How to use Predication in a sentence
Predication, as Aristotle saw, is as various as the categories of being.
On the other hand, in the Metaphysics, the distinction between inherence and predication disappears; and what is more, the relation of an attribute to a substance is regarded as so close that an attribute is merely the substance modified.
These theories are of varying value in proportion to their proximity to Aristotle's point that predication is about things, and to Mill's point that judgments and propositions are about things, not about ideas.
For three-quarters of a century, then, philosophy was at a standstill; and, when in the second decade of the 4th century the pursuit of truth was resumed, it was plain that Zeno's paradox of predication must be disposed of before the problems which had occupied the earlier thinkers - the problem of knowledge and the problem of being - could be so much as attempted.
Again, when it presently appeared that the theory of the immanent idea was inconsistent with itself, and moreover inapplicable to explain predication except where the subject was a sensible thing, so that reconstruction became necessary, the Zenonian difficulty continued to demand and to receive Plato's best attention.Advertisement
The hypothesis of inherence gives an inadequate account of the dependence of an attribute on a substance, and is a kind of half-way house between separation and predication.
The first difference then between the Categories and the Metaphysics is in the nature of an attribute; and the theory of inherence in the Categories is nearer to Plato and more rudimentary than the theory of predication in the Metaphysics.
The symbolic logic, which confuses " is " with " is equal to," having introduced a particular kind of predicate into the copula, falls into the mistake of reducing all predication to the one category of the quantitative; whereas it is more often in the substantial, e.g.
It is rather in virtue of his general faith in the possibility of construction, which he still does not undertake, and because of his consequent insistence on the elucidation of general concepts, which in common with some of his contemporaries, he may have thought of as endued with a certain objectivity, that he induces the controversies of what are called the Socratic schools as to the nature of predication.
Upon this it bases a theory of predication, which, however, is compatible with more than one reading of the metaphysical import of the ideas.Advertisement
Plato proceeds to explain by his principle of difference both privative and negative predicates, and also the possibility of false predication.
Aristotle made ten, all co-ordinate, to serve as " heads of predication " under which to collect distinct scraps of information respecting a subject, probably a man.
Great as was the importance of these paradoxes of plurality and motion in stimulating speculation about space and time, their direct influence upon Greek thought was less considerable than that of another paradox - strangely neglected by historians of philosophy - the paradox of predication.
He was not indeed aware how deeply he had committed himself; otherwise he would have observed that his argument, if valid against the Many of the vulgar, was valid also against the One of Parmenides, with its plurality of attributes, as well as that, in the absence of a theory of predication, it was useless to speculate about knowledge and being.
For the paradox of predication, which he had used to disprove the existence of plurality, was virtually a denial of all speech and all thought, and thus led to a more comprehensive scepticism than that which sprang from the contemporary theories of sensation.Advertisement
The Porphyrian, by introducing species, deals with the predication of universals concerning individuals (for species is necessarily predicated of the individual), and thus created difficulties from which the Aristotelian is free (see below).
Vinet's Chrestomathie francaise (1829), his Etudes sur la litterature francaise au XIX me siÃ¨cle (1849-51), and his Histoire de la litterature francaise au X VIII me siecle, together with his Etudes sur Pascal, Etudes sur les moralistes aux X VIme ei X VII me siecles, Histoire de la predication parmi les Reformes de France and other kindred works, gave evidence of a wide knowledge of literature, a sober and acute literary judgment and a distinguished faculty of appreciation.
Thus, in the Parmenides, with the paradox of likeness and unlikeness for his text, he inquires how far the cur14nt theories of being (his own included) are capable of providing, not only for knowledge, but also for predication, and in the concluding sentence he suggests that, as likeness and unlikeness, greatness and smallness, &c., are relations, the initial paradox is no longer paradoxical; while in the Sophist, Zeno's doctrine having been shown to be fatal to reason, thought, speech and utterance, the mutual Koevwvia of Elan which are not abra KaO' abra is elaborately demonstrated.
Avicenna's view of the universal may be compared with that of Abelard, which calls it " that whose nature it is to be predicated of several," as if the generality became explicit only in the act of predication, in the sermo or proposition, and not in the abstract, unrelated form or essence.
Another argument for univocal predication is based on an argument from Anselm.Advertisement
A nominalist to the core, he held that definition and predication are either false or tautological.
There is, however, a radical difference between the two systems. The standpoint of the Aristotelian classification is the predication of one universal concerning another.
The one in the many, the formula which lies at the base of the possibility of predication, is involved in the Socratic doctrine of general concepts or ideas.
The paradox of predication, that it seems to deny identity, or to deny difference, becomes a pons asinorum.
Yet from the points of view alike of an absolute pluralism, of a flux, and of a formula of bare identity - and a fortiori with any blending of these principles sufficiently within the bounds of plausibility to find an exponent - all knowledge, because all predication of unity, in difference, must be held to be impossible.Advertisement
This extreme of nominalism for which predication is impossible is, however, compromised by two concessions.
The development of a positive theory of predication has become quite crucial.
It is to be regarded as a propaedeutic, 12 which, although it is in contact with reality in and through the metaphysical import of the axioms, or again in the fact that the categories, though primarily taken as forms of predication, must also be regarded as kinds of being, is not directly concerned with object-reality, but with the determination for the thinking subject of what constitutes the knowledge correlative to being.
Vinet's Chrestomathie francaise (1829), his Etudes sur la litterature francaise au XIX me siècle (1849-51), and his Histoire de la litterature francaise au X VIII me siecle, together with his Etudes sur Pascal, Etudes sur les moralistes aux X VIme ei X VII me siecles, Histoire de la predication parmi les Reformes de France and other kindred works, gave evidence of a wide knowledge of literature, a sober and acute literary judgment and a distinguished faculty of appreciation.
Now, when without qualification he affirmed that the unlike thing cannot be like, nor the like thing unlike, he was on the high road to the doctrine maintained three-quarters of a century later by the Cynics, that no predication which is not identical is legitimate.Advertisement