He was nominated as one of the English prelates for the Lateran council (1512), but did not attend.
He permitted laymen to hold certain public offices, under surveillance of the prelates, organized a guard from among the Roman nobility, decreed a plan for redeeming the base coinage, permitted the communes a certain degree of municipal liberty, and promised the liquidation of the public debt.
This question was solemnly submitted to a grand council of prelates, senators, ministers and other dignitaries on the 13th of June 1718.
He reformed the administration and extended the powers of the Sicilian parliament, which was composed of the barons, the prelates and the representatives of the towns.
But he was a patron of learning and, like most prelates of his age, a great architect.
In 1551 the tsar submitted to a synod of prelates a hundred questions as to the best mode of remedying existing evils, for which reason the decrees of this synod are generally called stoglav or centuria.
Many Anglican bishops (amongst them the archbishop of York and most of his suffragans) felt so doubtful as to the wisdom of such an assembly that they refused to attend it, and Dean Stanley declined to allow Westminster Abbey to be used for the closing service, giving as his reasons the partial character of the assembly, uncertainty as to the effect of its measures and "the presence of prelates not belonging to our Church."
The French prelates went in silver chains to prison.
This was refused, and although some of the bishops entered a mild protest, the question was allowed to drop. Regarding another matter also, the extent of the royal forests, the prelates made a protest.
He appealed to the pope, and hoped to crush his enemies by the aid of foreign troops, while the barons prepared for war, and the prelates strove to keep the peace.
The preamble states that the king has granted the charter on the advice of various prelates and barons, some of whom, including the archbishop of Canterbury, the papal legate Pandulf, and William Marshal, earl of Pembroke, are mentioned by name.
Individual summonses must be sent to the prelates and greater barons, while the lesser barons hill be called together through the sheriffs and bailiffs.
When one reflects how active and prominent Langton and other prelates were at Runnim.ede the change is not surprising.
By declaring, as it does, what were the laws and customs of a past age wherein justice prevailed, it shows what was the ideal of good government formed by John's prelates and barons.
Honorius, in the West, at the end of the 4th century, made a constitution providing that if any desired to litigate before the bishops they should not be forbidden, but that in civil matters the prelates should render judgment in the manner of arbitrators by consent (Cod.
Over the rest of western continental Europe and in the colonies of Spain, Portugal and France, ecclesiastical jurisdiction remained generally in the state which we have already described the court of the cardinal vicar-general consists of such vicargeneral and four other prelates (Smith, ubi supra).
He at once summoned the fourteenth general council of the Catholic Church, which met at Lyons in 1274, with an attendance of some 1600 prelates, for the purpose of considering the eastern schism, the condition of the Holy Land, and the abuses in the church.
We shall rouse against you princes and prelates, who, alas, will arm nations and kingdoms against this land ...
The De prelates of Valerian is concerned with secular princes, and even as late as the 14th century the title was occasionally applied to secular magistrates.
In more modern usage in the Roman Catholic Church prelates, properly so-called, are those who have jurisdiction in foro externo, but a liberal interpretation has given the title a more general significance.
We may therefore distinguish "true" from "titular" prelates.
The true, no less than the titular, prelates have their various ranks, differing as regards title, precedence, clothing and other insignia.
Four classes may be distinguished: (I) Great prelates, e.g.
(2) Exempt prelates (praelati nullius dioeceseos, praelati nullius), i.e.
(3) Roman prelates, (a) active and (b) honorary.
prelates are protonotaries apostolic, domestic prelates, private.
Only protonotaries and domestic prelates are for life; the others lose their dignity at the death of the pope who appointed them.
The cathedral chapter of Brandenburg consists of two prelates, the dean and the senior, besides eight other members.
The chapter of Merseburg contains five prelates, viz.
From Leo IX.'s time papal grants of the mitre to eminent prelates became increasingly frequent, and by the 12th century it had been assumed by all bishops in the West, with or without papal sanction, as their proper liturgical head-dress.
In any case the proposal was well received at Paris both by Napoleon and by his ministers; and though there were difficulties respecting the divorce, of Josephine, yet these were surmounted in a way satisfactory to the emperor and the prelates of Austria.
In 1869 he was one of the consecrating prelates when Temple became bishop of Exeter, and endeavoured to remove the prejudice against his appointment by showing that Temple was not responsible for the views of other writers in the famous Essays and Reviews (1860).
with the duke of Burgundy; finally, they investigated and judged numbers of private cases, lawsuits between prelates, members of religious orders and holders of benefices, thus themselves falling into one of the serious abuses for which they had most blamed the court of Rome.
