He was professor of mathematics at Gratz (1864-1867), of physics at Prague (1867-1895), and of physics at Vienna (1895-1901).
At Prague a demagogue, the priest John of Zelivo, for a time obtained almost unlimited authority over the lower classes of the townsmen; and at Tabor a communistic movement (that of the so-called Adamites) was sternly suppressed by Zizka.
Emerging from his solitude Rienzi journeyed to Prague, which he reached in July 1350, and threw himself upon the protection of the emperor Charles IV.
With this army, consisting of about 9000 men, he marched in 1448 from Kutna Hora to Prague, and obtained possession of the capital almost without resistance.
In the same year a diet assembled at Prague also conferred on Podebrad the regency.
He was present at the battle of Weisser Berg (near Prague), where the hopes of the elector palatine were blasted (November 8, 1620), passed the winter with the army in southern Bohemia, and next year served in Hungary under Karl Bonaventura de Longueval, Graf von Buquoy or Boucquoi (1571-1621).
After studying at the university of Prague he travelled through Europe, and among other countries he visited England, where he became acquainted with James Hope (afterwards Hope-Scott) and other leaders of the Tractarian party.
He had scarcely entered on his duties when the rebellion of June broke out in Prague.
In 1911 he accepted the chair of physics in Prague, only to be induced to return to his own polytechnic school at Zurich as full professor in the following year.
of Prague by rail.
Podebrad treated Matthias hospitably and affianced him with his daughter Catherine, but still detained him, for safety's sake, in Prague, even after a Magyar deputation had hastened thither to offer the youth the crown.
His most noted supporter was John Rockycana, archbishop-elect of Prague.
In 1879 and 1880 as Rector Magnificus he fought against the introduction of Czech instead of German in the Prague University.
Arbeit (Prague, 1872); Grundlinien d.
Physik fÃ¼r Studierende (Prague, 1881, in collaboration); Popularwissenschaftliche Vorlesungen (3rd ed., Leipzig, 1903); Die Prinzipien d.
He made Prague an archbishopric in 1344, and three years later founded the university there.
Ferdinand retired to Prague, where he died in 1875.
In his relations with the Slays the emperor displayed the same conciliatory disposition as in the case of the Magyars; but though he more than once held out hopes that he would be crowned at Prague as king of fiohemia, the project was always abandoned.
Fournier, Der Congress von Chatillon (Vienna and Prague, 1900); P. Gruyer, Napoleon, roi de l'he d'Elbe (Paris, 1906); *H.
The city developed with great rapidity, and at the outbreak of the Hussite troubles, early in the 14th century, was next to Prague the most important in Bohemia, having become the favourite residence of several of the Bohemian kings.
signed the famous decree of Kuttenberg, by which the Bohemian nation was given three votes in the elections to the faculty of Prague University as against one for the three other "nations."
The fierce mining population of the town was mainly German, and fanatically Catholic, in contrast with Prague, which was Czech and utraquist.
By way of reprisals for the Hussite outrages in Prague, the miners of Kuttenberg seized on any Hussites they could find, and burned, beheaded or threw them alive into the shafts of disused mines.
We owe to his pen curious remarks on English and Swiss customs, valuable notes on the remains of antique art in Rome, and a singularly striking portrait of Jerome of Prague as he appeared before the judges who condemned him to the stake.
She accompanied Frederick to Prague in October 1619, and was crowned on the 7th of November.
She left Prague on the 8th of November 1620, after the fatal battle of the White Hill, for Kiistrin, travelling thence to Berlin and Wolfenbiittel, finally with Frederick taking refuge at the Hague with Prince Maurice of Orange.
After the battle of the White Hill, near Prague (1620), the town was deprived of all its privileges, which were, however, in great part restored nine years later.
The name Bethlehemites has also sometimes been given to the Hussites of Bohemia because their leader preached in the Bethlehem church at Prague:
From both ridges spurs of greater or less length are sent off at various angles, whence a magnificent view is obtained from Breslau to Prague; the lowlands of Silesia, watered by the Oder, and those of Bohemia, intersected by the Elbe and the Moldau, appearing to lie mapped in relief.
Mechanik in ihrer Entwickelung (Prague, 1883), English translation under the title, The Science of Mechanics (London, 1893) K.
But the negotiations dragged on without result; the war continued with hideous barbarities on both sides; and it was not until the 1st of June 1562 that it was concluded by the treaty signed at Prague by Ferdinand, now emperor.
In the Hussite wars it took the utraquist side, was occupied in 1420 by King Sigismund, but retaken the next year by the troops of Prague.
The towns, in most cases creations of the rulers of Bohemia who had called in German immigrants, were, with the exception of the "new town" of Prague, mainly German; and in consequence of the regulations of the university, Germans also held almost all the more important ecclesiastical offices - a condition of things greatly resented by the natives of Bohemia, which at this period had reached a high degree of intellectual development.
The Hussite movement assumed a revolutionary character as soon as the news of the death of Huss reached Prague.
Shortly before his death Huss had accepted a doctrine preached during his absence by his adherents at Prague, namely that of "utraquism," i.e.
A certain number of Hussites lead by Nicolas of Hus - no relation of John Huss - left Prague.
