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precipitation

precipitation

precipitation Sentence Examples

  • The precipitation of rain, snow and hail is about 55 in.

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  • The precipitation of rain, snow and hail is about 55 in.

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  • The precipitation is greatest on the Atlantic seaboard and in the elevated regions of the interior.

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  • About two-thirds of the total precipitation falls in the latter half of the year.

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  • The normal annual precipitation for the entire state is 38.4 in.

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  • Dean never ceased to marvel at the difference of high mountain snow from the heavy, wet precipitation of the East and the endless problems it caused with man and auto.

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  • The average precipitation for the state is about 52 in.

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  • The average precipitation for the state is about 52 in.

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  • Solutions of uranyl salts (nitrate, &c.) behave to reagents as follows: sulphuretted hydrogen produces green uranous salt with precipitation of sulphur; sulphide of ammonium in neutral solutions gives a black precipitate of UO 2 S, which settles slowly and, while being washed in the filter, breaks up partially into hydrated UO 2 an sulphur; ammonia gives a yellow precipitate of uranate of ammonia, characteristically soluble in hot carbonate of ammonia solution; prussiate of potash gives a brown precipitate which in appearance is not unlike the precipitate produced by the same reagent in cupric salts.

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  • Precipitation is greatest in the mountains, over 50 in.; and least over the Ohio Valley, the eastern Panhandle and the extreme south-east, 35 to 40 in.

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  • Though he considered such precipitation impolitic, Robilant, finding that confidential information of Italian intentions had already been conveyed to the Austrian government, sought an interview with King Humbert, and on the 17th of October started for Vienna to settle the conditions of the visit.

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  • With iodine compounds, iodic acid is likely to be formed, and hence the solution must be reduced with sulphurous acid before precipitation with silver nitrate.

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  • - Within historic times the climate, and with it the productivity of the country, cannot have greatly changed; at most the precipitation may have been greater, the area under wood having been more extensive.

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  • The existence of sulphuretted hydrogen in great quantities below loo fathoms, the extensive chemical precipitation of calcium carbonate, the stagnant nature of its deep waters, and the absence of deep-sea life are conditions which make it impossible to discuss it along with the physical and biological conditions of the Mediterranean proper.

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  • Or early climatologists who made their own daily observations of precipitation and barometric pressure, interpreting as well as collecting readings.

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  • The existence of lakes in hollows of the land depends upon the balance between precipitation and evaporation.

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  • Being thus soluble in salt water it cannot, of course, be salted out like common soaps; but if a very concentrated salt solution is used precipitation is effected, and a curd soap is separated so hard and refractory as to be practically useless.

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  • The probability also is that there is more precipitation, and that the mean temperatures are lower.

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  • The probability also is that there is more precipitation, and that the mean temperatures are lower.

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  • In the separation of the constituents of the complex mixture of oxides obtained from the " rare earth " minerals, the methods generally forced upon chemists are those of fractional precipitation or crystallization; the striking resemblances of the compounds of these elements rarely admitting of a complete separation by simple precipitation and filtration.

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  • In the polar areas the melting of sea-ice and of ice formed by precipitation lowers the density of the seawater and causes a difference of level which sets up streaming movements towards the equator.

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  • - This process depends upon the solubility of gold in a dilute solution of potassium cyanide in the presence of air (or some other oxidizing agent), and the subsequent precipitation of the gold by metallic zinc or by.

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  • The contracts naturally do not concern such criminal cases as the above, as a rule, but marriage contracts do specify death by strangling, drowning, precipitation from a tower or pinnacle of the temple or by the iron sword for a wife's repudiation of her husband.

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  • The contracts naturally do not concern such criminal cases as the above, as a rule, but marriage contracts do specify death by strangling, drowning, precipitation from a tower or pinnacle of the temple or by the iron sword for a wife's repudiation of her husband.

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  • end of Lake Baikal, then it broadens out so as to include the whole of the Amur basin, the total summer precipitation there being about 12 in.

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  • Murray's calculations give the amount of precipitation received on this area at 15,800 cub.

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  • The precipitation of rain from the aqueous plain.

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  • The precipitation of rain from the aqueous plain.

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  • The strengths employed depend also upon the mode of precipitation adopted, stronger solutions (up to 0.25% KCN) being used when zinc is the precipitant.

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  • In the early stages of the precipitation the polarization is complete in a perpendicular direction, and incomplete in oblique directions.

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  • For electrolytic precipitation the solution may contain up to 0.1% KCN.

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  • The ammonium salt is then converted into the lead salt by precipitation with lead acetate and the lead salt decomposed by sulphuretted hydrogen.

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  • The ammonium salt is then converted into the lead salt by precipitation with lead acetate and the lead salt decomposed by sulphuretted hydrogen.

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  • The oxides are then converted into double sulphates which are separated from each other by repeated fractional crystallization or by fractional precipitation with ammonia or some other base.

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  • Akhdar in Oman, but is very rarely known on the Yemen mountains, probably because the precipitation during the winter months is so slight.

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  • News, 23, p. 206) by reducing a solution of potassium nitrite with sodium amalgam, and subsequent precipitation as silver salt.

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  • Precipitation is largely confined to local showers, often of such violence as to warrant the name "cloud bursts," commonly applied to the heavy down-pours of this desert region.

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  • A so-called " rainy season " lasts from October to April, but the precipitation is chiefly in the form of snow on the mountains.

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  • Over the lowlands of the Basin, taken generally, there is an average precipitation of perhaps 6-7 in., while in the Oregon region it is twice as great, and in the southern parts even less.

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  • Precipitation with sulphur dioxide and sulphuretted hydrogen proceeds much more rapidly, and has been adopted at many works.

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  • The thiosulphates are readily decomposed by mineral acids with liberation of sulphur dioxide and precipitation of sulphur: Na 2 S 2 0 3 + 2HC1 = 2NaC1 + S + SO 2 + H 2 O.

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  • The normal annual precipitation for Mississippi is about 51 in.; for the southern half, 54 in., and for the northern half, 49 in.

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  • The specific gravity of gold obtained by precipitation from solution by ferrous sulphate is from 19.55 to 20.72.

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  • The following table gives particulars of temperature averages at a few typical places: In respect of precipitation the entire region of Caucasia may be divided into two strikingly contrasted regions, a wet and a dry.

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  • In the case of separation from solutions, either by crystallization or by precipitation by double decomposition, the temperature, the concentration of the solution, and the presence of other ions may modify the form obtained.

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  • It can be purified by solution in hydrochloric acid and subsequent precipitation by metallic zinc.

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  • The mean annual precipitation varies from 3 in.

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  • This solution is not very stable, since on exposure to air it slowly oxidizes and becomes turbid owing to the gradual precipitation of sulphur.

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  • Most other carbonates are formed by precipitation of salts of the metals by means of alkaline carbonates.

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  • The precipitation is carried out in tanks or vats made with"wooden sides and a cement bottom.

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  • The steep icewalls at the margin of the inland ice show, especially where the motion of the ice is slow, a distinct striation, which indicates the strata of annual precipitation with the intervening thin seams of dust (Nordenskidld's kryokonite).

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  • or more, and descends gradually by extremely gentle slopes towards the coasts or the bottom of the fjords on all sides, discharging a great part of its yearly drainage or surplus of precipitation in the form of icebergs in the fjords, the so-called ice-fjords, which are numerous both on the west and on the east coast.

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  • They are precipitated from their alkaline solutions as cobalt sulphide by sulphuretted hydrogen, but this precipitation is prevented by the presence of citric and tartaric acids; similarly the presence of ammonium salts hinders their precipitation by caustic alkalis.

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  • The mean annual precipitation for the entire state is about 38.5 in.; more rain falls in summer than in any other season, and more falls in the southern section than in the northern.

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  • In the case of acetate the precipitation is quite complete; from a sulphate or chloride solution the greater part of the metal goes into the precipitate; in the presence of a sufficiency of free HC1 the metal remains dissolved; sulphide of ammonium precipitates the metal completely, even in the presence of ammonium salts and free ammonia.

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  • The process embraces three operations: (1) Solution of the gold; (2) precipitation of the gold; (3) treatment of the precipitate.

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  • This upheaval - the consequences of which have been felt even within the historic period, by the drainage of the formerly impracticable marshes of Novgorod and at the head of the Gulf of Finland - together with the destruction of forests, contributes towards a decrease of precipitation over Russia and towards increased shallowness of her rivers.

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  • The diurnal mountain winds are very strongly marked on the Himalaya, where they probably are the most active agents in determining the precipitation of rain along the chain - the monsoon currents, as before stated, not penetrating among the mountains.

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  • In winter the plateau is less heated, and cold currents of air from the west and south-west cause precipitation over a part if not all of this region.

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  • Strontium salts may be recognized by the characteristic crimson colour they impart to the flame of the Bunsen burner and by the precipitation of the insoluble sulphate.

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  • In the interior of the chain the rain is far less, and the quantity of precipitation is so small in Tibet that it can be hardly measured.

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  • The reason is to be found in its geographical position, a cold ice-covered polar current 68' running south along the land, while not far outside there is an open warmer sea, a circumstance which, while producing a cold climate, must also give rise to much precipitation, the land being C', thus exposed to the alternate erosion of a rough atmosphere and large glaciers.

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  • It can also be determined as sulphide, by precipitation with sulphuretted hydrogen, the precipitated sulphide being dried at Ioo° C. and weighed.

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  • Therefore a reduction in the partial pressure of the gas in the atmosphere, or a rise in the temperature of the water, or a violent agitation of the sea itself, will lead to precipitation of calcium carbonate.

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  • In smelting at once in the same blast-furnace ores of different character, the old use of separate processes of precipitation, roasting and reduction, and general reduction prevailing in the Harz Mountains, Freiberg and other places, to suit local conditions, has been abandoned.

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  • The quantitative precipitation of metals by the electric current, although known to Michael Faraday, was not applied to analytical chemistry until O.

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  • The cobaltous salts are formed when the metal, cobaltous oxide, hydroxide or carbonate, are dissolved in acids, or, in the case of the insoluble salts, by precipitation.

