How to use Precipitated in a sentence
The issue was precipitated by the news of the revolution in Turkey.
The condemnation precipitated an exodus to Rome.
The experiments of Tyndall upon precipitated clouds have been already referred to.
His flight, however, only precipitated events.
Berthollet in 1788 by acting with ammonia on precipitated silver oxide.Advertisement
In districts where the water is of a " hard nature," that is, contains bicarbonate of lime in solution, the interior of the boiler cylinders, tanks and pipes of a hot water system will become incrusted with a deposit of lime which is gradually precipitated as the water is heated to boiling point.
Briicke also brought forward an experiment of great importance, in which he showed that gum mastic, precipitated from an alcoholic solution poured into a large quantity of water, scatters light of a blue tint.
The rivalry between these two officials in Tunisia contributed not a little to strain FrancoItalian relations, but it is doubtful whether France would have precipitated her action had not General Menabrea, Italian ambassador in London, urged his government to purchase the Tunis-Goletta railway from the English company by which it had been constructed.
The rebuke infuriated the Conservative deputies, who, protesting against Crispis words in the name of the sacred memories of their party, precipitated a division and placed the cabinet in a minority.
To obtain pure sulphuretted hydrogen the method generally adopted consists in decomposing precipitated antimony sulphide with concentrated hydrochloric acid.Advertisement
It is also prepared by digesting precipitated mercuric sulphide with an alkaline sulphide fox some hours; it is said that Chinese vermilion owes its superiority to being made in this way.
Silver chloride goes into solution, and may be precipitated by dilute nitric acid.
In 1899 the Bolivian government established a custom-house at Puerto Alonso, on the Acre river, for the collection of export duties on rubber, which precipitated a conflict with the Brazilian settlers and finally brought about a boundary dispute between the two republics.
It is not at all certain that the masses on which coral reefs are built consist entirely of the remains of the skeletons of reef-forming organisms and it is probable that chemically precipitated carbonate of lime predominates.
In general they are white, loose powders, slightly soluble in cold water, more soluble in hot water; they are precipitated by mineral acids, but dissolve in an excess.Advertisement
The properties of podophyllin resin vary with the reaction of the tissue with which it is in contact; where this is acid the drug is inert, the picro-podophyllin being precipitated.
The lagoons are believed to act as purifying pans in which the greater part of the salt in the water is precipitated.
The mixed solution of poiysulphides and thiosulphate of calcium thus produced is clarified, diluted largely, and then mixed with enough of pure dilute hydrochloric acid to produce a feebly alkaline mixture when sulphur is precipitated.
They form many double salts and give a dark violet coloration with ferric chloride solution, this colour, however, gradually disappearing on standing, sulphur being precipitated.
Ferric hydrate, iron soaps and all insoluble impurities are precipitated.Advertisement
If phosphoric acid is absent, aluminium, chromium and ferric hydrates are precipitated.
Filter from the bismuth hydrate, and if copper is present, add potassium cyanide till the colour is destroyed, then pass sulphuretted hydrogen, and cadmium is precipitated as the yellow sulphide.
If barium is present, the solution of the carbonates in hydrochloric acid is evaporated and digested with strong alcohol for some time; barium chloride, which is nearly insoluble in alcohol,is thus separated, the remainder being precipitated by a few drops of hydrofluosilicic acid, and may be confirmed by the ordinary tests.
In acid copper solutions, mercury is deposited before the copper with which it subsequently amalgamates; silver is thrown down simultaneously; bismuth appears towards the end; and after all the copper has been precipitated, arsenic and antimony may be deposited.
The water in shallow seas, off the shores of islands or in lagoons, is saturated with calcium bicarbonate and if the amount of carbonic acid in solution be reduced by any means, normal carbonate must be precipitated.Advertisement
Histones are a class of albumins soluble in water and acids, but essentially basic in character; hence they are precipitated by alkalies.
Soon afterwards, William Cruickshank decomposed the magnesium, sodium and ammonium chlorides, and precipitated silver and copper from their solutions - an observation which led to the process of electroplating.
The precipitated alumina is filtered off, the filtrate evaporated and the ammonium salt of the acid purified by recrystallization.
When carbonic acid is present the dissolved oxide is soon precipitated as basic carbonate, so that the corrosion of the lead becomes continuous.
If a suspension of lead dichloride in hydrochloric acid be treated with chlorine gas, a solution of lead tetrachloride is obtained; by adding ammonium chloride ammonium plumbichloride, (NH 4) 2 PbC1 6, is precipitated, which on treatment with strong sulphuric acid yields lead tetrachloride, PbC1 4, as a translucent, yellow, highly refractive liquid.Advertisement
Strong sulphuric acid dissolves it, forming an acid salt, Pb(HS04)2, which is hydrolysed by adding water, the normal sulphate being precipitated; hence the milkiness exhibited by samples of oil of vitriol on dilution.
The vermilion-like pigment which occurs in commerce as "chromered" is a basic chromate, Pb2Cr05, prepared by treating recently precipitated normal chromate with a properly adjusted proportion of caustic soda, or by boiling it with normal (yellow) potassium chromate.
When carbon dioxide is passed into this solution the whole of the added oxide, and even part of the oxide of the normal salt, is precipitated as a basic carbonate chemically similar, but not quite equivalent as a pigment, to white lead.
By this means, sodium aluminate is formed; it is then extracted with water and precipitated either by sodium bicarbonate or by passing a current of carbon dioxide through the solution.
They suffered a defeat at Schwechat on the 30th of October, which sealed the fate of the revolutionists in Vienna and thus precipitated a conflict a outrance in Hungary itself.Advertisement
From the solution the arsenic, copper, &c., are precipitated by sulphuretted hydrogen as sulphides, which are filtered off.
These are oxidized and precipitated conjointly by excess of ammonia.
