Predicate Sentence Examples
Accordingly, when he said that a substance is a subject, he meant a real subject; and when he said that a universal species or genus is a predicate, he meant that it is a real predicate belonging to a real subject, which is always some individual substance of the kind.
However many statements cannot be modeled using predicate logic.
We discard the conception of the universal as a predicate applicable to a plurality, or even to all, of the members of a group. To know merely KaTa 7ravros is not to know, save accidentally.
In calling them Aryas we predicate nothing of them except that the grammar of their language is Aryan" (p. 245).
Usually we leave the predicate indefinite, because, as long as the thing in question is (or is not) determined, it does not matter about other things, and it is vain for us to try to think all things at once.Advertisement
The symbol of equality (=) is not the same as the copula (is); it means " is equal to," where " equal to " is part of the predicate, leaving " is " as the copula.
The predicate of " Serene Highness," though borne by certain magnates who were princes before they became Russians - as in the case of the families mentioned above - is not attached to the Russian title of " prince."
Hamilton's significance for the history of logic lies in the stimulus that he gave to the development of symbolic logic in England by his new analytic based upon his discovery or adoption of the principle of the quantification of the predicate.
All these various classes of princes are styled Fiirst and have the predicate " Serene Highness " (Durchlaucht).
The predicate of the conclusion is called the major term, the subject the minor term; the term which is common to the premises and disappears in the conclusion is the middle term.Advertisement
The Donatist position, like that of the Novatians, was that the mark of the true church is to guard the essential predicate of holiness by excluding all who have committed mortal sin; the Catholic standpoint was that such holiness is not destroyed by the presence of unworthy members in the church but rests upon the divine foundation of the church and upon the gift of the Holy Spirit and the communication of grace through the priesthood.
And the much wider diffusion of the orthodox church was also taken as practical confirmation that it alone possessed what was regarded as the equally essential predicate of catholicity.
For there Kant states as precisely as in the critique of speculative theology his fundamental doctrine that real existence is not a predicate to be added in thought to the conception of a possible subject.
However in the new case of double copula preceding predicate adjective, the tendency would possibly be to create an inseparable reduplicated form.
Predicate logic provides remarkable insight into these questions by providing a precise formalism capable of expressing all ordinary mathematics.Advertisement
Judgment is the act which refers an ideal content recognized as such to a reality beyond the act, predicating an idea of a reality, a what of a that; so that the subject is reality and the predicate the meaning of an idea, while the judgment refers the idea to reality by an identity of content (Bradley and Bosanquet).
But even the normal proposition in the syllogistic form tertii adjacentis, with subject, predicate and copula, is seldom a complete expression of the judgment.
In most judgments all we believe is that x is (or is not) y, that a thing is (or is not) determined, and that the thing signified by the subject is a thing signified by the predicate, but not that it is the only thing, or equal to everything signified by the predicate.
Subject and predicate not already seen to be conjoined must be severally known to be in relation with that which joins them, so that more than one direct conjunction must be given.
Motion, even more evidently than space, implicates the contradictory conception of continuity, and cannot, therefore, be a real predicate, though valid as an intelligible form and necessary to the comprehension of the objective semblance.Advertisement
The combinatorics was introduced by Ramsey to solve a special case of the decision problem for the first-order predicate calculus.
Page 387, fourth paragraph, lines 3-4 The earlier query did not lose it's joins predicate tho transitive closure - so.. .
General remarks Informally, a prolog program is a collection of statements, in first-order predicate logic.
The campaign promises are the predicate nominatives of the first and longest sentence, and feature again in the final sentence.
The index contains entries for only those table rows that satisfy the predicate.Advertisement
Finally, you just may have really forgotten to define some predicate.
Need to show that the BM's are isomorphic to the predicate transformers.
The errors of common opinion arise to a great extent from the ambiguous use of the verb "to be," which may imply existence or be merely the copula which connects subject and predicate.
According to him, inner decisive will, rising to active apperception, proceeds to what he calls " apperceptive combinations " (A pperceptionverbindungen); first to simple combinations of relating and comparing, and then to complex combinations of synthesis and analysis in imagination and understanding; in consequence of which synthesis issues in an aggregate idea (Gesammtvorstellung), and then at last analysis, by dividing an aggregate idea into subject and predicate, forms a judgment (see further Logic).
The verbal predicate of a transitive action became the dominant feature of its inner structure.
The chief of Dhrangadra, who bears the title of Raj Sahib, with the predicate of His Highness, is head of the ancient clan of Jhala Rajputs, who are said to have entered Kathiawar from Sind in the 8th century.
The commentators explain this to mean that an attribute as individual is inherent, as universal is a predicate.