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  • rend., 1869, 69, p. 169) obtained the sodium salt by the action of zinc on a concentrated solution of sodium bisulphite: Zn + 4NaHSO 3 = Na 2 S 2 O 4 + ZnSO 3 + Na 2 SO 3 + 2H 2 O, the salt being separated from the sulphites formed by fractional precipitation.

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  • (2) No general directions can be given as to the method of precipitation.

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  • The southwest monsoon which brings rain in Cochin-China coincides with the dry season in Annam, the reason probably being that the mountains and lofty plateaus separating the two countries retain the precipitation.

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  • In the Transvaal the operation occupies 32 to 4 days for fine sands, and up to 14 days for coarse sands; the quantity of cyanide per ton of tailings varies from 0.26 to 0.28 lb, for electrolytic precipitation, and o 5 lb for zinc precipitation.

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  • The precipitation is effected by zinc in the form of bright turnings, or coated with lead, or by electrolysis.

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  • According to Christy, the precipitation with zinc follows equations for 2 according as potassium cyanide is present or not: (1) 4 KAu(CN)2+4Zn+2H20=2Zn(CN)2+ K 2 Zn(CN) 4 +Zn(OK) 2 +4H+4Au; (2) 2KAu (CN) 2 +3Zn+4KCN+2H 2 0 = 2K 2 Zn(CN) 4 +Zn(OK) 2 +4H+2Au; one part of zinc precipitating 3.1 parts of gold in the first case, and 2.06 in the second.

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  • In quantitative estimations it is generally weighed as oxide, after precipitation as sulphide or carbonate, or in the metallic form, reduced as above.

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  • Soc., 1909, 3 1, p. 902) who obtained the sodium and potassium tellurides by the direct union of their component elements and others from these by precipitation.

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  • Sci., 1909 (iv.), 28, p. 347) claim to have separated two substances (of atomic weights 126.49 and 128.85 respectively) from tellurium, by fractional precipitation of tellurium chloride with water, but in the opinion of H.

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  • Atmospheric precipitation poured into the sea by the great rivers must necessarily create a permanent rise of the sea-level at their mouths, and from this cause the level round the coasts of rainy lands must be greater than in mid-ocean.

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  • Recent limestones are being produced in this way and also in some places by the precipitation of calcium carbonate by sodium or ammonium carbonate which has been carried into the sea or formed by organisms. The precipitated carbonate may agglomerate on mineral or organic grains which serve as nuclei, or it may form a sheet of hard deposit on the bottom as occurs in the Red Sea, off Florida, and round many coral islands in the Pacific. Only the sand and the finest-grained sediments of the shore zone are carried outwards over the continental shelf by the tides or by the reaction-currents along the bottom set up by on-shore winds.

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  • In the Red Sea the " Pola " expedition discovered a calcareous .00ze similar to that of the Mediterranean, and the formation of a stony crust by precipitation of calcium and magnesium carbonates may be recognized as giving origin to a recent dolomite.

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  • A minute fraction is always separating out of the water, and as a prodigious length of time may be accepted for the accomplishment of all the chemical and physical processes in the deep sea, we must take account of the gradual accumulation of even this infinitesimal precipitation.

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  • depths greater than 2500 fathoms. Viewed as a whole this deposit may be taken as a partial precipitation of the plankton living in the upper waters of the open sea.

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  • Where the evaporation is at a minimum, the inflow of rivers from a large continental area and the precipitation from the atmosphere at a maximum, there is necessarily the greatest dilution of the sea-water, the Baltic and the Arctic Sea being conspicuous examples.

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  • For while the mean annual precipitation is 31.42 in., 22 48 in., or 71% of this, fall during the six months from the 1st of April to the 1st of October, or 10% in winter, 23% in autumn, 28% in spring and 39% in summer, June and July being the two wettest months.

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  • Within any one year the precipitation is in general usually less in the western part of the state than in the eastern, the mean difference for all the years of record up to the close of 1903 being 2.5 in.; the western part also is marked by having a f Aricetyn ?'

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  • The yearly precipitation is about 39 to 45 in., decreasing inland, and is evenly distributed throughout the year.

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  • The sulphide is converted into sodium osmichloride by fusion with salt, in a current of chlorine, the sodium salt transformed into ammonium salt by precipitation with ammonium chloride, and the ammonium salt finally heated strongly (H.

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  • It dissolves slowly in water, and the aqueous solution is reduced by most metals with precipitation of osmium.

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  • Since the reaction with the acid salts is attended by liberation of nitric acid: NaH 2 PO 4 +3AgNO 3 = Ag3P04+NaN03 +2HN03, Na 2 HPO 4 +3AgNO 3 =Ag 3 PO 4 + 2NaN03+HNO 3, it is necessary to neutralize the nitric acid if the complete precipitation of the phosphoric acid.

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  • a year, and where there is scarcely any precipitation during the summer months.

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  • The climate is generally dry, although less so on the mountains and in the Flathead river basin than on the Great Plains, and is subject to sudden changes and to great extremes of temperature; but the temperature varies more than the amount of precipitation.

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  • The amount of precipitation is greater in the north-west and on the mountains, because in the one case the mountains of lower elevation are a less obstruction to the moisturebearing winds from the west, and in the other the mountains condense the moisture; the mountains which stand in isolated groups upon the plains are frequently in summer the focus of local thunder showers.

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  • The average annual precipitation ranges from 10 to 15 in.

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  • The mean monthly temperatures vary between 20 in January and 70° in July, with extremes of loo° and - 25° The mean annual precipitation is 31.4 in.

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  • The total precipitation for the state is 17 or 18 in., the heaviest, about 20 in., occurring in the Red river valley, and the lightest, about 14 in., in the extreme W.

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  • The precipitation rarely amounts to 2 in.

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  • Calcium is generally estimated by precipitation as oxalate which, after drying, is heated and weighed as carbonate or oxide, according to the degree and duration of the heating.

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  • But in respect of precipitation there is a very marked difference between the valleys of the north and those of the south.

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  • The climate is so arid, and precipitation so extremely rare, that the fine powdery material falls a helpless prey to the winds.

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  • On the other hand, the precipitation on the Tibetan plateau is so copious, and so uniformly distributed, that it is able to retain the loosened material in situ, and causes it to heap itself up in rounded masses on the flanks of the mountains that are its primitive source of origin, these projecting in great part like skeletons from the midst of their own ruins."

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  • During spring and summer the precipitation throughout the state is about 2 in.

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  • The cadmium sulphate solution is prepared by digesting a saturated solution of cadmium sulphate with cadmium hydroxide to remove free acid, care being taken not to raise the temperature above 70° C., and then by digesting it still further with mercurous sulphate until no more precipitation occurs.

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  • The mean annual precipitation ranges from about 38 in.

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  • The windward slopes of the Sierra Madre Oriental receive the greater part of the rainfall, and the winds, deprived of their moisture, pass over the northern plateau without further precipitation.

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  • The precipitation varies widely, that of the western side of the northern plateau (Chihuahua and Durango) being about 39 in., that of the Valley of Mexico about 25 in., and that of the whole republic 59 in.

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  • The most common families on the eastern slopes, where the precipitation is heavy, are the magnolias, crotons, mimosas, acacias, myrtles, oaks, plane-trees and bamboos.

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  • The mean annual precipitation for the entire state is about 40 in.; it is 43 in.

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  • Manufactures.-The heavy precipitation on the elevated central and northern parts, and the hundreds of lakes and ponds which serve as reservoirs, give to the lower southern part of the state on the Merrimac and other rivers such an abundant and constant water-power that southern New Hampshire has become an important manufacturing district, and manufacturing has become the leading industry of the state.

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  • The climate is comparatively dry (annual precipitation about 21.75 in.); between 1898 and 1902 the minimum recorded temperature was io° (March), the maximum 92° (July), and the greatest monthly range 73° (March).

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  • Stas recommends solution of the iodine in potassium iodide and subsequent precipitation by the addition of a large excess of water, the precipitate being washed, distilled in steam, and dried in vacuo over solid calcium nitrate, and then over solid caustic baryta.

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  • wide; this valley seems to represent the path of an enlarged early-glacial Mississippi, when much precipitation that is to-day discharged to Hudson Bay and the Gulf of St Lawrence was delivered to the Gtilf of Mexico, for the curves of the present river are of distinctly smaller raditis than the curves of the valley.

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  • The small proportion of total water volume supplied from the great Missouri basin is due to the light precipitation in that region.

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  • per annum, which corresponds roughly to one quarter of the total precipitation on its drainage basin.

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  • Next, dependent on the inclination of the earths axis, is the division of the planetary year into the terrestrial seasons, with winter and summer changes of temperature, wind-strength and precipitation: these seasonal changes are not of the restrained measure that is characteristic of the oceanic southern temperate zone, but of the exaggerated measure appropriate to the continental interruptions of ~the northern land-and-water zone, to which the term temperate is so generally inapplicable.

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  • The normal annual precipitation for the state is about 43 in.

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  • In California the effect of the strong equatorward turn of the summer winds is to produce a dry season; but in the states along the Gulf of Mexico and especially in Florida the withdrawal of the stormy westerlies in favor of the steadier trade winds (here turned somewhat toward the continental interior, as explained below) results in an increase of precipitation.

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  • With this goes a general increase of precipitation with altitude, so that a good rainfall map would have its darker shades very generally along the mountain ranges.

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  • The rest of the rivers flowing into the Pacific pass through British Columbia and are much shorter, though the two southern ones carry a great volume of water owing to the heavy precipitation of snow and rain in the Cordilleran region.

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  • As one goes westward the precipitation diminishes to 17.34 in.

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  • The precipitation in southern Saskatchewan and Alberta is much more variable than farther east and north, so that in some seasons crops have been a failure through drought, but large areas are now being brought under irrigation to avoid such losses.

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  • inland beyond the Coast Range the precipitation and general climate are, like those of Ontario, comparatively mild and with moderate snowfall towards the south, but with keen winters farther north.

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  • The Selkirk Mountains have a heavy rainfall and a tremendous snowfall on their western flanks, but very much less precipitation on their eastern side.