The mother liquor includes generally more or less of nickel, cobalt, zinc and other heavy metals, which, as Wailer showed, can be removed as insoluble sulphides by the addition of ammonium sulphide; uranium, under the circumstances, is not precipitated by this reagent.
Precipitated stannous hydrate dissolves readily in caustic potash; if the solution is evaporated quickly it suffers decomposition, with formation of metal and stannate, 2SnO+2KOH = K2Sn03+Sn+H20.
In the Hungarian diet, which met on the 2nd of July, the influence of the conservative cabinet was wholly overshadowed by that of Kossuth, whose inflammatory orations - directed against the disruptive designs of the Sla y s and the treachery of the Austrian government - precipitated the crisis.Advertisement
The solutions are oxidized, precipitated with ammonia, the precipitate dissolved in hydrochloric acid, and re-thrown down by boiling with sodium sulphate.
This substance differs from the mucins by being precipitated by tannic acid but not by acetic acid, and being endowed with a higher proportion of sulphur.
Calcium or potassium sulphides and potassium hydrosulphides completely reduce nitroglycerin to glycerin, some of the sulphur being oxidized and some precipitated.
In 1839 it became the centre of the "Anti-Rent War," which was precipitated by the death of Stephen van Rensselaer (1764-1839), the last of the patroons; the attempt of his heirs to collect overdue rents resulting in disturbances which necessitated the calling out of the militia, spread into several counties where there were large landed estates, and were not entirely settled until 1847.
Earthy matter and other matter precipitated and fallen on the copper double bottom may be dislodged by a slowly revolving scraper - say every twelve hours - and ejected through the bottom discharge cock; and thus the heating surface of the copper bottom will be kept in full efficiency.Advertisement
The iron and manganese are precipitated as hydroxides, and are filtered off.
A hydrated form is prepared when a solution of titanic acid in hydrochloric acid is digested with copper, or when the trichloride is precipitated with alkalis.
Acid solutions of titanates are not precipitated by sulphuretted hydrogen; but ammonium sulphide acts on them as if it were ammonia, the sulphuretted hydrogen being liberated.
The pressure of the Turks in Asia precipitated the Avars upon the West.
But although silenced the prophet was doomed, and the folly of his disciples precipitated his fate.Advertisement
When invited to head a rebellion against the latter, he sent his son with a fleet which reached Constantinople unopposed, and precipitated the dethronement of Phocas.
There were many causes of quarrel between the two ambitious young monarchs, but the detention at Copenhagen in 1563 of a splendid matrimonial embassy on its way to Germany, to negotiate a match between Eric and Christina of Hesse, which King Frederick for political reasons was determined to prevent, precipitated hostilities.
When a solution of silver nitrate is poured on to metallic mercury, the mercury replaces the silver in the solution, forming nitrate of mercury, and the silver is precipitated; it does not, however, appear as pure metallic silver, but in the form of crystalline needles of an alloy of silver and mercury.
Fromm have shown that alloys may be precipitated from dilute solutions by zinc, cadmium, tin, lead and copper.
Thus a strip of zinc plunged into a solution of silver sulphate, containing not more than 0.03 gramme of silver in the litre, becomes covered with a flocculent precipitate which is a true alloy of silver and zinc, and in the same way, when copper is precipitated from its sulphate by zinc, the alloy formed is brass.
When the gold is finely divided, as in " purple of Cassius," or when it is precipitated from solutions, the colour is ruby-red, while in very thin leaves it transmits a greenish light.
Gold can be readily welded cold; the finely divided metal, in the state in which it is precipitated from solution, may be compressed between dies into disks or medals.
Many processes have been suggested in which the gold of auriferous deposits is converted into products soluble in water, from which solutions the gold may be precipitated.
At the same time any lead, calcium, barium and strontium present are precipitated as sulphates; it is therefore advantageous to remove these metals by the preliminary addition of sulphuric acid, which also serves to keep any basic iron salts in solution.
The precipitated gold is washed, treated with salt and sulphuric acid to remove iron salts, roughly dried by pressing in cloths or on filter paper, and then melted with salt, borax and nitre in graphite crucibles.
The gold is precipitated as the sulphide, together with any arsenic, antimony, copper, silver and lead which may be present.
The gold and other metals are precipitated on the under surfaces of the turnings and fall to the bottom of the compartment as a black slime.
Or the alloy is dissolved in aqua regia, the solution filtered from the insoluble silver chloride, and the gold precipitated by ferrous chloride.
The solution may be directly precipitated with copper, the copper passing into solution as copper sulphate, and the silver separating as a mud, termed " cement silvers" Or the silver sulphate may be separated from the solution by cooling and dilution, and then mixed with iron clippings, the interaction being accompanied with a considerable evolution of heat.
This alpine region sends out numerous rivers in a southerly direction, which, forcing their passage through narrow defiles, and precipitated in cataracts over the precipices, eventually pour themselves into the Brahmaputra.
The solution of metallic chlorides or sulphates so obtained is precipitated by iron, the metallic bismuth filtered, washed with water, pressed in canvas bags, and finally fused in graphite crucibles, the surface being protected by a layer of charcoal.
The basic nitrate is the salt generally prepared, and, in general outline, the process consists in dissolving the metal in nitric acid, adding water to the solution, boiling the precipitated basic nitrate with an alkali to remove the arsenic and lead, dissolving the residue in nitric acid, and reprecipitating as basic nitrate with water.
It is precipitated as the metal from solutions of its salts by the metals of the alkalis and alkaline earths, zinc, iron, copper, &c. In its chemical affinities it resembles arsenic and antimony; an important distinction is that it forms no hydrogen compound analogous to arsine and stibine.
Thus obtained it is a yellow powder, soluble in the mineral acids to form soluble salts, which are readily precipitated as basic salts when the solution is diluted.
The blackish brown sulphide precipitated from bismuth salts by sulphuretted hydrogen is insoluble in ammonium sulphide, but is readily dissolved by nitric acid.