So urgent was the need of restoring union at any cost that even prelates who had taken an active part in the work of the council of Pisa, such as Pierre d'Ailly, cardinal bishop of Cambrai, were forced to admit, in view of the fact that the decisions of that council had been and were still contested, that the only possible course was to reconsider the question of the union de novo, entirely disregarding all previous deliberations on the subject, and treating the claims of John and his two competitors with the strictest impartiality.
Nor is it possible to mention here all the intrigues and quarrels that arose during three and a half years among the crowd of prelates, monks, doctors, simple clerks, princes and ambassadors composing this tumultuous assembly - perhaps the greatest congress of people the world has ever seen.
Finally, the council pronounced in favour of the pope's renunciation of the right to the movable property of deceased prelates (spolium) as well as of the right of procurations.
The popes had, from time to time, sent the pallium or the dalmatic - specifically Roman vestments - as gifts of honour to various distinguished prelates; Britain, converted by a Roman mission, had adopted the Roman use, and English missionaries had carried this into the newly Christianized parts of Germany; but the great Churches of Spain and Gaul preserved their own traditions in vestments as in other matters.
For as Athanasius and Marcellus of Ancyra appeared on the scene, and the Western bishops declined to exclude them, the Eusebian bishops of the East absolutely refused to discuss, and contented themselves with formulating a written protest addressed to numerous foreign prelates.
The Conqueror reposed much confidence in two prelates, Lanfranc of Canterbury and Geoffrey of Coutances.
These armaments, which cost Matthias 1,000,000 florins per annum, equivalent to 200,00O, did not include the auxiliary troops of the hospodars of Walachia and Moldavia, or the feudal levies of the barons and prelates.
By this time the gentry, as well as the barons and prelates, took part in the legislature.
Some of the prelates - notably Janos Csezmeczey, better known as Janus Pannonius (4331 47 2) - had a European reputation for learning.
What little culture there was outside the court, the capital and the palaces of a few prelates, was to be found in the towns, most of them of German origin.
In 1496 Varady, archbishop of Kalocsa, one of the few good prelates, declared that their lot was worse than that of brute beasts.
According to contemporary records the number of prelates and priests in the three parts of Hungary at the beginning of the 17th century was but 103, all told, and of the great families not above half a dozen still clung to Catholicism.
(1657-1705), who left the government of the country to two bigoted Magyar prelates, GyOrgy Szelepesenyi (1595-1685) and Lip&t (Leopold) Kollonich (1631-1707), whose domination represents the high-water mark of the antinational regimen.
The Extreme Left was infected by the fanaticism of Kossuth, who condemned the compromise and refused to take the benefit of the amnesty, while the prelates and magnates who had originally opposed the compromise were now to be found by the side of Deal(and Andrassy.
As yet Hugh Capet maintained the cause of his nominee and forbade the prelates of his kingdom to be present at the council of Mouzon, near Sedan (June 2, 995).995).
The decisions of a Gregory or a Leo the Great, of a Gelasius or an Innocent, prelates of holy life and unequalled wisdom, are accepted by the universal church; for, coming from such men, they cannot but be good.
His opinions were received with marked respect by his brother prelates, and he acted as an assessor to the archbishop in the trial of the bishop of Lincoln.
Prelates assembled from every country in Christendom, and with them the deputies of numerous princes.
The total included 412 bishops, with Boo priors and abbots, besides the representatives of absent prelates and a number of inferior clerics.
It is known that Salerno, a Roman colony, in a situation noted in ancient times for its salubrity, was in the 6th century at least the seat of a bishopric, and at the end of the 7th century of a Benedictine monastery, and that some of the prelates and higher clergy were distinguished for learning, and even for medical acquirements.
is obscure, but in 1326, on the outbreak of war with England, an assembly of prelates and barons met at Meaux.
Invited to Tuscany by the Countess Matilda, he convoked a council at Piacenza in March 1095, attended by so vast a number of prelates and laymen that its sessions were held in the open air, and addressed by ambassadors of Alexis, the Byzantine emperor, who sought aid against the Mussulmans.
Gregory refused, but after consulting a committee of theologians who declared him to be a heretic, the council promoted by Cardinal Cossa and other independent prelates met at Pisa.
The lower edge and the sleeves are usually garnished with lace, lined with violet or red silk in the case of prelates, or - more rarely - with embroidered borders.
The rochet is proper to, and distinctive of, prelates and bishops: but the right to wear it is sometimes granted by the pope to others, especially the canons of cathedral churches.
John was forced to withdraw to Burgundy (August 1413), and the university of Paris and John Gerson once more censured Petit's propositions, which, but for the lavish bribes of money and wines offered by John to the prelates, would have been solemnly condemned at the council of Constance.
