kruger invaded Potchefstroom, which, after a skirmish in which three men were killed and seven wounded, ' fell into his hands.
The award, admittedly just on the evidence before Keate, placed, however, outside the territory of the republic the Bloemhof district, in which district Boer farmers were settled, and over which the Pretoria government had for some years exercised jurisdiction.
Sir Theophilus went to Pretoria in January 1877, with an escort of twenty-five mounted police, and entered into conferences with the president and executive as to the state of the country.
He had gone to Pretoria hoping that the Transvaal volksraad would accept Carnarvon's federation scheme; but the federation proposals were rejected by the raad.
In April Frere visited Pretoria and conferred with the Boers.
After the " settlement " of the Zulu question, Sir Garnet Wolseley proceeded to Pretoria and immediately organized an expedition against Sikukuni, who throughout the Zulu campaign had been acting under the advice of Cetywayo.
Sir Garnet Wolseley now assured the Boers at a public gathering that so long as the sun shone the British flag would fly at Pretoria.
On the 20th of December some 240 men under Colonel Anstruther, chiefly belonging to the 94th Regiment, while marching from Lydenburg to Pretoria, were surprised at Bronkhorst Spruit, and cut up by the Boer forces.
Pretoria, Rustenberg, Lydenburg, and other smaller towns had been placed in a position of defence under the directions of Colonel Bellairs, who remained in command at Pretoria, the garrison consisting of a small number of troops and the loyal inhabitants.
The most important of these terms were that the Transvaal should have complete internal self-government under British suzerainty and that a British resident should be stationed at Pretoria.
In the meantime, while the British general was making a treaty under the instructions of British ministers on the frontier, the beleaguered garrisons of Pretoria, Potchefstroom, and other smaller towns were gallantly holding their own.
Pretoria through Boer sources, and when first received there was laughed at by the garrison and inhabitants as a Boer joke.
When the bitter truth was at length realized, the British flag was dragged through the dust of Pretoria streets by outraged Englishmen.
Presently there assembled in Pretoria a commission to elaborate the terms of peace.
Simultaneously with this " irresponsible " movement for expansion, President Kruger proceeded to London to interview Lord Derby and endeavour to induce him to dispense with the suzerainty, and to withdraw other clauses in the Pretoria Convention on foreign relations and natives, which were objectionable from the Boer point of view.
In this document a fresh set of articles was substituted for those of the Pretoria Convention of 1881.
The soundness of these views and the legitimacy of Uitlander aspirations were recognized by a few Boer officials at Pretoria.
This led to a protest, and eventually a visit to Pretoria, from Sir Henry Loch the high commissioner.
The German consul at Pretoria at this j uncture as a volatile, sanguine man, with visionary ideas of the important part Germany was to play in the future as the patron and ally of the South African Republic, and of the extent to which the Bismarckian policy might go in abetting an anti-British campaign.
The Delagoa Bay railway being at length completed to Pretoria and Johannesburg, Kruger determined to take steps to bring the Rand traffic over The Netherlands railway Drifts began by putting a prohibitive tariff on goods from the Vaal river.
The arsenal at Pretoria was to be seized; the Uitlanders in Johannesburg were to rise and hold the town.
The scheme to seize the Pretoria fort had to be abandoned, as at the time fixed Pretoria was thronged with Boers.
Jameson and his men were conveyed to Pretoria as prisoners, and subsequently handed over to the high commissioner (Sir Hercules Robinson, who had succeeded Sir Henry Loch in June 1895).
The whole of the reform committee (with the exception of a few who fled the country) were arrested on a charge of high treason and imprisoned in Pretoria.
Sir Hercules Robinson was unfortunately in feeble health at the time, and having reached Pretoria on the 4th of January, he had to conduct negotiations under great physical disadvantage.
He had no sooner learnt of the raid in Cape Town than he issued a proclamation through - Sir Jacobus de Wet, the British resident at Pretoria, burg.
In response to this appeal, Mr Chamberlain, in a despatch dated the 10th of May, proposed a conference at Pretoria.
Fortunately, although the draft of an ultimatum was lying in the state secretary's office in Pretoria, the Boers, unprepared in departmental arrangements which are necessary in large military operations, were unable to take the field with the promptitude that the situation demanded.
It is not too much to suppose that the executive in Pretoria had calculated that the occupation of Durban would inspire the entire Dutch nation with a spirit of unanimity which would eventually wrest South Africa' from the British.
But the departmental executive could not launch the Natal invading force as early as had been anticipated, and it was not until the 9th of October that the ultimatum was presented to Sir (then Mr) Conyngham Greene, the British agent at Pretoria.