The crude element is treated with aqua regia and then evaporated with an excess of hydrochloric acid, the solution diluted and the tellurium precipitated by a current of sulphur dioxide.
The precipitated tellurium is then fused with potassium cyanide, the melt extracted with water and the element precipitated by drawing a current of air through the solution and finally distilled in a current of hydrogen.
An amor phous form is obtained when tellurium is precipitated from its solutions by sulphur dioxide, this variety having a specific gravity 6.015.
Recent limestones are being produced in this way and also in some places by the precipitation of calcium carbonate by sodium or ammonium carbonate which has been carried into the sea or formed by organisms. The precipitated carbonate may agglomerate on mineral or organic grains which serve as nuclei, or it may form a sheet of hard deposit on the bottom as occurs in the Red Sea, off Florida, and round many coral islands in the Pacific. Only the sand and the finest-grained sediments of the shore zone are carried outwards over the continental shelf by the tides or by the reaction-currents along the bottom set up by on-shore winds.
The bottom of the Black Sea is covered by a stiff blue mud in which Sir John Murray found much sulphide of iron,' grains or needles of pyrites making up nearly 50% of the deposit, and there are also grains of amorphous calcium carbonate evidently precipitated from the water.
The completion of the latter line precipitated one of the most extraordinary of American railway wars and land booms, which resulted in giving southern California a great stimulus.
New dogmas have been precipitated more than once during the 19th century; there may still be others held in solution in the church's teaching.
After fusion, the mass is finely powdered and treated with cold dilute hydrochloric acid; and when action has finished, nitric and sulphuric acids are added, the precipitated barium sulphate removed, the liquid distilled and the osmium precipitated as sulphide.
In the massive state it is insoluble in all acids, but when freshly precipitated from solutions it dissolves in fuming nitric acid.
The double fluoride is decomposed with hot concentrated sulphuric acid; the mixed sulphate is dissolved in water; and the zirconia is precipitated with ammonia in the cold.
But, if the hydroxide is precipitated in the heat, it demands concentrated acids for its solution.
Metaphosphoric acid can be distinguished from the other two acids by its power of coagulating albumen, and by not being precipitated by mag nesium and ammonium chlorides in the presence of ammonia.
Its administration causes the appearance in the urine of a salt of cubebic acid which is precipitated by heat or nitric acid, and is therefore liable to be mistaken for albumin, when these two most common tests for the occurrence of albuminuria are applied.
Calcium is not precipitated by sulphuretted hydrogen, but falls as the carbonate when an alkaline carbonate is added to a solution.
The administration was corrupt, largely because of the vast powers given to officials, who were invariably underpaid; and the financial methods of the company precipitated its ruin, large dividends being paid out of borrowed money.
The amount of ammonia in ammonium salts can be estimated quantitatively by distillation of the salts with sodium or potassium hydroxide, the ammonia evolved being absorbed in a known volume of standard sulphuric acid and the excess of acid then determined volumetrically; or the ammonia may be absorbed in hydrochloric acid and the ammonium chloride so formed precipitated as ammonium chlorplatinate, (NH4)2PtC16.
Wycliffe's ideas, conveyed to the continent, precipitated the outbreak of the Hussite storm in Bohemia.
When hydrochloric acid gas is passed into the solution the salt is completely precipitated as a fine powder.
It was precipitated by one of those fits of passion to which the king was prone; but the influence of Hubert had been for some time waning before that of Peter des Roches and his nephew Peter des Rievaux.
In these stories Strindberg's fanatic hatred of womankind already makes its appearance, the disasters of the principal figures being precipitated by the selfishness and immorality of the women.
Wood has studied the iridescent colours seen when a precipitate of potassium silicofluoride is produced by adding silicofluoric acid to a solution of potassium chloride, and found that they are due to the same cause, the refractive index of the minute crystals precipitated being about the same as that of the solution, which latter can be varied by dilution.
When her husband died on the 6th of September 1701, she succeeded in inducing King Louis to recognize her son as king of England, an act which precipitated the war of the Spanish Succession.
A later method consists in boiling the weed with sodium carbonate; the liquid is filtered and hydrochloric acid added to the filtrate, when alginic acid is precipitated; this is also filtered off, the filtrate neutralized by caustic soda, and the whole evaporated to dryness and carbonized, the residue obtained being known as kelp substitute.
It rarely substitutes directly, because the hydriodic acid produced reverses the reaction; this can be avoided by the presence of precipitated mercuric oxide or iodic acid, which react with the hydriodic acid as fast as it is formed, and consequently remove it from the reacting system.
On shaking up iodine with a solution of sulphuretted hydrogen in water, a solution of hydriodic acid is obtained, sulphur being at the same time precipitated.
The mahatmas exhibited their " astral bodies " to her, " precipitated " messages which reached her from the confines of Tibet in an instant of time, supplied her with sound doctrine, and incited her to perform tricks for the conversion of sceptics.
The violet form gives a purple solution, and all its chlorine is precipitated by silver nitrate, the aqueous solution containing four ions, probably Cr(OH 2) 6 and three chlorine ions.
It is precipitated from hot solutions by alcohol, falling as a white powder.
The king's acceptance of two bribes - one of $75,000 and another of $80,000 for the assignment of an opium licence - precipitated the revolution of 1887.
The end came in November 1905, precipitated by a speech made by Mr Balfour at Newcastle on the 14th, appealing for unity in the party and the sinking of differences, an appeal plainly addressed to Mr Chamberlain, whose supporters - the vast majority of the Unionists - were clamouring for a fighting policy.
The calling in of Pinkerton detectives from Chicago and New1690-1691-1691-16 931691-1693York to settle a strike in the Carnegie steel works at Homestead in 1892 precipitated a serious riot, in which about twenty persons were killed.
At the neutral point, when the particles possessed no charge, their stability was destroyed, and they were precipitated.
Precipitated aluminium hydrate finds considerable application in dyeing.