His election was contrary to the wishes both of the clergy and of the people, and the consecration ceremony was performed by certain prelates belonging to the court.
Its origin dates back to 747, when the city of Mainz was made the seat of an archbishop, and a succession of able and ambitious prelates, obtaining lands and privileges from emperors and others, made of the district under their rule a strong and vigorous state.
Lands and privileges were granted to prelates, additional bishoprics were founded, and some years later Magdeburg was made the seat of an archbishop. In 960 Otto was invited to come to Italy by Pope John XII., who was hard pressed by Berengar, and he began to make preparations for the journey.
He was invited to Geneva in 1.557, and to England again in 1561, but declined both invitations, maintaining, however, a constant correspondence with Jewel and other English prelates and reformers until his death at Zurich on the 12th of November 1562.
After the collapse of that monarchy its territories passed to the German kings, and Savoy was divided between the counts of Provence, of Albon, of Gex, of Bresse, of the Genevois, of Maurienne, the lords of Habsburg, of Zahringen, &c., and several prelates.
Even at the later sessions the cardinal of Lorraine with the French prelates supported the German representatives in requests for the cup for the laity,the permission of the marriage of priests, and the revision of the breviary.
The German diet of Regensburg (1439) ratified in the main the decrees of the council of Basel, which clearly gratified the electors, princes and prelates; and Germany for the first time joined the ranks of the countries which subjected the decrees of the highest ecclesiastical instance to the placet or approval of the civil authorities.
It also accorded him the right to confirm all newly elected prelates and to receive the annates.
The government and the leading men of letters and prelates appear therefore to have harboured no notions of revolt before the matter of the king's divorce became prominent in 1527.
Hohenstaufen, surnamed Stupor Mundi, in alliance with Pisa, against a Genoese squadron bringing a number of English, French and Spanish prelates to attend the council summoned to meet at the Lateran by Gregory IX.
Several of the prelates perished, and many were carried prisoners to the camp of the emperor.
He was one of the four prelates who refused to inhibit Bishop Colenso from preaching in their dioceses, and the only one who withheld his signature from the addresses calling upon Colenso to resign his see.
Moreover, Roman Catholic prelates were reinstated in the bishoprics of Meissen, Merseburg and Naumburg-Zeitz.
It is in answer to A Defence of the Government established in the Church of Englande, by Dr. John Bridges, dean of Salisbury, itself a reply to earlier puritan works, and besides attacking the episcopal office in general assails certain prelates with much personal abuse.
"I receive daily," he writes, "letters from remote parts, from kings, princes, prelates and men of learning, and even from persons of whose existence I was ignorant."
He took a prominent and truculent part in the famous conference of prelates and Presbyterian divines held at Hampton Court in 1604.
Moreover, despite her immense wealth (in the province of Little Poland alone she owned at this time 26 towns, 83 landed estates and 772 villages), the Church claimed exemption from all public burdens, from all political responsibilities, although her prelates continued to exercise an altogether disproportionate political influence.
Eugenius at length convened a rival council at Ferrara on the 8th of January 1438 and excommunicated the prelates assembled at Basel.
Two assemblies of barons and prelates were held at Bourges in November 1283 and February 1284 to deliberate on the question.
All three prelates were benefactors to Stratford-on-Avon.
Like those of the other districts of Germany, the estates of the different provinces which formed the kingdom of Hanover had met for many years in an irregular fashion to exercise their varying and ill-defined authority; and, although the elector Ernest Augustus introduced a system of administrative councils into Celle, these estates, consisting of the three orders of prelates, nobles and towns, together with a body somewhat resembling the English privy council, were the only constitution which the country possessed, and the only check upon the power of its ruler.
He took no pains to temper the zeal of his legates, but incited them to the struggle, and, not content with prohibiting lay investiture and simony, expressly forbade prelates and even priests to pay homage to the civil power.
disorders provoked by the struggle brought about a reaction, which was organized by certain prelates who advocated a policy of conciliation, such as the Frenchman Ivo, bishop of Chartres (c. 1040-1116).
These conciliatory prelates were sincere supporters of the reformation, and combated simony, the marriage or concubinage of priests, and the immorality of sovereigns with the same conviction as the most ardent followers of Gregory VII.
To place itself in a better posture for combating the simoniacal and concubinary prelates, the court of Rome had had to multiply exemptions and accelerate the movement which impelled the monks to make themselves independent of the bishops.
When war was declared on the schismatic prelates, the reforming popes supported the canons, and, unconsciously or not, helped them to form themselves into privileged bodies living their own lives and affecting to recognize the court of Rome as their only superior authority.
