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predicate

predicate

predicate Sentence Examples

  • Accordingly, when he said that a substance is a subject, he meant a real subject; and when he said that a universal species or genus is a predicate, he meant that it is a real predicate belonging to a real subject, which is always some individual substance of the kind.

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  • Usually we leave the predicate indefinite, because, as long as the thing in question is (or is not) determined, it does not matter about other things, and it is vain for us to try to think all things at once.

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  • Combinatorics was introduced by Ramsey to solve a special case of the decision problem for the first-order predicate calculus.

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  • It is remarkable that in Barbara, and therefore in many scientific deductions, to think the quantity of the predicate is not to the point either in the premises or in the conclusion; so that to quantify the propositions, as Hamilton proposes, would be to express more than a rational man thinks and judges.

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  • this man or this animal, because such a primary substance is not a predicate; but that the species man or the genus animal is the substance which is the predicate of Socrates the subject (Cat.

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  • Using predicate logic, there should be no need to worry about the order.

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  • The symbol of equality (=) is not the same as the copula (is); it means " is equal to," where " equal to " is part of the predicate, leaving " is " as the copula.

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  • by its subject and predicate are one and the same thing which cannot exist apart from itself.

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  • by its subject and predicate are one and the same thing which cannot exist apart from itself.

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  • Judgment is the act which refers an ideal content recognized as such to a reality beyond the act, predicating an idea of a reality, a what of a that; so that the subject is reality and the predicate the meaning of an idea, while the judgment refers the idea to reality by an identity of content (Bradley and Bosanquet).

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  • But this is only a doubt whether all the things signified by the subject are similarly determined as signified by the predicate, and not a doubt whether there are such things at all.

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  • Now, in all judgment we think " is," but in few judgments predicate " equal to."

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  • The question then arises, what sort of substance can be predicate; and in the Categories Aristotle gave an answer, which would have been impossible, if he had not, under Plato's influence, accepted both the unity and the substantiality of the universal.

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  • But even the normal proposition in the syllogistic form tertii adjacentis, with subject, predicate and copula, is seldom a complete expression of the judgment.

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  • It is the analysis of an aggregate idea (Gesammtvorstellung) into subject and predicate; based on a previous association of ideas, on relating and comparing, and on the apperceptive synthesis of an aggregate idea in consequence; but itself consisting in an apperceptive analysis of that aggregate idea; and requiring will in the form of apperception or attention (Wundt).

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  • The words introducing this form (6Tav bE TO '&TL Tptrov irpoo-KaTnyopijTac, chap. so, s 9 b s 9), which are the origin of the phrase tertii adjacentis, disengage the verb of being (g un) partially but not entirely, because they still treat it as an extra part of the predicate, and not as a distinct copula.

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  • In the Analytics he took the final step of originating the logical analysis of the proposition as premise into subject and predicate as terms mediated by the copula, and analysed the syllogism into these elements.

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  • Here, for the first time in logical literature, subject and predicate suddenly appear as terms, or extremes, with the verb of being (r6 e bat) or not being (re) 1.6 that) completely disengaged from both, but connecting them as a copula.

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  • praedicabilis, that which may be stated or affirmed), in scholastic logic, a term applied to a classification of the possible relations in which a predicate may stand to its subject.

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  • the species man, is not predicate of many individuals (b) Kara IroXXi v, Post.

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  • praedicabilis, that which may be stated or affirmed), in scholastic logic, a term applied to a classification of the possible relations in which a predicate may stand to its subject.

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  • Subject (inroKEI b tevov) originally meant a real thing which is the basis of something, and was used by Aristotle both for a thing to which something belongs and for a name of which another is asserted: accordingly " predicate " (KaT, yopouµ€vov) came with him to mean something really belonging (uirapxov) to a substance as real subject, as well as a name capable of being asserted of a name as a nominal subject.

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  • the species man, is not predicate of many individuals (b) Kara IroXXi v, Post.

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  • It is true that the work gives only a negative definition of the inherent, namely, that it does not inhere as a part and cannot exist apart from that in which it inheres (1 a 24-25), and it admits that what is inherent may sometimes also be a predicate (chap. 5, 2 a 27-34).

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  • But even so the Categories concludes that everything is either a predicate of, or inherent in, a substance; and the view that this colour belongs to this substance only in the sense of being in it, not of it, leaves the impression that, like a Platonic form, it is an entity rather in than of an individual substance, though even in the Categories Aristotle is careful to deny its separability.

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  • "This absolute," says he, "is experience, because that is really what we mean when we predicate or speak of anything."

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  • It is evident that in the category of substance, as Aristotle perceived, substance is predicate of substance, e.g.

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  • It is evident that in the category of substance, as Aristotle perceived, substance is predicate of substance, e.g.

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  • On the other hand, a universal species or genus of substances is a predicate which, as well as everything else in all the other categories, always belongs to some individual substance or other as subject, and has no separate being.