Nearly all the moisture that is precipitated during six or seven months is stored up in the form of snow, and is gradually diffused in the course of the succeeding summer; even in the hottest and driest seasons the reserves accumulated during a long preceding period of years in the form of glaciers are available to maintain the regular flow of the greater streams. Nor is this all; the lakes that fill several of the main valleys on the southern side of the Alps are somewhat above the level of the plains of Lombardy and Venetia, and afford an inexhaustible supply of water, which, from a remote period, has been used for that system of irrigation to which they owe their proverbial fertility.
The solution is filtered, and the barium precipitated by sulphuric acid.
The mineral is also frequently found massive, with a coarse or fine granular structure and a crystalline fracture; sometimes it occurs as a soft, white, amorphous deposit resembling artificially precipitated zinc sulphide.
The iron and aluminium precipitates are filtered off, and the filtrate boiled, when a basic beryllium hydroxide containing a little ferric oxide is precipitated.
To remove the iron, the precipitate is again dissolved in ammonium carbonate and steam is blown through the liquid, when beryllium oxide is precipitated.
This process is repeated several times, and the final precipitate is dissolved in hydrochloric acid and precipitated by ammonia, washed and dried.
Beryllium salts are easily soluble and mostly have a sweetish taste (hence the name Glucinum, from yXv,dc, sweet); they are readily precipitated by alkaline sulphides with formation of the white hydroxide, and may be distinguished from salts of all other metals by the solubility of the oxide in ammonium carbonate.
His reign was characterized by bloodshed and violence; the outrage of his son Sextus upon Lucretia precipitated a revolt, which led to the expulsion of the entire family.
Towards the further development of events in France, therefore, Leopold assumed at first a studiously moderate attitude; but his refusal to respond to the demand of the French government for the dispersal of the corps of emigres assembled under the protection of the German princes on the frontier of France, and the insistence on the rights of princes dispossessed in Alsace and Lorraine, precipitated the crisis.
Before anything could come of this proposal, matters were precipitated (end of March 431) by the attack of Thebes upon Plataea (q.v.), which immediately sought and obtained the aid of Athens.
But the antagonistic interests of the two countries in Germany during the Thirty Years' War precipitated a fourth contest between them (1643-45), in which Denmark would have been utterly ruined but for the heroism of King Christian IV.
From the filtered solution the thallium is precipitated as the chloride by addition of hydrochloric acid, along, in general, with more or less of lead chloride.
The chlorine is not completely precipitated by silver nitrate in nitric acid solution, the ionization apparently not proceeding to all the chlorine atoms. Thallic iodide, T11 3, is interesting on account of its isomorphism with rubidium and caesium tri-iodides, a resemblance which suggests the formula T11 (12) for the salt, in which the metal is obviously monovalent.
From solutions containing it as thallous salt the metal is easily precipitated as chloride, iodide, or chloroplatinate by the corresponding reagents.
From the tar distillate, the chrysene can be fractionally precipitated, and the fluoranthene can be separated from most of the pyrene by fractional distillation in a partial vacuum.
An odd incident precipitated the result.
For this purpose the urine is concentrated and the hippuric acid precipitated by the addition of hydrochloric acid; it is then filtered and boiled for some time with concentrated hydrochloric acid, when it is hydrolysed into benzoic and amido-acetic acid.
The crude oxide of the metal is obtained from cerite, by evaporating the mineral with strong sulphuric acid, removing excess of acid and dissolving the residue in ice-cold water; sulphuretted hydrogen is passed through the solution, which is then filtered, acidified with hydrochloric acid, and precipitated as oxalate by oxalic acid; the oxalate is then converted into oxide by ignition.
The sulphate is subsequently boiled with water, when a basic sulphate is precipitated.
By suspending the precipitated cerous hydroxide in water and passing chlorine through the solution, a hydrated form of the dioxide, 2CeO 2.3H 2 O, is obtained, which is readily soluble in nitric and sulphuric acids, forming ceric salts, and in hydrochloric acid, where it forms cerous chloride, with liberation of chlorine.
For the quantitative determination of the metal, the salts are precipitated by caustic potash, the precipitate washed, dried and heated, and finally weighed as the dioxide.
The sulphuric acid present is mostly precipitated as calcium sulphate.
There the reaction mentioned above takes place, and Owing to the concentration of the liquid the sodium bicarbonate formed is to a great extent precipitated in the shape of small crystals, forming with the mother-liquor a thin magma.
The dibrominated product so obtained was then fused with caustic potash, the melt dissolved in water, and on the addition of hydrochloric acid to the solution, alizarin was precipitated.
The precipitated alizarin is then well washed and made into a paste with water, in which form it is put on to the market.
The metal is obtained from zinc blende (which only contains it in very small quantity) by dissolving the mineral in an acid, and precipitating the gallium by metallic zinc. The precipitate is dissolved in hydrochloric acid and foreign metals are removed by sulphuretted hydrogen; the residual liquid being then fractionally precipitated by sodium carbonate, which throws out the gallium before the zinc. This precipitate is converted into gallium sulphate and finally into a pure specimen of the oxide, from which the metal is obtained by the electrolysis of an alkaline solution.
The gallium salts are precipitated by alkaline carbonates and by barium carbonate, but not by sulphuretted hydrogen unless in acetic acid solution.
This precipitated Revolt of the revolt.
The hydroxide, Ni(OH) 2, is obtained in the form of a greenish amorphous powder when nickel salts are precipitated by the caustic alkalis.
A subsulphide, Ni 2 S(?), results when the sulphate is heated with sulphur or when the precipitated monosulphide is heated in a current of hydrogen.
Many interior towns lost half their population and some virtually all their population as a result of this emigration; and it precipitated a real estate crash in San Francisco that threatened temporary ruin.
By using hot acid the yellow anhydrous tungstic acid is precipitated, which is insoluble in water and in all acids except hydrofluoric. It may be obtained in a flocculent form by exposing the hexachloride to moist air.