Before his coronation he had renounced the right, so jealously guarded by Henry V., of assisting in the election of bishops and abbots, and he even undertook to refrain from exacting homage from the prelates and to content himself with fealty.
The principle of election by canons was repeatedly violated, and threatened to disappear; and at the end of the 13th century the spectacle was common of prelates, whether nominated or confirmed by the pope, entitling themselves " bishops by the grace of the Holy See."
He might have hoped that his share in convening the synod would give him a certain right to regulate its proceedings, and that, by the aid of his numerous Italian prelates, he would be able to influence it more or less according to his views.
The chief thing to be observed is that the prelates who were formerly at the head of these departments have almost all been replaced by cardinals.
Next come the four palatine prelates, the majordomo, the superintendent of the household and its staff, and successor of the ancient vicedominus; the master of the chamber, who presides over the arrangement of audiences; the auditor, or private secretary; and finally the master of the sacred palace (magister sacri palatii), a kind of theological adviser, always a Dominican, whose special duty is nowadays the revision of books published at Rome.
All ecclesiastics admitted, by virtue of their office or by a gracious concession of the pope, to form part of the "family," are called domestic prelates, prelates of the household; this is an honorary title conferred on many priests not resident in Rome.
The pontifical "chapel" (capella) is the papal court for purposes of religious worship. In it the pope is surrounded by the cardinals according to their order; by the patriarchs, archbishops and bishops attending at the throne, and others; by the prelates of the Curia, and by all the clergy both secular and regular.
Among the prelates we should mention the protonotaries, the successors of the old notaries or officials of the papal chancery in the earliest centuries; the seven protonotarii participantes were restored by Pope Pius X.
Dalmatic and tunicle are never worn by priests, as priests, but both are worn by bishops under the chasuble (never under the cope) and also by those prelates, not being bishops, to whom the pope has conceded the right to wear the episcopal vestments.
The bishop is consecrated, after taking the oath of fidelity to the Holy See, and subscribing the profession of faith, by a bishop appointed by the pope for the purpose, assisted by at least two other bishops or prelates, the main features of the act being the laying on of hands, the anointing with oil, and the delivery of the pastoral staff and other symbols of the office.
Magee's manifold activities, his capability as an administrator, his sound judgment, and his remarkable insight into the ecclesiastical problems of his time, rank him among t he most distinguished of English prelates.
Dagobert protected the church and placed illustrious prelates at the head of the bishoprics - Eloi (Eligius) at Noyon, Ouen (Audoenus) at Rouen, and Didier (Desiderius) at Cahors.
In 1595 he, in conjunction with the bishop of London and other prelates, drew up the Calvinistic instrument known as the Lambeth Articles, which were not accepted by the church.
About a year later he was consecrated to the see of York, not, however, in England, where perhaps he could not find the fitting number of orthodox prelates, but at Compiegne, Agilbert being now bishop of Paris.
With the conversion of the Saxons the whole German race became nominally C~iristian; and their ruler was lavish in granting lands and privileges to prelates, and untiring in founding bishoprics, monasteries and schools.
The rise of the dukes had been watched with extreme jealousy by the leading prelates.
To combat the power of the princes, Otto, especially after he became emperor and looked upon himself as the protector of the church, immensely increased the importance of the prelates.
While the Empire was at peace with the popes the prelates did strongly uphold it, and their influence was unquestionably, on the whole, higher than that of rude secular nobles.
He sought to regain lands granted to the chtirch by his predecessors; prelates were employed on public business much less frequently than heretofore.
Henry, a man of deep, sincere and even rigorous piety, regarded these evils with sorrow; he associated himself definitely with the movement for reform which proceeded from Cluny, and commanded his prelates to put an end to simony and other abuses.
however, Anno and other prominent prelates and laymen, perhaps jealous of the influence exercised at court by Henry, bishop of Augsburg (d.
Never before had a pope ventured to take so bold a step. It was ~ithin the memory even of young men that a German king had dismissed three popes, and had raised in turn four of his own prelates to the Roman see.
to invest prelates with the ring and the staff, and met the expostulations of Paschal by declaring that he would not surrender a right which had belonged to all former kings.
At last, in September 1122, the investiture question was settled by the concordat of Worms. By this compromise, which exhaustion forced upon both parties, the tight of electing prelates was granted to the clergy, and the emperor surrendered the privilege of investing of Worms. them with the ring and the staff.
But Alexander soon found partisans among the German clergy, hitherto the most loyal of the emperors friends; and Frederick retaliated by driving the offending prelates from their sees, a proceeding which tended to disturb the peace of the land.