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  • The symbolic logic, which confuses " is " with " is equal to," having introduced a particular kind of predicate into the copula, falls into the mistake of reducing all predication to the one category of the quantitative; whereas it is more often in the substantial, e.g.

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  • On the other hand, a universal species or genus of substances is a predicate which, as well as everything else in all the other categories, always belongs to some individual substance or other as subject, and has no separate being.

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  • Hence " negative theology," which ascends from the creature to God by dropping one after another every determinate predicate, leads us nearest to the: truth.

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  • - Another example of Aristotle's gradual desertion of Plato is exhibited by the De Interpretatione as compared with the Prior Analytics, and it shows another gradual history in Aristotle's philosophy, namely, the development of subject, predicate and copula, in his logic.

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  • predicate and subject, combined or divided by being and not being (Pr.

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  • (5) When a judgment is expressed by a proposition, the proposition expresses the results of the division by two terms, subject and predicate, and by the copula that what is signified by the subject is what is signified by the predicate; and the proposition is a combination of the two terms; e.g.

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  • A genus, they said, is essentially something which is predicated of a subject; but a thing cannot be a predicate (res enim non praedicatur).

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  • A genus, they said, is essentially something which is predicated of a subject; but a thing cannot be a predicate (res enim non praedicatur).

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  • " Substance," says he (chap. 5), " which is properly, primarily and especially so called, is that which is neither a predicate of a subject nor inherent in a subject; for example, a particular man, or a particular horse.

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  • Again, according to both works, an individual substance is a subject, a universal its predicate; and they have in common the Aristotelian metaphysics, which differs greatly from the modern logic of subject and predicate.

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  • On the other hand, in the Metaphysics (Z 13), he distinctly denies that any universal can be a substance, on the ground that a substance is a subject, whereas a universal is a predicate and a belonging of a subject, from which it follows as he says that no universal is a substance, and no substance universal.

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  • Again, in a primary judgment existence need not be expressed; but if expressed, it may be expressed either by the predicate, e.g.

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  • The universal (To Ka06Xov) is real only as one predicate belonging to many individual substances: it is therefore not a substance.

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  • Lotze's mistake is the same as that of Hamilton about the quantification of the predicate, and that of those symbolists who held that reasoning ought always to exhaust all alternatives by equations.

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  • What he said in consequence was that the substance in the predicate is not an individual substance, e.g.

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  • all men; and not a whole species, but only an individual, is a predicate of such individual, e.g.

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  • He therefore retained the now meaningless title of elector, with the predicate of "royal highness."

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  • The chief of Dhrangadra, who bears the title of Raj Sahib, with the predicate of His Highness, is head of the ancient clan of Jhala Rajputs, who are said to have entered Kathiawar from Sind in the 8th century.

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  • In the syllogism " Every man is mortal and Socrates is a man," if in the minor premiss the copula " is " were not disengaged from the predicate " man," there would not be one middle term " man " in the two premisses.

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  • Each proposition consists of two terms, the subject and its predicate, united by the copula.

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  • Each inference contains three terms. In syllogistic inference the subject of the conclusion is the minor term, and its predicate the major term, while between these two extremes the term common to the two premises is the middle term, and the premise containing the middle and major terms is the major premise, the premise containing the middle and minor terms the minor premise.

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  • This reconstruction, which merges subject and predicate in one expression, in order to combine it with the verb of existence, is repeated in similar proposals of recent English logicians.

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  • All categorical judgment is an unconditional belief in the fact, signified by the copula, that a thing of some sort is (or is not) determined; but some categorical judgments are also beliefs that the thing is an existing thing, signified either by the subject or by the predicate, while others are not beliefs that the thing exists at all, but are only beliefs in something conceivable, or nameable, or in something or other, without particularizing what.

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  • If the quantity of the predicate were always thought, it ought logically to be always stated.

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  • Consequently, A E I 0 are the normal propositions with indefinite predicates; whereas propositions with quantified predicates are only occasional forms, which we should use whenever we require to think the quantity of the predicate, e.g.

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  • (t) in conversion, when we must think that all men are some animals, in order to judge that some animals are men; (2) in syllogisms of the 3rd figure, when the predicate of the minor premise must be particularly quantified in thought in order to become the particularly quantified subject of the conclusion; (3) in identical propositions including definitions, where we must think both that i -{- i are 2 and 2 are z -}- r.

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  • In most judgments all we believe is that x is (or is not) y, that a thing is (or is not) determined, and that the thing signified by the subject is a thing signified by the predicate, but not that it is the only thing, or equal to everything signified by the predicate.

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  • A deduction is often like an induction, in inferring from particulars; the difference is that deduction combines a law in the major with the particulars in the minor premise, and infers syllogistically that the particulars of the minor have the predicate of the major premise, whereas induction uses the particulars simply as instances to generalize a law.

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  • In most judgments all we believe is that x is (or is not) y, that a thing is (or is not) determined, and that the thing signified by the subject is a thing signified by the predicate, but not that it is the only thing, or equal to everything signified by the predicate.

