Pressure sentence example

pressure
  • Let me put pressure on it.
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  • She felt the pressure of a cup against her lips.
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  • They'll keep the pressure on the authorities when any of these cases get out of the public eye.
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  • The closer they drew, the more intense the pressure, and the more unstable they became.
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  • He put pressure on his injured leg with a grimace but gestured towards the unconscious soldier hanging between two others.
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  • The president abominated the idea of having more power in his hands because of the pressure it would bring.
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  • The water was hot and the water pressure brutal.
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  • If the pressure alters as the water tank empties, a discontinuity occurs in the trace when the tank is refilled, and a fictitious element may be introduced into the diurnal variation.
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  • When a water jet serves as collector, the pressure under which it issues should be practically constant.
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  • The results obtained as to the relation between dissipation and barometric pressure are conflicting.
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  • She didn't want to talk to Evelyn and lay down soon after the feeling of the craft ascending-- similar to the pressure felt in a plane-- stopped.
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  • There would be no pressure on Kiera, and Evelyn would be there to support her.
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  • She squeezed both his hands, and felt pressure from his.
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  • He also found a± on the average about Io% larger when pressure was falling than when it was rising.
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  • The conductivity, which varies as the product of n into the mobility, will thus vary inversely as the pressure, and so at 36 kilometres will be one hundred times as large as close to the ground.
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  • He felt the pressure of the underground again, as if the world was closing in on him.
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  • The prevailing winds in this region, which the sea traverses longitudinally, are westerly, but the sea itself causes the formation of bands of low barometric pressure during the winter season, within which cyclonic disturbances frequently develop, while in summer the region comes under the influence of the polar margin of the tropical high pressure belt.
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  • Near the end of her patience trapped in the tiny box of a spacecraft, she shot up when she felt the familiar pressure of them descending.
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  • For decades, teams of three hardy fools had tried to knock each other senseless with high pressure fire hoses, while the spectators tried to escape the cross fire.
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  • If pressure was applied to Daniel Brennan, it was never passed on to us.
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  • Considerations such as these could not be expected to appeal to the nation at large, which hailed the advent of the Left as the dawn of an era of unlimited popular sovereignty, diminished administrative pressure, reduction of taxation and general prosperity.
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  • The scandal and the pressure of foreign Catholic opinion compelled Depretis to pursue a more energetic policy, and to publish a formal declaration of the intangibility of the Law of Guarantees.
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  • This pressure leads to the filling of the vessels of the wood of both root and stem in the early part of the year, before the leaves have expanded, and gives rise to the exudation of fluid known as bleeding when young stems are cut in early spring.
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  • "Let's just say betrayal is his pressure point," Jule said.
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  • At barometric pressures such as exist between 18 and 36 kilometres above the ground the mobility of the ions varies inversely as the pressure, whilst the coefficient of recombination a varies approximately as the pressure.
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  • Thus if the instrument depends on the pressure or suction effect alone, and this pressure or suction is measured against the air pressure in an ordinary room, in which the doors and windows are carefully closed and a newspaper is then burnt up the chimney, an effect may be produced equal to a wind of io m.
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  • The connexion between the velocity and the pressure of the wind is one that is not yet known with absolute certainty.
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  • It is probable that the wind pressure is not strictly proportional to the extent of the surface exposed.
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  • The visit was marked by the greatest cordiality, Count Robilants fears of inopportune pressure with regard to Irredentism proving groundless.
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  • There is set up at once a certain hydrostatic pressure, due to the turgidity which ensues upon such absorption, and the extensible cell wall stretches, at first in all directions.
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  • The stretching of the cell wall by the hydrostatic pressure is fixed by a secretion of new particles and their deposition upon the original wall, which as it becomes slightly thicker is capable of still greater extension, much in the same way as a thick band of indiarubber is capable of undergoing greater stretching than a thin one.
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  • This may possibly be the cell sap in their interior, which must exercise a slightly different hydrostatic pressure on the basal and, the lateral walls of the cells.
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  • He energetically pressed the Panama prosecution, so much so that he was accused of having put wrongful pressure on the wife of one of the defendants in order to procure evidence.
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  • Much more important is the effect of the alteration in the amount of crystalloids in the tissues and blood and therefore of the alteration in the osmotic pressure between these.
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  • The pressure of the nomads of the steppe, the quest of plunder or revenge, these seem the only motives of these early expeditions; but in the long struggle between the Roman and Persian empires, of which Armenia was often the battlefield, and eventually the prize, the attitude of the Khazars assumed political importance.
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  • Compound working permits of a greater range of expansion than is possible with a simple engine, and incidentally there is less range of pressure per cylinder, so that the pressures and temperatures per cylinder have not such a wide range of variation.
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  • Generally steam from the boiler is admitted direct to the low-pressure cylinder through a reducing valve, and valves and devices are used to prevent the steam so admitted acting as a back pressure on the high-pressure cylinder.
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  • A controlling valve enables the supply of steam to the low-pressure cylinders to be supplemented by boiler steam at a reduced pressure.
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  • There is a general increase in cylinder power, boiler pressure and weight, and in consequence in the number of coupled axles.
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  • The former is often a rich oil-gas, stored in steel reservoirs under the coaches at a pressure of six or seven atmospheres, and passed through a reducing valve to the burners; these used to be of the ordinary fish-tail type, but inverted incandescent mantles are coming into increasing use.
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  • Finally he was taken in procession, stupefied or otherwise rendered incapable of resistance, and put to death by strangulation or pressure.
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  • " quicksand," loose water-logged sand, readily yielding to weight or pressure, and "quicksilver," the common name of the metal mercury.
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  • In April 1793 he unexpectedly received tidings of the death of Lady Sheffield; and the motive of friendship thus supplied combined with the pressure of public events to urge him homewards.
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  • (3) The effect of change of volume against external pressure (due to production or consumption of mechanical energy) may be neglected in the case of solids, liquids or solutions, but must usually be taken into account when gases are dealt with.
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  • In the newer type (which was first proposed by Andrews for the combustion of gases) the chemical action takes place in a completely closed combustion chamber of sufficient strength to resist the pressure generated by the sudden action, which is often of explosive violence.
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  • Semitic tribes wandered northwards from their home in Arabia to seek sustenance in its more fertile fields, to plunder, or to escape the pressure of tribes in the rear.
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  • The great summer heat, by expanding the air upwards, disturbs the level of the planes of equal pressure, and causes an outflow of the upper strata from the heated area.
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  • The necessary and immediate results of such periodical changes of pressure are winds, which, speaking generally, blow from the area of greatest to that of least pressure - subject, however, to certain modifications of direction, arising from the absolute motion of the whole body of the air due to the revolution of the earth on its axis from west to east.
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  • The south-westerly winds which prevail north of the equator during the hot half of the year, to which navigators have given the name of the south-west monsoon (the latter word being a corruption of the Indian name for season), arise from the great diminution of atmospheric pressure over Asia, which begins to be strongly marked with the great rise of temperature in April and May, and the simultaneous relatively higher pressure over the equator and the regions south of it.
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  • This diminution of pressure, which continues as the heat increases till it reaches its maximum in July soon after the solstice, is followed by the corresponding development of the south-west monsoon; and as the barometric pressure is gradually restored, and becomes equalized within the tropics soon after the equinox in October, with the general fall of temperature north of the equator, the south-west winds fall off, and are succeeded by a north-east monsoon, which is developed during the winter months by the relatively greater atmospheric pressure which then occurs over Asia, as compared with the equatorial region.
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  • The current of air flowing in from over the sea is gradually diverted towards the area of least pressure, and at the same time is dissipated and loses much of its original force.
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  • Vezhdovsky has lately seen reasons for regarding the blood system as originating entirely from the hypoblast by the secretion of fluid, the blood, from particular intestinal cells and the consequent formation of spaces through pressure, which become lined with these cells.
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  • The simplest modes of preparing pure glycerin are based on the saponification of fats, either by alkalis or by superheated steam, and on the circumstance that, although glycerin cannot be distilled by itself under the ordinary pressure without decomposition, it can be readily volatilized in a current of superheated steam.
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  • The most important subjects of his inquiries are enumerated by Forbes under the following five heads: - (1) The laws of polarization by reflection and refraction, and other quantitative laws of phenomena; (2) The discovery of the polarizing structure induced by heat and pressure; (3) The discovery of crystals with two axes of double refraction, and many of the laws of their phenomena, including the connexion of optical structure and crystalline forms; (4) The laws of metallic reflection; (5) Experiments on the absorption of light.
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  • Then followed many months of unintermittent pressure upon both Petersburg and Richmond.
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  • As regards the pressure of foreign competition, it was stated to be greatly in excess of the anticipations of the supporters, and of the apprehensions of the opponents of the repeal of the Corn Laws.
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  • Lankester in the ninth edition of this work attributed it to the pressure of the shell and visceral hump towards the right side.
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  • As in all such introand e-versible organs, eversion of the Gastropod proboscis is effected by pressure communicated by the muscular body-wall to the liquid contents (blood) of the body-space, accompanied by the relaxation of the muscles which directly pull upon either the sides or the apex of the tubular organ.
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  • - Embryo of Limnaeus stagnalis, at a stage when the Trochosphere is developing foot and shell-gland and becoming a Veliger, seen as a transparent object under slight pressure.
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  • Here again the Tribunate offered a vehement opposition to the measure, and in spite of official pressure passed the bill only by a majority of eight.
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  • Moreau's trial for treason promised to end with an acquittal; but the emperor brought severe pressure to bear on the judges (one of whom he dismissed), with the result that the general was declared guilty of participating in the royalist plot.