The fifth, and last period - which, after all other expedients had failed, finally brought the residue of uncaptured and unsurrendered burghers to submission - was the final development of the blockhouse system, wedded to the institution of systematic. " driving " of given areas, which operations were in force until the 31st of May 1902, when peace was ratified at Pretoria.
The object of this action was to push back the Boers from the neighbourhood of Pretoria, but no sooner was this done than the ncrth-western Transvaal became active, in spite of Hunter's and Baden-Powell's advance from Mafeking through this district.
As the British line of operations now extended eastward from Pretoria, the advance of these Boers to the Magaliesberg threatened their rearward communications, and as Buller had moved far more slowly than the main army there was not as yet an alternative line through Natal.
Before this Lord Roberts had initiated a movement from Pretoria to sweep down to Komati Poort on the Portuguese frontier, in which Buller, advancing across country from the south, was to co-operate.
On the 25th of the month the ceremony of annexing the Transvaal was performed at Pretoria.
Desultory fighting continued till the close of the year, the balance of success being with the British, though on the 30th of October Botha, returning from the south-east towards Pretoria, defeated Colonel Benson's column at Bakenlaagte, Benson being killed.
The Boers were at last convinced of the futility of any attempt to prolong the struggle, and on the 23rd of March the representatives of the Boer governments came into Pretoria.
As a result of this conference articles of peace were signed at Pretoria on the 31st of May, and the South African war was a history of the past.
It was not, however, until March 1901 that Milner, who resigned his governorship of Cape Colony, arrived at Pretoria to inaugurate a civil administration.
At the time the articles of peace were signed at Pretoria, more than 17,000 Boer children were 1 Milner became at the same time administrator of Orange River Colony.
The work of repatriation and resettlement was carried out by commissioners acting in conjunction with a central advisory committee at Pretoria.
General Botha was defeated at Pretoria East by Sir Percy Fitzpatrick, and at Georgetown - a Rand constituency - Mr Hull was beaten by Sir George Farrar.
Praagh, The 1 The government expended over f r,000,000 on a land and agriculture bank and in 1910 made a grant of f roo,000 towards the establishment of a college of agriculture at Pretoria.
In the centre of this part of Pretoria is Church Square, so named from the Dutch Reformed Church which stood in it, but was demolished in 1905.
The water supply of Pretoria is drawn from the source of the Aapies River, where rise magnificent springs.
Thirty miles east by north of Pretoria is the Premier Diamond mine.
Pretoria was founded in 1855, the ground on which it stands being purchased by the Boer government from Marthinus Pretorius.
By treaty between the South African Republic (then comprising the districts of Potchefstroom, Rustenburg, Pretoria and Zoutpansberg) and the republic of Lydenburg, concluded at Pretoria in 1860, the two republics were united and Pretoria chosen as the capital of the whole state, and in September of that year the Volksraad held its first meeting in the new capital.
From that year the seat of government has always been at Pretoria.
In 1881 the convention restoring self-government to the Transvaal was signed at Pretoria.
To Pretoria Dr Jameson and his troopers were brought prisoners (January 1896) after the fight at Doornkop (to be handed over in few days to the British government), and thither also were brought the Reform Committee prisoners from Johannesburg.
On the 31st of May 1902 the articles of peace whereby the Boer leaders recognized British sovereignty were signed at Pretoria, and five years later there assembled in the capital the first parliament of the Transvaal as a self-governing state of the British Empire.
On the establishment of the Union of South Africa in 1910 Pretoria became its administrative capital, the seat of the legislature being however at Cape Town.
Pretoria is, by rail, 46 m.
North of Joubert's Park is the general hospital, and beyond, near the crest of the hills, commanding the town and the road to Pretoria, is a fort built by the Boer government and now used as a gaol.
C. Roberts-Austen introduced it at the London mint; and it has also been used at Pretoria.
In 1896 President Steyn visited Pretoria, where he received an ovation as the probable future president of the two Republics.
At the first of these conferences, held in Pretoria, the object of the Free State deputies were to arrange a general treaty of amity and commerce which would knit the states more closely together, and to come to some agreement with reference to the scheme for building a railway across the Free State from the Cape, to connect with a farther extension in the Transvaal to Pretoria.
The railway from Pretoria to Bloemfontein was to be proceeded with; neither party was to enter the Customs Union without the consent of the other.
The result of the whole conference was that Kruger returned to Pretoria completely baffled, and for a time the Free State was saved from being a party to the fatal policy into which others subsequently drew it.
