The prefects are assisted by departmental councils.
The Romans exerted themselves to improve the lower navigation of the river, and appointed prefects of the Rhine to superintend the shipping and to exact the moderate dues imposed to keep the channel in repair.
Nicotera, minister of the interior, began his administration of home affairs by a sweeping change in the personnel of the prefects, sub-prefects and public prosecutors, but found himself obliged to incur the wrath of his supporters by prohibiting Radical meetings likely to endanger public order, and by enunciating administrative principles which would have befitted an inveterate Conservative.
The powers formerly vested in elective bodies were now to be wielded by prefects and sub-prefects, nominated by the First Consul and responsible to him.
At first the sharpness of the change was not fully apparent owing to the tactful choice of prefects made by the First Consul; but before long their very extensive powers were seen to form an important part of the new machinery of autocracy.
The new empress repaid her brothers by making them consuls and prefects, and used her large influence at court to protect pagans and Jews.
The prefects of the department were created by a law of the 28th Pluviose in the year VIII.
When the prefects were created in the year VIII.
He had also created in1811-1812a new National Guard, organized in " cohorts " to distinguish it from the regular army, and for home defence only, and these by a skilful appeal to their patriotism and judicious pressure applied through the prefects, became a useful reservoir of half-trained men for new battalions of the active army.
After the reign of Marcus Aurelius (according to Mommsen) the equites were divided into: (a) viri eminentissimi, the prefects of the praetorian guard; (b) viri perfectissimi, the other prefects and the heads of the financial and secretarial departments; (c) viri egregii, first mentioned in the reign of Antoninus Pius, a title by right of the procurators generally.
The execution of the laws in the departments and provinces, as well as the maintenance of public order, is entrusted to prefects and sub-prefects, who are appointees of the president.
The national executive appoints and removes the prefects of the departments and the sub-prefects of the provinces, and the prefects appoint the gobiernadores of the districts.
Moreover, its prefects, since they were two and liable to be disunited, and since they could not be senators, neither combined with the In permanent forts and fortresses, praetorium probably denoted strictly a residence: the official headquarters building (though commonly styled praetorium by moderns) was the principia.
These prefects were at first soldiers, but later mostly lawyers who relieved the emperors of various civil and criminal jurisdiction.
The praetorian guards had keenly resented the murder of their patron Domitian, and now, at the instigation of one of their two prefects, Casperius Aelianus, whom Nerva had retained in office, they imperiously demanded the execution of Domitian's murderers.
At the same time the powers of the prefects were augmented and each department given a general council.
==Local Government== The departments, presided over by prefects, are divided into territoires civils and territoires du commandant.
The bishops were declared " equal in rank to the viceroys and governors," and the priests " to the prefects of the first and second class "; and their influence and authority were to correspond.
Solaimn, to whom the victory was due, was then commissioned by the caliph to reconquer Egypt from the Tulunids, and after securing the allegiance of the Syrian prefects he invaded Egypt by sea and land at once.
Reaching Cairo on the 6th of January 1169, he was soon able to get possession of Shawars person, and after the prefects execution, which happened some ten days later, he was appointed vizier by the caliph.
This persons authority was, however, soon overthrown by a party formed by the Syrian prefects, and on the 11th of January Malik al-N~ir A~zmad, an elder son of the former sultan of the same title, was installed in his place, though he did not actually arrive in Cairo till the 6th of November, being unwilling to leave Kerak, where he had been living in retirement.
The prefects of the city at Rome were called Vicarai Romae.
On his accession Yazid sent a circular to all his prefects, officially announcing his father's death, and ordering them to administer the oath of allegiance to their subjects.
These two prefects compelled the refugees to return to Irak, where many of them were severely treated and even put to death by Hajjaj.
Merwan did all he could to pacify Syria, permitting the Arabs of the four provinces to choose their own prefects, and even acquiescing in the selection as prefect of Palestine of Thabit b.
Hence, probably in middle life, he became "praepositus sacri cubiculi," an "illustris," and entitled along with the praetorian prefects and the generals to the highest rank at the imperial court.
At the head of their organizations are vicars-apostolic for the Cape (eastern district), the Cape (western district), Natal, Orange River, Kimberley and the Transvaal, and prefects-apostolic for Basutoland and Zambezi (or Rhodesia).
Subordinate to the prefects are the subprefects in the provinces, the corregidores in the cantons and the alcaldes in the rural districts - all appointed officials.
The inscriptions show that they belonged to frontier-prefects whose expeditions into Nubia, &c., are recorded in them.
Prefects and subprefects are appointed by the state, but the chief civic officials are elected.
For the Societe de l'Histoire de la Revolution Frangaise, which brought out under his supervision an important periodical publication called La Revolution francaise, he produced the Registre des deliberations du consulat provisoire (1894), and L'Etat de la France en l'an VIII et en l'an IX, with the reports of the prefects (1897), besides editing various works or memoirs written by men of the Revolution, such as J.
The bishops constitute the episcopal synod, the supreme court of appeal, 1 During the long period of proscription, the Roman Catholic Church in Scotland survived in scattered groups; after the Reformation it was at first under the jurisdiction of the English arch-priest, but from 1653 to 1694 it was governed by prefects apostolic and from 1694 to 1878 by vicars apostolic appointed by the pope.
In the Roman empire, after Constantine, the title rector was borne by governors of provinces subordinate to the prefects or exarchs.
In the provincial administrations the functions of the prefects have been curtailed.
Both communal councils and prefects may appeal to the government against the decision of the provincial administrative juntas, the government being guided by the opinion of the Council of State.