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  • To continue the strife when Wellington was firmly established on the line of the Garonne, and Lyons and Bordeaux had hoisted the Bourbonfleur de lys, was seen by all but Napoleon to be sheer madness; but it needed the pressure of his marshals in painful interviews at Fontainebleau to bring him to reason.
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  • On the 10th he bade farewell to his guard and set forth from Fontainebleau for Elba, which the powers had very reluctantly, and owing to the pressure of the tsar, awarded to him as a possession.
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  • These changes are regarded as having been produced by the operation of heat, pressure and folding.
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  • It is to be supposed that Richard de Bury sometimes brought undue pressure to bear on the owners, for it is recorded that an abbot of St Albans bribed him to secure his influence for the house by four valuable books, and that de Bury, who procured certain coveted privileges for the monastery, bought from him thirty-two other books, for fifty pieces of silver, far less than their normal price.
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  • We are therefore entitled to assume that the suppressed wings of Exopterygota tend to reappear; and, speaking of the past, we may say that if after a period of suppression the wings began to reappear as hypodermal buds while a more rigid pressure was exerted by the cuticle, the growth of the buds would necessarily be inwards, and we should have incipient endopterygotism.
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  • The change that is required to transform Exopterygota into Endopterygota is merely that a cell of hypodeimis should proliferate inwards instead of outwards, or that a minute hypodermal evaginated bud should be forced to the interior of the body by the pressure of a contracted cuticle.
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  • Twinning is represented only by twinlamellae, which are parallel to the planes m and f and are of secondary origin, having been produced by pressure.
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  • The external menace to their independence had welded together the place and the people; the same pressure had brought about the fusion of the conflicting parties in the lagoon townships into one homogeneous whole.
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  • The "spot" market might be judged generally as too high, in view of crops and the probable normal demand of the year, but it might not therefore drop immediately, owing partly to the pressure of demand that must be satisfied instantaneously.
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  • In this matter, as in others, he proved his ability at this early stage to resist political pressure.
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  • Oil and gas are often met with in drilled wells under great pressure, which is highest as a rule in the deepest wells.
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  • The closed pressure in the Trenton limestone in Ohio and Indiana is about 200-300 lb.
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  • The gas wells of Pennsylvania indicate about double the pressure of those drilled in the Trenton limestone, 600-800 lb.
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  • The extremely high pressure under which oil is met with in wells drilled in some parts of the Russian oil fields is a matter of common knowledge, and a fountain or spouting well resulting therefrom is one of the " sights" of the country.
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  • Three theories have been propounded to account for this pressure: 1.
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  • Similarly there is a difference of opinion as to the conditions under which the organisms have been mineralized, some holding that the process has taken place at a high temperature and under great pressure; but the lack of practical evidence in nature in support of these views has led many to conclude that petroleum, like coal, has been formed at moderate temperatures, and under pressures varying with the depth of the containing rocks.
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  • This view is supported by the fact that petroleum is found on the Sardinian and Swedish coasts as a product of the decomposition of seaweed, heated only by the sun, and under atmospheric pressure.
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  • Consideration of the evidence leads us to the conclusion that, at least in commercially valuable deposits, mineral oil has generally been formed by the decomposition of marine organisms, in some cases animal, in others vegetable, in others both, under practically normal conditions of temperature and pressure.
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  • The principle of this system consists essentially in the use of rotating hollow drilling rods or casing, to which is attached the drilling-bit and through which a continuous stream of water, under a pressure of 40 to loo lb.
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  • A flow of oil may often be induced in a well which would otherwise require to be pumped, by preventing the escape of gas which issues with the oil, and causing its pressure to raise the oil.
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  • The improvements introduced in 1890 and 1891, whereby this state of affairs was put an end to, consisted in the introduction of the principle of supply by meter, and the adoption of a comprehensive system of reducing the initial pressure of the gas, so as to diminish loss by leakage.
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  • For the latter purpose, Westinghouse gas-regulators are employed, the positions of the regulators being so chosen as to equalize the pressure throughout the service.
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  • The initial pressure is sometimes as high as 400 lb to the sq.
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  • This may be brought about by a distillation under pressure, or by allowing the condensed distillate to fall into the highly heated residue in the still.
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  • In this patent, the distillation is described as being conducted in a vessel having a loaded valve or a partially closed stop-cock, through which the confined vapour escapes under any desired pressure.
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  • An objectionable feature of the system of allowing the vapour to escape from the still to the condenser through a loaded valve, viz: the irregularity of the distillation, is thus removed, and the benefits of regular vaporization and condensation under high pressure are obtained.
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  • The steam is superheated and may thus be heated to any desired temperature without increase of pressure, which would be liable to damage the still.
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  • The process of distillation of lubricating oils under reduced atmospheric pressure is now in very general use, especially for obtaining the heavier products.
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  • It has been found that variations in barometric pressure affect the flash-point and accordingly corrections have to be made in obtaining strictly comparative results at different pressures.
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  • From this point of view, the Crusades appear as a reaction of the West against the pressure of the East - a reaction which carried the West into the East, and founded a Latin and Christian kingdom on the shores of Asia.
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  • Under the pressure of this strain "spiritualistic" phenomena began to appear.
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  • The constant pressure of Tancred of Antioch and Baldwin de Burgh of Edessa led to a series of retaliations between 11 io and 1115; Edessa was attacked in 1110, 1111, 1112 and 1114; and in 1113 Maudud of Mosul had even penetrated as far as the vicinity of Acre and Jerusalem.
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  • The Tell el-Amarna Letters (15th century B.C.) show Syria held in part by Egyptian viceroys, who are much preoccupied with southward movements in the Buka'a and the rest of the interior beyond their control, due to pressure of Amorite peoples, and of the Mitanni and the Kheta, whose non-Semitic blood was mingled with that of the Aramaeans even in Palestine.
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  • Autoclaves, in which the materials are boiled under pressure, are also employed for certain soaps.
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  • The finer soaps are perfumed by the cold method; the soap is shaved down to thin slices, and the essential oil kneaded into and mixed with it by special machinery, after which it is formed into cakes by pressure in suitable moulds.
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  • Its critical temperature is 2 77.7° C., and its critical pressure is 78.1 atmos.
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  • Some of the rock chambers originally intended for tombs were afterwards converted, perhaps under pressure of necessity, into habitations, as in the case of the so-called " Prison of Socrates," which consists of three chambers horizontally excavated and a small round apartment of the " beehive " type.
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  • Thus, the equation 2112+02 =2H20 not only represents that certain definite weights of hydrogen and oxygen furnish a certain definite weight of the compound which we term water, but that if the water in the state of gas, the hydrogen and the oxygen are all measured at the same temperature and pressure, the volume occupied by the oxygen is only half that occupied by the hydrogen, whilst the resulting water-gas will only occupy the same volume as the hydrogen.
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  • In this formula, the so-called " centric formula," the assumption made is that the fourth valencies are simply directed towards the centre of the ring; nothing further is said about the fourth valencies except that they exert a pressure towards the centre.
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  • According to the law of Avogadro, equal volumes of different gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules; therefore, since the density depends upon the number of molecules present in unit volume, it follows that for a comparison of the densities of gases, the determinations must be made under coincident conditions, or the observations reduced or re-computed for coincident conditions.
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  • If we denote the critical volume, pressure and temperature by Vk, Pk and Tk, then it may be shown, either by considering the characteristic equation as a perfect cube in v or by using the relations that dp/dv=o, d 2 p/dv 2 =o at the critical point, that Vk = 3b, Pk= a/27b2, T ic = 8a/27b.
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  • Kopp, begun in 1842, on the molecular volumes, the volume occupied by one gramme molecular weight of a substance, of liquids measured at their boiling-point under atmospheric pressure, brought to light a series of additive relations which, in the case of carbon compounds, render it possible to predict, in some measure, the cornposition of the substance.
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  • Theoretical considerations as to how far Kopp was justified in choosing the boiling-points under atmospheric pressure as being comparable states for different substances now claim our attention.
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  • If we express the pressure, volume and temperature as fractions of the critical constants, then, calling these fractions the " reduced " pressure, volume and temperature, and denoting them by 7r, 0 and 0 respectively, the characteristic equation becomes (7+3/0 2)(30-i) =80; which has the same form for all substances.
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  • In the article Thermodynamics it is shown that the amount of heat required to raise a given weight of a gas through a certain range of temperature is different according as the gas is maintained at constant pressure, the volume in creasing, or at constant volume, the pressure increasing.
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  • 6 1.86 3.01 o 88 1.03 Since at the boiling-point under atmospheric pressure liquids are in corresponding states, the additive nature of the critical coefficient should also be presented by boiling-points.
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  • Laplace is due the theoretical proof that this function is independent of temperature and pressure, and apparent experimental confirmation was provided by Biot and Arago's, and by Dulong's observations on gases and vapours.
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  • Since a/d is the real specific volume of the molecule, it is therefore a constant; hence (N2-I)/(N2+2)d is also a constant and is independent of all changes of temperature, pressure, and of the state of aggregation.
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  • In general, polysymmetric and polymorphous modifications suffer transformation when submitted to variations in either temperature or pressure, or both.
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  • At the same time there may be conditions of temperature and pressure at which polymorphs may exist side by side.
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  • From Reicher's determinations, the exact transition point is 95.6°; it rises with increasing pressure about 0.05° for one atmosphere; the density of the rhombic form is greater than that of the monoclinic. The equilibria of these modifications may be readily represented on a pressure-temperature diagram.
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  • We have already seen that temperature and pressure exercise considerable influence in this direction.
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  • Musical public opinion now puts an extraordinary pressure on the young composer, urging him at all costs to abandon " outof-date " styles however stimulating they may be to his invention.
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  • A portion of the body may die in consequence of the disturbance of its nutrition by inflammation, or of a cutting off of the bloodsupply, as by pressure upon, or injury to, the blood-vessels.