In spite of the departure of many prominent Hussites the troubles at Prague continued.
Selau) marched through the streets of Prague, stones were thrown at the Hussites from the windows of the town-hall of the "new town."
The death of the king resulted in renewed troubles in Prague and in almost all parts of Bohemia.
In Prague, in November 1419, severe fighting took place between the Hussites and the mercenaries whom Queen Sophia (widow of Wenceslaus and regent after the death of her husband) had hurriedly collected.
The nobles, who though favourable to the Hussite cause yet supported the regent, promised to act as mediators with Sigismund; while the citizens of Prague consented to restore to the royal forces the castle of Vysehrad, which had fallen into their hands.
Zizka, who disapproved of this compromise, left Prague and retired to Plzen (Pilsen).
The united Hussites formulated their demands in a statement known as the "articles of Prague."
Though Sigismund had retired from Prague, the castles of Vysehrad and Hradcany remained in possession of his troops.
The citizens of Prague laid siege to the Vysehrad, and towards the end of October (1420) the garrison was on the point of capitulating through famine.
John of Zelivo was on the 9th of March 1422 arrested by the town council of Prague and decapitated.
His authority was recognized by the Utraquist nobles, the citizens of Prague, and the more moderate Taborites, including Zizka.
Korybutovic, however, remained but a short time in Bohemia; after his departure civil war broke out, the Taborites opposing in arms the more moderate Utraquists, who at this period are also called by the chroniclers the "Praguers," as Prague was their principal stronghold.
After several military successes gained by Zizka (q.v.) in 1423 and the following year, a treaty of peace between the Hussites was concluded on the 13th of September 1424 at Liben, a village near Prague, now part of that city.
The compacts, mainly founded on the articles of Prague, declare that: 1.
The last-named, however, refused to recognize as archbishop of Prague, John of Rokycan, who had been elected to that dignity by the estates of Bohemia.
Toman, Husitske Valecnictvi (Prague, 1898).
As the chief councillor of Prince Zsigmond Bathory, he advised his sovereign to contract an alliance with the emperor instead of holding to the Turk, and rendered important diplomatic services on frequent missions to Prague and Vienna.
After some years spent in private teaching Palacky settled in 1823 at Prague.
Hoffer, a German professor of history at Prague, edited the historical authorities for the period in a similar sense in his Geschichte der hussitischen Bewegung in Bohmen.
Palacky replied in his Geschichte des Hussitenthumes rind Professor Leler (Prague, 1868) and Zur bohmischen Geschichtschreibung (Prague, 1871).
He was deputed to the Reichstag which sat at Kromefice (Kremsier) in the autumn of that year, and was a member of the Slav congress at Prague.
He died at Prague on the 2bth of May 1876.
Among his more important smaller historical works are: Wilydigung der alten bOhmischen Geschichtschreiber (Prague, 1830), dealing with authors of many of whose works were then inaccessible to Czech students; Archiv cesky (6 vols., Prague, 1840-1872); Urkundliche Beitr¢ge zur Geschichte des Hussitenkriegs (2 vols., Prague, 1872-1874); Documenta magistri Johannis Hus vitam, doctrinam, causam.
illustrantia (Prague, 1869).
With Satarik he wrote Anfange der bohmischen Dichtkunst (Pressburg, 1818) and Die altesten Denkmeiler der bohmischen Sprache (Prague, 1840).
Three volumes of his Czech articles and essays were published as Radhost (3 vols., Prague, 1871-1873).
Between 1362 and 1450 no fewer than 4151 Magyar students frequented the university of Vienna, nearly as many went by preference to Prague, and this, too, despite the fact that there were now two universities in Hungary itself, the old foundation of Louis the Great at Pecs, and a new one established at Buda by Sigismund.
Albert, a sturdy soldier, who had given brilliant proofs of valour and generalship in the Hussite wars, was crowned king of Hungary at Szekesfehervar (Stuhlweissenburg) on the 1st of January 1438, elected king of the Romans at Frankfort on the 18th of March 1438, and crowned king of Bohemia at Prague on the 29th of June 1438.
It was only when the Jesuits obtained a footing both at Prague 2 and Klausenburg that persecution began, but then it was very violent.
Transylvania, and Transylvania and the emperor, desultory and languishing as regards the Turks (the one notable battle being Sigismund Bathory's brilliant victory over the 2 At first the Habsburgs held their court at Prague instead of at Vienna.
The peace of Prague (Aug.
After the treaty of Prague, in May 1635, by which the emperor was reconciled with most of the German princes, Richelieu was finally obliged to declare war, and, concluding a treaty of offensive alliance at Compiegne with Oxenstierna, and in October one at St Germain-en-Laye with Bernard of Saxe-Weimar, he proceeded himself against Spain, both in Italy and in the Netherlands.
After the turn of the century, however, a new generation arose both among Croats and Serbs, which had received its education abroad, and especially in Prague, where the ethical and political teachings of Prof. Masaryk exercised a remarkable influence over the progressive youth of all Slav countries.
Prague, Val in Zagreb and Jedinstvo in Spalato - which advocated more radical action alike in politics and literature.
