Prague sentence example
He was present at the battle of Weisser Berg (near Prague), where the hopes of the elector palatine were blasted (November 8, 1620), passed the winter with the army in southern Bohemia, and next year served in Hungary under Karl Bonaventura de Longueval, Graf von Buquoy or Boucquoi (1571-1621).
With this army, consisting of about 9000 men, he marched in 1448 from Kutna Hora to Prague, and obtained possession of the capital almost without resistance.
In the same year a diet assembled at Prague also conferred on Podebrad the regency.
After studying at the university of Prague he travelled through Europe, and among other countries he visited England, where he became acquainted with James Hope (afterwards Hope-Scott) and other leaders of the Tractarian party.
He had scarcely entered on his duties when the rebellion of June broke out in Prague.Advertisement
In 1911 he accepted the chair of physics in Prague, only to be induced to return to his own polytechnic school at Zurich as full professor in the following year.
Podebrad treated Matthias hospitably and affianced him with his daughter Catherine, but still detained him, for safety's sake, in Prague, even after a Magyar deputation had hastened thither to offer the youth the crown.
His most noted supporter was John Rockycana, archbishop-elect of Prague.
In 1879 and 1880 as Rector Magnificus he fought against the introduction of Czech instead of German in the Prague University.
He made Prague an archbishopric in 1344, and three years later founded the university there.Advertisement
Ferdinand retired to Prague, where he died in 1875.
In his relations with the Slays the emperor displayed the same conciliatory disposition as in the case of the Magyars; but though he more than once held out hopes that he would be crowned at Prague as king of fiohemia, the project was always abandoned.
The city developed with great rapidity, and at the outbreak of the Hussite troubles, early in the 14th century, was next to Prague the most important in Bohemia, having become the favourite residence of several of the Bohemian kings.
The fierce mining population of the town was mainly German, and fanatically Catholic, in contrast with Prague, which was Czech and utraquist.
By way of reprisals for the Hussite outrages in Prague, the miners of Kuttenberg seized on any Hussites they could find, and burned, beheaded or threw them alive into the shafts of disused mines.Advertisement
We owe to his pen curious remarks on English and Swiss customs, valuable notes on the remains of antique art in Rome, and a singularly striking portrait of Jerome of Prague as he appeared before the judges who condemned him to the stake.
She accompanied Frederick to Prague in October 1619, and was crowned on the 7th of November.
She left Prague on the 8th of November 1620, after the fatal battle of the White Hill, for Kiistrin, travelling thence to Berlin and Wolfenbiittel, finally with Frederick taking refuge at the Hague with Prince Maurice of Orange.
After the battle of the White Hill, near Prague (1620), the town was deprived of all its privileges, which were, however, in great part restored nine years later.
From both ridges spurs of greater or less length are sent off at various angles, whence a magnificent view is obtained from Breslau to Prague; the lowlands of Silesia, watered by the Oder, and those of Bohemia, intersected by the Elbe and the Moldau, appearing to lie mapped in relief.Advertisement
But the negotiations dragged on without result; the war continued with hideous barbarities on both sides; and it was not until the 1st of June 1562 that it was concluded by the treaty signed at Prague by Ferdinand, now emperor.
In the Hussite wars it took the utraquist side, was occupied in 1420 by King Sigismund, but retaken the next year by the troops of Prague.
The towns, in most cases creations of the rulers of Bohemia who had called in German immigrants, were, with the exception of the "new town" of Prague, mainly German; and in consequence of the regulations of the university, Germans also held almost all the more important ecclesiastical offices - a condition of things greatly resented by the natives of Bohemia, which at this period had reached a high degree of intellectual development.
The Hussite movement assumed a revolutionary character as soon as the news of the death of Huss reached Prague.
Shortly before his death Huss had accepted a doctrine preached during his absence by his adherents at Prague, namely that of "utraquism," i.e.Advertisement
A certain number of Hussites lead by Nicolas of Hus - no relation of John Huss - left Prague.
In spite of the departure of many prominent Hussites the troubles at Prague continued.