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  • The Rocky Mountains have the same relationships but the whole precipitation is much less than in the Selkirks.

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  • This backwater, where it meets and checks the current of the Arkansas, occasions the precipitation of enormous alluvial deposits, and vast quantities of snags.

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  • The amount of precipitation is greatest along the coast (62 in.) and evenly distributed through the rest of the state (about 52 in.).

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  • Chromium in the form of its salts may be estimated quantitatively by precipitation from boiling solutions with a slight excess of ammonia, and boiling until the free ammonia is nearly all expelled.

    0
    0
  • In the form of a chromate, it may be determined by precipitation, in acetic acid solution, with lead acetate; the lead chromate precipitate collected on a tared filter paper, well washed, dried at loo° C. and weighed; or the chromate may be reduced by means of sulphur dioxide to the condition of a chromic salt, the excess of sulphur dioxide expelled by boiling, and the estimation carried out as above.

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  • Several forms of hydrated chromium sesquioxide are known; thus on precipitation of a chromic salt, free from alkali, by ammonia, a light blue precipitate is formed, which after drying over sulphuric acid, has the composition Cr 2 0 3 -7H 2 0, and this after being heated to zoo° C. in a current of hydrogen leaves a residue of composition CrO.

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  • Thus, in the third, fourth and fifth general sessions it was enacted, with characteristic precipitation, that an ecumenical council could not be dissolved or set aside by the pope, without its consent: the corollary to which was, that the present council, notwithstanding the flight of John XXIII., continued to exist in the full possession of its powers, and that, in matters pertaining to belief and the eradication of schism, all men - even the pope - were bound to obey the general council, whose authority extended over all Christians, including the pope himself.

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  • He made brilliant experiments elucidating the blue of the sky, and discovered the precipitation of organic vapours by means of light.

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  • If a crystal of the solid be added, the condition of supersaturation is destroyed, and the ordinary equilibrium of saturation is reached by precipitation of solid from solution.

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  • The mean annual precipitation is 19.6 in.

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  • The effect of mountain-chains on prevailing winds is to carry warm air belonging to the lower region into an upper zone, where it expands in volume at the cost of a proportionate loss of heat, often accompanied by the precipitation of moisture in the form of snow or rain.

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  • The annual rainfall is about 46 in., fairly well distributed throughout the year, though the heaviest precipitation occurs in August, September and October.

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  • In "cold deserts" the want of vegetation is wholly due to the prevailing low temperature, while in "hot deserts" the surface is unproductive because, on account of high temperature and deficient rainfall, evaporation is largely in excess of precipitation.

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  • The annual average of rainy days is 138: 94 in the wet season (average precipitation for the six months, 1556.3 mm.) and 44 in the dry season (average precipitation for the six dry months, 382 mm.).

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  • A little east of the Gulf of Enzeli, which resembles the Kara-boghaz, though on a much smaller scale, the Sefid-rud pours into the Caspian the drainage of the western end of the Elburz range, and several smaller streams bring down the precipitation that falls on the northern face of the same range farther to the east.

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  • Beryllium is estimated quantitatively by precipitation with ammonia, and ignition to oxide.

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  • As regards rainfall, Germany belongs to those regions where precipitation takes place at all seasons, but chiefly in the form of summer rains.

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  • As the lakes never freeze, the prevalent cold north-west winds of North America are warmed in their passage over them, and often much of the winter precipitation is in the form of rain, so that the weather has much less certainty than in the north.

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    0
  • The normal salt, T1 3 PO 4, is soluble in 200 parts of water, and may be obtained by precipitation.

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  • The western mountains, exposed to the fierce lash of the Atlantic rains, sustain the heaviest and most constant precipitation.

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  • Ammonium sulphide alone gives incomplete precipitation of the sulphide.

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  • Manganese may be estimated quantitatively by precipitation as carbonate, this salt being then converted into the oxide, Mn 3 0 4 by ignition; or by precipitation as hydrated dioxide by means of ammonia and bromine water, followed by ignition to NIn 3 0 4.

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  • The line of permanent snow is much higher on the plateau side in both ranges, the precipitation being greater on the outer sides - those facing the forested lowlands - and the terrestrial radiation being greater from the barren surfaces of the plateau.

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  • The mean annual precipitation is about 39 in.

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  • the precipitation is 44.8% greater in spring and summer than it is in autumn and winter, but in the S.

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  • At Cambridge in 1774 Fellow Commoners were examined with such precipitation to fulfil the formal requirements of the statutes that the ceremony was termed " huddling for a degree " (Jebb, Remarks upon the Present Mode of Education in the University of Cambridge, 4th ed., 1 774, p. 32).

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  • On the north, the Himalaya range and the plateau of Afghanistan shut it off from the climate of central Asia, and give it a continental climate, the characteristics of which are the prevalence of land winds, great dryness of the air, large diurnal range of temperature, and little or no precipitation.

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  • The precipitation is 35 in.; most of the rain falls in the "rainy season" from May to November, and is preserved in cisterns by the inhabitants as the only supply of drinking water.

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  • It cannot be produced by precipitation.

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  • When prepared by the precipitation of nickel salts with alkaline sulphide in neutral solution it is a greyish black amorphous compound which readily oxidizes in moist air, forming a basic nickel sulphate.

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  • By precipitation of nickel salts with solutions of the alkaline carbonates, basic carbonates of variable composition are obtained.

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  • The variation of precipitation is as great as 30 in.

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  • The Inyo range, on the east, is quite bare of timber, and its summits are only occasionally whitened with snow for a few days during the winter, as almost all precipitation is cut off by the higher ranges to the westward.

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  • fall, which covers all the rest of the state save Inyo, Kern and San Bernardino counties, Imperial county and the eastern portion of Riverside county; the precipitation of this belt is from o to 10 in.

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  • In the mountains the precipitation increases with the altitude; above 6000 or 7000 ft.

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  • Below San Francisco the precipitation decreases along the coast, until at San Diego it is only about io in.

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  • At Ogilby, Volcano, Indio and other stations on the Southern Pacific line the normal annual precipitation is from 1.5 to 2.5 in.; and there are localities near Owen's lake, even on its very edge, that are almost dry.

    0
    0
  • Precipitation varies in different areas from 8 to 20 in., the average for the state being 12.5 in.

    0
    0
  • A greater precipitation doubtless prevails on the higher mountains, but trustworthy records are not available.

    0
    0
  • The salts of hydrochloric acid, known as chlorides, can, in most cases, be prepared by dissolving either the metal, its hydroxide, oxide, or carbonate in the acid; or by heating the metal in a current of chlorine, or by precipitation.

    0
    0
  • There is an average annual precipitation of 43.1 in., which is quite evenly distributed throughout the year.

    0
    0
  • Hand in hand with the development of a disagreeable bitter taste there is a precipitation of colouring matter and the formation of certain disagreeable secondary constituents.

    0
    0
  • there is a so-called wet season, which begins early in July and lasts for a month or six weeks, the rain coming in the form of short afternoon thunderstorms. About a third of the precipitation occurs during July and August, but after August the monthly precipitation is steadily less until March, in which month only about 3% of the annual rainfall occurs.

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    0
  • For all of New Mexico the mean precipitation is about 13 in., ranging from 9 in.

    0
    0
  • Ferrous chloride decomposes the copper oxide and carbonate with the formation of cuprous and cupric chlorides (which remain in solution), and the precipitation of ferrous oxide, carbon dioxide being simultaneously liberated from the carbonate.

    0
    0
  • The precipitation of the copper from the solution, in which it is present as sulphate, or as cuprous and cupric chlorides, is generally effected by metallic iron.

    0
    0
  • The wet extraction of metallic copper from ores in which it occurs as the sulphide, may be considered to involve the following operations: (r) conversion of the copper into a soluble form, (2) dissolving out the soluble copper salt, (3) the precipitation of the copper.

    0
    0
  • This solution absorbs acetylene with the precipitation of red cuprous acetylide, Cu 2 C 2, a very explosive compound.

    0
    0
  • The average annual rainfall for Sweden is 19.72 in., locally increasing on the whole from north to south, and reaching a maximum towards the south-west, precipitation on this coast greatly exceeding that on the south-east.

    0
    0
  • The proportion of total precipitation which falls as snow ranges from 36% in the north to 9% in the south.

    0
    0
  • Farther south this excessive precipitation is in the form of snow in the Cordilleras, forming glaciers at a comparatively low level which in places discharge into the inlets and bays of the sea.

    0
    0
  • They lie on the eastern side near the Cordilleras, and serve the purpose of great reservoirs for the excessive precipitation of rain and snow on their western slopes.

    0
    0
  • Other observations reduce this annual precipitation to less than 16 in.

    0
    0
  • 68° 05' W., which is more exposed to the westerly storms, the mean temperature for i i months was 41.98° and the total precipitation (rain and snow) 53.1 in.

    0
    0
  • Anschutz (Ber., 1884, 1 7, p. 439) estimates picric acid by precipitation with acridine.

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    0
  • Astonished at this, the few Zend cavaliers, thinking that the wholy army of Kajars had returned, fled with precipitation leaving the field in possession of Aga Mahommed.

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    0
  • It prevents the precipitation of many metallic hydroxides by caustic alkalis.

    0
    0
  • The lowering of tension, which follows the condensation of the vapour, is then strikingly shown by the sudden precipitation of the water.] Ef f ect of Surface-tension on the Velocity of Waves.

    0
    0
  • The mountainous areas are the only ones of adequate precipitation; the northern slope of the Colorado Plateau is almost destitute of water; the region of least precipitation is the " desert " region.

    0
    0
  • Rainfall varying with the altitude, the lower timber line below which precipitation is insufficient to sustain a growth of trees is about 7000 ft., and the upper timber line about I I,Soo ft.

    0
    0
  • Attempts to get a pure toxin by repeated precipitation and solution have resulted in the production of a whitish amorphous powder with highly toxic properties.

    0
    0
  • Brieger and Boer, by precipitation with certain salts, notably of zinc, obtained a body which was toxic but gave no reaction of any form of proteid.