Meanwhile the Roman congress was deliberately imitated by an imposing congress at Prague (May 16), at which Czech, Polish, Italian, Rumanian, Slovak and Yugoslav delegates attended.
On the 28th (the same day on which the Czechoslovak Republic was born in Prague) the military command in Zagreb handed over its authority to the National Council, and next day the diet proclaimed the independence of Croatia from Hungary, and assumed control of Fiume.
According to population Lemberg is the fourth city in the Austrian empire, coming after Vienna, Prague and Trieste.
He is also found confirming his old rival Arnulf in the see of Reims; summoning Adalbero or Azelmus of Laon to Rome to answer for his crimes; judging between the archbishop of Mainz and the bishop of Hildesheim; besieging the revolted town of Cesena; flinging the count of Angouleme into prison for an offence against a bishop; confirming the privileges of Fulda abbey; granting charters to bishoprics far away on the Spanish mark; and, on the eastern borders of the empire, erecting Prague as the seat of an archbishopric for the Sla y s.
The passenger traffic, which is in the hands of the Sachsisch-Bohmische Dampfschifffahrtsgesellschaft is limited to Bohemia and Saxony, steamers plying up and down the stream from Dresden to Melnik, occasionally continuing the journey up the Moldau to Prague, and down the river as far as Riesa, near the northern frontier of Saxony, and on the average 12 million passengers are conveyed.
Since 1896 great improvements have been made in the Moldau and the Bohemian Elbe, with the view of facilitating communication between Prague and the middle of Bohemia generally on the one hand, and the middle and lower reaches of the Elbe on the other.
In the year named a special commission was appointed for the regulation of the Moldau and Elbe between Prague and Aussig, at a cost estimated at about I, 000,000, of which sum two-thirds were to be borne by the Austrian empire and one-third by the kingdom of Bohemia.
To overcome it he at length obtained authority (June 15th) to order the army of the Elbe into Saxony, and on the 18th the Prussians entered Dresden, the Saxons retiring along the Elbe into Bohemia; and on the same day the news that the Austrian main body was marching from Olmiitz towards Prague arrived at headquarters.
In 1849 he was placed in charge of the Philological Seminary at Prague, and two years later was appointed professor of classical philology in Prague University.
In 1854 he removed from Prague to a similar appointment at Kiel, and again in 1862 from Kiel to Leipzig.
Gentz, who from the winter of 1806 onwards divided his time between Prague and the Bohemian wateringplaces, seemed to devote himself wholly to the pleasures of society, his fascinating personality gaining him a ready reception in those exalted circles which were to prove of use to him later on in Vienna.
But the peace of 1810 and the fall of Stadion once more dashed his hopes, and, disillusioned and "hellishly blasé," he once more retired to comparative inactivity at Prague.
brought Italian rock-crystal cutters from Milan to take control of the crystal and glass-cutting works he had established at Prague.
It was at Prague that Caspar Lehmann and Zachary Belzer learnt the craft of cutting glass.
German engineers have also devoted special attention to the measurement of the flow in rivers; the Beitreige zur Hydrographie des Konigreiches Bohmen (Prague, 1872-1875) of A.
In the 14th century there were schools at Mainz, Strassburg, Frankfort, Wiirzburg, Zurich and Prague; in the 15th at Augsburg and Nuremberg, the last becoming in the following century, under Hans Sachs, the most famous of all.
A MS. discovered at Prague in 1881 contains lines 958-1106, and another, in the Vatican library, discovered by K.
The column in the centre of the square was erected in 1638, to commemorate the defeat of the Protestants near Prague by the Bavarians during the Thirty Years' War.
In 1409, in conjunction with his brother William, he founded the university of Leipzig, for the benefit of German students who had just left the university of Prague.
of this work are still in existence, notably in the cathedral libraries at Worcester and Prague and in the town library at Bruges.
entrusted Dlugosz with the education of his sons, the eldest of whom, Wladislaus, at the urgent request of the king, he accompanied to Prague when in 1471 the young prince was elected king of Bohemia.
Dlugosz refused the archbishopric of Prague because of his strong dislike of the land of the Hussites; but seven years later he accepted the archbishopric of Lemberg.
An early expression of reviving Lithuanian national consciousness was the appearance of the newspaper" Ausra,"which, printed in East Prussia, lived for three years, though even in that short period its editor, banished from Germany, had to take refuge at Prague.
Stimulated by the example of Charles IV., who had founded the university of Prague in 1348, Casimir on the 12th of May 1364 established and richly endowed the first university of Cracow, which had five professors of Roman law, three of Canon law, two of physics, and one master of arts.
Brosien, Karl der Grosse (Leipzig and Prague, 1885); J.
On the outskirts of the town, to the west, in the Bruhl suburb, a stone marks the spot where Hus and Jerome of Prague were burnt to death.
It was so named because a similar rising had recently taken place in Prague, Bohemia, at that time closely associated with France through the house of Luxemburg, kings of Bohemia, and it was caused by the reforms of Charles VII.
In 1588 he went to Prague, then to Helmstadt.
He did not stay long at Prague, and we find him next at Zurich, whence he accepted an invitation to Venice from a young patrician, Giovanni Mocenigo.