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  • He wrote his lectures at high pressure, and devoted much time to the editing and publication of the numerous poems which he had written at various times during his life.
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  • The chief points to be attended to are to have a plentiful supply of botanical drying paper, so as to be able to use about six sheets for each specimen; to change the paper at intervals of six to twelve hours; to avoid contact of one leaf or flower with another; and to increase the pressure applied only in proportion to the dryness of the specimen.
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  • A flat sheet of lead or some other suitable weight should be laid upon the top of the pile of specimens, so as to keep up a continuous pressure.
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  • When, as with some plants like Verbascum, the thick hard stems are liable to cause the leaves to wrinkle in drying by removing the pressure from them, small pieces of bibulous paper or cotton wool may be placed upon the leaves near their point of attachment to the stem.
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  • When a number of specimens have to be submitted to pressure, ventilation is secured by means of frames corresponding in size to the drying paper, and composed of strips of wood or wires.
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  • A light but strong portfolio, to which pressure by means of straps can be applied, and a few quires of this paper, if the paper be changed night and morning, will be usually sufficient to dry all except very succulent plants.
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  • Another sheet of blottingpaper is then laid over it; and, a number of similar specimens being formed into a pile, the whole is submitted to pressure, the paper being changed every hour or two at first.
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  • The pressure is increased, and the papers are changed less frequently as the specimens become dry, which usually takes place in thirty-six hours.
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  • Some species, especially those of a thick or leathery texture, contract so much in drying that without strong pressure the edges of the paper become puckered.
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  • Other species of a gelatinous nature, like Nemalion and Dudresnaya, may be allowed to dry on the paper, and need not be submitted to pressure until they no longer present a gelatinous appearance.
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  • Specimens on the bark of trees require pressure until the bark is dry, lest they become curled; and those growing on sand or friable soil, such as Coniocybefurfuracea, should be laid carefully on a layer of gum in the box in which they are intended to be kept.
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  • Scale-mosses are mounted in the same way, or may be floated out in water like sea-weeds, and dried in white blotting paper under strong pressure before gumming on paper, but are best mounted as microscopic slides, care being taken to show the stipules.
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  • The sulphur is dissolved by superheated water forced down pipes, and the water with sulphur in solution is forced upward by hot air pressure through other pipes; the sulphur comes, 99% pure, to the surface of the ground, where it is cooled in immense bins, and then broken up and loaded directly upon cars for shipment.
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  • The lady was imprisoned in her own room, and soon, apparently under the influence of very questionable pressure, renounced Lassalle in favour of another admirer, a Wallachian, Count von Racowitza.
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  • The process was developed by Madame Lefebre in 1859; by Meissner in 1863, who found that moist gases gave a better result; and by Prim in 1882, who sparked the gases under pressure; it was also used by Lord Rayleigh in his isolation of argon.
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  • The conversion of nitrogen into ammonia by electricity has received much attention, but the commercial aspect appears to have been first worked out by de Hemptinne in 1900, who used both the spark and silent discharge on mixtures of hydrogen and nitrogen, and found that the pressure and temperature must be kept low and the spark gap narrow.
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  • Nitrogen has been liquefied, the critical temperature being -149° C. and the critical pressure 27.54 atmospheres.
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  • Pressure from Hungary and Byzantium gradually welded these isolated social units into a single nation, whose ruler was known as the Ban.
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  • He was compelled to recant, under strong pressure from Pope Innocent III.
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  • The theoretical absolutism of the sultan had, indeed, always been tempered not only by traditional usage, local privilege, the juridical and spiritual precepts of the Koran and the Sunnet, and their 'Ulema interpreters, and the privy council, but for nearly a century by the direct or indirect pressure of the European powers, and during the reigns of Abd-ul-Aziz and of Abd-ul-Hamid by the growing force of public opinion.
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  • The tithes were originally based on one-tenth of the agricultural produce of the country, but this proportion was gradually raised under the euphemistic pretence of " public instruction," but really, under financial pressure, to 12% and again in 1900 for military " equipments " (Tejhizat-i-'Askeriyeh) by a further 2% to 122%.
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  • In that year a horde, variously estimated at from two to four thousand souls, with their flocks and their slaves, driven originally from their Central Asian homes by the pressure of Mongol invasion, and who had sought in vain a refuge with the Seljukian sultan Ala-ud-din Kaikobad of Konia, were returning under their chief Suleiman Shah to their native land.
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  • Then, the Russian and French squadrons having joined, it was determined to put further pressure on the Egyptian commander, and the allied fleets, on the morning of the 10th of October, stood into the bay of Navarino.
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  • This concession, given under strong pressure from Russia, aroused the deepest resentment of the Greeks, and was the principal factor in the awakening of the Bulgarian national spirit which subsequent events have done so much to develop. Russian influence at Constantinople had been gradually increasing, and towards the end of 1870 the tsar took advantage of the temporary disabling of France to declare himself no longer bound by those clauses of the Treaty of Paris which restricted Russia's liberty of possessing warships on the Black Sea.
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  • A commission composed of British, French and Russian officials held an inquiry into the events which had occurred, and early in 1895 England, France and Russia entered actively into negotiations with a view to the institution of reforms. The scheme propounded by the three powers encountered great objections from the Porte, but under pressure was accepted in October 1895.
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  • With the connivance of the duke of Austria he fled, first to Schaffhausen, then to Laufenburg, Freiburg, and finally to Breisach, in the hope of escaping in Burgundian territory the pressure exerted upon him by the emperor and the fathers of the council.
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  • He had also created in1811-1812a new National Guard, organized in " cohorts " to distinguish it from the regular army, and for home defence only, and these by a skilful appeal to their patriotism and judicious pressure applied through the prefects, became a useful reservoir of half-trained men for new battalions of the active army.
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  • The ice-cap of Greenland must to some extent be considered as a viscous mass, which, by the vertical pressure in its interior, is pressed outwards and slowly flows towards the coasts, just as a mass of pitch placed on a table and left to itself will in the course of time flow outwards towards all sides.
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  • He had in 1854 been appointed secretary to the prison board, an office which gave him entire pecuniary independence, and the duties of which he discharged most assiduously, notwithstanding his literary pursuits and the pressure of another important task assigned to him after the completion of his history, the editorship of the National Scottish Registers.
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  • The heating of the latter causes great differences of pressure, which in turn set up changes of atmospheric circulation.
    0
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  • Differences of temperature and atmospheric pressure must disturb this equilibrium, but the movements of both ocean and atmosphere lead to a high degree of uniformity in both envelopes as regards their gaseous constitutions.
    0
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  • Therefore a reduction in the partial pressure of the gas in the atmosphere, or a rise in the temperature of the water, or a violent agitation of the sea itself, will lead to precipitation of calcium carbonate.
    0
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  • Still, the necessary freedom was supposed to be secured by interchanges which the solvent can pass but the solution cannot, the solvent will enter till a certain equilibrium pressure is reached.
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  • Van Hoff pointed out that measurements of osmotic pressure confirmed this value in the case of dilute solutions of cane sugar.
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  • Thermodynamic theory also indicates a connexion between the osmotic pressure of a solution and the depression of its freezing point and its vapour pressure compared with those of the pure solvent.
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  • Arrhenius pointed out that these exceptions would be brought into line if the ions of electrolytes were imagined to be separate entities each capable of producing its own pressure effects just as would an ordinary dissolved molecule.
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  • Thus the osmotic pressure, or the depression of the freezing point of a solution of potassium chloride should, at extreme dilution, be twice the normal value, but of a solution of sulphuric acid three times that value, since the potassium salt contains two ions and the acid three.
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  • It' would be possible for a body in solution to be dissociated into non-electrical parts, which would give osmotic pressure effects twice or three times the normal value, but, being uncharged, would not act as ions and impart electrical conductivity to the solution.
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  • The dissociation theory was originally suggested by the osmotic pressure relations.
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  • We can calculate the heat of formation from its ions for any substance dissolved in a given liquid, from a knowledge of the temperature coefficient of ionization, by means of an application of the well-known thermodynamical process, which also gives the latent heat of evaporation of a liquid when the temperature coefficient of its vapour pressure is known.
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  • The result of the investigation shows that the electrical work Ee is given by the_equation Ee =1 where v is the volume of the solution used and p its osmotic pressure.
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  • When the solutions may be taken as effectively dilute, so that the gas laws apply to the osmotic pressure, this relation reduces to E _ nrRT to c1 ey gE c2 where n is the number of ions given by one molecule of the salt, r the transport ratio of the anion, R the gas constant, T the absolute temperature, y the total valency of the anions obtained from one molecule, and c i and c 2 the concentrations of the two solutions.
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  • When the dissolved molecules are uniformly distributed, the osmotic pressure will be the same everywhere throughout the solution, but, if the concentration vary from point to point, the pressure will vary also.
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  • There must, then, be a relation between the rate of change of the concentration and the osmotic pressure gradient, and thus we may consider the osmotic pressure gradient as a force driving the solute through a viscous medium.
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  • In contact with a solvent a metal is supposed to possess a definite solution pressure, analogous to the vapour pressure of a liquid.
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  • On the analogy between this case and that of the interface between two solutions, Nernst has arrived at similar logarithmic expressions for the difference of potential, which becomes proportional to log (P 1 /P 2) where P2 is taken to mean the osmotic pressure of the cations in the solution, and P i the osmotic pressure of the cations in the substance of the metal itself.
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  • When the converter is full the pressure is raised somewhat, and the heating continued until the conversion is complete.
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  • The indirect consequence of this incident was that in 1866, on the categoric demand of Prince Michael of Servia, and under the diplomatic pressure of the great powers, the sultan withdrew the Turkish garrison from the citadel and delivered it to the Servians.