On boiling gelatinous silica with ammonium polytungstate and evaporating with the occasional addition of ammonia, ammonium silicodecitungstate is obtained as short rhombic prisms. On adding silver nitrate and decomposing the precipitated silver salt with hydrochloric acid, a solution is obtained which on evaporation in a vacuum gives the free acid as a glassy mass.
The crisis was precipitated by the arrival on the 5th of April of a second division of the Russian fleet in the Bosporus, and of a Russian force of 6000 men, which landed on the Asiatic shore.
Chlorine monoxide results on passing chlorine over dry precipitated mercuric oxide.
Hypochlorous acid is formed when chlorine monoxide dissolves in water, and can be prepared (in dilute solution) by passing chlorine through water containing precipitated mercuric oxide in suspension.
Precipitated calcium carbonate may be used in place of the mercuric oxide, or a hypochlorite may be decomposed by a dilute mineral acid and the resulting solution distilled.
But the people of these cessions, especially of Kentucky, were closely allied to the great up-country party of Virginia, and altogether they formed the basis of the Jeffersonian democracy, which from 1794 opposed the chief measures of the Washington administration, and which on the passage of the Alien and Sedition laws in 1798 precipitated the first great constitutional crisis in Federal politics by the adoption in the Kentucky and Virginia legislatures of the resolutions, known by the names of those states, strongly asserting the right and duty of the states to arrest the course of the national government whenever in their opinions that course had become unconstitutional.
The indignation excited by Leo X.'s sale of indulgences, the moral rage stirred in Northern hearts by papal abominations in Rome, were external causes which precipitated the schism between Teutonic and Latin Christianity.
In the following year he published a paper on the analysis of one of the London pump-waters (from Rathbone Place, Oxford Street), which is closely connected with the memoirs just mentioned, since it shows that the calcareous matter in that water is held in solution by the "fixed air" present and can be precipitated by lime.
At the height of glory and success he was suddenly precipitated from his dignity by another palace revolution.
The fundamental principle consists in getting the ore into a solution, from which the metal can be precipitated.
The liquor was then filtered from the iron oxides, and the filtrate treated with scrap iron, which precipitated the copper and reformed ferrous chloride, which could be used in the first stage of the process.
If calcium chloride be used the precipitated calcium sulphate must be removed by filtration.
Either wrought, pig, iron sponge or iron bars are employed, and it is important to notice that the form in which the copper is precipitated, and also the time taken for the separation, largely depend upon the condition in which the iron is applied.
The sulphate, oxide or chlorides, which are obtained from the sulphuretted ores, are lixiviated and the metal precipitated fn the same manner as we have previously described.
It dissolves in the excess of acid, and is precipitated as a white crystalline powder on the addition of water.
The tannin of coffee, C3,H,80,6, found in coffee beans, is not precipitated from its solutions by gelatin.
The political opposition to the western empires, the Seleucids first, then the Romans, precipitated this development.
For the preparation of the acid the crude argol is boiled with hydrochloric acid and afterwards precipitated as calcium tartrate by boiling with milk of lime, the calcium salt being afterwards decomposed by sulphuric acid.
Barium carbonate, BaCO 31 occurs rather widely distributed as witherite, and may be prepared by the addition of barium chloride to a hot solution of ammonium carbonate, when it is precipitated as a dense white powder of specific gravity 4.3; almost insoluble in water.
Jameson was so informed, nevertheless he precipitated the crisis by invading the Transvaal on the evening of December the 29th.
At the time which from a military standpoint they thought most opportune (October 9) an ultimatum was handed to the British agent at Pretoria, and a war was at once precipitated, which was not to close for over two and a half years.
These precipitated oxychlorides on continued boiling with water lose all their chlorine and ultimately give a residue of antimony trioxide.
The condensation of vapour from the ascending currents and their gradual exhaustion as they are precipitated on successive ranges is very obvious in the cloud effects produced during the monsoon, the southern or windward face of each range being clothed day after day with a white crest of cloud whilst the northern slopes are often left entirely free.
This equability of temperature is partly caused by the very heavy rainfall precipitated on Portugal as one of the westernmost countries of Europe and the one most exposed to the Atlantic. The rainfall has been as heavy as 16 ft.
On the 3rd of October the murder of a distinguished Republican physician, Dr Miguel Bombarda, precipitated the revolution which had been organized to take place in Lisbon ten days later.
These hostages, when restored in 150, swelled the ranks of the proletariate opposition, whose leaders, to cover their maladministration at home, precipitated a war by attacking Sparta in defiance of Rome.
Though subsequent researches have on the whole confirmed these results, it is still a matter of dispute whether these proteids are the true toxins or merely contain the toxic bodies precipitated along with them.
Or the toxin may be precipitated with other organic substances, purified to a certain extent byre-solution, re-precipitation, &c., and desiccated.
A comparatively unimportant incident precipitated matters.
The appearance of a yellow colour shows that all the lead has been precipitated and that the solution contains an excess of molybdate.
When cadmium is not present the copper may be precipitated by boiling the acidulated ammoniacal solution with test lead and titrating, as before described, without removing the lead and copper from the solution.
The cylinder, having been carefully weighed, is placed in position, the beaker containing the solution is adjusted, and the current passed until all the copper is precipitated.
Silver, arsenic and cadmium, if present, are precipitated with the copper and affect the accuracy of the results; they should be removed by special methods.
On this foil the copper in the solution is all precipitated by electrolytic action in a few minutes, and the aluminium is dissolved by the addition of an excess of sulphuric acid.
The ore is treated as described in the cyanide method until the copper precipitated by the aluminium foil has been washed and dissolved in 5 cc. of nitric acid; then 0.25 gramme of potassium chlorate is added, and the solution boiled nearly dry to oxidize any arsenic present to arsenic acid.