At, or only a very little beyond, the usual age he entered the recently (1348) founded university of Prague, where he became bachelor of arts in 1393, bachelor of theology in 1394, and master of arts in 1396.
In 1402 also he was made rector or curate (capellarius) of the Bethlehem chapel, which had in 1391 been erected and endowed by some zealous citizens of Prague for the purpose of providing good popular preaching in the Bohemian tongue.
In 1408, however, the clergy of the city and archiepiscopal diocese of Prague laid before the archbishop a formal complaint against Huss, arising out of strong expressions with regard to clerical abuses of which he had made use in his public discourses; and the result was that, having been first deprived of his appointment as synodal preacher, he was, after a vain attempt to defend himself in writing, publicly forbidden the exercise of any priestly function throughout the diocese.
This decree, as soon as it was published in Prague (March 9, 1410), led to much popular agitation, and provoked an appeal by Huss to the pope's better informed judgment; the archbishop, however, resolutely insisted on carrying out his instructions, and in the following July caused to be publicly burned, in the courtyard of his own palace, upwards of 200 volumes of the writings of Wycliffe, while he pronounced solemn sentence of excommunication against Huss and certain of his friends, who had in the meantime again protested and appealed to the new pope (John XXIII.).
The struggle, however, entered on a new phase with the appearance at Prague in May 141 2 of the papal emissary charged with the proclamation of the papal bulls by which a religious war was decreed against the excommunicated King Ladislaus of Naples, and indulgence was promised to all who should take part in it, on terms similar to those which had been enjoyed by the earlier crusaders to the Holy Land.
A popular demonstration, in which the papal bulls had been paraded through the streets with circumstances of peculiar ignominy and finally burnt, led to intervention by Wenceslaus on behalf of public order; three young men, for having openly asserted the unlawfulness of the papal indulgence after silence had been enjoined, were sentenced to death (June 1412); the excommunication against Huss was renewed, and the interdict again laid on all places which should give him shelter - a measure which now began to be more strictly regarded by the clergy, so that in the following December Huss had no alternative but to yield to the express wish of the king by temporarily withdrawing from Prague.
south of Prague, and partly at Krakowitz in the immediate neighbourhood of the capital, occasionally giving a course of open-air preaching, but finding his chief employment in maintaining that copious correspondence of which some precious fragments still are extant, and in the composition of the treatise, De Ecclesia, which subsequently furnished most of the material for the capital charges brought against him, and was formerly considered the most important of his works, though it is mainly a transcript of Wycliffe's work of the same name.
Erben (Prague, 1865-1868), and the Documenta J.
Flojshaus (Prague, 1904 fol.).
ISIDOR KALISCH (1816-1886), Jewish divine, was born at Krotoschin in Prussia on the 15th of November 1816, and was educated at Berlin, Breslau and Prague.
In Europe there are excellent collections in London, Cambridge, Paris, Berlin, St Petersburg and Prague.
By the peace of Prague, which transferred Upper Lusatia to Saxony in 1635, stipulations were made in favour of the Roman Catholics of that region, who are ecclesiastically in the jurisdiction of the cathedral chapter of St Peter at Bautzen, the dean of which has ex-officio a seat in the first chamber' of the diet.
After the death of Gustavus Adolphus at the battle of Liitzen, not far from Leipzig, in 1632, the elector, who was at heart an imperialist, detached himself from the Swedish alliance, and in 1635 concluded the peace of Prague with the emperor.
The king of Saxony's faith in Napoleon was shaken by the disasters of the Russian campaign, in which 21,000 Saxon troops had shared; when, however, the allies invaded Saxony in the spring of 1813, he refused to declare against Napoleon and fled to Prague, though he withdrew his contingent from the French army.
BERNHARD BOLZANO (1781-1848), Austrian priest and philosopher, was born at Prague on the 5th of October 1781.
He distinguished himself at an early age, and on his ordination to the priesthood (1805) was appointed professor of the philosophy of religion in Prague University.
He died at Prague on the 8th of December 1848.
The article by Jakubel on " the literary renaissance " says: " The Prague theatre, which had vegetated miserably up to now, developed under the reign of Joseph II.
The German National Union (Nationalverband) agreed to extend temporary hospitality to the Italian university in Vienna, but the Southern Slav Hochschule Club demanded a guarantee that a later transfer to the coast provinces should not be contemplated, together with the simultaneous foundation of Slovene professorial chairs in Prague and Cracow, and preliminary steps towards the foundation of a Southern Slav university in Laibach.
A general strike at the universities was averted by a compromise, by which Wahrmund was transferred from the pious land of Tirol to Prague, which was more than he had desired.
In July a Pan-Slavonic congress took place at Prague, accompanied by anti-German excesses which had a serious sequel in Laibach.
The Germans thereupon paralyzed the Prague Diet by means of obstruction, upon which the Czech members of the Beck Cabinet left it, and the prime minister, seeing himself abandoned by both Germans and Czechs, resigned on Nov.
Finally the old wish was put forward for a separation of nationalities in the representative assembly at Prague, in order that neither of the two nationalities should oppress the other in the internal affairs of Bohemia.