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  • But it is to be recollected that, according to Hume, an idea is actually a representation or individual picture, not a notion or even a schema, and that he never claims to be able to extract the predicate of a geometrical judgment by analysis of the subject.

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  • It is applicable, however, not because the predicate is contained in the subject, but on the principle of contradiction.

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  • Hence the reconstruction of all categorical judgments by merging subject and predicate, either on Brentano's or on Bradley's plan, is a misrepresentation even of normal categorical judgments of existence.

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  • The commentators explain this to mean that an attribute as individual is inherent, as universal is a predicate.

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  • subject, predicate and copula.'

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  • A predicate either is expressive of the essence or part of the essence of the subject, viz.

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  • 8 judgment, though still viewed as combinatory, has the types which belong to coherent systems of implication discriminated from those that predicate coincidence or accident, i.e.

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  • In the theory of dialectic any predicate may be suggested for a subject, and if not affirmed of it, must be denied of it, if not denied must be affirmed.

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  • The middle term, though conceived as an intermediary or linking term, gets its name as intermediate in a homogeneous scheme of quantity, where it cannot be of narrower extension than the subject nor wider than the predicate of the conclusion.

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  • Subject and predicate not already seen to be conjoined must be severally known to be in relation with that which joins them, so that more than one direct conjunction must be given.

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  • We discard the conception of the universal as a predicate applicable to a plurality, or even to all, of the members of a group. To know merely KaTa 7ravros is not to know, save accidentally.

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  • A formula such as the equality of the interior angles of a triangle to two right angles is only scientifically known when it is not of isosceles or scalene triangle that it is known, nor even of all the several types of triangle collectively, but as a predicate of triangle recognized as the widest class-concept of which it is true, the first stage in the progressive differentiation of figure at which it can be asserted.° Three points obviously need development, the nature of definition, its connexion with the syllogism in which the middle term is cause or ground, and the way in which we have assurance of our principles.

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  • 2 From the purely logical thesis, developed at quite an early stage of his thinking, 3 that in any true proposition the predicate is contained in the subject, the main principles of his doctrine of Monads are derivable with the minimum of help from his philosophy of dynamics.

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  • propositions express in the last resort the relation of predicate or predicates to a subject, and this Leibnitz holds after considering the case of relational propositions where either term may hold the position of grammatical subject, A = B and the like.

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  • Hamilton's significance for the history of logic lies in the stimulus that he gave to the development of symbolic logic in England by his new analytic based upon his discovery or adoption of the principle of the quantification of the predicate.

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  • By means of the doctrine of the quantification of the predicate, in which with his Leibnitzian conception of identity he anticipated Beneke and Hamilton alike, universal and particular judgments are made to pull together.

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  • The Aristotelian formula is " merely the expression, formally expanded and complete, of the truth already embodied in disjunctive judgment, namely, that every S which is a specific form of M possesses as its predicate a particular:modification of each of the universal predicates of M to the exclusion of the rest."

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  • The act of judgment " which refers an ideal content (recognized as such) to a reality beyond the act " is the unit for logic. Grammatical subject and predicate necessarily both fall under the rubric of the adjectival, that is, within the logical idea or ideal content asserted.

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  • It throws light on many phases of the search for truth, upon the plain man's claim to start with a subject which he knows whose predicate which he does not know is still to be developed, or again upon his use of the negative form of judgment, when the further determination of his purposive system is served by a positive judgment from without, the positive content of which is yet to be dropped as irrelevant to the matter in hand.

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  • The simple fact at the bottom of the controversy is that in all empirical knowledge there is an intellectual element, without which there is no correlation of empirical data, and every judgment, however simple, postulates a correlation of some sort if only that between the predicate and its contradictory.

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  • But, in the first place, primary judgments signify this existence never by the copula, but sometimes by the predicate, and sometimes by the subject; and, secondly, it does not follow that all judgments whatever signify existence.

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  • In other words, to him subject meant real as well as nominal subject, and predicate meant real as well as nominal predicate; whereas modern logic has gradually reduced both to the nominal terms of a proposition.

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  • If judgment is an analysis of an aggregate idea into subject and predicate, it follows, as he says, that " as judgment is an immediate, so is inference a mediate, reference of the members of any aggregate of ideas to one another " (System der Philosophie, 66, first ed.).

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  • In point of fact, he analysed it into premises, but then analysed a premise into terms, which he divided into subject and predicate, with the addition of the copula " is " or " is not."

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  • It came to be applied by custom, as did the predicate "Saint," to the holy men of the past; e.g.

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  • All these various classes of princes are styled Fiirst and have the predicate " Serene Highness " (Durchlaucht).

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  • The predicate of " Serene Highness," though borne by certain magnates who were princes before they became Russians - as in the case of the families mentioned above - is not attached to the Russian title of " prince."

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  • Hamilton and George Boole, as one of several independent discoverers of the all-important principle of the quantification of the predicate.