Molecular silver is a grey powder obtained by leaving metallic zinc in contact with silver chloride which has been precipitated in the cold and washed till nearly free from acid.
The loss in quicksilver is small, as there is no chemical loss inherent in the process; the yield is relatively high, but the bullion is liable to be low-grade, on account of copper being precipitated and amalgamated.
In leaching, the silver ore is subjected to the action of solvents, which dissolve the silver; from the solution the silver is precipitated and converted into a marketable product.
Sodium chloride, characteristic of the Augustin process in which the ores, after a chloridizing roast, were extracted with brine, and the silver precipitated by copper, has almost wholly fallen into disuse; and potassium cyanide, which has become a very important solvent for finely divided gold, is rarely used in leaching silver ores.
The ore, supposed to have been salt-roasted, is charged loosely into the leaching vat and treated with water (to which sulphuric acid or copper sulphate may have been added), to remove soluble salts, which might later on be precipitated with the silver (base-metal chlorides), or overcharge the solution (sodium chloride and sulphate), or interfere with the solvent power (sodium sulphate).
If the sodium cuprous hyposulphite was used as a solvent in addition to the simple sodium hyposulphite, cuprous sulphide will be precipitated with the silver sulphide, and the precipitate will be of lower grade.
At some works the silver is precipitated with sodium sulphide, and the liquor, after having been separated from the silver sulphide, is treated with calcium polysulphide, that by the precipitation of calcium sulphate the accumulation of sodium sulphate may be prevented.
The precipitated silver (copper) sulphide is filtered, dried, and usually shipped to silver-lead works to be refined; sometimes it is converted into metallic silver at the works.
Acidified copper nitrate solution is run into this cell, copper is deposited, and the more or less spent solution then passes through the linen partition, and, taking up metal from the anodes by electrolytic solution, is run out of the trough through a series of vessels filled with copper by which the silver is precipitated by simple exchange; after acidification the resulting silver-free copper solution is returned to the cathode cell for the deposition of the copper, the solution being employed again and again until too impure for use.
A convenient wet method for small quantities is to boil the recently precipitated chloride (which must have been produced and washed in the cold) with caustic soda and just enough sugar to reduce the silver oxide (Ag 2 O) transitorily produced.
It is also obtained by digesting freshly precipitated silver chloride with potash.
Early names for it are Lac argenti and Luna cornea, the first referring to its form when freshly precipitated, the latter to its appearance after fusion.
Nilson (Ber., 1874, 7, p. 1719) digests the well-washed chamber mud with a moderately concentrated solution of potassium cyanide, whereby the element goes into solution in the form of potassium selenocyanide, KSe(CN), from which it is precipitated by hydrochloric acid.
Any sulphuric acid present is removed by baryta water, the precipitated barium sulphate filtered off, the solution acidified by hydrochloric acid and reduced by sulphur dioxide.
Quinine is precipitated from its solution by alkalis and their carbonates.
The sulphate of cinchonidine is more soluble than that of quinine; and, when 1 part of quinine sulphate suspected to contain it is nearly dissolved in 24 parts of boiling water, the sulphate of quinine crystallizes out on' cooling, and the cinchonidine is found in the clear mother liquor, from which it can be precipitated by a solution of potassium and sodium tartrate.
The small quantity of quinine it contains is conditioned by the solubility of the alkaloid, which is precipitated when this tincture is diluted with water.
In this sense alone quinine is a tonic. The hydrochloric acid of the gastric juice is stated to convert any salt of quinine into a chloride, and it seems probable that the absorption of quinine takes place mainly from the stomach, for when the drug reaches the alkaline secretions of the duodenum it is precipitated, and probably none of it is thereafter absorbed.
For their quantitative determination they are precipitated in nitric acid solution by means of silver nitrate, and the silver bromide well washed, dried and weighed.
Scheele treated bone ash with nitric acid, precipitated the calcium as sulphate, filtered, evaporated and distilled the residue with charcoal.
It is an energetic reducing agent; for example, when boiled with copper sulphate metallic copper is precipitated and hydrogen evolved.
The application for statehood precipitated one of the most famous and significant episodes of national history - the Missouri Compromise.
C. Fremont at St Louis in August 1861, though promptly disavowed by President Lincoln, precipitated the issue.
Grave friction had already begun when external events precipitated an open rupture between the king of England and his new vassal.
But the insurrection was precipitated by an unpremeditated outrage.
Wolsey desired a French marriage to consummate the breach upon which he was now bent with the emperor; and war, in fact, was precipitated with Spain in 1528.
The good understanding was so complete that a disagreeable incident in the Sandwich Islands, in which the injudicious conduct of a French agent very nearly precipitated hostilities, was amicably settled; and the ministry had the satisfaction of knowing that, if their policy had produced prosperity at home, it had also maintained peace abroad.
By heating solutions of certain iron salts for some time and then adding a little sulphuric acid it is precipitated as a brown powder.
Many oxychlorides are known; soluble forms are obtained by dissolving precipitated ferric hydrate in ferric chloride, whilst insoluble compounds result when ferrous chloride is oxidized in air, or by boiling for some time aqueous solutions of ferric chloride.
Another black amorphous form results when ferrous salts are precipitated by ammonium sulphide.
The heptanitroso acid is precipitated as a brown amorphous mass by dilute sulphuric acid, but if the salt be heated with strong acid it yields nitrogen, nitric oxide, sulphur, sulphuretted hydrogen, and ferric, ammonium and potassium sulphates.
The precipitated sodium chloride is filtered, and the solution of hydroxylamine distilled in order to remove methyl alcohol, and finally fractionated under reduced pressure.
The attempted accommodation by Sozzini only precipitated matters; tried as an innovator, David died in prison at Deva (1579).
This precipitated what is known as the Black Hawk War.