The chief prelates of Saxony and many of the late dukes most important feudatories were made virtually independent of all control save that of the crown.
Thus the prelates possessed nearly all the rights of sovereigns, and regarded the pope in Italy and not the king in Germany as their head, a state of affairs which was fatal to the unity, nay, even to the existence of the Empire.
These bodies were composed of the mediate prelates, the mediate nobles and representatives of the mediate cities.
The Lutherans denied the validity of this clause, and notwithstanding the protests of the Roman Catholics several prelates became Lutheran and kept their territories as secular possessions.
From the 4th century ceremonial foot-washing became yearly more common, till it was regarded as a necessary rite, to be performed by the pope, all Catholic sovereigns, prelates, priests and nobles.
The ecclesiastical organization of Austria was imperfect, so long as there was no archbishopric within its borders, and its clergy owed allegiance to foreign prelates.
Nearly all the Austrian prelates had been opposed to the new doctrine; many of them remained to the end of the council and voted against it, and they only declared their submission with great reluctance.
At the taking of Palermo the Greek bishop was restored; but his successors were Latins, and Latin prelates were placed in the bishoprics which Count Roger founded.
This failing, he ejected suspected prelates, and occasionally persecuted them, though with far less severity than that applied to the heretics of a deeper dye, such as Montanists or even Arians.
Still later, he was induced by the machinations of some of the prelates who haunted his court, and by the influence of Theodora, herself much interested in theological questions, and more than suspected of Monophysitism, to raise a needless, mischievous, and protracted controversy.
The four Eastern patriarchs, and the great majority of the Eastern prelates generally, subscribed, though reluctantly, for it was felt that a dangerous precedent was being set when dead authors were anathematized, and that this new movement could hardly fail to weaken the authority of the council of Chalcedon.
The Bulgarian church enjoys an exceptional position, inasmuch as its spiritual chief, the exarch, who resides at Constantinople, controls the Bulgarian prelates in European Turkey as well as those in the kingdom of Bulgaria.
On the other hand, the Greek prelates in Bulgaria are subject to the patriarch.
THE Archbishopric Of Magdeburg was carved out of the bishopric of Halberstadt when it was founded in 968, and its history is largely bound up with that of the city and of the prelates who have ruled the see.
In 1294 it was again united with the archbishopric and the prelates retained it until 15 3 8; then in 1579 Augustus, elector of Saxony, made an arrangement which again gave the office to the archbishops, who held it until the secularization of the see.
Up to this juncture the question had been in the hands of Grattan and other Protestants, and of a small knot of Catholic nobles and prelates; but their efforts had not accomplished much, and they aimed only at a kind of compromise, which, while conceding their principal claims, would have placed their church in subjection to the state.
The notices of the early prelates are of little value, but the portion of the book in which he speaks of Bishop Elphinstone is of enduring merit.
members of the hierarchy known as prelates (praelati), who possess this power (potestas jurisdictionis in foro externo), whether bishops or priests, derive it from the pope.
But they were richer in talents than numbers: out of six hundred prelates they only commanded eighty votes.
Of the five prelates thus named, Davies alone was competent to undertake the task, and for assistance in the work of translation he called upon his old friend and former neighbour, William Salesbury, who like the bishop was an excellent Greek and Hebrew scholar.
The Church, which had so long played a prominent and valuable part in the moral and literary education of the Welsh people, was now gradually forced out of touch with the nation through the action of alien and unsympathetic Whig prelates in Wales itself, which still remained mainly High Church and Jacobite in feeling.
The Great Schism of 1811 marks in fact the lowest point to which the fortunes of the once powerful and popular Church in Wales had sunk; - in 1811 there were only English-speaking prelates to be found, whilst the abuses of non-residence, pluralities and even nepotism were rampant everywhere.
With the old national Church enthralled by English political prelates, and consequently hindered from ministering to the special needs of the people, the progress of dissent throughout the Principality was naturally rapid.
Their difficult labours even seemed on the point of success when the assemblage of prelates refused assent, and the conference broke up on the 9th of October - a result which barred the way to a pacific understanding with the Huguenots.
of Denmark, the prelates and higher nobility of Sweden being favourable to the union, though the great majority of the Swedish people always detested it as a foreign usurpation.
From 1539 onwards there was a breach between him and his own prelates in consequence of his arbitrary appropriation of the Church's share of the tithes, in direct violation of the Vesteras Recess.
Then Gustavus so curtailed the power of the bishops (ordinances of 1539 and 1540) that they had little of the dignity left but the name, and even that he was disposed to abolish, for after 1543 the prelates appointed by him, without any pretence of previous, election by the cathedral chapters, were called ordinaries, or superintendents.