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  • In this paper the principle of the quantified predicate was referred to, and there immediately ensued a memorable controversy with Sir W.

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  • The eight forms of proposition adopted by De Morgan as the basis of his system partially differ from those which Hamilton derived from the quantified predicate.

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  • In calling them Aryas we predicate nothing of them except that the grammar of their language is Aryan" (p. 245).

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  • (2) In point of fact, all logicians further confine the syllogism to arguments in which the terms are related as subject and predicate (or attribute in the widest sense).

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  • The predicate of the conclusion is called the major term, the subject the minor term; the term which is common to the premises and disappears in the conclusion is the middle term.

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  • If the middle term is the predicate in both premises, the syllogism is in figure II.: if the subject in both, figure III.

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  • may justify a conclusion in which the predicate is not, as normally, the major term, but the minor.

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  • This possibility, according to Averroes, led to the adoption by the physician Galen of the so-called fourth figure, in which the middle term is predicate of the major and subject of the minor.

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  • The Donatist position, like that of the Novatians, was that the mark of the true church is to guard the essential predicate of holiness by excluding all who have committed mortal sin; the Catholic standpoint was that such holiness is not destroyed by the presence of unworthy members in the church but rests upon the divine foundation of the church and upon the gift of the Holy Spirit and the communication of grace through the priesthood.

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  • And the much wider diffusion of the orthodox church was also taken as practical confirmation that it alone possessed what was regarded as the equally essential predicate of catholicity.

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  • Motion, even more evidently than space, implicates the contradictory conception of continuity, and cannot, therefore, be a real predicate, though valid as an intelligible form and necessary to the comprehension of the objective semblance.

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  • For there Kant states as precisely as in the critique of speculative theology his fundamental doctrine that real existence is not a predicate to be added in thought to the conception of a possible subject.

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  • This apple is really big: adjectives used like this after the verb to be are known as predicate adjectives.

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  • appositive clauses are a second type of subordinate clause that specify the identity of an object, rather than modifying a predicate.

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  • The ontological argument rests upon the false assumption that existence is a predicate.

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  • The ontological argument rests upon the false assumption that existence is a predicate.

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  • backtracking to redo a call to this predicate.

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  • Such a question is irrelevant at the level of predicate calculus.

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  • We extend their result to more general structures of first order predicate calculus.

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  • The combinatorics was introduced by Ramsey to solve a special case of the decision problem for the first-order predicate calculus.

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  • Page 387, fourth paragraph, lines 3-4 The earlier query did not lose it's joins predicate tho transitive closure - so.. .

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  • However in the new case of double copula preceding predicate adjective, the tendency would possibly be to create an inseparable reduplicated form.

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  • ennobled with the predicate " von Vares " on the 21st of May 1880.

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  • Predicate logic provides remarkable insight into these questions by providing a precise formalism capable of expressing all ordinary mathematics.

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  • However many statements cannot be modeled using predicate logic.

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  • General remarks Informally, a prolog program is a collection of statements, in first-order predicate logic.

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  • nobility with the predicate " Ritter von " on the 24th July 1871.

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  • The campaign promises are the predicate nominatives of the first and longest sentence, and feature again in the final sentence.

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  • The index contains entries for only those table rows that satisfy the predicate.

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  • Finally, you just may have really forgotten to define some predicate.

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  • The optional third argument must be a binary predicate, a binary function returning a boolean value.

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  • Need to show that the BM's are isomorphic to the predicate transformers.

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  • "Divinity" is a predicate applied by faith to Jesus in His founding and redeeming activity.

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  • affirmare, to assert), the declaration that something is true; in logic, a positive judgment, the union of the subject and predicate of a proposition; particularly, in law, the solemn declaration allowed to those who conscientiously object to taking an oath.

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  • Hence " negative theology," which ascends from the creature to God by dropping one after another every determinate predicate, leads us nearest to the: truth.

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  • The errors of common opinion arise to a great extent from the ambiguous use of the verb "to be," which may imply existence or be merely the copula which connects subject and predicate.

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  • The chief of Dhrangadra, who bears the title of Raj Sahib, with the predicate of His Highness, is head of the ancient clan of Jhala Rajputs, who are said to have entered Kathiawar from Sind in the 8th century.

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  • " Substance," says he (chap. 5), " which is properly, primarily and especially so called, is that which is neither a predicate of a subject nor inherent in a subject; for example, a particular man, or a particular horse.

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  • Again, according to both works, an individual substance is a subject, a universal its predicate; and they have in common the Aristotelian metaphysics, which differs greatly from the modern logic of subject and predicate.

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  • Subject (inroKEI b tevov) originally meant a real thing which is the basis of something, and was used by Aristotle both for a thing to which something belongs and for a name of which another is asserted: accordingly " predicate " (KaT, yopouµ€vov) came with him to mean something really belonging (uirapxov) to a substance as real subject, as well as a name capable of being asserted of a name as a nominal subject.