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  • For the next ten years he lived in various health resorts, in considerable suffering (he declares that the year contained for him 200 days of pure pain), but dashing off, at high pressure, the brilliant essays on which his fame rests.
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  • Ammeters to measure the volume, and voltmeters to determine the pressure of current supplied to the baths, should also be provided.
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  • A similar six-rayed system of cracks, bisecting the angles between the rays of the previous set, is produced when a blunt punch is gradually pressed against a sheet of mica; this is known as the "pressure figure."
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  • The action depends upon the difference of the pressure on the liquid at the extremities of the tube, the flow being towards the lower level and ceasing when the levels coincide.
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  • The vessel is filled through the spout, and the water is driven out by the pressure of the gas it contains, when the valve is opened.
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  • And the Church policy, as old as the times of Constantine, to crush utterly the man who brings more problems and pressure than the bulk of traditional Christians can, at the time, either digest or resist with a fair discrimination, seemed to the authorities the one means to save the very difficult situation.
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  • The width of the gap may be diminished until it is no greater than the distance between two neighbouring molecules, when it will cease to be distinguishable, but, assuming the molecular theory of magnetism to be true, the above statement will still hold good for the intermolecular gap. The same pressure P will be exerted across any imaginary section of a magnetized rod, the stress being sustained by the intermolecular springs, whatever their physical nature may be, to which the elasticity of the metal is due.
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  • The effects of longitudinal pressure are opposite to those of traction; when the cyclic condition has been reached, pressure reduces the magnetization of iron in weak fields and increases it in strong fields (Ewing, Magnetic Induction, 1900, 223).
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  • Ewing has also examined the effects produced by longitudinal compression upon the susceptibility and retentiveness of nickel, and found, as was to be expected, that both were greatly increased by pressure.
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  • In the iron cylinder and ovoid, which expanded when magnetized, compression caused a diminution of magnetization; in the nickel rod, which contracted when magnetized, pressure was attended by an increase of magnetization.
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  • An iron tube, having its ends closed by brass caps, was placed inside a compressing vessel into which water was forced until the pressure upon the outer surface of the tube reached 250 atmospheres.
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  • Frisbie, 5 who found that for the magnetizing forces used by Nagaoka and Honda pressure produced a small increase of magnetization, a result which appears to be in accord with theory.
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  • The magnetometric method was employed, and the metals, in the form of ovoids, were heated by a specially designed burner, fed with gas and air under pressure, which directed 90 fine jets of flame upon the asbestos covering the ovoid.
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  • He found that the susceptibility for unit of mass,.K, was independent of both pressure and magnetizing force, but varied inversely as the absolute temperature,.
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  • These aldols generally lose the elements of water readily and pass into unsaturated compounds; aldol itself on distillation at ordinary atmospheric pressure gives crotonaldehyde, CH 3 � CH: CH.
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  • Next year, as the Melbourne administration was near its close, Plunkett, the venerable chancellor of Ireland, was forced by discreditable pressure to resign, and the Whig attorney-general, who had never practised in equity, became chancellor of Ireland, and was raised to the peerage with the title of Baron Campbell of St Andrews, in the county of Fife.
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  • There is no doubt that this policy strongly commended itself to the governor and ministers of Natal, and that they exercised considerable pressure to have it adopted.
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  • The plaits are sewed partly by hand and in a special sewing-machine, and the hats or bonnets are finished by stiffening with gelatin size and blocking into shape with the aid of heat and powerful pressure, according to the dictates of fashion.
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  • Through the liberality of his friends, his last days were freed from the pressure of poverty, and he was enabled to place his illegitimate son in a position which soon brought him wealth, and to leave a competency.
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  • All this time the pressure of the Turks upon the southern provinces of Hungary had been continuous, but fortunately all their efforts had so far been frustrated by the valour and generalship of the ban of Szoreny, John Hunyadi, the fame of whose victories, notably in 1442 and 1443, encouraged the Holy See to place Hungary for the third time at the head of a general crusade against the infidel.
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  • But in the autumn of 1656 a great statesman, Mahommed Kuprili, obtained the supreme control of affairs at Constantinople, and all Europe instantly felt the pressure of the Turk once more.
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  • The moderates, alarmed not so much by the motion itself as by its tone, again tried to intervene; but on the 13th of March the Vienna revolution broke out, and the king, yielding to pressure or panic, appointed Count Louis Batthyany premier of the first Hungarian responsible ministry, which included Kossuth, Szechenyi and Deak.
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  • Under pressure from the palatine of Batthyany an imperial edict was issued, on the 7th day of May, ordering the ban to desist from his separatist plans and take his orders from Pest.
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  • Finally, the prime minister, Dr Wekerle, mainly owing to the pressure put upon him by Mr Justh, the president of the Chamber, yielded to the importunity of the Independence party, and, in the name of the Hungarian government, laid the proposals for a separate bank before the king-emperor and the Austrian government.
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  • Baron Paul Rauch, the Magyar nominee as Ban, failed, with all his official apparatus, to secure a single seat for his creatures at the general election of 1908, and therefore proceeded to govern without Parliament, by an elaborate system of administrative pressure, press persecution and espionage.
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  • It accepted the status quo as a working basis, but no amount of pressure could wring from it a disavowal of Trumbic and his colleagues.
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  • Under Magyar pressure Seidler explicitly condemned all schemes of federalism, and pledged the Government and even the crown itself not to adopt any reforms which did not leave untouched the existing provincial boundaries.
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  • America pointedly defined the Adriatic problem as a test case, but amid the pressure of other affairs it was allowed to drift.
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  • Arago, the index, u for air at t° C. and at atmospheric pressure is given by 00029 iu 1-1 + 0037t.
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  • At every point the motion of the lamina will be the same as would have occurred in its absence, the pressure of the waves impinging from behind being just what is required to generate the waves in front.
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  • Henceforward the Scyths appear as a declining power: by the middle of the 4th century their eastern neighbours the Sarmatae have crossed the Tanais (Don) and the pressure of the Scyths is felt on the Danube.
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  • Meanwhile pressure was put on the British prime minister to carry out the policy he had avowed while out of office.
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  • Alfred Milner to meet President Kruger at Bloemfontein, hoping to be able to exert pressure on both parties and to arrange a settlement as favourable as possible to Bioem- the Transvaal.
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  • It was part of Roberts's purpose to relieve the pressure in Natal by his own operations.
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  • Most serious of all was the pressure between Bloemfontein and the Vaal, where the Free Staters, under De Wet and other commanders, had initiated the guerrilla as soon as Botha and the Transvaalers retired over the Vaal and ceased to defend them by regular operations.
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  • Of greater historical interest are the Chams, who are to be found for the most part in southern Annam and in Cambodia, and who, judging from the numerous remains found there, appear to have been the masters of the coast region of Cochin-China and Annam till they succumbed before the pressure of the Khmers of Cambodia and the Annamese.
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  • The more closely it is confined the greater is the pressure set up by a small part of the charge burning, and the more completely will the explosion of the remainder assume the detonating form.
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  • By undue pressure he secured a decision of the judges, in the test case of Godden v.
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  • Crispi was prepared to cultivate good relations with France, but refused to yield to pressure or to submit to dicta - tion; and in this attitude he was firmly supported by the bulk of his fellow-countrymen.
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  • The 8th division, belonging to the same corps, could not see their comrades sacrificed before their eyes, and pushed on through Sadowa to relieve the pressure on the right of the 7th division.
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  • The common variety of bed-sore is the result of continuous pressure on and irritation of the skin, the vitality and resisting power of which are lowered by a lesion of the cord cutting off the trophic supply to the skin affected.
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  • The acute bed-sore is, in some cases, a true trophic lesion occurring, as it may, on parts not subjected to continuous pressure or irritation.
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  • Trophic disturbance in the nutrition of the skin may be so great that a slight degree of external pressure or irritation is sufficient to excite even a gangrenous inflammation.
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  • Local hypertrophy may also be due to stimulation resulting from friction or intermittent pressure, as one may see in the thickenings on the skin of the artisan's hands.
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  • From atrophy of their roots, caused by the pressure of the growing permanent teeth, the " milk teeth " in children become loose and are cast off.
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  • The tissues of an animal or plant are all under a certain pressure, caused, in the one case, by the expulsive action of the heart and the restraint of the skin and other elastic tissues, and, in the other case, by the force of the rising sap and the restraint of the periderm or bark.
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  • Under this normal amount of pressure they can live and grow.
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  • The secreting cells never show this change, although they may become atrophied or destroyed by the pressure and the disturbance of nutrition brought about by the swollen condition of the capillary walls.
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  • The reason of this is apparently that the negative pressure of the pleural, and partly of the peritoneal, cavity tends to aspirate a liquid relatively thicker, so to speak, than that effused where no such extraneous mechanism is at work (James).
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  • Thus Ludwig was of opinion that the lymph-flow is dependent upon two factors, first, difference in pressure of the blood in the capillaries and the liquid in the plasma spaces outside; and, secondly, chemical interchanges setting up osmotic currents through the vessel-walls.
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  • His results, so far, have been confirmed by Starling, who finds that the amount of lymph-flow from the thoracic duct is dependent upon difference in pressure.
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  • It varies with the increase of the intracapillary or decrease of the extracapillary pressure, and is also in part regulated by the greater or lesser permeability of the vessel-walls.
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  • Heidenhain recognizes two classes, first, such substances as peptone, leech extract and crayfish extract; and, secondly, crystalloids such as sugar, salt, &c. Starling sees no reason to believe that members of either class act otherwise than by increasing the pressure in the capillaries or by injuring the endothelial wall.