Serious excesses were now indulged in towards the German population and the German students in Prague, where, on the very day of the imperial diamond jubilee, the Government had to proclaim a state of siege.
It was only to be expected that the Germans, whose very existence was in question, should show themselves to be patriotic. But it was somewhat surprising that at Prague, after the declaration of war, Germans and Czechs sang Die TV acht am Rhein together in the streets, and the burgomaster, a Czech, made a speech in German before the town hall in which he called for cheers for the Emperor William and the fraternization of Germans and Czechs.
12 1918 a meeting of their deputies at Prague unanimously accepted a resolution to the effect that the Bohemian question was to receive an international solution at the Peace Congress.
20 the Czechs followed suit in Prague, on the 21st the German delegates in Vienna, on the 25th the Magyars in Pest.
ISAIAH HOROWITZ (c. 1 555 - c. 1630), Jewish rabbi and mystic, was born at Prague, and died at Safed, then the home of Jewish Kabbala.
p. 691, note) points out that a master of the university of Prague, in 1499, complained openly to the authorities against a bachelor for assaulting his concubine.
Prague, the capital (677,000 inhabitants), is picturesquely situated on the Vltava and justly famous for its architectural beauty.
As the war proceeded, further declarations of national and anti-Austrian sentiment were made, the most notable being the " Twelfth Night Manifesto," issued at Prague on Jan.
The National Council at Prague issued a proclamation of independence and took over the reins of government.
In spite of the presence of Austrian and Hungarian garrisons in Prague and other towns, there was no bloodshed.
16 the first representative body of the Czechoslovak people - the National Assembly as it was called - met at Prague.
Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Slovakia and Russinia, united to form one State with a single central Government having its seat at Prague.
The tribunals of the republic are the Supreme Court of Justice, which sits at Brno and is the court of final appeal both in civil and criminal causes, two high courts sitting at Prague and Brno respectively, 33 provincial courts and 410 district courts, all of which possess j urisdiction in both civil and criminal causes.
Commercial cases are dealt with by the ordinary courts, except at Prague where a special commercial court sits.
At Prague there sits also an electoral court which decides upon the validity of disputed elections or forfeiture of seats and other questions relating to parliamentary or elected bodies.
They were strongly represented in Prague and other cities.
In the entire republic there are four universities, three Czech and Slovak - the Charles University of Prague, the Masaryk University of Brno and the Comenius University of Bratislava - and one German (at Prague).
There are four polytechnics enjoying university rank at Prague and Brno, two of them being Czech and two German.
Iron and steel foundries exist at Kladno near Prague, as well as in Moravia and in Slovakia.
Aeroplanes are made at Prague and Plzen (Pilsen).
Eloquent testimony is given by the beautiful churches and palaces of Prague - largely Gothic and baroque in style - to the architectural genius of the nation.
Vitus, rising above the castle (Hrad) on the heights of the Hradcany (Prague), is a magnificent specimen of Gothic. The beautiful church of St.
Nicholas, the King Charles bridge at Prague, are among the many objects of universal admiration which are to be found in Bohemia.
Of modern sculptors the works of Myslbek and Sucharda are prominent in the public monuments at Prague.
The work of Hieronymus Hirnhaim of Prague (1637-1679), De typho generis humani sive scientiarum humanarum inani ac ventoso tumore, was written in the interests of revelation.
The Bohemians invoked the aid of Matthias, who gathered an army; and in 1611 the emperor, practically a prisoner at Prague, was again forced to cede a kingdom to his brother.
Rudolph died at Prague, his usual place of residence, on the 10th of January 1612, and was succeeded as emperor by Matthias.
are somewhat scanty, as many of the official documents of the reign, which were kept at Prague and not at Vienna, were destroyed, probably during the Thirty Years' War.
and seine Zeit (Prague, 1862-68); F.
'to' Christi- It was Boleslaus who made the church at Gnesen in Great Poland a national shrine by translating thither the relics of the martyred missionary, St Adalbert of Prague.
At the end of the 14th century we find all the great trade gilds established there, and the cloth manufactured at Cracow was eagerly sought after, from Prague to Great Novgorod.
But the aristocratic youth still preferred frequenting the universities of Prague, Padua and Paris, and accordingly the newly founded studium languished.
Fleury disavowed his own letter, and died a few days after the French evacuation of Prague on the 29th of January 1743.
was published at Prague in 1620, six years after the publication of the Descriptio of Napier.
He says that, although Napier's book had been published five years, he first saw it at Prague two years before; he was then unable to read it, but last year he had met with a little work by Benjamin Ursinus 4 containing the substance of the method, and he at once recognized the importance of what had been effected.
He was the first to attempt a comprehensive treatment of all invertebrates from the genetic point of view; but unfortunately his great work, entitled Die Stcimme des Thierreichs (Vienna and Prague, 1889), was uncompleted.
Ultimately he had to flee from England, and took refuge in Bohemia, where he was received by the university of Prague on the 13th of February 1417, and soon became a leader of the reformers.
The party of the nobles, who had been ready to make terms, were attacked in the Diet at Prague, by the Orphans and Taborites.
He died at Prague in 1 455.