    0
    0
  • Certain toxins resemble enzymes as regards their conditions of precipitation and relative instability, and the fact that in most cases a considerable period intervenes between the time of injection and the occurrence of symptoms has been adduced in support of the view that enzymes are present.

    0
    0
  • The mean annual precipitation is not far from 31 in., a little more than one-half of which falls during the five growing months from May to October; the rain is evenly distributed over all parts of the state, but the snow is exceptionally heavy along the north shore of the upper peninsula.

    0
    0
  • There are several volumetric methods for assaying lead ores, but the best known is that based on the precipitation of lead by ammonium molybdate in an acetic acid solution.

    0
    0
  • As long as the solution contains lead, the addition of the molybdate solution causes a precipitation of white lead molybdate.

    0
    0
  • This solution and precipitation is continuous, and the metal formed unites with the mercury to form a semi-fluid amalgam.

    0
    0
  • At some works the silver is precipitated with sodium sulphide, and the liquor, after having been separated from the silver sulphide, is treated with calcium polysulphide, that by the precipitation of calcium sulphate the accumulation of sodium sulphate may be prevented.

    0
    0
  • The normal annual precipitation is 47.7 in., varying from 46.6 in.

    0
    0
  • Precipitation is from I to 3 in.

    0
    0
  • From December to March, inclusively, part of the precipitation is in the form of snow.

    0
    0
  • This area is not constant, as the water is very shallow at the margins, and the relation between supply from precipitation, &c., and loss by evaporation is variable, there being an annual difference in the height of the water of 15-18 in.

    0
    0
  • The western or mountainous division is the wettest at all seasons, each orographic group forming a centre of heavy precipitation.

    0
    0
  • There are few places in the Western Division where the rainfall is less than 35 in., while in Wales, the Cornwall-Devon peninsula, the Lake District and the southern part of the Pennine Region the precipitation exceeds 40 in., and in Wales and the Lake District considerable areas have a rainfall of over 60 in.

    0
    0
  • The precipitation is about 42 in.

    0
    0
  • During 42 months about 44% of the precipitation is in the form of snow; but the snow-fall varies from about 60 in.

    0
    0
  • But nearer the centre of the continent the seasons are less clearly marked by the amount of precipitation, rain falling more or less regularly at all times of the year.

    0
    0
  • The mean annual precipitation is only I in., the greater part of which occurs in the form of snow in the winter months, summer being the dry season.

    0
    0
  • At Salt Lake City the annual precipitation is 15.8 in., of which 2 in.

    0
    0
  • For St George the figures are: annual precipitation, 6.6 in.; summer, 1.3 in.

    0
    0
  • Well out in the basin deserts the precipitation is still less; and the same holds true for the low desert plateaus in the south-eastern part of the state, where Hite has an annual precipitation of only 2.3 in., of which 0.4 in.

    0
    0
  • On the other hand, the precipitation on the high plateaus probably exceeds 30 in.

    0
    0
  • Quinine hydrochloride circulates in the alkaline blood without precipitation, probably owing to the presence of carbonic acid in the blood.

    0
    0
  • The precipitation during ten years at Ushuaia has been observed to average 24.8 in.

    0
    0
  • The distillate was further purified by digestion with milk of lime, precipitation with water, and further digestion with calcium bromide and barium oxide, and was finally redistilled.

    0
    0
  • The higher masses of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta cover a very limited area, leaving the trade winds a comparatively unbroken sweep across the northern plains until checked by the Western Cordillera, the Panama ranges and the Sierra de Baudo, where a heavy precipitation follows.

    0
    0
  • Ferdinand with his usual precipitation fled to Palermo (23rd of January 1806), followed soon after by his wife and son, and on the 14th of February the French again entered Naples.

    0
    0
  • But until the clouds rise above the hill there is an obvious countervailing tendency to compression, and in steep slopes this may reduce or entirely prevent precipitation until the summit is reached, when a fall of pressure with commotion must occur.

    0
    0
  • Very high mountain ranges usually consist of many ridges, among which rain-clouds are entangled in their ascent, and in such cases precipitation towards the windward side of the main range, though on the leeward sides of the minor ridges of which it is formed, may occur to so large an extent that before the summit is reached the clouds are exhausted or nearly so, and in this case the total precipitation is less on the leeward than on the windward side of the main range; but in the moderate heights of the United Kingdom it more commonly happens from the causes explained that precipitation is prevented or greatly retarded until the summit of the ridge is reached.

    0
    0
  • Successive abstraction of raindrops as the rain-clouds pass over ridge after ridge causes a gradually diminishing precipitation, but this is generally insufficient to reverse the local conditions, which tend to the contrary effect in individual ranges.

    0
    0
  • On account of the small amount of precipitation, the fissured condition of the underlying lava sheets, and the porous soil, the Great Sandy Desert has practically no surface streams even in the wet season, and within its limits no potable waters have been found.

    0
    0
  • As the winds from the ocean are deprived of their moisture on reaching the Coast and Cascade ranges, the amount of annual precipitation, which in the coast counties varies from 75 to 138 in., constantly diminishes toward the E.

    0
    0
  • Precipitation on the Coast Range at altitudes above 2000 ft.

    0
    0
  • The temperature over the state is much more uniform than is the precipitation, which diminishes somewhat regularly westward.

    0
    0
  • 1 The precipitation in the west is not sufficient for confident agriculture in any series of years, since agriculture is practically dependent upon the mean fall; a fact that has been and is of profound importance in the history of the state.

    0
    0
  • The precipitation is very largely in the growing season - at Dodge the fall between April and October is 78% of that for the year.

    0
    0
  • The average annual precipitation for the state is 31.5 in.

    0
    0
  • There is a wet and a dry season; in the former, from the middle of April to the middle of December, there falls (in heavy, short rains) about 85% of the total annual precipitation, and south-east winds prevail.

    0
    0
  • Broadly speaking, the climate on the north and west of the main ranges is both milder and moister than on the south and east, and accordingly the precipitation in the former is relatively heavier, namely IO to 20 in.

    0
    0
  • The mean annual precipitation for the state is 317 in.; the variation between the E.

    0
    0
  • Metals such as tin, potassium and sodium, when heated in the gas, form arsenides, with liberation of hydrogen; and solutions of gold and silver salts are reduced by the gas with precipitation of metallic gold and silver.

    0
    0
  • zinc, tin and cadmium) with precipitation of arsenic and formation of arseniuretted hydrogen.

    0
    0
  • In the inter-tropical zone of summer precipitation, the rainfall is greatest when the sun is vertical or soon after.

    0
    0
  • The amount of the precipitation, including rain and snow, is much greater in the western than in the eastern Pyrenees, which leads to a marked contrast between these sections of the chain in more than one respect.

    0
    0
  • above sea-level) it ffeezes so hard in December and January that skating is carried on on the sheet of water in the Buen Retiro; and, as winter throughout Spain, except in the maritime provinces of the north and north-west, is the season of greatest atmospheric precipitation, snowfalls are frequent, though the snow seldom lies long except at high elevations, The summers, on the other hand, are not only extremely warm but almost rainless, the sea-winds being deprived of their moisture on the edge of the plateau.

    0
    0
  • The normal mean-annual precipitation for the whole state is about 23.84 in.

    0
    0
  • Seven-tenths of all precipitation falls in the growing season, giving the state, especially in the east, a greater amount at this time than many other states whose aggregate yearly rainfall is greater; so that Nebraska has an abundance for the safest cultivation.

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    0
  • It is even conceivable that the settlement of the state may affect the seasonal distribution of precipitation; and that an advantageous alteration has in fact resulted is believed by many.

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    0
  • With the diminishing rainfall and increased temperature that followed that period the effects of evaporation gradually surpassed the precipitation, and the waters of the lake slowly diminished to about the extent which they still display.

    0
    0
  • The elevation-divide between the western and eastern parts of the island rises generally to a height of between 3000 and 5000 ft., and consequently the parts to the east of such heights receive much less precipitation than those to the westward.

    0
    0
  • An average annual precipitation of about 50 in, is quite equally distributed over the state and a little more than one-half of it is well distributed through the spring and summer months.

    0
    0
  • The tincture should not be prescribed unless precautions are taken to avoid the precipitation of the resin which follows its dilution with water.

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    0
  • Dean never ceased to marvel at the difference of high mountain snow from the heavy, wet precipitation of the East and the endless problems it caused with man and auto.

    0
    0
  • anatase precipitation.

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    0
  • It can be caused by the transformation of retained austenite to martensite or by the precipitation of alloy carbides.

    0
    0
  • This enhanced monsoon circulation is associated with enhanced precipitation over India.

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    0
  • climatologysome of the global precipitation climatologies which have been compiled include estimates of mean precipitation over oceans (e.g.

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    0
  • In addition, verification of the model results will be undertaken against a newly-available observational precipitation climatology.

    0
    0
  • It is clear, however, that the flow is severely perturbed by the enhanced ionospheric conductivity caused by particle precipitation into the E-region.

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  • cusp precipitation.

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    0
  • Our aim is to understand how these reactions take place and how they control the speeds of mineral dissolution and precipitation.

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  • The spatial distribution of the total precipitation anomalies (bottom panel of Fig.

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  • This was done using a number of protein purification techniques: ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography and 2-dimensional electrophoresis.

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    0
  • ethanol precipitation, the dried DNA pellet is resuspended.. .

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    0
  • The UNEP Aridity Index (based on a ratio of annual precipitation to mean annual potential evapotranspiration) data added to the karst dataset.

    0
    0
  • In other regions of Argentina, where European grapevine is grown extensively, the precipitation is increasing because of climate changes.

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    0
  • This is known as precipitation hardening, or age hardening.

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    0
  • intensifya short time the precipitation rapidly intensified (spoiling the view!

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    0
  • The precipitation remained light all evening, becoming intermittent by midnight.

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    0
  • interpolated directly from station time-series: precipitation, mean temperature and diurnal temperature range.

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    0
  • Annual precipitation at Zirahuén is dominated by the summer monsoon.

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    0
  • monsoon circulation is associated with enhanced precipitation over India.