Gain (Comptes rendus, 1906, 1 43, p. 823) by calcining ammonium metavanadate and saturating a solution of the resulting oxides with sulphur dioxide; the resulting blue solution (from which a sulphate of composition 2V 2 0 4.3S0 2.10H 2 O can be isolated) is then boiled with water, when sulphur dioxide is liberated and a pale red crystalline powder of hypovanadic acid, H4V205, is precipitated.
It has passed into solution, filtered through the porous matrix, and has been again precipitated when the conditions were suitable.
Healy, voiced the general dislike in Ireland of the Budget of 1909, the rejection of which by the House of Lords had precipitated the dissolution of parliament.
The arsenic solution is decomposed at the cathode, and the element precipitated there.
Arsenic phosphide, AsP, results when phosphine is passed into arsenic trichloride, being precipitated as a red-brown powder.
Then, if available, freshly precipitated ferric hydrate must be given, which can be prepared by adding a solution of ammonia to one of iron perchloride.
It is frequently precipitated as hoar-frost, snow or hail; and in the glaciers and snows of lofty mountain systems or of regions of high latitude it exists on a gigantic scale, being especially characteristic of the seas and lands around the poles.
His life with Joanna was rendered extremely unhappy by his infidelity and by her jealousy, which, working on a neurotic temperament, precipitated her insanity.
Silver chromate, Ag2Cr04, is a dark red amorphous powder obtained when silver nitrate is precipitated by an alkaline chromate.
In the latter part of May Washington encountered a French force at a spot called Great Meadows, near the Youghiogheny river, in what is now southwestern Pennsylvania, and a skirmish followed which precipitated the French and Indian War.
The precipitated indium hydroxide is converted into a basic sulphite by boiling with excess of sodium bisulphite, and then into the normal sulphite by dissolving in hot sulphurous acid.
This proceeding aroused some opposition, and, complicated by religious considerations and by the excited state of European politics, almost precipitated a general war.
Gum arabic is not precipitated from solution by alum, stannous chloride, sulphate or nitrate of copper, or neutral lead acetate; with basic lead acetate it forms a white jelly, with ferric chloride it yields a stiff clear gelatinoid mass, and its solutions are also precipitated by borax.
Its solution is not thickened by borax, and is precipitated by neutral lead acetate; and dilute sulphuric acid converts it into d-glucose.
Part of it only is soluble in water, and that resembles gummic acid in being precipitated by alcohol and ammonium oxalate, but differs from it in giving a precipitate with neutral lead acetate and none with borax.
The resulting benzoylazoimide is easily hydrolysed by boiling with alcoholic solutions of caustic alkalis, a benzoate of the alkali metal and an alkali salt of the new acid being obtained; the latter is precipitated in crystalline condition on standing.
The liquid is then allowed to stand for twelve hours, and the c.ear alcoholic solution is decanted from the precipitated hippuramide.
To the alcoholic solution, four times its volume of ether is added, when the ammonium salt is precipitated.
Also being launched on Stand 3344 will be the latest surface activated precipitated calcium carbonate from Longcliffe.
This precipitated a profound hypoglycaemic coma resulting in irreversible brain damage.
This wholesale destruction of accumulated wisdom in the name of God precipitated the dark ages from which we did not recover until the Renaissance.
Low back ache is often precipitated by moving, lifting objects or twisting of the waist.
Angina is usually precipitated by exertion, nevertheless, angina variant may also occur at rest.
Typically unilateral, posterior headache that can be precipitated mechanically.
The iridium is then precipitated from the solution (as oxide) by the addition of baryta, dissolved in aqua regia, and precipitated as iridium ammonium chloride by the addition of ammonium chloride.
Cobaltous hydroxide, Co(OH) 21 is formed when a cobaltous salt is precipitated by caustic potash in the absence of air.
Cobaltic hydroxide, Co(OH) 31 is formed when a cobalt salt is precipitated by an alkaline hypochlorite, or on passing chlorine through water containing suspended cobaltous hydroxide or carbonate.
Cobaltous cyanide, Co(CN)2.3H20, is obtained when the carbonate is dissolved in hydrocyanic acid or when the acetate is precipitated by potassium cyanide.
Hydrocobaltocyanic acid is not known, but its potassium salt, K4Co(CN) 6, is formed when freshly precipitated cobalt cyanide is dissolved in an ice-cold solution of potassium cyanide.
The above series of salts show striking differences in their behaviour towards reagents; thus, aqueous solutions of the luteo chlorides are strongly ionized, as is shown by their high electric conductivity; and all their chlorine is precipitated on the addition of silver nitrate solution.
The purpureo chloride has only two-thirds of its chlorine precipitated on the addition of silver nitrate, and the electric conductivity is much less than that of the luteo chloride; again in the praseosalts only one-third of the chlorine is precipitated by silver nitrate, the conductivity again falling; while in the triammine salts all ionization has disappeared.
Leo's lively interest in art and literature, to say nothing of his natural liberality, his nepotism, his political ambitions and necessities, and his immoderate personal luxury, exhausted within two years the hard savings of Julius II., and precipitated a financial crisis from which he never emerged and which was a direct cause of most of the calamities of his pontificate.
Cadmium is estimated quantitatively by conversion into the oxide, being precipitated from boiling solutions by the addition of sodium carbonate, the carbonate thus formed passing into the oxide on ignition.
As to the formation of precipitated sulphur, Smith considers that the element first separates in the liquid S,,, condition, which is transformed into SA and finally into Sa; the insoluble (in carbon bisulphide) forms arise when little of the Sw has been transformed; whilst the soluble consist mainly of Sa.
Precipitated sulphur is also useful in the treatment of acne, but sulphurated lime is more powerful in acne pustulosa and in the appearance of crops of boils.
The elder Gibbon heard with indignant surprise of this act of juvenile apostasy, and, indiscreetly giving vent to his wrath, precipitated the expulsion of his son from Oxford, a punishment which the culprit, in after years at least, found no cause to deplore.