His embarrassment was relieved however by an offer from Tycho Brahe of the position of assistant in his observatory near Prague, which, after a preliminary visit of four months, he accepted.
The arrangement was made just in time; for in August 1600 he received definitive notice to leave Gratz, and, having leased his wife's property, he departed with his family for Prague.
The first works executed by him at Prague were, nevertheless, a homage to the astrological proclivities of the emperor.
In De fundamentis astrologiae certioribus (Prague, 1602) he declared his purpose of preserving and purifying the grain of truth which he believed the science to contain.
30, 1604), and remained visible for seventeen months, in De stella nova in pede Serpentarii (Prague, 1606).
From the time of his first introduction to Tycho he had devoted himself to the investigation of the orbit of Mars, which, on account of its relatively large eccentricity, had always been especially recalcitrant to theory, and the results appeared in Astronomia nova ainoXayrgrii, seu Physica coelestis tradita commentariis de motibus stellae Martis (Prague, 1609).
On the 23rd of May 1611 Matthias, brother of the emperor, assumed the Bohemian crown in Prague, compelling Rudolph to take refuge in the citadel, where he died on the 20th of January following.
His correspondence with Herwart von Hohenburg, unearthed by C. Anschiitz at Munich, was printed at Prague in 1886.
When the news reached Rome of the martyrdom of Adalbert, bishop of Prague (997), Bruno determined to take his place, and in 1004, after being consecrated by the pope as archbishop of the eastern heathen, he set out for Germany to seek aid of the emperor Henry II.
It is the second oldest university in Europe - the oldest being that of Prague - and was famous during the 15th and 16th centuries.
He lived under supervision by doctors and guardians at Prague till his death on the 29th of June 1875.
Leitmeritz was originally the castle of a royal count and is first mentioned, in 993, in the foundation charter of the convent of St Margaret near Prague.
In 1635 by the treaty of Prague they were definitely transferred from Bohemia to Saxony, although the emperor as king of Bohemia retained a certain supremacy for the purpose of guarding the rights and privileges of the Roman Catholics.
The intervention of Austria in the War of Liberation, and the consequent advance of the Allies under the Austrian field-marshal Prince Schwarzenberg from Prague upon Dresden, recalled Napoleon from Silesia, where he was engaged against the Prussians and Russians under Blucher.
He pursued his studies still further in Cologne, and perhaps in Prague.
In 1184 Raudnitz is mentioned as belonging to the see of Prague.
Lamont was a member of the academies of Brussels, Upsala and Prague, of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, of the Cambridge Philosophical Society and of many other learned corporations.
Bulgaren, pp. 1 55, 1 741 75 (Prague, 1876); Korolev, "Dogmatichesko-to uchenie na Bogomil-tie," in Periodichesko spisanie, vols.
Slama, 0sterreichisch-Schlesien (Prague, 1887); and A.
By the treaty of Prague Hesse-Cassel was annexed to Prussia.
The result was the raising of the siege of Prague and the evacuation of Bohemia by the Prussians.
In 1421 it was captured by the men of Prague, and the German inhabitants who refused to accept "the four articles" were expelled.
In 1427 the town declared against Prague, was besieged by Prokop the Great, and surrendered to him upon conditions at the close of the year.
Rabbi Enoch Altschul of Prague recorded his own escape on the 22nd of Tebet 1623 in a special roll or megillah, which was to be read by his family on that date with rejoicing similar to the general Purim.
Marching into Bohemia the Saxons occupied Prague, but John George soon began to negotiate for peace and consequently his soldiers offered little resistance to Wallenstein, who drove them back into Saxony.
However, for the present the efforts of Gustavus Adolphus prevented the elector from deserting him, but the position was changed by the death of the king at Lutzen in 1632, and the refusal of Saxony to join the Protestant league under Swedish leadership. Still letting his troops fight in a desultory fashion against the imperialists, John George again negotiated for peace, and in May 1635 he concluded the important treaty of Prague with Ferdinand II.
After the peace of Westphalia, which with regard to Saxony did little more than confirm the treaty of Prague, John George died on the 8th of October 1656.
The South German Confederation, contemplated by the with 6th article of the treaty of Prague, never came into being; and, though Prussia, in order not prematurely to excite the alarm of France, opposed the suggestion that the southern states should join the North German Confederation, the bonds of Bavaria, as of the other southern states, with the north, were strengthened by an offensive and defensive alliance with Prussia, as the result of Napoleon's demand for "compensation" in the Palatinate.
Besides the original meeting of the bishop and Ahasuerus in 1542 and others referred back to 1 575 in Spain and 1599 at Vienna, the Wandering Jew was stated to have appeared at Prague (1602), at Lubeck (1603), in Bavaria 1604), at Ypres (1623), Brussels (1640), Leipzig (1642), Paris (1644, by the " Turkish Spy "),"), Stamford (1658),(1658), Astrakhan (1672),(1672), and Frankenstein (1678).
thick, there are cheaply mined but poor and impure ores near Prague, and important ore beds in both northern and southern Hungary.
His father, Daniel Doddridge, was a London merchant, and his mother the orphan daughter of the Rev. John Bauman, a Lutheran clergyman who had fled from Prague to escape religious persecution, and had held for some time the mastership of the grammar school at Kingston-upon-Thames.