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    0
  • oh emissions can be used to identify absorption related to proton precipitation.

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    0
  • phenol extraction and ethanol precipitation.

    0
    0
  • precipitation of carbonates in stromatolites.

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    0
  • precipitation of 102.1 mm.

    0
    0
  • precipitation of minerals from the mineralising fluid.

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    0
  • precipitation of dangerously unstable diazonium salts can occur at ant time, on a plant scale.

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    0
  • The flooding event at Boscastle in August 2004 highlights the damage that can be caused by heavy convective precipitation in the UK.

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    0
  • The average annual precipitation is more than 1200 mm.

    0
    0
  • Visibility fell from 20 km overnight to 1800 m in the heavier precipitation.

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    0
  • There is little evidence for increased precipitation on a global scale.

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    0
  • Thus any precipitation that has a pH value of less than 5.6 is considered to be acid precipitation.

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    0
  • precipitation hardening, or age hardening.

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    0
  • precipitation intensity is leading to widespread global flood damage.

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    0
  • precipitation reactions, which are important controls on mobility of chemical species in the environment.

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    0
  • precipitation forecast.

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    0
  • The results of this analysis are placed in the context of the large scale cusp precipitation.

    0
    0
  • After ethanol precipitation, the dried DNA pellet is resuspended.. .

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    0
  • The UT maximum of the integrated column brightness does not necessarily correspond to the maximum in electron precipitation.

    0
    0
  • Previously, there were only two choices of convection patterns and particle precipitation inputs, with a limited number of standard configurations.

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    0
  • A deposit of ice precipitation was seen on the summit of Snowdon early on the 9th during showers.

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    0
  • Much of the winter precipitation is snow, which can lie for up to 100 days in the Carpathians.

    0
    0
  • runoff generation models are extremely vulnerable to uncertainty in precipitation.

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    0
  • Winter half-year (October-March) precipitation totals again exceeded the average by a wide margin in Scotland.

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    0
  • The cobaltous salts are formed when the metal, cobaltous oxide, hydroxide or carbonate, are dissolved in acids, or, in the case of the insoluble salts, by precipitation.

    0
    0
  • They are precipitated from their alkaline solutions as cobalt sulphide by sulphuretted hydrogen, but this precipitation is prevented by the presence of citric and tartaric acids; similarly the presence of ammonium salts hinders their precipitation by caustic alkalis.

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    0
  • In many parts, particularly in the eastern basin, a calcareous or siliceous crust, from half an inch to three inches in thickness, is met with; and Natterer suggested that the formation of this crust may be due to the production of carbonate of ammonium where deposits containing organic matter are undergoing oxidation, and the consequent precipitation of carbonate of lime and other substances from the waters nearer the surface.

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    0
  • The more dilute the solutions, the slower is the progress of the precipitation.

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    0
  • In the early stages of the precipitation the polarization is complete in a perpendicular direction, and incomplete in oblique directions.

    0
    0
  • Precipitation is greatest in the mountains, over 50 in.; and least over the Ohio Valley, the eastern Panhandle and the extreme south-east, 35 to 40 in.

    0
    0
  • The precipitation is greatest on the Atlantic seaboard and in the elevated regions of the interior.

    0
    0
  • Boron can be estimated by precipitation as potassium fluoborate, which is insoluble in a mixture of potassium acetate and alcohol, For this purpose only boric acid or its potassium salt must be present; and to ensure this, the borate can be distilled with sulphuric acid and methyl alcohol and the volatile ester absorbed in potash.

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    0
  • Along the shores of Encounter Bay and St Vincent and Spencer Gulfs, the precipitation ranges from 10 to 20 in., the yearly rainfall at Adelaide is a little less than 21 in., while the head of Spencer Gulf is within the 5 to 1 0 in.

    0
    0
  • The mean annual precipitation for the entire state is about 38.5 in.; more rain falls in summer than in any other season, and more falls in the southern section than in the northern.

    0
    0
  • Murray's calculations give the amount of precipitation received on this area at 15,800 cub.

    0
    0
  • It can be purified by solution in hydrochloric acid and subsequent precipitation by metallic zinc.

    0
    0
  • It can also be determined as sulphide, by precipitation with sulphuretted hydrogen, the precipitated sulphide being dried at Ioo° C. and weighed.

    0
    0
  • Though he considered such precipitation impolitic, Robilant, finding that confidential information of Italian intentions had already been conveyed to the Austrian government, sought an interview with King Humbert, and on the 17th of October started for Vienna to settle the conditions of the visit.

    0
    0
  • vapour of the atmosphere is caused in part by vertical movements of the atmosphere involving heat changes and apparently independent of the surface upon which precipitation occurs; but in greater part it is dictated by the form and altitude of the land surface and the direction of the prevailing winds, which itself is largely influenced by the land.

    0
    0
  • The existence of lakes in hollows of the land depends upon the balance between precipitation and evaporation.

    0
    0
  • Other phenolates may be obtained from potassium phenolate by precipitation.

    0
    0
  • This solution is not very stable, since on exposure to air it slowly oxidizes and becomes turbid owing to the gradual precipitation of sulphur.

    0
    0
  • The sulphites are prepared by the action of sulphur dioxide on the oxides, hydroxides or carbonates of the metals, or by processes of precipitation.

    0
    0
  • rend., 1869, 69, p. 169) obtained the sodium salt by the action of zinc on a concentrated solution of sodium bisulphite: Zn + 4NaHSO 3 = Na 2 S 2 O 4 + ZnSO 3 + Na 2 SO 3 + 2H 2 O, the salt being separated from the sulphites formed by fractional precipitation.

    0
    0
  • The thiosulphates are readily decomposed by mineral acids with liberation of sulphur dioxide and precipitation of sulphur: Na 2 S 2 0 3 + 2HC1 = 2NaC1 + S + SO 2 + H 2 O.

    0
    0
  • This upheaval - the consequences of which have been felt even within the historic period, by the drainage of the formerly impracticable marshes of Novgorod and at the head of the Gulf of Finland - together with the destruction of forests (which must be considered, however, as a quite subordinate cause), contributes towards a decrease of precipitation over Russia and towards increased shallowness of her rivers.

    0
    0
  • Over the lowlands of the Basin, taken generally, there is an average precipitation of perhaps 6-7 in., while in the Oregon region it is twice as great, and in the southern parts even less.

    0
    0
  • Precipitation is largely confined to local showers, often of such violence as to warrant the name "cloud bursts," commonly applied to the heavy down-pours of this desert region.

    0
    0
  • The mean annual precipitation varies from 3 in.

    0
    0
  • A so-called " rainy season " lasts from October to April, but the precipitation is chiefly in the form of snow on the mountains.

    0
    0
  • The normal annual precipitation for Mississippi is about 51 in.; for the southern half, 54 in., and for the northern half, 49 in.

    0
    0
  • The diurnal mountain winds are very strongly marked on the Himalaya, where they probably are the most active agents in determining the precipitation of rain along the chain - the monsoon currents, as before stated, not penetrating among the mountains.

    0
    0
  • In the interior of the chain the rain is far less, and the quantity of precipitation is so small in Tibet that it can be hardly measured.

    0
    0
  • The following table gives particulars of temperature averages at a few typical places: In respect of precipitation the entire region of Caucasia may be divided into two strikingly contrasted regions, a wet and a dry.

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    0
  • The normal annual precipitation for the entire state is 38.4 in.

    0
    0
  • - Within historic times the climate, and with it the productivity of the country, cannot have greatly changed; at most the precipitation may have been greater, the area under wood having been more extensive.

    0
    0
  • Being thus soluble in salt water it cannot, of course, be salted out like common soaps; but if a very concentrated salt solution is used precipitation is effected, and a curd soap is separated so hard and refractory as to be practically useless.

    0
    0
  • In the separation of the constituents of the complex mixture of oxides obtained from the " rare earth " minerals, the methods generally forced upon chemists are those of fractional precipitation or crystallization; the striking resemblances of the compounds of these elements rarely admitting of a complete separation by simple precipitation and filtration.

    0
    0
  • The quantitative precipitation of metals by the electric current, although known to Michael Faraday, was not applied to analytical chemistry until O.

    0
    0
  • (2) No general directions can be given as to the method of precipitation.

    0
    0
  • With iodine compounds, iodic acid is likely to be formed, and hence the solution must be reduced with sulphurous acid before precipitation with silver nitrate.

    0
    0
  • In the case of separation from solutions, either by crystallization or by precipitation by double decomposition, the temperature, the concentration of the solution, and the presence of other ions may modify the form obtained.

    0
    0
  • But so slight is the precipitation that the Juba alone has a permanent discharge seawards.

    0
    0
  • The existence of sulphuretted hydrogen in great quantities below loo fathoms, the extensive chemical precipitation of calcium carbonate, the stagnant nature of its deep waters, and the absence of deep-sea life are conditions which make it impossible to discuss it along with the physical and biological conditions of the Mediterranean proper.

    0
    0
  • About two-thirds of the total precipitation falls in the latter.

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    0
  • News, 23, p. 206) by reducing a solution of potassium nitrite with sodium amalgam, and subsequent precipitation as silver salt.

    0
    0
  • The reason is to be found in its geographical position, a cold ice-covered polar current 68' running south along the land, while not far outside there is an open warmer sea, a circumstance which, while producing a cold climate, must also give rise to much precipitation, the land being C', thus exposed to the alternate erosion of a rough atmosphere and large glaciers.

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    0
  • or more, and descends gradually by extremely gentle slopes towards the coasts or the bottom of the fjords on all sides, discharging a great part of its yearly drainage or surplus of precipitation in the form of icebergs in the fjords, the so-called ice-fjords, which are numerous both on the west and on the east coast.

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    0
  • The steep icewalls at the margin of the inland ice show, especially where the motion of the ice is slow, a distinct striation, which indicates the strata of annual precipitation with the intervening thin seams of dust (Nordenskidld's kryokonite).

    0
    0
  • The oxides are then converted into double sulphates which are separated from each other by repeated fractional crystallization or by fractional precipitation with ammonia or some other base.