To the patriarchate was appended a Sacred College of 24 prelates, who were privileged to officiate in the scarlet robes of cardinals, while the patriarch wore the vestments of a second pope.
The close relations that prevailed between the reigning houses of Portugal, Provence and Aragon, cemented by intermarriages, introduced a knowledge of the gay science, but it reached Portugal by many other ways - by the crusaders who came to help in fighting the Moors, by the foreign prelates who occupied Peninsular sees, by the monastic and military orders who founded establishments in Portugal, by the visits of individual singers to court and baronial houses, but chiefly perhaps by the pilgrims who streamed from every country along the Frankish way to the far-famed shrine of Santiago de Compostela.
The important part taken by Portuguese prelates and theologians at the Council of Trent stimulated religious writing, most of it in Latin, but Frei Bartholomeu dos Martyres, archbishop of Braga, wrote a Cathecismo da doutrina Christa, Frei Luiz de Granada a Compendio de Doutrina Christa and Sermoes, all in Portuguese, and other notable pulpit orators include Diogo de Paiva de Andrade, Padre Luiz Alvares, Dom Antonio Pinheiro and Frei Miguel dos Santos, who preached at the obsequies of King Sebastian.
The early Capetians had a custom, based upon ancient precedents, of summoning periodically to their court their principal vassals and the prelates of their kingdom.
Here they deliberated upon political matters and the vassals and prelates gave the king their advice.
Nevertheless when a suit was brought before the king he judged it with the assistance of his prelates and vassals assembled around him, who formed his council.
But in law the king was sole judge, the vassals and prelates being only advisers.
During the 12th and at the beginning of the 13th centuries the curia regis continued to discharge these functions, except that its importance and actual competence continued to increase, and that we frequently find in it, in addition to the vassals and prelates who formed the council, consiliarii, who are evidently men whom the king had in his entourage, as his ordinary and professional councillors.
This suggests that a sufficient number of councillors was assured beforehand, and a list drawn up for each session; the vassals and prelates still figuring as a complementary body at the council.
Not only were the persons who were to constitute each Parlement named in advance, but those who were not placed on this list, even though vassals or prelates, were excluded from judging cases.
It had originally been an assembly of lay vassals and prelates; when its composition became fixed and consisted of councillormagistrates, a certain number of these offices were necessarily occupied by laymen, and others by ecclesiastics, the conseillers lais and the conseillers clercs.
The essential "form" of the consecration is in the simultaneous "laying on of hands" by the consecrating prelates.
Ambitious prelates had from time to time endeavoured to advance the pretensions of their see, but it was not until the council of Chalcedon, in 451, that Jerusalem was made a patriarchate with jurisdiction over Palestine.
It never actually acknowledged the Bulgarian Church, and Bulgarian prelates may not officiate publicly in Russian churches; on the other hand, the Holy Synod of Moscow refused to recognize the patriarch's condemnation, and Russian ecclesiastics have secretly supplied the Bulgarians with the holy oil.
Leaden seals were also used by the archbishops of Ravenna and other prelates of Italy; also to some extent by officials of a lower rank, and by certain communes.
In 1563 was issued from the press of John Day the first English edition of the Actes and Monuments of these latter and perillous Dayes, touching matters of the Church, wherein are comprehended and described the great Persecution and horrible Troubles that have been wrought and practised by the Romishe Prelates, speciallye in this Realme of England and Scotland, from the yeare of our Lorde a thousande to the time now present.
A Herredag, or Assembly of Nobles, was held at Copenhagen on the 2nd of July 1530, ostensibly to mediate between the two conflicting confessions, but the king, from policy, and the nobility, from covetousness of the estates of the prelates, made no attempt to prevent the excesses of the Protestant rabble, openly encouraged by Tausen.
On the other hand, the preachers failed to obtain the repeal of the Odense recess of 1527 which had subjected them to the spiritual jurisdiction of the prelates.
There are also four prelates in partibus.
The states-general of the 2nd of February 1317, consisting of the nobles, prelates, and the burgesses of Paris, approved the coronation of Philip, swore to obey him, and declared that women did not succeed to the Crown of France.
In 1864 it declared itself independent of all foreign prelates.
FARNESE, the name of one of the most illustrious and powerful Italian families, which besides including eminent prelates, statesmen and warriors among its members, ruled the duchy of Parma for two centuries.
It is then to the episcopate, assembled in ecumenical council, and to its chief, that the function of legislating for the whole Church belongs; the inferior authorities, local councils or isolated bishops and prelates, can only make special laws or statutes, valid only for that part of the Church under their jurisdiction.