From this time the town remained faithful to the royal cause, and in 1547 was granted by the emperor Ferdinand the privilege of ranking at the diet next to Prague and Pilsen.
Venice, 1 475); a Bohemian one at Pilsen, 1475-1479, and at Prague, 1495 Caxton's English versions, 1483, 1487 and 1 493; and a German one in 1489.
It is navigable above this point through its tributary, the Moldau, to Prague.
Unfortunately the council of Constance, which met mainly through the efforts of Sigismund in 1414, marred its labors by the judicial murders of John Huss and of Jerome of Prague.
Meanwhile Tilly advanced into Bohemia, and in November 1620 Fredericks army was utterly routed at the battle of the White Hill, near Prague, and the unfortunate elector had just time to escape from the kingdom he had rashly undertaken to govern.
But the thoughts of many had already turned in the direction of peace, and in this manner John George of Saxony took the lead, signing in May 1635 the important treaty of Prague with the emperor.
In spite of the diplomatic efforts of Sweden the treaty of Prague was accepted almost at once by the elector of Brandenburg, the duke of Wurttemberg and other princes, and also by several of the most important of the free cities.
While the signatories of the peace of Prague were making ready to assist the emperor the only Germans on the other side were found in the army under Bernhard of SaxeBernhard Weimar.
When the time came, after the famous interview with Napoleon at Dresden, and the breakdown of the abortive congress of Prague, Austria threw in her lot with the allies.
These Articles, enbodying the more important terms, were included with slight verbal alterations in the treaty of peace signed at Prague on the 23rd of August.
before the treaty of Prague was signed the emperor Napoleon III.
Up to the year 1878 they could appeal to the treaty of Prague; one clause in it determined that the inhabitants of selected districts should be allowed to vote whether they should be Danish or German.
In 1878, when the Triple Alliance was concluded, Bismarck, in answer to the Guelphic demonstration at Copenhagen, arranged with Austria, the other party to the treaty of Prague, that the clause should lapse.
mid seine Zeit (Prague, 1862-1868) and Geschichte de~ dreissigjahrigen Krieges (Prague, 1869-1880).
Jirecek, Die Handelsstrassen and Bergwerke von Serbien, Eec. (Prague, 1879); and Heyd, Histoire du commerce du Levant au moyen age (Leipzig, 1885).
After the war of 1866 he was chosen as Italian plenipotentiary for the negotiation of the treaty of Prague and for the transfer of Venetia to Italy.
On the i 1 th of March a meeting of " young Czechs " at Prague drew up a petition embodying nationalist and liberal demands; and on the same day the diet of Lower Austria petitioned the crown to summon a meeting of the delegates of the diets to set the Austrian finances in order.
But the great object lesson was furnished by the events in Prague, where the quarrel between Czechs and Germans, radicals and conservatives, issued on the 12th of June in a rising of the Czech students and populace.
By the treaty of Prague (August 23, 1866) the emperor surrendered the position in Germany which his ancestors had held for so many centuries; Austria and Tirol, Bohemia and Salzburg, ceased to be German, and eight million Germans were cut off from all political union with their fellow-countrymen.
This was done in the teeth of the expressed wish of Russia; it roused the helpless resentment of Servia, whose economic dependence upon the Dual Monarchy was emphasized by the outcome of the war of tariffs into which she had plunged in 1906, and who saw in this scheme another link in the chain forged for her by the Habsburg empire; it 1 Alois, Count Lexa von Aerenthal, was born on the 27th of September 1854 at Gross-Skal in Bohemia, studied at Bonn and Prague, was attache at Paris (1877) and afterwards at St Petersburg, envoy extraordinary at Bucharest (1895) and ambassador at St Petersburg (1896).
A great party, led by Palacky and Rieger, demanded the restoration of the Bohemian monarchy in its fullest extent, including Moravia and Silesia, and insisted that the emperor should be crowned as king of Bohemia at Prague as his predecessors had been, and that Bohemia should have a position in the monarchy similar to that obtained by Hungary.
Not only did the party include all the Czechs, but they were supported by many of the great nobles who were of German descent, including Count Leo Thun, his brother-in-law Count Heinrich Clam-Martinitz, and Prince Friedrich von Schwarzenberg, cardinal archbishop of Prague, who hoped in a self-governing kingdom of Bohemia to preserve that power which was threatened by the German Liberals.
In Bohemia the Czechs were very active; while the Poles were parading their hostility to Russia in such a manner as to cause the emperor to avoid visiting Galicia, some of the Czech leaders attended a Slav demonstration at Moscow, and in 1868 they drew up and presented to the diet at Prague a " declaration " which has since been regarded as the official statement of their claims. They asked for the full restoration of the Bohemian kingdom; they contended that no foreign assembly was qualified to impose taxes in Bohemia; that the diet was not qualified to elect representatives to go to Vienna, and that a separate settlement must be made with Bohemia similar to that with Hungary.
Rieger and Thun were summoned to Vienna; he himself went to Prague, but after two days he had to give up the attempt in despair.