In view of the dissolution of the intercolonial council a convention was signed at Pretoria on the 29th of May which made provision for the division of the common property, rights and liabilities of the Orange Colony and the Transvaal in respect to the railways and constabulary, and established for four years a joint board to continue the administration of the railway systems of the two colonies.
The colony took part during this month in an inter-state conference which met at Pretoria and Cape Town, and determined to renew the existing, customs convention and to make no alteration in railway rates.
Then Prince Christian Victor, the queen's grandson, fell a victim to enteric fever at Pretoria; and during the autumn it came to be known that the empress Frederick, the queen's eldest daughter, was very seriously ill.
The Transvaal Zoological Gardens at Pretoria are a government institution, and are associated with the Museum.
On the withdrawal of the police, southern Bechuanaland fell into a state of anarchy, nor did the fixing (on paper) of the frontier between it and the Transvaal by the Pretoria convention of August 1881 have any beneficial effect.
This agreement, arrived at without any reference to the British government, was a breach of the Pretoria convention, and led to an intimation on the part of Great Britain that she could not recognize the new republics.
His capacity was again demonstrated in the action of Belfast-Dalmanutha (August 23-28, 1900), and after the fall of Pretoria he reorganized the Boer resistance with a view to prolonged guerrilla warfare.
The station, formerly called Elandsfontein Junction,, is the meeting-point of lines from the ports of the Cape and Natal, and from Johannesburg, Pretoria and Delagoa Bay.
After the occupation of Pretoria in June 1900 by Lord Roberts the Boer forces had been reduced to guerilla warfare, and Lord Kitchener, learning that the Transvaal commandants were despondent, invited General Botha to enter into negotiations, on the basis of the recognition of British sovereignty.
In 1880 the Boer rebellion occurred, and Kruger was one of the famous triumvirate, of which General Piet Joubert and Pretorius were the other members, who, after Majuba, negotiated the terms of peace on which the Pretoria convention of August 1881 was drafted.
In 1900, Bloemfontein and Pretoria having been occupied by British troops, Kruger, too old to go on commando, with the consent of his executive proceeded to Europe, where he endeavoured to induce the European powers to intervene on his behalf, but without success.
He was buried at Pretoria on the following 16th of December, Dingaan's Day, the anniversary of the day in 1838 when the Boers crushed the Zulu king Dingaan - a fight in which Kruger, then a lad of thirteen, had taken part.
When he went to Europe he left his third wife in Lord Roberts's custody at Pretoria, but she gradually failed, and died there (July 1901).
It is recorded that when a statue to President Kruger at Pretoria was erected, it was by Mrs. Kruger's wish that the hat was left open at the top, in order that the rain-water might collect there for the birds to drink.
And on the 1st of September 1900 Lord Roberts proclaimed at Pretoria the annexation of the territories of the Transvaal republic to the British dominions.
While in England the generals sought, unavailingly, a modification of the terms of peace concluded at Pretoria.
The diamondiferous areas at Kimberley and in the Pretoria district are likewise the richest known.
The chief cities are Cape Town (pop. 1904, 77, 66 8), Port Elizabeth (32,959), East London (25,220) and Kimberley (34331) in the Cape province; Durban (67,847) in Natal; Johannesburg (155,642) and Pretoria (36,839) in the Transvaal; and Bloemfontein (33,883) in the Orange Free State.
From the seaports of Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, East London, Durban, Lourenco Marques and Beira railway lines run to Kimberley, Bloemfontein, Johannesburg and Pretoria, while a trunk line extends north from Kimberley through Rhodesia (in which gold mining began on an extensive scale in 1898) and across the Zambezi below the Victoria Falls into the Congo basin, where it serves the Katanga mineral area.
The Boer governments had done little to promote irrigation, but during1905-1907a strong intercolonial commission investigated the subject as it affected the Transvaal and Orange Free State, and their final report, issued at Pretoria in 1908, contains full particulars as to the irrigation possibilities in those provinces.
It is divided into the dioceses of Cape Town, Graham's Town, Maritzburg (Natal), Kaffraria, Bloemfontein, Pretoria, Zululand, Mashonaland and Lebombo.
Froude landed at Cape Town on the 21st of September 1874, and having visited Natal, the Free State and Pretoria as well as Cape Colony, sailed for England on the 10th of January 1875.
Shepstone preceded him, and in January 1877 had gone to Pretoria.
The terms agreed upon were elaborated in a convention signed at Pretoria in August following.
The Boers respected neither the frontier laid down by the Pretoria convention nor that (modified in their favour) drawn in the London convention.