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  • The increased flow of lymph is due to the increased pressure in the abdominal capillaries.
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  • It is now coming to be recognized that increase of blood pressure alone is not sufficient to account for all dropsical effusions.
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  • Loeb found experimentally that increase of metabolic products in muscle greatly raised its osmotic pressure, and so it would absorb water from a relatively concentrated sodium chloride solution.
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  • Welch produced oedema of the lungs experimentally by increasing the pressure in the pulmonary vessels by ligature of the aorta and its branches, but this raised the blood pressure only about one-tenth of an atmosphere, while in some of Loeb's experiments the osmotic pressure, due to retained metabolic products, was equal to over thirty atmospheres.
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  • Thus differences in osmotic pressure may be much more powerful in producing oedema than mere differences in blood pressure.
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  • Now differences in the amount of crystalloids cause alteration in osmotic pressure while the proteid content affects it but little; and of the crystalloids the chlorides appear to be those most liable to variation.
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  • Some other observers, however, have not got such good results with a chloride-free diet, and Marishler, Scheel, Limbecx, Dreser and others, dispute Widal's hypothesis of a retention of chlorides as being the cause of oedema, in the case of renal dropsy at all events; they assert that the chlorides are held back in order to keep the osmotic pressure of the fluid, which they assume to have been effused, equal to that of the blood and tissues.
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  • Thus, while increased pressure in the blood or lymph vessels may be one factor, and increased permeability of the capillary endothelium another, increased osmotic pressure in the tissues and lymph is probably the most important in the production of dropsy.
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  • Mead's treatise on The Power of the Sun and Moon over Human Bodies (1704), equally inspired by Newton's discoveries, was a premature attempt to assign the influence of atmospheric pressure and other cosmical causes in producing disease.
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  • In heart disease the chief work of the latter half of the 19th century was, in the first quarter, such clinical work as that of William Stokes and Peter Mere Latham (1789-1875); and in the second quarter the fuller comprehension of the vascular system, central and peripheral, with its cycles and variations of blood pressure, venous and arterial.
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  • Probably the Teutonic pressure began as early as the 4th century before Christ, and the history of the next few hundred years may be summed up as the gradual substitution of a Germanic for a Celtic population along the banks of the Rhine.
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  • In the former he was one of the leading workers, in collaboration from 1879 to 1887 with Emile Edmond Sarasin (1843-1890), at the formation of minerals by artificial means, particularly in the wet way with the aid of heat and pressure, and he succeeded in reproducing a large number of the natural compounds.
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  • Even now, however, in his sixtieth year, it required some more external pressure to induce him to make himself independent.
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  • In course of an investigation in 1822-1823 on the effects of heat and pressure on certain liquids he found that for each there was a certain temperature above which it refused to remain liquid but passedintothegaseous state, no matter what the amount of pressure to which it was subjected, and in the case of water he determined this critical temperature, with a remarkable approach to accuracy, to be 362° C. He also studied the nature of yeast and the influence of extreme cold upon its life.
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  • Rock-filling yields and becomes consolidated under heavy pressure, and therefore does not furnish a rigid support of the overlying strata, but rather a cushion to control and equalize the subsidence.
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  • Where each floor is timbered by itself with light timbers, as is the practice on the continent of Europe, the consolidation of the rock-filling under pressure gives rise to considerable subsidence of the unmined ore, which has frequently settled 20 ft.
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  • Y g g The air passes through a reducing valve from the main to an auxiliary tank, in which the pressure is, say, 125 lb, and thence to the driving cylinders.
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  • They can be used only when a supply of water under sufficient pressure is available for power.
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  • The inlet opening of the pressure fan is in free communication with the outside air, the discharge connecting with the mine air-way; in the more generally used exhaust fan the inlet is connected with the airway, the fan discharging into the atmosphere.
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  • A certain pressure of air is required to maintain circulation against the resistance, and for a given volume per minute the smaller and more irregular the mine openings the greater must be the pressure.
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  • The pressure is measured by a " water-gauge " and the velocity of flow by an " anemometer."
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  • The special difficulties which attend deep mining, in addition to the problems of hoisting ore and raising water from great depths, are the increase of temperature of the rocks and the pressure of the overlying strata.
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  • The possibility of hoisting and pumping from great depths has been discussed, and it remains now to consider the other conditions which will tend to limit mining operations in depth - namely, increase of temperature and increase of rock pressure.
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  • Under such conditions the pillar begins to yield, and fragments of mineral fly off with explosive violence, exactly as a specimen of rock will splinter under pressure in a testing machine.
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  • The pressure developed was sufficient to crush an arched lining of two-foot granite blocks.
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  • It is apparent that the combined effect of internal heat and rock pressure will greatly increase the cost of mining at depths of 8000 or 10,000 ft., and will probably render mining impracticable in many instances at depths not much greater.
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  • While the mine workings are small the overlying rocks support themselves of and the full pressure does not come upon the mine Caving p i llars.
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  • 1915, a special inducement offered to the Allies for acting in this quarter - any threat to Stambul and the Golden Horn must tend to take pressure off the Russian army in Armenia which was at the moment believed to be in some peril.
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  • Carden, decided, under some pressure from home, to undertake an onset in full force upon the defences of the Narrows by day, although mine-fields still forbade a close attack on the forts on the part of battleships.
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  • On raising the piston, the valve F remains closed and a vacuum tends to be created in the cylinder, but the pressure of the atmosphere forces the liquid up the tube D and it raises the valve E and passes into the cylinder.
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  • Moreover, the height of the lift is conditioned by the atmospheric pressure, for this is the driving force; and since this equals 34 ft.
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  • During the returnstroke the latter was kept closed in virtue of the partial vacuum formed within the cylinder, while at the same time the former n'as forced open by the pressure of the denser air in the vessel and nozzle.
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  • The piston, provided with a valve opening upwards, is packed in the cylinder by a leather cup which is securely pressed against the sides of the cylinder by the atmospheric pressure.
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  • A and B are pear-shaped glass vessels connected by a long narrow india-rubber tube, which must be sufficiently strong in the body (or strengthened by a linen coating) to stand an outward pressure of 1 to 2 atmospheres.
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  • In a well-made apparatus the pressure in the exhausted vessel is now reduced to I t o or 2 1, of a millimetre, or even less.
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  • A mass of glass in a viscous state can be rolled with an iron roller like dough; can be rendered hollow by the pressure of the human breath or by compressed air; can be forced by air pressure, or by a mechanically driven plunger, to take the shape and impression of a mould; and can be almost indefinitely extended as solid rod or as hollow tube.
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  • Lumps of glass of approximately the right weight are chosen, and are heated to a temperature just sufficient to soften the glass, when the lumps are caused to assume the shape of moulds made of iron or fireclay either by the natural flow of the softened glass under gravity, or by pressure from suitable tools or presses.
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  • The blowing iron is constantly trundled, and the small lump of glass is squeezed and flattened into the shape of a foot, either between two slabs of wood hinged together, or by pressure against an upright board.
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  • The mass of glass, yielding, to its own weight and the pressure of air or steam, sinks downwards and adapts itself to any mould or receptacle beneath it.
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  • A few strokes of such a rubber are sufficient to produce a decidedly " polished " appearance, but prolonged rubbing under considerable pressure and the use of a polishing paste of a proper consistency are required in order to remove the last trace of pitting from the surface.
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  • The technical difference between pressed and moulded glass is that moulded glass-ware has taken its form from a mould under the pressure of a workman's breath, or of compressed air, whereas pressed glass-ware has taken its form from a mould under the pressure of a plunger.
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  • These small furnaces are usually heated by an oil spray under the pressure of steam or compressed air.
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  • Nearly every specimen shows traces of the pressure of a tool on the outside of the neck, as well as signs of the base having been closed by melting.
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  • When pure, it is a colourless gas which is not spontaneously inflammable at ordinary temperature and pressure, but a slight increase of temperature or decrease of pressure sets up decomposition.
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  • By an hydraulic press a pressure of 100,000 kilos was made to act upon the disks, when the metal was seen to "flow" out of the hole like a viscid liquid.
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  • As liquidity might be looked upon as the ne plus ultra of softness, this is the right place for stating that, while most metals, when heated up to their melting points, pass pretty abruptly from the solid to the liquid state, platinum and iron first assume, and throughout a long range of temperatures retain, a condition of viscous semi-solidity which enables two pieces of them to be "welded" together by pressure into one continuous mass.
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  • A gas is a compressible fluid, and the change in volume is considerable with moderate variation of pressure.
    0
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  • By a change of temperature and pressure combined, a substance can in general be made to pass from one state into another; thus by gradually increasing the temperature a solid piece of ice can be melted into the liquid state of water, and the water again can be boiled off into the gaseous state as steam.
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  • Conversely, a combination of increased pressure and lowering of temperature will, if carried far enough, reduce a gas to a liquid, and afterwards to the solid state; and nearly every gaseous substance has now undergone this operation.
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  • A certain critical temperature is observed in a gas, above which the liquefaction is impossible; so that the gaseous state has two subdivisions into (i.)a true gas, which cannot be liquefied, because its temperature is above the critical temperature, (ii.) a vapour, where the temperature is below the critical, and which can ultimately be liquefied by further lowering of temperature or increase of pressure.
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  • This mechanical axiom of the normality of fluid pressure is the foundation of the mathematical theory of hydrostatics.
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  • The pressure at any point cf a plane in the interior of a fluid is the intensity of the normal thrust estimated per unit area of the plane.
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  • If the distribution of the thrust is not uniform, as, for instance, on a vertical or inclined face or wall of a reservoir, then P/A represents the average pressure over the area; and the actual pressure at any point is the average pressure over a small area enclosing the point.