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  • In other words, to him subject meant real as well as nominal subject, and predicate meant real as well as nominal predicate; whereas modern logic has gradually reduced both to the nominal terms of a proposition.

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  • Accordingly, when he said that a substance is a subject, he meant a real subject; and when he said that a universal species or genus is a predicate, he meant that it is a real predicate belonging to a real subject, which is always some individual substance of the kind.

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  • It is true that the work gives only a negative definition of the inherent, namely, that it does not inhere as a part and cannot exist apart from that in which it inheres (1 a 24-25), and it admits that what is inherent may sometimes also be a predicate (chap. 5, 2 a 27-34).

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  • The commentators explain this to mean that an attribute as individual is inherent, as universal is a predicate.

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  • But even so the Categories concludes that everything is either a predicate of, or inherent in, a substance; and the view that this colour belongs to this substance only in the sense of being in it, not of it, leaves the impression that, like a Platonic form, it is an entity rather in than of an individual substance, though even in the Categories Aristotle is careful to deny its separability.

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  • The question then arises, what sort of substance can be predicate; and in the Categories Aristotle gave an answer, which would have been impossible, if he had not, under Plato's influence, accepted both the unity and the substantiality of the universal.

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  • What he said in consequence was that the substance in the predicate is not an individual substance, e.g.

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  • this man or this animal, because such a primary substance is not a predicate; but that the species man or the genus animal is the substance which is the predicate of Socrates the subject (Cat.

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  • On the other hand, in the Metaphysics (Z 13), he distinctly denies that any universal can be a substance, on the ground that a substance is a subject, whereas a universal is a predicate and a belonging of a subject, from which it follows as he says that no universal is a substance, and no substance universal.

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  • - Another example of Aristotle's gradual desertion of Plato is exhibited by the De Interpretatione as compared with the Prior Analytics, and it shows another gradual history in Aristotle's philosophy, namely, the development of subject, predicate and copula, in his logic.

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  • The words introducing this form (6Tav bE TO '&TL Tptrov irpoo-KaTnyopijTac, chap. so, s 9 b s 9), which are the origin of the phrase tertii adjacentis, disengage the verb of being (g un) partially but not entirely, because they still treat it as an extra part of the predicate, and not as a distinct copula.

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  • predicate and subject, combined or divided by being and not being (Pr.

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  • Here, for the first time in logical literature, subject and predicate suddenly appear as terms, or extremes, with the verb of being (r6 e bat) or not being (re) 1.6 that) completely disengaged from both, but connecting them as a copula.

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  • In the syllogism " Every man is mortal and Socrates is a man," if in the minor premiss the copula " is " were not disengaged from the predicate " man," there would not be one middle term " man " in the two premisses.

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  • (2) Later logical analysis in the Prior Analytics of the proposition as premiss into subject, predicate and copula, for the purpose of syllogism; but without insisting that the original form is illogical.

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  • The universal (To Ka06Xov) is real only as one predicate belonging to many individual substances: it is therefore not a substance.

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  • all men; and not a whole species, but only an individual, is a predicate of such individual, e.g.

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  • According to him, inner decisive will, rising to active apperception, proceeds to what he calls " apperceptive combinations " (A pperceptionverbindungen); first to simple combinations of relating and comparing, and then to complex combinations of synthesis and analysis in imagination and understanding; in consequence of which synthesis issues in an aggregate idea (Gesammtvorstellung), and then at last analysis, by dividing an aggregate idea into subject and predicate, forms a judgment (see further Logic).

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  • If judgment is an analysis of an aggregate idea into subject and predicate, it follows, as he says, that " as judgment is an immediate, so is inference a mediate, reference of the members of any aggregate of ideas to one another " (System der Philosophie, 66, first ed.).

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  • "This absolute," says he, "is experience, because that is really what we mean when we predicate or speak of anything."

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  • He therefore retained the now meaningless title of elector, with the predicate of "royal highness."

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  • But it is to be recollected that, according to Hume, an idea is actually a representation or individual picture, not a notion or even a schema, and that he never claims to be able to extract the predicate of a geometrical judgment by analysis of the subject.

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  • It is applicable, however, not because the predicate is contained in the subject, but on the principle of contradiction.

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  • It came to be applied by custom, as did the predicate "Saint," to the holy men of the past; e.g.

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  • The indicative use was soon given up and the pseudo-participle was employed only as predicate, especially indicating a state; e.g.