He had no vocation, and was an example of the worldly, political and martial prelates of the 15th century.
England gained a spiritual unity long crc she attained a political unity, for in these meetings, which were often attended by kings as well as by prelates, Northumbrian, West Saxon.
He now maintained not only that it was a sin that kings should invest prelates with their spiritual insignia, the pallium, the staff, the ring, but claimed that no clerk ought to do homage to the king for the lands of his benefice, though he himself seven years before had not scrupled to make his oath to his earlier master.
The allegiance of these prelates was bought by an unwise promise to grant all the demands of the church party, which his predecessor had denied, or conceded only in part.
He had wholly misjudged the situation; Becket made neither promises nor threats, but three weeks after he reached Canterbury publicly excommunicated the bishops of London and Salisbury for the part that they had taken in the coronation of the young king, and suspended from their functions the other prelates who had been present at the ceremony.
Richards faithful ministers, despite of all their distractions, succeeded in raising the first instalment of his ransom by grinding taxationa fourth part of the revenue of all lay persons, a tithe from ecclesiastical land, was raised, and in addition much church plate was seized, though the officials who exacted it were themselves prelates.
inflicted on him by heaven for the prelates death.
The great prelates from Cardinal Beaufort down to Archbishops Bourchier and Rotherham, and Bishop John Russelltrusted supporters of the Yorkist dynasty were mere politicians with nothing spiritual about them.
Few of the higher clergy were such patrons of learning as many prelates of earlier ages.
For the controversies of the Reformation were conducted by both sides, from kings and prelates down to gutter pamphleteers, in language of the most unseemly violence.
At what date the cappa choralis developed into the cappa magna, a non-liturgical vestment peculiar to the pope, cardinals, bishops and certain privileged prelates, is not known; but mention of it is found as early as the 15th century.
It is worn over the rochet by the pope, cardinals, bishops and prelates, the colours varying as in the case of the cappa magna.
It paints popes, cardinals, prelates, rectors, monks and friars, who call themselves followers of Peter and keepers of the gates of heaven and hell, and pale poverty-stricken people, cotless and landless, who have to pay the fat clergy for spiritual assistance, and asks if these are Peter's priests.
The Protestant Church is controlled (under the minister of religion and education) by a consistory and a synod - the former consisting of a president, 9 councillors and 6 general superintendents or " prelates " from six principal towns, and the latter of a representative council, including both lay and clerical members.
No existing ministry can claim regular historic continuity with the ancient hierarchy of Scotland, but the bishops of the Episcopal Church are direct successors of the prelates consecrated to Scottish sees at the Restoration.
A few prelates, known as college bishops, were consecrated without sees, to preserve the succession rather than to exercise a defined authority.
It is subject, as a whole, to the ministry of education; for internal administration its governing body is a synod of five prelates, presided over by the archbishop of Belgrade, who is also the metropolitan of Servia.
The justiciary supported their petition, but the prelates and nobles refused to consent.
Of the prelates employed by Strafford in this persecution the ablest was John Bramhall (1594-1663) of Derry, who not only oppressed the ministers but insulted them by coarse language.
Before long Charles the Balds followers were dictating to him; and in the disaffection caused by his feebleness and cowardice prelates and nobles allied themselves ~stablisfh~ against him.
The address of the clergy, inspired by the great prelates, sought to make inaccurate lamentations over the progress of impiety a means of safeguarding their enormous spiritual and temporal powers, their privileges and exemptions, and their vast wealth.
Doa Christina, apart from the dictates of gratitude towards the head of her Church for the kindness shown to her son and government, was a zealous Catholic. She proved all thfough her regency that she not only relied upon the support of the Vatican and of the prelates, but that she was determined to favor the Church and the religious foundations in every possible way.
After the protonotaries left the sketching of the minutes to the abbreviators, those de Farce majori, who ranked as prelates, were the most important officers of the apostolic chancery.
But John was anxious that this council should be held in Rome, a city where he alone was master; the few prelates and ambassadors who very slowly gathered there held only a small number of sessions, in which John again condemned the writings of Wycliffe.
In 1155 it fell to the bishopric of Lubeck and was often the residence of the prelates of that see.
The nobles and prelates generally preferred to raise their share of the revenue by the old method of a bede, or contribution, thus weakening the remaining bond between them and the burghers.
prelates of the church in his patience and tenderness.
Bishop Hopkins and other prelates would have allowed ' Lord Antrim's Redshanks, ' a Roman Catholic regiment, to garrison the city.