    0
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  • 2 enclosing a point B, the pressure p at B is the limit of OP/DA; and p =lt(AP/DA) =dP/ dA, (I) in the notation of the differential calculus.
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  • This fundamental principle of hydrostatics follows at once from the principle of the normality of fluid pressure implied in the definition of a fluid in § 4.
    0
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  • But the faces bc, ca, over which P and Q act, are also equal, so that the pressure on each face is equal.
    0
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  • It follows that the pressure of a fluid requires to be calculated in one direction only, chosen as the simplest direction for convenience.
    0
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  • Any additional pressure applied to the fluid will be y transmitted equally to every point in the case of a liquid; this principle of the transmissibility of 1 1 pressure was enunciated by Pascal, 1653, and FIG.
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  • 2, it will be balanced by a thrust W lb applied to the other piston of area B ft.', where p = P/A=W/B, (I) the pressure p of the liquid being supposed uniform; and, by making the ratio B/A sufficiently large, the mechanical advantage can be increased to any desired amount, and in the simplest manner possible, without the intervention of levers and machinery.
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  • - In a fluid at rest under gravity the pressure is the same at any two points in the same horizontal plane; in other words, a surface of equal pressure is a horizontal plane.
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  • As gravity and the fluid pressure on the sides of the prism act at right angles to AB, the equilibrium requires the equality of thrust on the ends A and B; and as the areas are equal, the pressure must be equal at A and B; and so the pressure is the same at all points in the same horizontal plane.
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  • If the fluid is a liquid, it can have a free surface without diffusing itself, as a gas would; and this free surface, being a surface of zero pressure, or more generally of uniform atmospheric pressure, will also be a surface of equal pressure, and therefore a horizontal plane.
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  • - In a homogeneous liquid at rest under gravity the pressure increases uniformly with the depth.
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  • 3, the pressure increases 62.4 lb/ft.
    0
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  • For if the liquid of density a rises to the height h and of density p to the height k, and po denotes the atmospheric pressure, the pressure in the liquid at the level of the surface of separation will be ah+Po and pk +po, and these being equal we have Uh = pk.
    0
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  • The atmospheric pressure is thus due to an average head of 30 in.
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  • The pressure of the air is a convenient unit to employ in practical work, where it is called an " atmosphere "; it is made the equivalent of a pressure of one kg/cm'; and one ton/inch 2, employed as the unit with high pressure as in artillery, may be taken as 150 atmospheres.
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  • The resultant vertical thrust on any portion of a curved surface exposed to the pressure of a fluid at rest under gravity is the weight of fluid cut out by vertical lines drawn round the boundary of the curved surface.
    0
    0
  • Hence the space variation of the pressure in any direction, or the pressure-gradient, is the resolved force per unit volume in that direction.
    0
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  • The resultant force is therefore in the direction of the steepest pressure-gradient, and this is normal to the surface of equal pressure; for equilibrium to exist in a fluid the lines of force must therefore be capable of being cut orthogonally by a system of surfaces, which will be surfaces of equal pressure.
    0
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  • Then dp/dz=kdp/dz = P, = Poe ik, p - po= kpo(ez Ik -1); (16) and if the liquid was incompressible, the depth at pressure p would be (p - po) 1po, so that the lowering of the surface due to compression is ke h I k -k -z= 1z 2 /k, when k is large.
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  • - A plane area exposed to fluid pressure on one Side experiences a single resultant thrust, the integrated pressure over the area, acting through a definite point called the centre of pressure (C.P.) of the area.
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  • In considering the motion of a fluid we shall suppose it non-viscous, so that whatever the state of motion the stress across any section is normal, and the principle of the normality and thence of the equality of fluid pressure can be employed, as in hydrostatics.
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  • In the Eulerian method the attention is fixed on a particular point of space, and the change is observed there of pressure, density and velocity, which takes place during the motion; but in the Lagrangian method we follow up a particle of fluid and observe how it changes.
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  • Irrotational Motion in General.-Liquid originally at rest in a singly-connected space cannot be set in motion by a field of force due to a single-valued potential function; any motion set up in the liquid must be due to a movement of the boundary, and the motion will be irrotational; for any small spherical element of the liquid may be considered a smooth solid sphere for a moment, and the normal pressure of the surrounding liquid cannot impart to it any rotation.
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  • Interpreted dynamically the normal pressure of the surrounding fluid on a tube cannot create any circulation in the tube.
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  • 3 /, with similar equations for 13 and If we can make (41 rpA + a) x2' = (4 7 P B +a) b2 = (4 7 P C +7)0, (16) the surfaces of equal pressure are similar to the external case, which can then be removed without affecting the motion, provided remain constant.
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  • To determine the motion of a jet which issues from a vessel with plane walls, the vector I must be constructed so as to have a constant (to) (II) the liquid (15) 2, integrals;, (29) (30) (I) direction 0 along a plane boundary, and to give a constant skin velocity over the surface of a jet, where the pressure is constant.
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  • - An important problem in the motion of a liquid is the determination of the state of velocity set up by the passage of a solid through it; and thence of the pressure and reaction of the liquid on the surface of the solid, by which its motion is influenced when it is free.
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  • These pans are sometimes heated by boiling oil, with the idea that under such conditions the sugar which is kept stirred all the time as it thickens cannot be burnt or caramelized; but the same object can be attained more economically with steam of a given pressure by utilizing its latent heat.
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  • " It has long been known that proglottides of the same species often exhibit sporadic malformation from the normal shape, and the evidence goes to show that the variation was due to arrested growth or some unusual stress or pressure which, acting upon the young strobila, produced a deformation, and that the proglottides so affected could not regain their normal form.
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  • The leaves, when stripped from the stalks, are made into rolls and subjected to great pressure, which is released daily to allow the leaves to absorb their expressed juice.
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  • In this form a large number, after being cooked or stoved in moist heat for about twenty-four hours, are piled between plates in an hydraulic press, and subjected to great pressure for a month or six weeks, during which time a slow fermentation takes place, and a considerable exudation of juice results from the severe pressure.
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  • The packages are placed in moulds, and submitted to powerful pressure Cake .
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  • When ripe the seeds are much esteemed as a delicacy, while in France much oil of fine quality is extracted from them by pressure.
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  • When hydraulic pressure to the amount of 2000 to 3000 lb per square inch is applied, the saving is unquestioned, since less time is required to dry the pressed retort, its life in the furnaces is longer, its absorption of zinc is less, and the loss of zinc by passage through its walls in the form of vapour is reduced.
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  • It fuses at 415° C. and under ordinary atmospheric pressure boils at 1040° C. Its vapour density shows that it is monatomic. The molten metal on cooling deposits crystals belonging to the hexagonal system, and freezes into a compact crystalline solid, which may be brittle or ductile according to circumstances.
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  • In 1250 the king, by putting strong pressure upon the electors, succeeded in obtaining the see of Winchester for Aymer.
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  • Under the pressure of commercial and political necessity, authority was definitely transferred from the Hansas of merchants abroad to the Hansa of towns at home, and the sense of unity had become such that in 1380 a Lubeck official could declare that "whatever touches one town touches all."
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  • The whole system was designed to suppress the competition of outsiders, but the divergent interests of individuals and towns, the pressure of competition and changing commercial conditions, in part the reactionary character of the legislation, made enforcement difficult.
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  • The pressure of the Turks in Asia precipitated the Avars upon the West.
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  • Its critical temperature is 155° C. and critical pressure 72 atmos.
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  • The mixed secondary amines are prepared by the action of alkyl iodides on the primary amines, or by heating salts of the primary amine with alcohols under pressure.
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  • His observations led him to the view that a glacier is an imperfect fluid or a viscous body which is urged down slopes of a certain inclination by the mutual pressure of its parts, and involved him in some controversy with Tyndall and others both as to priority and to scientific principle.
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  • Since many substances decompose either at, or below, their boiling-points under ordinary atmospheric pressure, it is necessary to lower the boiling-point by reducing the pressure if it be desired to distil them.
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  • This variation is termed "distillation under reduced pressure or in a vacuum."
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  • The subject is here treated under the following subdivisions: (I) ordinary distillation, (2) distillation under reduced pressure, (3) fractional distillation, (4) distillation with steam, (5) theory of distillation, (6) dry distillation, (7) distillation in chemical technology and (8) commercial distillation of water.
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  • This method is adopted for substances which decompose at their boiling-points under ordinary pressure, and, generally, when it is desirable to work at a lower temperature.
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  • Boiling under reduced pressure has one very serious drawback, viz.
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  • - The general observation that under a constant pressure a pure substance boils at a constant temperature leads to the conclusion that the distillate which comes over while the thermometer records only a small variation is of practically constant composition.
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  • A liquid boils when its vapor pressure equals the superincumbent pressure; consequently any process which diminishes the external pressure must also lower the boiling-point.
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  • In this we have the theory of "distillation under reduced pressure."
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  • When the components are completely immiscible, the vapour pressure of the one is not influenced by the presence of the other.
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  • The composition of the distillate is determinate (by Avogadro's law) if the molecular weights and vapour pressure of the components at the temperature of distillation be known.
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  • In general, when the substance to be distilled has a vapour pressure of only 10 mm.
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  • (i.) If the vapour of A be readily soluble in the liquid B, and the vapour of B readily soluble in the liquid A, there will exist a mixture of A and B which will have a lower vapour pressure than any other mixture.
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  • On distilling such a mixture under constant pressure, a mixture of the two components (of variable composition) will come over until there remains in the distilling flask the mixture of minimum vapour pressure.
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  • (ii.) If the vapours be sparingly soluble in the liquids there will exist a mixture having a greater vapour pressure than that of any other mixture.