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  • He examined and analysed the fact of human knowledge, and obtained the following results: (r) that the notion or idea of being or existence in general enters into, and is presupposed by, all our acquired cognitions, so that, without it, they would be impossible; (2) that this idea is essentially objective, inasmuch as what is seen in it is as distinct from and opposed to the mind that sees it as the light is from the eye that looks at it; (3) that it is essentially true, because "being" and "truth" are convertible terms, and because in the vision of it the mind cannot err, since error could only be committed by a judgment, and here there is no judgment, but a pure intuition affirming nothing and denying nothing; (4) that by the application of this essentially objective and true idea the human being intellectually perceives, first, the animal body individually conjoined with him, and then, on occasion of the sensations produced in him not by himself, the causes of those sensations, that is, from the action felt he perceives and affirms an agent, a being, and therefore a true thing, that acts on him, and he thus gets at the external world, - these are the true primitive judgments, containing (a) the subsistence of the particular being (subject), and (b) its essence or species as determined by the quality of the action felt from it (predicate); (5) that reflection, by separating the essence or species from the subsistence, obtains the full specific idea (universalization), and then from this, by leaving aside some of its elements, the abstract specific idea (abstraction); (6) that the mind, having reached this stage of development, can proceed to further and further abstracts, including the first principles of reasoning, the principles of the several sciences, complex ideas, groups of ideas, and so on without end; (7) finally, that the same most universal idea of being, this generator and formal element of all acquired cognitions, cannot itself be acquired, but must be innate in us, implanted by God in our nature.

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  • Each proposition consists of two terms, the subject and its predicate, united by the copula.

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  • Each inference contains three terms. In syllogistic inference the subject of the conclusion is the minor term, and its predicate the major term, while between these two extremes the term common to the two premises is the middle term, and the premise containing the middle and major terms is the major premise, the premise containing the middle and minor terms the minor premise.

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  • " Analytics " is only applied to the Prior and Posterior Analytics, and " logical," which he opposed to " analytical," only suits the Topics and at most the Sophistical Elenchi; secondly, while he analyzed syllogism into premises, major and minor, and premises into terms, subject and predicate, he attempted no division of the whole science; thirdly, he attempted no order and arrangement of the treatises into a system of logic, but only of the Analytics, Topics and Sophistical Elenchi into a system of syllogisms. Nevertheless, when his followers had arranged the treatises into the Organon, as they called it to express that it is an instrument of science, then there gradually emerged a system of syllogistic logic, arranged in the triple division - terms, propositions and syllogisms - which has survived to this day as technical logic, and has been the foundation of all other logics, even of those which aim at its destruction.

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  • In point of fact, he analysed it into premises, but then analysed a premise into terms, which he divided into subject and predicate, with the addition of the copula " is " or " is not."

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  • All these points about speech, eloquence and argument between man and man were absorbed into Aristotle's theory of reasoning, and in particular the grammar of the sentence consisting of noun and verb caused the logic of the proposition consisting of subject and predicate.

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  • In the Analytics he took the final step of originating the logical analysis of the proposition as premise into subject and predicate as terms mediated by the copula, and analysed the syllogism into these elements.

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  • (5) When a judgment is expressed by a proposition, the proposition expresses the results of the division by two terms, subject and predicate, and by the copula that what is signified by the subject is what is signified by the predicate; and the proposition is a combination of the two terms; e.g.

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  • It is the analysis of an aggregate idea (Gesammtvorstellung) into subject and predicate; based on a previous association of ideas, on relating and comparing, and on the apperceptive synthesis of an aggregate idea in consequence; but itself consisting in an apperceptive analysis of that aggregate idea; and requiring will in the form of apperception or attention (Wundt).

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  • Judgment is the act which refers an ideal content recognized as such to a reality beyond the act, predicating an idea of a reality, a what of a that; so that the subject is reality and the predicate the meaning of an idea, while the judgment refers the idea to reality by an identity of content (Bradley and Bosanquet).

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  • Again, in a primary judgment existence need not be expressed; but if expressed, it may be expressed either by the predicate, e.g.

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  • But, in the first place, primary judgments signify this existence never by the copula, but sometimes by the predicate, and sometimes by the subject; and, secondly, it does not follow that all judgments whatever signify existence.

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  • Whereas in a primary judgment there is a further belief, signified by subject or predicate, that the thing is an existing thing in the sense of being a real thing (e.g.

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  • This reconstruction, which merges subject and predicate in one expression, in order to combine it with the verb of existence, is repeated in similar proposals of recent English logicians.

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  • Hence the reconstruction of all categorical judgments by merging subject and predicate, either on Brentano's or on Bradley's plan, is a misrepresentation even of normal categorical judgments of existence.

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  • All categorical judgment is an unconditional belief in the fact, signified by the copula, that a thing of some sort is (or is not) determined; but some categorical judgments are also beliefs that the thing is an existing thing, signified either by the subject or by the predicate, while others are not beliefs that the thing exists at all, but are only beliefs in something conceivable, or nameable, or in something or other, without particularizing what.

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  • But this is only a doubt whether all the things signified by the subject are similarly determined as signified by the predicate, and not a doubt whether there are such things at all.

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  • A proposition is the consequent verbal expression of such a belief, and consists in asserting that the thing as signified by the subject is (or is not) determined as signified by the predicate.

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  • But even the normal proposition in the syllogistic form tertii adjacentis, with subject, predicate and copula, is seldom a complete expression of the judgment.