For three years petitions and deputations, public meetings and newspaper articles, the efforts of the enlightened South African party at Johannesburg and Pretoria, were all addressed to the endeavour to induce President Kruger and his government to give some measure of recognition to the steadily increasing Uitlander population.
The gold mining industry was fostered only so far as it served to provide revenue for the state, and large sums from that revenue were used in fortifying Pretoria and in the purchase of arms and ammunition.
Messrs Hofmeyr and Herholdt, the one the leader of the Bond and the other the Cape minister of agriculture, visited Pretoria to reason with Kruger.
At the time which from a military standpoint they thought most opportune (October 9) an ultimatum was handed to the British agent at Pretoria, and a war was at once precipitated, which was not to close for over two and a half years.
At last the Boer commandos gave up the struggle and on the 31st of May 1902 their leaders signed articles of peace at Pretoria.
The measure, known as the South Africa Act 1909 received the Royal Assent on the 10th of September, and subsequently the 31st of May 1910 - the eighth anniversary of the signing of the articles of peace at Pretoria - was fixed as the date for the formal establishment of the Union.
The polls were remarkable for the defeat of three ministers - General Botha (by Sir Percy Fitzpatrick) at Pretoria East, Mr Hull (by Sir George Farrar) on the Rand, and Mr Moor in Natal.
The word suzerain is used in the Pretoria convention of the 3rd of August 1881 between the British government and the late South African Republic. The convention (by its preamble) granted to the inhabitants complete self-government, " subject to the suzerainty of her Majesty," and this suzerainty was reaffirmed in the articles.
The opening of the railway to Pretoria in 1906 led to a marked development of trade.
But that subterranean method of Dutch policy which found its strongest expression in Pretoria, and which operated from Pretoria to Cape Town, could not but be resented by loyal colonists.
In 1891 the Free State railway was still farther extended to Viljoen's Drift on the Vaal river, and in 1892 it reached Pretoria and Johannesburg.
The Cape government, for the purposes of carrying the railway from the Vaal river to Johannesburg, had advanced the sum of f600,000 to the Netherlands railway and the Transvaal government conjointly; at the same time it was stipulated that the Cape government should have the right to fix the traffic rate until the end of 1894, or until such time as the Delagoa Bay - Pretoria line was completed.
Early in June, however, the Cape Dutch politicians began to realize that President Kruger's attitude was not so reasonable as they had endeavoured to persuade themselves, and Mr Hofmeyr, accompanied by Mr Herholdt, the Cape minister of agriculture, visited Pretoria.
On the retrocession of the Transvaal in 1881 the independence of the Swazis was recognized by the Boers and the Pretoria convention of that year defined the boundaries of the country.
It is the lowest part of a ridge which slopes from Majuba to the Buffalo river, and before the opening of the railway in 1891 the road over the nek was the main artery of communication between Durban and Pretoria.
Before being appointed as academic dean he spent twenty six years in the Department of Psychology at the University of Pretoria.
Ethiopia Before leaving, I obtained a single-entry visa from the Ethiopian Embassy in Pretoria.
He also realized - as was shown by the triumphant re-election of Mr Kruger to the presidency of the Transvaal in February 1898 - that the Pretoria government would never on its own initiative redress the grievances of the "Uitlanders."
In a speech delivered at Graaf Reinet, a Bond stronghold, on the 3rd of March 1898, he made it clear that he was determined to secure freedom and equality for the British subjects in the Transvaal, and he urged the Dutch colonists to induce the Pretoria government to assimilate its institutions, and the temper and spirit of its administration, to those of the free communities of South Africa.
The preamble to the Pretoria Convention of 1881 contained in brief but explicit terms the grant of Conve self-government to the Boers, subject to British suzerainty.
He would not formally abolish the suzerainty, but he was willing not to mention it; and though, in substituting new articles for those of the Pretoria Convention he left the preamble untouched, he avoided anything which could commit the Boer delegates to a formal recognition of that fact.
At a banquet given in honour of the German emperor's birthday in Pretoria in January 1895, Kruger referred in glowing terms to the friendship of Germany for the Transvaal, which in the future was to be more firmly established than ever.
While in Pretoria the high commissioner in the first instance addressed himself to inducing Johannesburg to lay down its arms. He telegraphed to the reform committee that Kruger had insisted " that Johannesburg must lay down arms unconditionally as a precedent to any discussions and consideration of grievances."
Pretoria is situated on the banken veld or northern slopes of the high veld, on both banks of the Aapies tributary of the Limpopo, and is 4470 ft.
Pretoria is the staid, conservative capital, with wide streets lined with jacaranda trees that bloom purple in spring.