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  • The above theory, coupled with such facts as the variation of the composition of the constant boiling-point fraction with the pressure under which the mixture is distilled, the proportionality of the density of all mixtures to their composition, &c., shows this to be erroneous.
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  • In the Pape-Henneberg condenser, which has been adopted in the German navy, they are oval in section and tend to become circular under the pressure of the steam; this alteration in shape makes the tubes self-scaling.
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  • The rearmost troops of the Russian 2nd column, not yet committed to the fight on the Goldbach, made a bold counter stroke against St Hilaire's right flank, but were repulsed, and Soult now turned to relieve the pressure on Davout by attacking Sokolnitz.
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  • Probably the explanation is pressure of other work.
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  • Thus in the Phylactolaemata the contraction of the muscular body-wall exerts a pressure on the fluid of the body-cavity and is the cause of the protrusion of the polypide.
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  • The parietal muscles (p.m.), which pass from the vertical walls to the frontal wall, thus act by depressing the latter and so exerting a pressure on the fluid of the bodycavity.
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  • It is joined to the rigid body-wall by numerous muscle-fibres, the contraction of which must exert a pressure on the fluid of the body-cavity, thereby protruding the polypide.
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  • The pressure to be effectual need not be severe, but must be accurately applied.
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  • If the bleeding point cannot be reached, the pressure should be applied to the main artery between the bleeding point and the heart.
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  • In small blood-vessels pressure will be sufficient to arrest haemorrhage permanently.
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  • But during the warm season, from May to September, these conditions of atmospheric pressure are reversed, that in the Pacific rising to 767 mm.
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  • In January 1825, owing to official pressure, only three Liberals were returned to the chamber; a law was: passed making the budget presentable only every three years, and the constitution ceased to have any active existence.
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  • The principal works of Gregory Thaumaturgus are the Panegyricus in Origenem (Eis 't ptybniv iravrnvpucos Xbyos), which he wrote when on the point of leaving the school of that great master (it contains a valuable minute description of Origen's mode of instruction), a Metaphrasis in Ecclesiasten, characterized by Jerome as " short but useful "; and an Epistola canonica, which treats of the discipline to be undergone by those Christians who under pressure of persecution had relapsed into paganism, but desired to be restored to the privileges of the Church.
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  • On passing a current of electricity, of which the volume and pressure are adjusted to the conditions of the electrolyte and electrodes, the anode slowly dissolves, leaving the insoluble impurities in the form of a sponge, if the proportion be considerable, but otherwise as a mud or slime which becomes detached from the anode surface and must be prevented from coming into contact with the cathode.
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  • The reservoir at Yodobashi is capable of supplying water (from the river Tama) to all parts at a pressure varying from 80 to too ft.
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  • Popular pressure forced him to bring the murderers to justice, to punish them and dismiss them his service.
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  • During such periods of excitement it is even able, by the pressure of the muscles on the poison-duct, to eject the fluid to some distance; hence it shares with the cobra a third Dutch name, that of "spuw slang" (spitting snake).
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  • For nearly three years, however, he was enabled to study and to experiment in verse without any active pressure or interruption from his family - three precious years in which the first phase of his art as a writer of idylls and bucolics, imitated to a large extent from Theocritus, Bion and the Greek anthologists, was elaborated.
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  • In the last ten years of his life Horace resumed his lyrical function for a time, under pressure of the imperial command, and produced some of the most exquisite and mature products of his art.
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  • The expedition which followed produced negative successes, but the absence of any positive success and the pressure of financial difficulty, coupled with the defection of Jason (probably before 37 1), and the high-handed action of Thebes in destroying Plataea (373), induced Athens to renew the peace with Sparta which Timotheus had broken.
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  • The king parted with him reluctantly, and only under the pressure of a strong court intrigue headed by Queen Isabella.
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  • It is tacitly assumed that the motion is relatively so slow that the pressure and temperature of the substance are practically uniform throughout its mass at any stage of the process.
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  • The simplest types of process or operation are: (I), heating or cooling at constant volume, represented by vertical lines such as Bb, called Isometrics, in which the pressure varies, but no ex ternal work is done.
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  • (2) Heating or cooling at constant pressure, represented by horizontal lines such as NA, called Isopiestics, in which the external work done is the product of the pressure p and the expansion v" - v'.
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  • As the temperature 0" is lowered, the area of the cycle increases, but since W can never exceed H', there must be a zero limit of temperature at which the pressure would vanish and the area of the cycle become equal to the whole heat absorbed at the higher temperature.
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  • If the substance in any state such as B were allowed to expand adiabatically (dH = o) down to the absolute zero, at which point it contains no heat and exerts no pressure, the whole of its available heat energy might theoretically be recovered in the form of external work, represented on the diagram by the whole area BAZcb under the adiabatic through the state-point B, bounded by the isometric Bb and the zero isopiestic bV.
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  • He also showed that the difference of the specific heats at constant pressure and volume, S - s, must be the same for equal volumes of all gases at the same temperature and pressure, being represented by the expression R/TF'(t).
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  • (3) This relation may be interpreted in two ways, according as we require the heat absorbed in terms of the change of pressure or volume.
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  • (I) The heat, H, absorbed in isothermal expansion (latent heat of expansion) from p to p" is equal to the diminution of pressure (p' - p”) multiplied by the absolute temperature and by the expansion per degree (v" - v')/(o' - o") at constant pressure.
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  • (2) The heat, H, absorbed in isothermal expansion from v to v" is equal to the increase of volume (v" - v') multiplied by the absolute temperature, and by the increase of pressure per degree (p' - p")/(o' - o"), at constant volume.
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  • In the notation of the calculus the relations become - dH/dp (0 const) = odv /do (p const) (4) dH/dv (0 const) =odp/do (v const) The negative sign is prefixed to dH/dp because absorption of heat +dH corresponds to diminution of pressure - dp. The utility of these relations results from the circumstance that the pressure and expansion co efficients are familiar and easily measured, whereas the latent heat of expansion is difficult to determine.
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  • The most instructive example of the application of relations (I) and (2) is afforded by the change of state of a substance at constant temperature and pressure.
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  • 3, the heat absorbed in raising the temperature to 0' and the pressure to p without change of state may be written s' (o' - o"), where s' is the specific heat of the substance in the first state at saturation pressure.
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  • The heat evolved in this process may be represented by s"(o' - o"), where s" is the specific heat of the substance in the second state at saturation pressure.
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  • Finally, the substance is reconverted into the first state at the temperature 0", completing the cycle by the abstraction of a quantity of heat By the application of the first law, the difference of the quantities of heat absorbed and evolved in the cycle must be equal to the work represented by the area of the cycle, which is equal to (p' - p") (v" - v') in the limit when the difference of pressure is small.
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  • (5) in which dp/do is the rate of change of pressure with temperature when the two states are in equilibrium.
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  • If, starting from E, the same amount of heat h is restored at constant pressure, we should arrive at the point F on the adiabatic through B, since the substance has been transformed from B to F by a reversible path without loss or gain of heat on the whole.
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  • In order to restore the substance to its original temperature 0' at constant pressure, it would be necessary to supply a further quantity of heat, H, represented by the area between the two adiabatics from FC down to the absolute zero.
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  • The whole quantity of heat required to raise the temperature from 0" to 0' at constant pressure along the path EC is H+h, which is equal to S(0' - o"), where S is the specific heat at constant pressure.
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  • Since h = s (o' - 0"), the difference S - s between the specific heats at constant pressure and volume is evidently H/(o' - o").
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  • Since the amounts of heat supplied at constant pressure from E to F and from E to C are in the limit proportional to the expansions EF and EC which they produce, the ratio S/s is equal to the ratio ECÆF.
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  • (7) The value of the specific heat S at constant pressure can always be determined by experiment, and in practice is one of the most important thermodynamical properties of a substance.
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  • The value of the specific heat s at constant volume can also be measured in a few cases, but it is generally necessary to deduce it from that at constant pressure, by means of relation (6).
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  • It is often impossible to observe the pressure-coefficient dp/de directly, but it may be deduced from the isothermal compressibility by means of the geometrically obvious relation, BE = (BEÆC) XEC. The ratio BEÆC of the diminution of pressure to the increase of volume at constant temperature, or - dp/dv, is readily observed.
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  • 2, may be found by adding to the heat required for the change of temperature at constant volume, sdo, or at constant pressure, Sdo, the heat absorbed in isothermal expansion as given by relations (4).
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  • A similar expression for the variation of the specific heat S at constant pressure is obtained from the second expression in (8), by taking p and 0 as independent variables; but it follows more directly from a consideration of the variation of the function (E+pv).
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  • (I I) This expression shows that the rate of variation of the total heat with temperature at constant pressure is equal to the specific heat at constant pressure.
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  • To find the total heat of a substance in any given state defined by the values of p and 0, starting from any convenient zero of temperature, it is sufficient to measure the total heat required to raise the substance to the final temperature under a constant pressure equal to p. For instance, in the boiler of a steam engine the feed water is pumped into the boiler against the final pressure of the steam, and is heated under this constant pressure up to the temperature of the steam.
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  • Observing that F is a function of the co-ordinates expressing the state of the substance, we obtain for the variation of S with pressure at constant temperature, dS/dp (0 const) '=' 2 F/dedp =-0d 2 v/d0 2 (p const) (12) If the heat supplied to a substance which is expanding reversibly and doing external work, pdv, is equal to the external work done, the intrinsic energy, E, remains constant.
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  • The coefficient of expansion at constant pressure is equal to the coefficient of increase of pressure at constant volume.
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  • The isothermal elasticity - v(dp/dv) is equal to the pressure p. The adiabatic elasticity is equal to y p, where -y is the ratio S/s of the specific heats.
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  • The specific heats are independent of the pressure or density by equations (to) and (12).