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  • On the other hand, we may go too far in the opposite direction, as Hamilton did in proposing the universal quantification of the predicate.

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  • If the quantity of the predicate were always thought, it ought logically to be always stated.

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  • Usually we leave the predicate indefinite, because, as long as the thing in question is (or is not) determined, it does not matter about other things, and it is vain for us to try to think all things at once.

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  • It is remarkable that in Barbara, and therefore in many scientific deductions, to think the quantity of the predicate is not to the point either in the premises or in the conclusion; so that to quantify the propositions, as Hamilton proposes, would be to express more than a rational man thinks and judges.

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  • Consequently, A E I 0 are the normal propositions with indefinite predicates; whereas propositions with quantified predicates are only occasional forms, which we should use whenever we require to think the quantity of the predicate, e.g.

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  • (t) in conversion, when we must think that all men are some animals, in order to judge that some animals are men; (2) in syllogisms of the 3rd figure, when the predicate of the minor premise must be particularly quantified in thought in order to become the particularly quantified subject of the conclusion; (3) in identical propositions including definitions, where we must think both that i -{- i are 2 and 2 are z -}- r.

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  • But the normal judgment, and therefore the normal proposition, do not require the quantity of the predicate.

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  • The symbol of equality (=) is not the same as the copula (is); it means " is equal to," where " equal to " is part of the predicate, leaving " is " as the copula.

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  • Now, in all judgment we think " is," but in few judgments predicate " equal to."

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  • The symbolic logic, which confuses " is " with " is equal to," having introduced a particular kind of predicate into the copula, falls into the mistake of reducing all predication to the one category of the quantitative; whereas it is more often in the substantial, e.g.

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  • Lotze's mistake is the same as that of Hamilton about the quantification of the predicate, and that of those symbolists who held that reasoning ought always to exhaust all alternatives by equations.

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  • A deduction is often like an induction, in inferring from particulars; the difference is that deduction combines a law in the major with the particulars in the minor premise, and infers syllogistically that the particulars of the minor have the predicate of the major premise, whereas induction uses the particulars simply as instances to generalize a law.

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  • An infallible sign of an induction is that the subject and predicate of the universal conclusion are merely those of the particular instances generalized; e.g.

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  • The Sophistes shows among other things that an identity-philosophy breaks down into a dualism of thought and expression, when it applies the predicate of unity to the real, just as the absolute pluralism on the other hand collapses into unity if it affirms or admits any form of relation whatsoever.

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  • For proposition and judgment involve subject and predicate and exhibit what a modern writer calls " identity of reference with diversity of characterization."

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  • subject, predicate and copula.'

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  • If we abstract from any actual combination of subject and predicate and proceed to determine the types of predicate asserted in simple propositions of fact, we have on the one hand a subject which is never object, a " first substance " or concrete thing, of which may be predicated in the first place " second substance " expressing that it is a member of a concrete class, and in the second place quantity, quality, correlation, action and the like.

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  • A predicate either is expressive of the essence or part of the essence of the subject, viz.

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  • 8 judgment, though still viewed as combinatory, has the types which belong to coherent systems of implication discriminated from those that predicate coincidence or accident, i.e.

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  • In the theory of dialectic any predicate may be suggested for a subject, and if not affirmed of it, must be denied of it, if not denied must be affirmed.

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  • The middle term, though conceived as an intermediary or linking term, gets its name as intermediate in a homogeneous scheme of quantity, where it cannot be of narrower extension than the subject nor wider than the predicate of the conclusion.

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  • Subject and predicate not already seen to be conjoined must be severally known to be in relation with that which joins them, so that more than one direct conjunction must be given.

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  • We discard the conception of the universal as a predicate applicable to a plurality, or even to all, of the members of a group. To know merely KaTa 7ravros is not to know, save accidentally.

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  • A formula such as the equality of the interior angles of a triangle to two right angles is only scientifically known when it is not of isosceles or scalene triangle that it is known, nor even of all the several types of triangle collectively, but as a predicate of triangle recognized as the widest class-concept of which it is true, the first stage in the progressive differentiation of figure at which it can be asserted.° Three points obviously need development, the nature of definition, its connexion with the syllogism in which the middle term is cause or ground, and the way in which we have assurance of our principles.

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  • 2 From the purely logical thesis, developed at quite an early stage of his thinking, 3 that in any true proposition the predicate is contained in the subject, the main principles of his doctrine of Monads are derivable with the minimum of help from his philosophy of dynamics.

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  • propositions express in the last resort the relation of predicate or predicates to a subject, and this Leibnitz holds after considering the case of relational propositions where either term may hold the position of grammatical subject, A = B and the like.

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  • Hamilton's significance for the history of logic lies in the stimulus that he gave to the development of symbolic logic in England by his new analytic based upon his discovery or adoption of the principle of the quantification of the predicate.

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  • By means of the doctrine of the quantification of the predicate, in which with his Leibnitzian conception of identity he anticipated Beneke and Hamilton alike, universal and particular judgments are made to pull together.