    0
    0
  • In the polar areas the melting of sea-ice and of ice formed by precipitation lowers the density of the seawater and causes a difference of level which sets up streaming movements towards the equator.

    0
    0
  • Therefore a reduction in the partial pressure of the gas in the atmosphere, or a rise in the temperature of the water, or a violent agitation of the sea itself, will lead to precipitation of calcium carbonate.

    0
    0
  • Therefore an increase in photosynthesis caused by the multiplication of plant microorganisms will lead to the precipitation of calcium carbonate, for carbonic acid will be withdrawn from solution to take part in carbohydrate synthesis by the plants.

    0
    0
  • end of Lake Baikal, then it broadens out so as to include the whole of the Amur basin, the total summer precipitation there being about 12 in.

    0
    0
  • In smelting at once in the same blast-furnace ores of different character, the old use of separate processes of precipitation, roasting and reduction, and general reduction prevailing in the Harz Mountains, Freiberg and other places, to suit local conditions, has been abandoned.

    0
    0
  • In winter the plateau is less heated, and cold currents of air from the west and south-west cause precipitation over a part if not all of this region.

    0
    0
  • Solutions of uranyl salts (nitrate, &c.) behave to reagents as follows: sulphuretted hydrogen produces green uranous salt with precipitation of sulphur; sulphide of ammonium in neutral solutions gives a black precipitate of UO 2 S, which settles slowly and, while being washed in the filter, breaks up partially into hydrated UO 2 an sulphur; ammonia gives a yellow precipitate of uranate of ammonia, characteristically soluble in hot carbonate of ammonia solution; prussiate of potash gives a brown precipitate which in appearance is not unlike the precipitate produced by the same reagent in cupric salts.

    0
    0
  • The complete conversion of stannous into stannic chloride may be effected by a great many reagents - for instance, by chlorine (bromine, iodine) readily; by mercuric chloride in the heat, with precipitation of calomel or metallic mercury; by ferric chloride in the heat, with formation of ferrous chloride; by arsenious chloride in strongly hydrochloric solutions, with precipitation of chocolate-brown metallic arsenic. All these reactions are available as tests for "stannosum" or the respective agents.

    0
    0
  • The southwest monsoon which brings rain in Cochin-China coincides with the dry season in Annam, the reason probably being that the mountains and lofty plateaus separating the two countries retain the precipitation.

    0
    0
  • Most other carbonates are formed by precipitation of salts of the metals by means of alkaline carbonates.

    0
    0
  • In the case of acetate the precipitation is quite complete; from a sulphate or chloride solution the greater part of the metal goes into the precipitate; in the presence of a sufficiency of free HC1 the metal remains dissolved; sulphide of ammonium precipitates the metal completely, even in the presence of ammonium salts and free ammonia.

    0
    0
  • Akhdar in Oman, but is very rarely known on the Yemen mountains, probably because the precipitation during the winter months is so slight.

    0
    0
  • Strontium salts may be recognized by the characteristic crimson colour they impart to the flame of the Bunsen burner and by the precipitation of the insoluble sulphate.

    0
    0
  • The specific gravity of gold obtained by precipitation from solution by ferrous sulphate is from 19.55 to 20.72.

    0
    0
  • The precipitation is carried out in tanks or vats made with"wooden sides and a cement bottom.

    0
    0
  • Precipitation with sulphur dioxide and sulphuretted hydrogen proceeds much more rapidly, and has been adopted at many works.

    0
    0
  • - This process depends upon the solubility of gold in a dilute solution of potassium cyanide in the presence of air (or some other oxidizing agent), and the subsequent precipitation of the gold by metallic zinc or by.

    0
    0
  • The process embraces three operations: (1) Solution of the gold; (2) precipitation of the gold; (3) treatment of the precipitate.

    0
    0
  • The strengths employed depend also upon the mode of precipitation adopted, stronger solutions (up to 0.25% KCN) being used when zinc is the precipitant.

    0
    0
  • For electrolytic precipitation the solution may contain up to 0.1% KCN.

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  • In the Transvaal the operation occupies 32 to 4 days for fine sands, and up to 14 days for coarse sands; the quantity of cyanide per ton of tailings varies from 0.26 to 0.28 lb, for electrolytic precipitation, and o 5 lb for zinc precipitation.

    0
    0
  • The precipitation is effected by zinc in the form of bright turnings, or coated with lead, or by electrolysis.

    0
    0
  • According to Christy, the precipitation with zinc follows equations for 2 according as potassium cyanide is present or not: (1) 4 KAu(CN)2+4Zn+2H20=2Zn(CN)2+ K 2 Zn(CN) 4 +Zn(OK) 2 +4H+4Au; (2) 2KAu (CN) 2 +3Zn+4KCN+2H 2 0 = 2K 2 Zn(CN) 4 +Zn(OK) 2 +4H+2Au; one part of zinc precipitating 3.1 parts of gold in the first case, and 2.06 in the second.

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    0
  • Platinum and palladium dissolved from the anode accumulate in the solution, and are removed at intervals of, say, a few months by chemical precipitation.

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    0
  • In quantitative estimations it is generally weighed as oxide, after precipitation as sulphide or carbonate, or in the metallic form, reduced as above.

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  • Soc., 1909, 3 1, p. 902) who obtained the sodium and potassium tellurides by the direct union of their component elements and others from these by precipitation.

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  • Sci., 1909 (iv.), 28, p. 347) claim to have separated two substances (of atomic weights 126.49 and 128.85 respectively) from tellurium, by fractional precipitation of tellurium chloride with water, but in the opinion of H.

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  • Atmospheric precipitation poured into the sea by the great rivers must necessarily create a permanent rise of the sea-level at their mouths, and from this cause the level round the coasts of rainy lands must be greater than in mid-ocean.

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  • Apart from the effects of varying precipitation and evaporation the atmosphere affects sea-level also by its varying pressure, the difference in level of the sea-surface from this cause between two given points being thirteen times as great as the difference between the corresponding readings of the mercurial barometer.

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  • Periodic variations of level due to meteorological causes account for the Baltic being fuller in the time of the summer rains than in winter, when the rivers and lakes are frozen and most of the precipitation on the land is in the form of snow.

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  • Recent limestones are being produced in this way and also in some places by the precipitation of calcium carbonate by sodium or ammonium carbonate which has been carried into the sea or formed by organisms. The precipitated carbonate may agglomerate on mineral or organic grains which serve as nuclei, or it may form a sheet of hard deposit on the bottom as occurs in the Red Sea, off Florida, and round many coral islands in the Pacific. Only the sand and the finest-grained sediments of the shore zone are carried outwards over the continental shelf by the tides or by the reaction-currents along the bottom set up by on-shore winds.

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  • In the Red Sea the " Pola " expedition discovered a calcareous .00ze similar to that of the Mediterranean, and the formation of a stony crust by precipitation of calcium and magnesium carbonates may be recognized as giving origin to a recent dolomite.

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    0
  • A minute fraction is always separating out of the water, and as a prodigious length of time may be accepted for the accomplishment of all the chemical and physical processes in the deep sea, we must take account of the gradual accumulation of even this infinitesimal precipitation.

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  • depths greater than 2500 fathoms. Viewed as a whole this deposit may be taken as a partial precipitation of the plankton living in the upper waters of the open sea.

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  • Where the evaporation is at a minimum, the inflow of rivers from a large continental area and the precipitation from the atmosphere at a maximum, there is necessarily the greatest dilution of the sea-water, the Baltic and the Arctic Sea being conspicuous examples.

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  • For while the mean annual precipitation is 31.42 in., 22 48 in., or 71% of this, fall during the six months from the 1st of April to the 1st of October, or 10% in winter, 23% in autumn, 28% in spring and 39% in summer, June and July being the two wettest months.

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  • Within any one year the precipitation is in general usually less in the western part of the state than in the eastern, the mean difference for all the years of record up to the close of 1903 being 2.5 in.; the western part also is marked by having a f Aricetyn ?'

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  • The yearly precipitation is about 39 to 45 in., decreasing inland, and is evenly distributed throughout the year.

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    0
  • The sulphide is converted into sodium osmichloride by fusion with salt, in a current of chlorine, the sodium salt transformed into ammonium salt by precipitation with ammonium chloride, and the ammonium salt finally heated strongly (H.

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    0
  • It dissolves slowly in water, and the aqueous solution is reduced by most metals with precipitation of osmium.

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    0
  • Since the reaction with the acid salts is attended by liberation of nitric acid: NaH 2 PO 4 +3AgNO 3 = Ag3P04+NaN03 +2HN03, Na 2 HPO 4 +3AgNO 3 =Ag 3 PO 4 + 2NaN03+HNO 3, it is necessary to neutralize the nitric acid if the complete precipitation of the phosphoric acid.

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  • a year, and where there is scarcely any precipitation during the summer months.

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  • The climate is generally dry, although less so on the mountains and in the Flathead river basin than on the Great Plains, and is subject to sudden changes and to great extremes of temperature; but the temperature varies more than the amount of precipitation.

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  • The amount of precipitation is greater in the north-west and on the mountains, because in the one case the mountains of lower elevation are a less obstruction to the moisturebearing winds from the west, and in the other the mountains condense the moisture; the mountains which stand in isolated groups upon the plains are frequently in summer the focus of local thunder showers.

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    0
  • The average annual precipitation ranges from 10 to 15 in.

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    0
  • The mean monthly temperatures vary between 20 in January and 70° in July, with extremes of loo° and - 25° The mean annual precipitation is 31.4 in.

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    0
  • The total precipitation for the state is 17 or 18 in., the heaviest, about 20 in., occurring in the Red river valley, and the lightest, about 14 in., in the extreme W.

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    0
  • The precipitation rarely amounts to 2 in.

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  • Calcium is generally estimated by precipitation as oxalate which, after drying, is heated and weighed as carbonate or oxide, according to the degree and duration of the heating.

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    0
  • But in respect of precipitation there is a very marked difference between the valleys of the north and those of the south.

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  • The climate is so arid, and precipitation so extremely rare, that the fine powdery material falls a helpless prey to the winds.