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  • It is found by experiment that the change of pv with pressure at moderate pressures is nearly proportional to the change of p, in other words that the coefficient d(pv)/dp is to a first approximation a function of the temperature only.
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  • Joule failed to observe any change of temperature in his apparatus, and was therefore justified in assuming that the increase of intrinsic energy of a gas in isothermal expansion was very small, and that the absorption of heat observed in a similar experiment in which the gas was allowed to do external work by expanding against the atmospheric pressure was equivalent to the external work done.
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  • A continuous stream of gas, supplied at a constant pressure and temperature, is forced through a porous plug, from which it issues at a lower pressure through an orifice carefully surrounded with non-conducting material, where its temperature is measured.
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  • (15) where d0 is the fall of temperature of the fluid corresponding to a diminution of pressure dp. If there is no fall of temperature in passing the plug, d0 = o, and we have the condition Odv/d0 =v.
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  • By experiments at different temperatures between o° and 00° C., they found that the cooling effect per atmosphere of pressure varied inversely as the square of the absolute temperature for air and CO 2.
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  • The simplest assumption which suffices to express the small deviations of gases and vapours from the ideal state at moderate pressures is that the coefficient a in the expression for the capillary pressure varies inversely as some power of the absolute temperature.
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  • The value of the angular coefficient d(pv)/dp is evidently (b - c), which expresses the defect of the actual volume v from the ideal volume Re/p. Differentiating equation (17) at constant pressure to find dv/do, and observing that dcldO= - nc/O, we find by substitution in (is) the following simple expression for the cooling effect do/dp in terms of c and b, Sdo/dp= (n+I)c - b..
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  • Other favourite types' of equation for approximate work are (I) p=RO/v±f(v), which makes p a linear function of 0 at constant volume, as in van der Waal's equation; (2) v=RO/p+f(p), which makes v a linear function of 0 at constant pressure.
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  • In the case of imperfect gases, all the available experimental evidence shows that the specific volume tends towards its ideal value, V =Re/p, in the limit, when the pressure is indefinitely reduced and the molecules are widely separated so as to eliminate the effects of their mutual actions.
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  • We may therefore reasonably assume that the limiting values of the specific heats at zero pressure do not vary with the temperature, provided that the molecule is stable and there is no dissociation.
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  • Denoting by So, so, these constant limiting values at p=o, we may obtain the values at any pressure by integrating the expressions (27) and (28) from co to v and from o to p respectively.
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  • (33) The state of a substance may be defined by means of the temperature and entropy as co-ordinates, instead of employing the pressure and volume as in the indicator diagram.
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  • - In order that a process may be strictly reversible, it is necessary that the state of the working substance should be one of equilibrium at uniform pressure and temperature throughout.
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  • A common illustration of an irreversible process is the expansion of a gas into a vacuum or against a pressure less than its own.
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  • In practice, however, there is always some frictional dissipation, accompanied by an increase of entropy and by a fall of pressure.
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  • I by the whole area B"DZ'VO under the isothermal 9"D and the adiabatic DZ', bounded by the axes of pressure and volume.
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  • If J', J" represent the values of the function for unit mass of the substance of specific volumes v' and v" in the two states at temperature 0 and pressure and if a mass m is in the state v', and 1-m in the.
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  • This may be interpreted as the equation of the border curve giving the relation between p and 0, but is more easily obtained by considering the equilibrium at constant pressure instead of constant volume.
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  • (b) The second case, which is of greater practical utility, is that in which the external pressure, p, is kept constant.
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  • The condition of stable equilibrium is that G should be a minimum, for which reason it has been called the " thermodynamic potential at constant pressure."
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  • The function G is represented by the negative area D"DM under the isothermal, bounded by the isopiestic DM and the axis of pressure.
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  • The increment of 00 is always greater than that of the total heat F=E+pv, except in the special case of an equilibrium change at constant temperature and pressure, in which case both are equal to the heat absorbed in the change, and the function G remains constant.
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  • If G' and G" are the values of the function G for the two states in equilibrium at the same pressure and temperature, we must have G' =G".
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  • The values of the corresponding functions for the liquid or solid cannot be accurately expressed, as the theoretical variation of the specific heat is unknown, but if we take the specific heat at constant pressure s to be approximately constant, and observe the small residual variation dh of the total heat, we may write F'=s'D+dh+B'.
    0
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  • To find the border curve of equilibrium between the two states, giving the saturation pressure as a function of the temperature, we have merely to equate the values of G and G".
    0
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  • The value of A is determined by observing the value of Do at some known pressure po, e.g.
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  • Sulphur dioxide, generated by burning sulphur, is forced into the solution under pressure, where it interacts with any free chlorine present to form hydrochloric and sulphuric acids.
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  • The Church as a whole, however, under pressure of circumstances rather than by a spontaneous impulse, decided otherwise.
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  • Leslie, however, who, was himself in difficulties on his post among the bare hills, and was perhaps subjected to pressure from civil authorities, descended from the heights on the 2nd of September and began to edge towards his right, in order first to confront, and afterwards to surround, his opponent.
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  • The cause has been commonly said to be the pressure of population on the food-supply.
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  • It may have been partly a sort of "swarming" process, caused by pressure of population at home.
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  • Among his many publications, written, it is only fair to admit, amidst the urgent pressure of practical work, there is barely a page or even a sentence that bears the stamp of immortality.
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  • The regular tides are hardly perceptible, but, under the influence of barometric pressure and wind, the sea-level occasionally varies as much as ft.
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  • The supply of water under pressure is widely distributed and excellent.
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  • The revolution in Milan and Vienna aroused a fever of patriotic enthusiasm in Tuscany, where war against Austria was demanded; Leopold, giving way to popular pressure, sent a force of regulars and volunteers to co-operate with Piedmont in the Lombard campaign.
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  • A belated attempt of the French left to intervene was checked by the British cavalry, and the pressure on the centre and right, which were now practically surrounded, continued even after nightfall.
    0
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  • There is hardly any increase in the intestinal secretion, the drug being emphatically not a hydragogue cathartic. There is no doubt that its habitual use may be a factor in the formation of haemorrhoids; as in the case of all drugs that act powerfully on the lower part of the intestine, without simultaneously lowering the venous pressure by causing increase of secretion from the bowel.
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  • He had to face the dominant fact of the situation - the aggressive pressure of Germany at a time when Russia was drifting into an internal crisis of the first magnitude and was unable to concentrate the material and moral forces required in the coming conflict.
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  • In 1738 appeared his Hydrodynamica, in which the equilibrium, the pressure, the reaction and varied velocities of fluids are considered both theoretically and practically.
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  • In air of considerable density the mean free path of a molecule, between its collisions with other molecules, is exceedingly small, and any such increase of gaseous pressure in front of the black surface would be immediately neutralized by flow of the gas from places of high to places of low pressure.
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  • As far as the order to which he carried the approximations - which, however, were based on a simplifying hypothesis that the molecules influenced each other through mutual repulsions inversely as the fifth power of their distance apart--the result was that the equations of motion of the gas, considered as subject to viscous and thermal stresses, could be satisfied by a state of equilibrium under a modified internal pressure equal in all directions.
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  • He lays stress on the dimensional relations of the problem, pointing out that the phenomena which occur with large vanes in highly rarefied gas could also occur with proportionally smaller vanes in gas at higher pressure.
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  • Hull, with the result that there is a certain pressure at which the molecular effect of the gas.
    0
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  • Poynting has separated the two effects experimentally on the principle that the radiometer pressure acts along the normal, while the radiation pressure acts along the ray which may be directed obliquely.
    0
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  • In expressing the absolute or relative density of any substance, it is necessary to specify the conditions for which the relation holds: in the case of gases, the temperature and pressure of the experimental gas (and of the standard, in the case of relative density); and in the case of solids and liquids, the temperature.
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  • The reason for this is readily seen; if a mass M of any gas occupies a volume V at a temperature T (on the absolute scale) and a pressure P, then its absolute density under these conditions is O = M/V; if now the temperature and pressure be changed to l and P,, the volume V l under these conditions is VPT/PIT1, and the absolute density is MP,T/VPT I.
    0
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  • It is customary to reduce gases to the so-called "normal temperature and pressure," abbreviated to N.T.P., which is o° C. and 769 mm.
    0
    0
  • The chief errors to which the stereometer is liable are (I) variation of temperature and atmospheric pressure during the experiment, and (2) the presence of moisture which disturbs Boyle's law.
    0
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  • The flask was then brought to o° by immersion in melting ice, the pressure of the gas taken, and the stop-cock closed.
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  • The flask is now partially exhausted, transferred to the cooling bath, and after standing the pressure of the residual gas is taken by a manometer.
    0
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  • The difference in the weights corresponds to the volume of gas at a pressure equal to the difference of the recorded pressures.
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  • (4) For substances which can be vaporized only under diminished pressure, several methods may be used.
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  • It is necessary to determine the pressure exerted on the vapour by the mercury in the narrow limb; this is effected by opening the capillary and inclining the tube until the mercury just reaches the top of the narrow tube; the difference between FIG.
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  • To complete the experiment, the graduated tube containing the expelled air is brought to a constant and determinate temperature and pressure, and this volume is the volume which the given weight of the substance would occupy if it were a gas under the same temperature and pressure.
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  • The vapour density is calculated by the following formula: D - W(1 +at) X587,780 (p-s) V in which W =weight of substance taken, V =volume of air expelled, a= 1/273 = .003665, t and p = temperature and pressure at which expelled air is measured, and s= vapour pressure of water at 1°.
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  • The principle of this method is as follows: - In the ordinary air expuls i on method, the vapour always mixes to some extent with the air in the tube, and this involves a reduction of the pressure of the vapour.
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