This was a momentous occasion, for hitherto only eleven prelates and twenty-three magnates had attended.
Nearly all the prelates were devoted to him.
However, this did not prevent the prelates from continuing to act to some extent with the barons, and early in January 1215 the malcontents asked the king to confirm the laws of Edward the Confessor and the other liberties of the kingdom.
the authority of Scripture in the Church and the supremacy of the king in the state, and Practyse of Prelates (1530), a strong indictment of the Roman Church and also of Henry VIII.'s divorce proceedings, were all printed at Marburg.
His manners were agreeable and his appearance fascinating, but, like many other prelates of the day, his morals were far from blameless, his two dominant passions being greed of gold and love of women, and he was devotedly fond of the children whom his mistresses bore him.
The democratic character of the assembly of Basel was the result both of its composition and of its organization; not only was the number of prelates in it always small in comparison with that of the doctors, masters, representatives of chapters, monks or clerks of inferior orders, but the influence of the superior clergy had all the less weight because, instead of being separated into "nations," as at Constance, the fathers divided themselves according to their tastes or aptitudes into four large committees or "deputations" (deputationes), one concerned with questions of faith (ldei), another with negotiations for peace (pacis), the third with reform (reformatorii), the fourth with what they called "common concerns" (pro communibus).
Again and again, during his absence on the public service, the barons and prelates would assemble to compass his ruin or dispose of his crown, when, suddenly, " like a tempest," from the depths of Silesia or of Bosnia, he would himself appear among them, confounding and scattering them, often without resistance, always without bloodshed.
Like Poland two centuries later, Hungary had ceased to be a civilized autonomous state because her prelates and her magnates, uncontrolled by any higher authority, and too ignorant or corrupt to look beyond their own immediate interests, abandoned themselves to the exclusive enjoyment of their inordinate privileges, while openly repudiating their primal obligation of defending the state against extraneous enemies.
Here they fell in with the adherents of the new faith, grave, earnest men who professed to reform the abuses which had grown up in the Church; and a sense of equity as much as a love of novelty moved them, on their return home, to propagate wholesome doctrines and clamour for the reformation of their own degenerate prelates.
Other prelates rank with the above, but in a lower degree, notably the almoner and the various secretaries.
After some years of hard and The year ended with another great victory at Fredericksburg successful work in this capacity, "the last survivor of the old Th v.), Chancellorsville (see Wilderness) won against odds martial prelates, fitter for harness than for bishops' robes, for (q of two to one, and the great three days' battle of Gettysburg a court of justice than a court of theology," died at Shrewsbury o (q.v.), where for the first time fortune turned decisively against in June 1543.
Whilethe Empire was at peace with the popes the prelates did strongly uphold it, and their influence was unquestionably, on the whole, higher than that of rude secular nobles.
In the opinion of prelates and lawyers alike, an act of parliament was necessary before a bishop could be consecrated for a see abroad; to consecrate one for a foreign country seemed impossible, since, though the bestowal of the potestas ordinis would be valid, the crown, which, according to the law, was the source of the episcopal jurisdiction, could hardly issue the necessary mandate for the consecration of a bishop to a see outside the realm (see Bishop).
This " papal aggression " caused great excitement at the time, and an Ecclesiastical Titles Act was passed in 1851, though never put in force, forbidding Roman Catholic prelates to assume territorial designations.5 2 They were described in the first draft of the bill as " Protesting Catholic Dissenters," but this was changed, in deference to the strenuous remonstrances of the vicars-apostolic, into " Roman Catholics."
In spite, however, of the marked improvement in the conditions and behaviour of the Welsh people, owing to this strictly orthodox revival within the pale of the Church, Griffith Jones and his system of education were regarded with indifference by the English prelates in Wales, who offered no preferment and gave little encouragement to the founder of the circulating schools.
But a peace was negotiated by the archbishops Diogo p g Y o P g Gelmires of Santiago de Compostela and Burdino of Braga, rival churchmen whose wealth and military resources enabled them to dictate terms. Bitter jealousy existed between the two prelates, each claiming to be primate of " all the Spains," and their antagonism had some historical importance in so far as it fostered the growth of separatist tendencies among the Portuguese.
saw the invasion of England by the friars, originally the moral reformers of their day, who preached the superiority of the missionary life over the merely contemplative life of the old religious orders, and came, preaching holy poverty, to minister to souls neglected by worldly incumbents and political prelates (see MENDICANT MOVEMENT).
the renewal of lay investiture as reward for driving the antipope Anacletus from Rome, but the opposition of St Bernard and the German prelates was so potent that the king dropped his demand, and Innocent in 1133 confirmed the concordat.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.