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  • On the other hand, the precipitation on the Tibetan plateau is so copious, and so uniformly distributed, that it is able to retain the loosened material in situ, and causes it to heap itself up in rounded masses on the flanks of the mountains that are its primitive source of origin, these projecting in great part like skeletons from the midst of their own ruins."

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  • The normal annual precipitation for the state is about 43 in.

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  • During spring and summer the precipitation throughout the state is about 2 in.

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  • The cadmium sulphate solution is prepared by digesting a saturated solution of cadmium sulphate with cadmium hydroxide to remove free acid, care being taken not to raise the temperature above 70° C., and then by digesting it still further with mercurous sulphate until no more precipitation occurs.

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  • The mean annual precipitation ranges from about 38 in.

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  • The windward slopes of the Sierra Madre Oriental receive the greater part of the rainfall, and the winds, deprived of their moisture, pass over the northern plateau without further precipitation.

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  • The precipitation varies widely, that of the western side of the northern plateau (Chihuahua and Durango) being about 39 in., that of the Valley of Mexico about 25 in., and that of the whole republic 59 in.

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  • The most common families on the eastern slopes, where the precipitation is heavy, are the magnolias, crotons, mimosas, acacias, myrtles, oaks, plane-trees and bamboos.

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    0
  • The mean annual precipitation for the entire state is about 40 in.; it is 43 in.

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  • Manufactures.-The heavy precipitation on the elevated central and northern parts, and the hundreds of lakes and ponds which serve as reservoirs, give to the lower southern part of the state on the Merrimac and other rivers such an abundant and constant water-power that southern New Hampshire has become an important manufacturing district, and manufacturing has become the leading industry of the state.

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  • The climate is comparatively dry (annual precipitation about 21.75 in.); between 1898 and 1902 the minimum recorded temperature was io° (March), the maximum 92° (July), and the greatest monthly range 73° (March).

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  • Stas recommends solution of the iodine in potassium iodide and subsequent precipitation by the addition of a large excess of water, the precipitate being washed, distilled in steam, and dried in vacuo over solid calcium nitrate, and then over solid caustic baryta.

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  • wide; this valley seems to represent the path of an enlarged early-glacial Mississippi, when much precipitation that is to-day discharged to Hudson Bay and the Gulf of St Lawrence was delivered to the Gtilf of Mexico, for the curves of the present river are of distinctly smaller raditis than the curves of the valley.

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  • It does not seem to lie in peculiarities of temperature or of precipitation; for trees thrive where they are properly planted on the prairies; every town and farm to-day has its avenues and groves of trees; but it should be noted that west of the Mississippi river increasing aridity becomes an important factor, and is the chief cause of the treelessness of the Great Plains (see below).

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  • The small proportion of total water volume supplied from the great Missouri basin is due to the light precipitation in that region.

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  • per annum, which corresponds roughly to one quarter of the total precipitation on its drainage basin.

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  • Next, dependent on the inclination of the earths axis, is the division of the planetary year into the terrestrial seasons, with winter and summer changes of temperature, wind-strength and precipitation: these seasonal changes are not of the restrained measure that is characteristic of the oceanic southern temperate zone, but of the exaggerated measure appropriate to the continental interruptions of ~the northern land-and-water zone, to which the term temperate is so generally inapplicable.

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  • In California the effect of the strong equatorward turn of the summer winds is to produce a dry season; but in the states along the Gulf of Mexico and especially in Florida the withdrawal of the stormy westerlies in favor of the steadier trade winds (here turned somewhat toward the continental interior, as explained below) results in an increase of precipitation.

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  • With this goes a general increase of precipitation with altitude, so that a good rainfall map would have its darker shades very generally along the mountain ranges.

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  • The rest of the rivers flowing into the Pacific pass through British Columbia and are much shorter, though the two southern ones carry a great volume of water owing to the heavy precipitation of snow and rain in the Cordilleran region.

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  • As one goes westward the precipitation diminishes to 17.34 in.

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  • The precipitation in southern Saskatchewan and Alberta is much more variable than farther east and north, so that in some seasons crops have been a failure through drought, but large areas are now being brought under irrigation to avoid such losses.

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  • inland beyond the Coast Range the precipitation and general climate are, like those of Ontario, comparatively mild and with moderate snowfall towards the south, but with keen winters farther north.

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  • The Selkirk Mountains have a heavy rainfall and a tremendous snowfall on their western flanks, but very much less precipitation on their eastern side.

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  • The Rocky Mountains have the same relationships but the whole precipitation is much less than in the Selkirks.

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  • There is, however, so little precipitation that snow does not accumulate on the surface to form glaciers, the summer's sun having warmth enough to thaw what falls in the winter.

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  • This backwater, where it meets and checks the current of the Arkansas, occasions the precipitation of enormous alluvial deposits, and vast quantities of snags.

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  • The amount of precipitation is greatest along the coast (62 in.) and evenly distributed through the rest of the state (about 52 in.).

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  • Chromium in the form of its salts may be estimated quantitatively by precipitation from boiling solutions with a slight excess of ammonia, and boiling until the free ammonia is nearly all expelled.

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  • In the form of a chromate, it may be determined by precipitation, in acetic acid solution, with lead acetate; the lead chromate precipitate collected on a tared filter paper, well washed, dried at loo° C. and weighed; or the chromate may be reduced by means of sulphur dioxide to the condition of a chromic salt, the excess of sulphur dioxide expelled by boiling, and the estimation carried out as above.

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  • Several forms of hydrated chromium sesquioxide are known; thus on precipitation of a chromic salt, free from alkali, by ammonia, a light blue precipitate is formed, which after drying over sulphuric acid, has the composition Cr 2 0 3 -7H 2 0, and this after being heated to zoo° C. in a current of hydrogen leaves a residue of composition CrO.

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  • Thus, in the third, fourth and fifth general sessions it was enacted, with characteristic precipitation, that an ecumenical council could not be dissolved or set aside by the pope, without its consent: the corollary to which was, that the present council, notwithstanding the flight of John XXIII., continued to exist in the full possession of its powers, and that, in matters pertaining to belief and the eradication of schism, all men - even the pope - were bound to obey the general council, whose authority extended over all Christians, including the pope himself.

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  • He made brilliant experiments elucidating the blue of the sky, and discovered the precipitation of organic vapours by means of light.

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  • If a crystal of the solid be added, the condition of supersaturation is destroyed, and the ordinary equilibrium of saturation is reached by precipitation of solid from solution.

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  • The mean annual precipitation is 19.6 in.

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  • The effect of mountain-chains on prevailing winds is to carry warm air belonging to the lower region into an upper zone, where it expands in volume at the cost of a proportionate loss of heat, often accompanied by the precipitation of moisture in the form of snow or rain.

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  • The annual rainfall is about 46 in., fairly well distributed throughout the year, though the heaviest precipitation occurs in August, September and October.

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  • In "cold deserts" the want of vegetation is wholly due to the prevailing low temperature, while in "hot deserts" the surface is unproductive because, on account of high temperature and deficient rainfall, evaporation is largely in excess of precipitation.

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  • The annual average of rainy days is 138: 94 in the wet season (average precipitation for the six months, 1556.3 mm.) and 44 in the dry season (average precipitation for the six dry months, 382 mm.).

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  • A little east of the Gulf of Enzeli, which resembles the Kara-boghaz, though on a much smaller scale, the Sefid-rud pours into the Caspian the drainage of the western end of the Elburz range, and several smaller streams bring down the precipitation that falls on the northern face of the same range farther to the east.

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  • Beryllium is estimated quantitatively by precipitation with ammonia, and ignition to oxide.

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  • As regards rainfall, Germany belongs to those regions where precipitation takes place at all seasons, but chiefly in the form of summer rains.

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  • As the lakes never freeze, the prevalent cold north-west winds of North America are warmed in their passage over them, and often much of the winter precipitation is in the form of rain, so that the weather has much less certainty than in the north.

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  • The normal salt, T1 3 PO 4, is soluble in 200 parts of water, and may be obtained by precipitation.

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  • The western mountains, exposed to the fierce lash of the Atlantic rains, sustain the heaviest and most constant precipitation.

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  • Ammonium sulphide alone gives incomplete precipitation of the sulphide.

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  • Manganese may be estimated quantitatively by precipitation as carbonate, this salt being then converted into the oxide, Mn 3 0 4 by ignition; or by precipitation as hydrated dioxide by means of ammonia and bromine water, followed by ignition to NIn 3 0 4.

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  • The line of permanent snow is much higher on the plateau side in both ranges, the precipitation being greater on the outer sides - those facing the forested lowlands - and the terrestrial radiation being greater from the barren surfaces of the plateau.

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  • The mean annual precipitation is about 39 in.

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  • the precipitation is 44.8% greater in spring and summer than it is in autumn and winter, but in the S.

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  • At Cambridge in 1774 Fellow Commoners were examined with such precipitation to fulfil the formal requirements of the statutes that the ceremony was termed " huddling for a degree " (Jebb, Remarks upon the Present Mode of Education in the University of Cambridge, 4th ed., 1 774, p. 32).

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  • On the north, the Himalaya range and the plateau of Afghanistan shut it off from the climate of central Asia, and give it a continental climate, the characteristics of which are the prevalence of land winds, great dryness of the air, large diurnal range of temperature, and little or no precipitation.

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  • The precipitation is 35 in.; most of the rain falls in the "rainy season" from May to November, and is preserved in cisterns by the inhabitants as the only supply of drinking water.

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  • It cannot be produced by precipitation.

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  • When prepared by the precipitation of nickel salts with alkaline sulphide in neutral solution it is a greyish black amorphous compound which readily oxidizes in moist air, forming a basic nickel sulphate.

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  • By precipitation of nickel salts with solutions of the alkaline carbonates, basic carbonates of variable composition are obtained.

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  • The variation of precipitation is as great as 30 in.

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  • The Inyo range, on the east, is quite bare of timber, and its summits are only occasionally whitened with snow for a few days during the winter, as almost all precipitation is cut off by the higher ranges to the westward.