In 1850 a reception was given in Faneuil Hall in honour of the English anti-slavery leader, George Thompson, whose reported intention to address Bostonians in 1835 precipitated the riot of that year.
A crisis was precipitated by the example of Servian independence, the hope of Austrian intervention, and the public bankruptcy of Turkey.
On the 30th of March a proclamation establishing martial law and authorizing the military to act without orders from the civil magistrate, which was acted upon with revolting cruelty in several parts of the country, precipitated the crisis.
Marckwald (Ber., 1903, 36, p. 2662) showed that the Joachimsthal pitchblende yields tellurium and a minute quantity of the strongly radioactive polonium which is precipitated by bismuth (see Radioactivity).
Barium sulphate, BaSO 4, is the most abundant of the naturally occurring barium compounds (see Barytes) and can be obtained artificially by the addition of sulphuric acid or any soluble sulphate to a solution of a soluble barium salt, when it is precipitated as an amorphous white powder of specific gravity 4.5.
Too often the brown, barren, sun-scorched ridges are obscured in the yellow dust haze which drifts upwards from the plains; too often the whole perspective of hill and vale is blotted out in the grey mists that sweep in soft, resistless columns against these southern slopes, to be condensed and precipitated in ceaseless, monotonous rainfall.
The post reformation period precipitated many physical changes within the Church in England.
No matter what precipitated the break-up, co-parents benefit from treating child-rearing issues like business deals and avoid letting emotions cloud their judgment during any co-parenting communications.
Spasmodic croup is usually precipitated by an allergy or mild upper respiratory infection.
Two large studies later reported that the children who experienced video game-related seizures (VGRS) were particularly sensitive to light and that video games with flashing lights merely precipitated, rather than caused, the seizures.
When the rate increases, as it did from 2001 to 2002, the factors that precipitated this change need to be assessed and scrutinized.
Regardless of who may have precipitated the end of the relationship, the question of who gets the engagement ring is not as clear-cut as it may seem.
Their return is precipitated by the onscreen filming of Reva Shayne's life and despite Josh's involvement with Reva's long-lost sister Cassie, fans still long for these two to be together.
Easy access to information on the internet has precipitated the advent of an ever expanding online new vehicle marketplace.
A blue basic salt is precipitated first, which, on boiling, rapidly changes to the rose-coloured hydroxide.
They are precipitated from their alkaline solutions as cobalt sulphide by sulphuretted hydrogen, but this precipitation is prevented by the presence of citric and tartaric acids; similarly the presence of ammonium salts hinders their precipitation by caustic alkalis.
The liquid is precipitated by alcohol, and the washed and dried precipitate is then dissolved in water and allowed to stand, when the salt separates in dark-coloured crystals.
The pentammine purpureo-salts are formed from the luteo-salts by loss of ammonia, or from an air slowly oxidized ammoniacal cobalt salt solution, the precipitated luteosalt being filtered off and the filtrate boiled with concentrated acids.
For the quantitative determination of cobalt, it is either weighed as the oxide, C0304, obtained by ignition of the precipitated monoxide, or it is reduced in a current of hydrogen and weighed as metal.
So long as the precipitated particles are very fine, the light dispersed in a perpendicular direction is sky-blue and fully polarized.
Cadmium sulphide, CdS, occurs naturally as greenockite (q.v.), and can be artificially prepared by passing sulphuretted hydrogen through acid solutions of soluble cadmium salts, when it is precipitated as a pale yellow amorphous solid.
It is now known that the influence of Nelson and of the British ambassador, Sir William Hamilton, and Lady Hamilton precipitated the rupture between Naples and France.
The solution is diluted with water, and the hydrocarbons are thereby precipitated and separated.
The meta-nitrocompound, which is precipitated last, is then reduced, and the amino group so formed is replaced by the hydroxyl group by means of the Sandmeyer reaction.
Gay-Lussac in 181q, is usually obtained in the form of its barium salt by suspending freshly precipitated hydrated manganese dioxide in water and passing sulphur dioxide into the mixture until all is dissolved; the barium salt is then precipitated by the careful addition of barium hydroxide.
The liquid is filterpressed, and any excess of iron in the filtrate is precipitated by the careful addition of caustic soda and then removed.
Almost all soda soaps are precipitated from their watery solutions by the addition of a sufficiency of common salt.
This is also the case if two substances are brought together in solution, by the action of which upon each other a third body is formed which is insoluble in the solvent employed, and which also does not tend to react upon any of the substances present; for instance, when a solution of a chloride is added to a solution of a silver salt, insoluble silver chloride is precipitated, and almost the whole of the silver is removed from solution, even if the amount of the chloride employed be not in excess of that theoretically required.
The phosphates of aluminium, chromium and iron are precipitated, and the solution contains the same metals as if phosphoric acid had been absent.
In the second group, we may notice the application of litmus, methyl orange or phenolphthalein in alkalimetry, when the acid or alkaline character of the solution commands the colour which it exhibits; starch paste, which forms a blue compound with free iodine in iodometry; potassium chromate, which forms red silver chromate after all the hydrochloric acid is precipitated in solutions of chlorides; and in the estimation of ferric compounds by potassium bichromate, the indicator, potassium ferricyanide, is placed in drops on a porcelain plate, and the end of the reaction is shown by the absence of a blue coloration when a drop of the test solution is brought into contact with it.
When precipitated from solutions it forms red tetragonal crystals, which, on careful heating, give a yellow rhombic form, also obtained by crystallization from the fused substance, or by sublimation.
It is remarkable that even a small addition of zinc-white (oxide of zinc) to the reddish varieties especially causes a considerable diminution in the intensity of the colour, while dilution with artificial precipitated sulphate of lime ("annalin") or sulphate of baryta ("blanc fix") acts pretty much as one would expect.
It precipitated the RussoTurkish war of 1828-1829, and, by annihilating the Ottoman navy, weakened the resisting power of Turkey to Russia and later to Mehemet Ali.