It is evident that in the category of substance, as Aristotle perceived, substance is predicate of substance, e.g.
The question then arises, what sort of substance can be predicate; and in the Categories Aristotle gave an answer, which would have been impossible, if he had not, under Plato's influence, accepted both the unity and the substantiality of the universal.
In the syllogism " Every man is mortal and Socrates is a man," if in the minor premiss the copula " is " were not disengaged from the predicate " man," there would not be one middle term " man " in the two premisses.
But it is to be recollected that, according to Hume, an idea is actually a representation or individual picture, not a notion or even a schema, and that he never claims to be able to extract the predicate of a geometrical judgment by analysis of the subject.
The indicative use was soon given up and the pseudo-participle was employed only as predicate, especially indicating a state; e.g.
All these points about speech, eloquence and argument between man and man were absorbed into Aristotle's theory of reasoning, and in particular the grammar of the sentence consisting of noun and verb caused the logic of the proposition consisting of subject and predicate.
In the Analytics he took the final step of originating the logical analysis of the proposition as premise into subject and predicate as terms mediated by the copula, and analysed the syllogism into these elements.
It is the analysis of an aggregate idea (Gesammtvorstellung) into subject and predicate; based on a previous association of ideas, on relating and comparing, and on the apperceptive synthesis of an aggregate idea in consequence; but itself consisting in an apperceptive analysis of that aggregate idea; and requiring will in the form of apperception or attention (Wundt).
Again, in a primary judgment existence need not be expressed; but if expressed, it may be expressed either by the predicate, e.g.
But this is only a doubt whether all the things signified by the subject are similarly determined as signified by the predicate, and not a doubt whether there are such things at all.
A proposition is the consequent verbal expression of such a belief, and consists in asserting that the thing as signified by the subject is (or is not) determined as signified by the predicate.
On the other hand, we may go too far in the opposite direction, as Hamilton did in proposing the universal quantification of the predicate.
But the normal judgment, and therefore the normal proposition, do not require the quantity of the predicate.
The symbolic logic, which confuses " is " with " is equal to," having introduced a particular kind of predicate into the copula, falls into the mistake of reducing all predication to the one category of the quantitative; whereas it is more often in the substantial, e.g.
Lotze's mistake is the same as that of Hamilton about the quantification of the predicate, and that of those symbolists who held that reasoning ought always to exhaust all alternatives by equations.
A deduction is often like an induction, in inferring from particulars; the difference is that deduction combines a law in the major with the particulars in the minor premise, and infers syllogistically that the particulars of the minor have the predicate of the major premise, whereas induction uses the particulars simply as instances to generalize a law.
The Sophistes shows among other things that an identity-philosophy breaks down into a dualism of thought and expression, when it applies the predicate of unity to the real, just as the absolute pluralism on the other hand collapses into unity if it affirms or admits any form of relation whatsoever.
For proposition and judgment involve subject and predicate and exhibit what a modern writer calls " identity of reference with diversity of characterization."
If we abstract from any actual combination of subject and predicate and proceed to determine the types of predicate asserted in simple propositions of fact, we have on the one hand a subject which is never object, a " first substance " or concrete thing, of which may be predicated in the first place " second substance " expressing that it is a member of a concrete class, and in the second place quantity, quality, correlation, action and the like.
A predicate either is expressive of the essence or part of the essence of the subject, viz.
In the theory of dialectic any predicate may be suggested for a subject, and if not affirmed of it, must be denied of it, if not denied must be affirmed.
The middle term, though conceived as an intermediary or linking term, gets its name as intermediate in a homogeneous scheme of quantity, where it cannot be of narrower extension than the subject nor wider than the predicate of the conclusion.
By means of the doctrine of the quantification of the predicate, in which with his Leibnitzian conception of identity he anticipated Beneke and Hamilton alike, universal and particular judgments are made to pull together.
The act of judgment " which refers an ideal content (recognized as such) to a reality beyond the act " is the unit for logic. Grammatical subject and predicate necessarily both fall under the rubric of the adjectival, that is, within the logical idea or ideal content asserted.
It throws light on many phases of the search for truth, upon the plain man's claim to start with a subject which he knows whose predicate which he does not know is still to be developed, or again upon his use of the negative form of judgment, when the further determination of his purposive system is served by a positive judgment from without, the positive content of which is yet to be dropped as irrelevant to the matter in hand.
The simple fact at the bottom of the controversy is that in all empirical knowledge there is an intellectual element, without which there is no correlation of empirical data, and every judgment, however simple, postulates a correlation of some sort if only that between the predicate and its contradictory.
On this basis we can predicate the principles of linear and angular momentum, as in 15.
The eight forms of proposition adopted by De Morgan as the basis of his system partially differ from those which Hamilton derived from the quantified predicate.