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  • fall, which covers all the rest of the state save Inyo, Kern and San Bernardino counties, Imperial county and the eastern portion of Riverside county; the precipitation of this belt is from o to 10 in.

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  • In the mountains the precipitation increases with the altitude; above 6000 or 7000 ft.

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  • Below San Francisco the precipitation decreases along the coast, until at San Diego it is only about io in.

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  • At Ogilby, Volcano, Indio and other stations on the Southern Pacific line the normal annual precipitation is from 1.5 to 2.5 in.; and there are localities near Owen's lake, even on its very edge, that are almost dry.

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  • Precipitation varies in different areas from 8 to 20 in., the average for the state being 12.5 in.

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  • A greater precipitation doubtless prevails on the higher mountains, but trustworthy records are not available.

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  • The salts of hydrochloric acid, known as chlorides, can, in most cases, be prepared by dissolving either the metal, its hydroxide, oxide, or carbonate in the acid; or by heating the metal in a current of chlorine, or by precipitation.

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  • There is an average annual precipitation of 43.1 in., which is quite evenly distributed throughout the year.

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  • Hand in hand with the development of a disagreeable bitter taste there is a precipitation of colouring matter and the formation of certain disagreeable secondary constituents.

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  • there is a so-called wet season, which begins early in July and lasts for a month or six weeks, the rain coming in the form of short afternoon thunderstorms. About a third of the precipitation occurs during July and August, but after August the monthly precipitation is steadily less until March, in which month only about 3% of the annual rainfall occurs.

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  • For all of New Mexico the mean precipitation is about 13 in., ranging from 9 in.

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  • Ferrous chloride decomposes the copper oxide and carbonate with the formation of cuprous and cupric chlorides (which remain in solution), and the precipitation of ferrous oxide, carbon dioxide being simultaneously liberated from the carbonate.

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    0
  • The precipitation of the copper from the solution, in which it is present as sulphate, or as cuprous and cupric chlorides, is generally effected by metallic iron.

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  • The wet extraction of metallic copper from ores in which it occurs as the sulphide, may be considered to involve the following operations: (r) conversion of the copper into a soluble form, (2) dissolving out the soluble copper salt, (3) the precipitation of the copper.

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  • This solution absorbs acetylene with the precipitation of red cuprous acetylide, Cu 2 C 2, a very explosive compound.

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  • The average annual rainfall for Sweden is 19.72 in., locally increasing on the whole from north to south, and reaching a maximum towards the south-west, precipitation on this coast greatly exceeding that on the south-east.

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  • The proportion of total precipitation which falls as snow ranges from 36% in the north to 9% in the south.

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  • Farther south this excessive precipitation is in the form of snow in the Cordilleras, forming glaciers at a comparatively low level which in places discharge into the inlets and bays of the sea.

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  • They lie on the eastern side near the Cordilleras, and serve the purpose of great reservoirs for the excessive precipitation of rain and snow on their western slopes.

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  • Other observations reduce this annual precipitation to less than 16 in.

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  • 68° 05' W., which is more exposed to the westerly storms, the mean temperature for i i months was 41.98° and the total precipitation (rain and snow) 53.1 in.

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  • Anschutz (Ber., 1884, 1 7, p. 439) estimates picric acid by precipitation with acridine.

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  • Astonished at this, the few Zend cavaliers, thinking that the wholy army of Kajars had returned, fled with precipitation leaving the field in possession of Aga Mahommed.

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  • It prevents the precipitation of many metallic hydroxides by caustic alkalis.

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  • The lowering of tension, which follows the condensation of the vapour, is then strikingly shown by the sudden precipitation of the water.] Ef f ect of Surface-tension on the Velocity of Waves.

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  • The mountainous areas are the only ones of adequate precipitation; the northern slope of the Colorado Plateau is almost destitute of water; the region of least precipitation is the " desert " region.

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  • Rainfall varying with the altitude, the lower timber line below which precipitation is insufficient to sustain a growth of trees is about 7000 ft., and the upper timber line about I I,Soo ft.

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  • Attempts to get a pure toxin by repeated precipitation and solution have resulted in the production of a whitish amorphous powder with highly toxic properties.

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  • Brieger and Boer, by precipitation with certain salts, notably of zinc, obtained a body which was toxic but gave no reaction of any form of proteid.

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  • Certain toxins resemble enzymes as regards their conditions of precipitation and relative instability, and the fact that in most cases a considerable period intervenes between the time of injection and the occurrence of symptoms has been adduced in support of the view that enzymes are present.

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  • The mean annual precipitation is not far from 31 in., a little more than one-half of which falls during the five growing months from May to October; the rain is evenly distributed over all parts of the state, but the snow is exceptionally heavy along the north shore of the upper peninsula.

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  • There are several volumetric methods for assaying lead ores, but the best known is that based on the precipitation of lead by ammonium molybdate in an acetic acid solution.

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  • As long as the solution contains lead, the addition of the molybdate solution causes a precipitation of white lead molybdate.

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    0
  • This solution and precipitation is continuous, and the metal formed unites with the mercury to form a semi-fluid amalgam.

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  • At some works the silver is precipitated with sodium sulphide, and the liquor, after having been separated from the silver sulphide, is treated with calcium polysulphide, that by the precipitation of calcium sulphate the accumulation of sodium sulphate may be prevented.

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  • The normal annual precipitation is 47.7 in., varying from 46.6 in.

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    0
  • Precipitation is from I to 3 in.

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  • From December to March, inclusively, part of the precipitation is in the form of snow.

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  • This area is not constant, as the water is very shallow at the margins, and the relation between supply from precipitation, &c., and loss by evaporation is variable, there being an annual difference in the height of the water of 15-18 in.

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  • The western or mountainous division is the wettest at all seasons, each orographic group forming a centre of heavy precipitation.

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  • There are few places in the Western Division where the rainfall is less than 35 in., while in Wales, the Cornwall-Devon peninsula, the Lake District and the southern part of the Pennine Region the precipitation exceeds 40 in., and in Wales and the Lake District considerable areas have a rainfall of over 60 in.

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  • Diet.); a rain-gauge is an instrument used to measure the amount of rainfall (see Meteorology, where the, whole subject of precipitation is fully treated).

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  • The precipitation is about 42 in.

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  • During 42 months about 44% of the precipitation is in the form of snow; but the snow-fall varies from about 60 in.

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  • But nearer the centre of the continent the seasons are less clearly marked by the amount of precipitation, rain falling more or less regularly at all times of the year.

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  • The mean annual precipitation is only I in., the greater part of which occurs in the form of snow in the winter months, summer being the dry season.

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  • At Salt Lake City the annual precipitation is 15.8 in., of which 2 in.

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  • For St George the figures are: annual precipitation, 6.6 in.; summer, 1.3 in.

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  • Well out in the basin deserts the precipitation is still less; and the same holds true for the low desert plateaus in the south-eastern part of the state, where Hite has an annual precipitation of only 2.3 in., of which 0.4 in.

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  • On the other hand, the precipitation on the high plateaus probably exceeds 30 in.

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  • Quinine hydrochloride circulates in the alkaline blood without precipitation, probably owing to the presence of carbonic acid in the blood.

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  • The precipitation during ten years at Ushuaia has been observed to average 24.8 in.

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  • The distillate was further purified by digestion with milk of lime, precipitation with water, and further digestion with calcium bromide and barium oxide, and was finally redistilled.

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  • The higher masses of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta cover a very limited area, leaving the trade winds a comparatively unbroken sweep across the northern plains until checked by the Western Cordillera, the Panama ranges and the Sierra de Baudo, where a heavy precipitation follows.

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  • Ferdinand with his usual precipitation fled to Palermo (23rd of January 1806), followed soon after by his wife and son, and on the 14th of February the French again entered Naples.

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  • But until the clouds rise above the hill there is an obvious countervailing tendency to compression, and in steep slopes this may reduce or entirely prevent precipitation until the summit is reached, when a fall of pressure with commotion must occur.

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  • Very high mountain ranges usually consist of many ridges, among which rain-clouds are entangled in their ascent, and in such cases precipitation towards the windward side of the main range, though on the leeward sides of the minor ridges of which it is formed, may occur to so large an extent that before the summit is reached the clouds are exhausted or nearly so, and in this case the total precipitation is less on the leeward than on the windward side of the main range; but in the moderate heights of the United Kingdom it more commonly happens from the causes explained that precipitation is prevented or greatly retarded until the summit of the ridge is reached.

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  • Successive abstraction of raindrops as the rain-clouds pass over ridge after ridge causes a gradually diminishing precipitation, but this is generally insufficient to reverse the local conditions, which tend to the contrary effect in individual ranges.

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  • On account of the small amount of precipitation, the fissured condition of the underlying lava sheets, and the porous soil, the Great Sandy Desert has practically no surface streams even in the wet season, and within its limits no potable waters have been found.

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  • As the winds from the ocean are deprived of their moisture on reaching the Coast and Cascade ranges, the amount of annual precipitation, which in the coast counties varies from 75 to 138 in., constantly diminishes toward the E.

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  • Precipitation on the Coast Range at altitudes above 2000 ft.

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  • The temperature over the state is much more uniform than is the precipitation, which diminishes somewhat regularly westward.

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  • 1 The precipitation in the west is not sufficient for confident agriculture in any series of years, since agriculture is practically dependent upon the mean fall; a fact that has been and is of profound importance in the history of the state.

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  • The precipitation is very largely in the growing season - at Dodge the fall between April and October is 78% of that for the year.

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  • The average annual precipitation for the state is 31.5 in.

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  • There is a wet and a dry season; in the former, from the middle of April to the middle of December, there falls (in heavy, short rains) about 85% of the total annual precipitation, and south-east winds prevail.

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  • Broadly speaking, the climate on the north and west of the main ranges is both milder and moister than on the south and east, and accordingly the precipitation in the former is relatively heavier, namely IO to 20 in.

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  • The mean annual precipitation for the state is 317 in.; the variation between the E.

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  • Metals such as tin, potassium and sodium, when heated in the gas, form arsenides, with liberation of hydrogen; and solutions of gold and silver salts are reduced by the gas with precipitation of metallic gold and silver.

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