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  • The Aristotelian formula is " merely the expression, formally expanded and complete, of the truth already embodied in disjunctive judgment, namely, that every S which is a specific form of M possesses as its predicate a particular:modification of each of the universal predicates of M to the exclusion of the rest."

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  • The act of judgment " which refers an ideal content (recognized as such) to a reality beyond the act " is the unit for logic. Grammatical subject and predicate necessarily both fall under the rubric of the adjectival, that is, within the logical idea or ideal content asserted.

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  • It throws light on many phases of the search for truth, upon the plain man's claim to start with a subject which he knows whose predicate which he does not know is still to be developed, or again upon his use of the negative form of judgment, when the further determination of his purposive system is served by a positive judgment from without, the positive content of which is yet to be dropped as irrelevant to the matter in hand.

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  • The simple fact at the bottom of the controversy is that in all empirical knowledge there is an intellectual element, without which there is no correlation of empirical data, and every judgment, however simple, postulates a correlation of some sort if only that between the predicate and its contradictory.

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  • On this basis we can predicate the principles of linear and angular momentum, as in 15.

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  • All these various classes of princes are styled Fiirst and have the predicate " Serene Highness " (Durchlaucht).

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  • The predicate of " Serene Highness," though borne by certain magnates who were princes before they became Russians - as in the case of the families mentioned above - is not attached to the Russian title of " prince."

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  • Hamilton and George Boole, as one of several independent discoverers of the all-important principle of the quantification of the predicate.

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  • In this paper the principle of the quantified predicate was referred to, and there immediately ensued a memorable controversy with Sir W.

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  • The eight forms of proposition adopted by De Morgan as the basis of his system partially differ from those which Hamilton derived from the quantified predicate.

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  • In calling them Aryas we predicate nothing of them except that the grammar of their language is Aryan" (p. 245).

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  • (2) In point of fact, all logicians further confine the syllogism to arguments in which the terms are related as subject and predicate (or attribute in the widest sense).

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  • The predicate of the conclusion is called the major term, the subject the minor term; the term which is common to the premises and disappears in the conclusion is the middle term.

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  • If the middle term is the predicate in both premises, the syllogism is in figure II.: if the subject in both, figure III.

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  • may justify a conclusion in which the predicate is not, as normally, the major term, but the minor.

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  • This possibility, according to Averroes, led to the adoption by the physician Galen of the so-called fourth figure, in which the middle term is predicate of the major and subject of the minor.

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  • The Donatist position, like that of the Novatians, was that the mark of the true church is to guard the essential predicate of holiness by excluding all who have committed mortal sin; the Catholic standpoint was that such holiness is not destroyed by the presence of unworthy members in the church but rests upon the divine foundation of the church and upon the gift of the Holy Spirit and the communication of grace through the priesthood.

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  • And the much wider diffusion of the orthodox church was also taken as practical confirmation that it alone possessed what was regarded as the equally essential predicate of catholicity.

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  • Motion, even more evidently than space, implicates the contradictory conception of continuity, and cannot, therefore, be a real predicate, though valid as an intelligible form and necessary to the comprehension of the objective semblance.

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  • For there Kant states as precisely as in the critique of speculative theology his fundamental doctrine that real existence is not a predicate to be added in thought to the conception of a possible subject.

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  • The verbal predicate of a transitive action became the dominant feature of its inner structure.

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  • The indicative use was soon given up and the pseudo-participle was employed only as predicate, especially indicating a state; e.g.

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  • All these points about speech, eloquence and argument between man and man were absorbed into Aristotle's theory of reasoning, and in particular the grammar of the sentence consisting of noun and verb caused the logic of the proposition consisting of subject and predicate.

    0
    1
  • A proposition is the consequent verbal expression of such a belief, and consists in asserting that the thing as signified by the subject is (or is not) determined as signified by the predicate.

    0
    1
  • On the other hand, we may go too far in the opposite direction, as Hamilton did in proposing the universal quantification of the predicate.

    0
    1
  • But the normal judgment, and therefore the normal proposition, do not require the quantity of the predicate.

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    1
  • The Sophistes shows among other things that an identity-philosophy breaks down into a dualism of thought and expression, when it applies the predicate of unity to the real, just as the absolute pluralism on the other hand collapses into unity if it affirms or admits any form of relation whatsoever.

    0
    1
  • For proposition and judgment involve subject and predicate and exhibit what a modern writer calls " identity of reference with diversity of characterization."

    0
    1
  • If we abstract from any actual combination of subject and predicate and proceed to determine the types of predicate asserted in simple propositions of fact, we have on the one hand a subject which is never object, a " first substance " or concrete thing, of which may be predicated in the first place " second substance " expressing that it is a member of a concrete class, and in the second place quantity, quality, correlation, action and the like.

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  • On this basis we can predicate the principles of linear and angular momentum, as in 15.

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    1
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