This possibility, according to Averroes, led to the adoption by the physician Galen of the so-called fourth figure, in which the middle term is predicate of the major and subject of the minor.
Combinatorics was introduced by Ramsey to solve a special case of the decision problem for the first-order predicate calculus.
The ontological argument rests upon the false assumption that existence is a predicate.
An infallible sign of an induction is that the subject and predicate of the universal conclusion are merely those of the particular instances generalized; e.g.
A genus, they said, is essentially something which is predicated of a subject; but a thing cannot be a predicate (res enim non praedicatur).
On the other hand, a universal species or genus of substances is a predicate which, as well as everything else in all the other categories, always belongs to some individual substance or other as subject, and has no separate being.
Again, according to both works, an individual substance is a subject, a universal its predicate; and they have in common the Aristotelian metaphysics, which differs greatly from the modern logic of subject and predicate.
In other words, to him subject meant real as well as nominal subject, and predicate meant real as well as nominal predicate; whereas modern logic has gradually reduced both to the nominal terms of a proposition.
But even so the Categories concludes that everything is either a predicate of, or inherent in, a substance; and the view that this colour belongs to this substance only in the sense of being in it, not of it, leaves the impression that, like a Platonic form, it is an entity rather in than of an individual substance, though even in the Categories Aristotle is careful to deny its separability.
What he said in consequence was that the substance in the predicate is not an individual substance, e.g.
On the other hand, in the Metaphysics (Z 13), he distinctly denies that any universal can be a substance, on the ground that a substance is a subject, whereas a universal is a predicate and a belonging of a subject, from which it follows as he says that no universal is a substance, and no substance universal.
If judgment is an analysis of an aggregate idea into subject and predicate, it follows, as he says, that " as judgment is an immediate, so is inference a mediate, reference of the members of any aggregate of ideas to one another " (System der Philosophie, 66, first ed.).
He therefore retained the now meaningless title of elector, with the predicate of "royal highness."
It is applicable, however, not because the predicate is contained in the subject, but on the principle of contradiction.
Each proposition consists of two terms, the subject and its predicate, united by the copula.
Each inference contains three terms. In syllogistic inference the subject of the conclusion is the minor term, and its predicate the major term, while between these two extremes the term common to the two premises is the middle term, and the premise containing the middle and major terms is the major premise, the premise containing the middle and minor terms the minor premise.
In point of fact, he analysed it into premises, but then analysed a premise into terms, which he divided into subject and predicate, with the addition of the copula " is " or " is not."
But, in the first place, primary judgments signify this existence never by the copula, but sometimes by the predicate, and sometimes by the subject; and, secondly, it does not follow that all judgments whatever signify existence.
This reconstruction, which merges subject and predicate in one expression, in order to combine it with the verb of existence, is repeated in similar proposals of recent English logicians.
Hence the reconstruction of all categorical judgments by merging subject and predicate, either on Brentano's or on Bradley's plan, is a misrepresentation even of normal categorical judgments of existence.
All categorical judgment is an unconditional belief in the fact, signified by the copula, that a thing of some sort is (or is not) determined; but some categorical judgments are also beliefs that the thing is an existing thing, signified either by the subject or by the predicate, while others are not beliefs that the thing exists at all, but are only beliefs in something conceivable, or nameable, or in something or other, without particularizing what.
Consequently, A E I 0 are the normal propositions with indefinite predicates; whereas propositions with quantified predicates are only occasional forms, which we should use whenever we require to think the quantity of the predicate, e.g.
Using predicate logic, there should be no need to worry about the order.
Such a question is irrelevant at the level of predicate calculus.
We extend their result to more general structures of first order predicate calculus.
It came to be applied by custom, as did the predicate "Saint," to the holy men of the past; e.g.
If the quantity of the predicate were always thought, it ought logically to be always stated.
The words introducing this form (6Tav bE TO '&TL Tptrov irpoo-KaTnyopijTac, chap. so, s 9 b s 9), which are the origin of the phrase tertii adjacentis, disengage the verb of being (g un) partially but not entirely, because they still treat it as an extra part of the predicate, and not as a distinct copula.
It is remarkable that in Barbara, and therefore in many scientific deductions, to think the quantity of the predicate is not to the point either in the premises or in the conclusion; so that to quantify the propositions, as Hamilton proposes, would be to express more than a rational man thinks and judges.
It is true that the work gives only a negative definition of the inherent, namely, that it does not inhere as a part and cannot exist apart from that in which it inheres (1 a 24-25), and it admits that what is inherent may sometimes also be a predicate (chap. 5, 2 a 27-34).
Now, in all judgment we think " is," but in few judgments predicate " equal to."