This was agreed to; and on the 12th of September at the opening of the diet, the governor read a royal message recognizing the separate existence of the Bohemian kingdom, and promising that the emperor should be crowned as king at Prague.
Parliament was dissolved in the summer, and Taaffe, by private negotiations, first of all persuaded the Bohemian feudal proprietors to give the Feudalists, who had long been excluded, a certain number of seats; secondly, he succeeded where Potocki had failed, and came to an agreement with the Czechs; they had already, in 1878, taken their seats in the diet at Prague, and now gave up the policy of " passive resistance," and consented to take their seats also in the parliament at Vienna.
In Prague the victory of the Czechs has been marked by the removal of all German street names, and the Czech town council even passed a by-law forbidding private individuals to have tablets put up with the name of the street in German.
It was another step in the same direction when, in 1886, it was ordered that " to avoid frequent translations " business introduced in Czech should be dealt with in the same language in the high courts of Prague and Briinn.
Then not only were a large number of Czech elementary schools founded, but also many middle schools were given to the Czechs, and Czech classes introduced in German schools; and, what affected the Germans most, in 1882 classes in Czech were started in the university of Prague - a desecration, as it seemed, of the oldest German university.
Prague was no longer the German city it had been fifty years before; the census of 1880 showed 36,000 Germans to 120,000 Czechs.
When Count Thun was appointed governor of Bohemia their hopes ran high, for he was supposed to favour the coronation of the emperor at Prague.
The Czechs also were offended; they arranged riots at Prague; the professors in the university refused to lecture unless the German students were defended from violence; Gautsch resigned, and Thun, who had been governor of Bohemia, was appointed minister.
These public works were chiefly a canal from the Danube to the Oder; a ship canal from the Danube to the Moldau near Budweis, and the canalization of the Moldau from Budweis to Prague; a ship canal running from the projected Danube-Oder canal near Prerau to the Elbe near Pardubitz, and the canalization of the Elbe from Pardubitz to Melnik; a navigable connexion between the Danube-Oder Canal and the Vistula and the Dniester.
At Prague, Graz and other towns, demonstrations and collisions with the police were frequent.
(Leipzig and Prague, 1869-1889); W.
(Prague, 1895-1896); A.
(c) Diplomatic.-A Beer, Zehn Jahre osterreichischer Politik, 1801-1810 (Leipzig, 1877), and Die orientalische Politik Osterreichs seit 1774 (Prague and Leipzig, 1883); A.
At the peace of Prague, which terminated the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, Napoleon III.
ANTON GINDELY (1829-1892), German historian, was the son of a German father and a Slavonic mother, and was born at Prague on the 3rd of September 1829.
He studied at Prague and at Olmiitz, and, after travelling extensively in search of historical material, became professor of history at the university of Prague and archivist for Bohemia in 1862.
He died at Prague on the 24th of October 1892.
Gindely's chief work is his Geschichte des dreissigjahrigen Krieges (Prague, 1869-1880), which has been translated into English (New York, 1884); and his historical work is mainly concerned with the period of the Thirty Years' War.
Perhaps the most important of his numerous other works are: Geschichte der bOhmischen Brilder (Prague, 1857-1858); Rudolf II.
Frederick began the second Silesian War by entering Bohemia in August 1744 and taking Prague.
In 1757, after defeating the Austrians at Prague, he was himself defeated by them at Kolin; and by the shameful convention of Closter-Seven, he was freely exposed to the attack of the French.
The picture painted by Darer on this commission was the "Adoration of the Virgin," better known as the "Feast of Rose Garlands"; it was subsequently acquired by the emperor Rudolf II., and carried as a thing beyond price upon men's shoulders to Vienna; it now exists in a greatly injured state in the monastery of Strahow at Prague.
To 1508 belongs the life-sized "Virgin with the Iris," a piece remarkable for the fine romantic invention of its background, but plainly showing the hand of an assistant, perhaps Hans Baldung, in its execution: the best version is in the Cook collection at Richmond, an inferior one in the Rudolphinum at Prague.
By the peace of Prague, however, in 1635, the archbishopric was given to Augustus, prince of Saxe-Weissenfels, who retained it until his death in 1680.
Martini Lutheri, Anfang, Lehre, Leben and Sterben (Prague, 1896); Myconius, Historia Reformationis 1517-1542 (Leipzig, 1718); Ratzeberger, Geschichte fiber Luther and seine Zeit (Jena, 1850); Wrampelmeyer, Tagebuch iiber Dr Martin Luther gefiihrt von Dr Conrad Cordatus, 1 537 (Halle, 1885); Forstemann, Neues Urkundenbuch zur Geschichte der evangelischen Kirchenreformation (Hamburg, 1842); Kolde, Analecta Lutherana (Gotha, 1883); G.
He was educated at the monastery of Magdeburg; and in 983 was chosen bishop of Prague.
After prosecuting his studies at Berlin, Vienna, Prague, Paris, London, Dublin and Edinburgh, and devoting special attention to ophthalmology he, in 1850, began practice as an oculist in Berlin, where he founded a private institution for the treatment of the eyes, which became the model of many similar ones in Germany and Switzerland.
Kaulich, Das speculative System des Johannes Scotus Erigena (Prague, 1860); A.
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