The death of the king resulted in renewed troubles in Prague and in almost all parts of Bohemia.
In Prague, in November 1419, severe fighting took place between the Hussites and the mercenaries whom Queen Sophia (widow of Wenceslaus and regent after the death of her husband) had hurriedly collected.
The nobles, who though favourable to the Hussite cause yet supported the regent, promised to act as mediators with Sigismund; while the citizens of Prague consented to restore to the royal forces the castle of Vysehrad, which had fallen into their hands.Advertisement
Zizka, who disapproved of this compromise, left Prague and retired to Plzen (Pilsen).
The united Hussites formulated their demands in a statement known as the "articles of Prague."
Though Sigismund had retired from Prague, the castles of Vysehrad and Hradcany remained in possession of his troops.
The citizens of Prague laid siege to the Vysehrad, and towards the end of October (1420) the garrison was on the point of capitulating through famine.
John of Zelivo was on the 9th of March 1422 arrested by the town council of Prague and decapitated.Advertisement
His authority was recognized by the Utraquist nobles, the citizens of Prague, and the more moderate Taborites, including Zizka.
Korybutovic, however, remained but a short time in Bohemia; after his departure civil war broke out, the Taborites opposing in arms the more moderate Utraquists, who at this period are also called by the chroniclers the "Praguers," as Prague was their principal stronghold.
After several military successes gained by Zizka (q.v.) in 1423 and the following year, a treaty of peace between the Hussites was concluded on the 13th of September 1424 at Liben, a village near Prague, now part of that city.
The last-named, however, refused to recognize as archbishop of Prague, John of Rokycan, who had been elected to that dignity by the estates of Bohemia.
As the chief councillor of Prince Zsigmond Bathory, he advised his sovereign to contract an alliance with the emperor instead of holding to the Turk, and rendered important diplomatic services on frequent missions to Prague and Vienna.Advertisement
After some years spent in private teaching Palacky settled in 1823 at Prague.
Hoffer, a German professor of history at Prague, edited the historical authorities for the period in a similar sense in his Geschichte der hussitischen Bewegung in Bohmen.
He was deputed to the Reichstag which sat at Kromefice (Kremsier) in the autumn of that year, and was a member of the Slav congress at Prague.
He died at Prague on the 2bth of May 1876.
Three volumes of his Czech articles and essays were published as Radhost (3 vols., Prague, 1871-1873).Advertisement
Between 1362 and 1450 no fewer than 4151 Magyar students frequented the university of Vienna, nearly as many went by preference to Prague, and this, too, despite the fact that there were now two universities in Hungary itself, the old foundation of Louis the Great at Pecs, and a new one established at Buda by Sigismund.
Albert, a sturdy soldier, who had given brilliant proofs of valour and generalship in the Hussite wars, was crowned king of Hungary at Szekesfehervar (Stuhlweissenburg) on the 1st of January 1438, elected king of the Romans at Frankfort on the 18th of March 1438, and crowned king of Bohemia at Prague on the 29th of June 1438.
It was only when the Jesuits obtained a footing both at Prague 2 and Klausenburg that persecution began, but then it was very violent.
After the treaty of Prague, in May 1635, by which the emperor was reconciled with most of the German princes, Richelieu was finally obliged to declare war, and, concluding a treaty of offensive alliance at Compiegne with Oxenstierna, and in October one at St Germain-en-Laye with Bernard of Saxe-Weimar, he proceeded himself against Spain, both in Italy and in the Netherlands.
After the turn of the century, however, a new generation arose both among Croats and Serbs, which had received its education abroad, and especially in Prague, where the ethical and political teachings of Prof. Masaryk exercised a remarkable influence over the progressive youth of all Slav countries.Advertisement
Prague, Val in Zagreb and Jedinstvo in Spalato - which advocated more radical action alike in politics and literature.
Meanwhile the Roman congress was deliberately imitated by an imposing congress at Prague (May 16), at which Czech, Polish, Italian, Rumanian, Slovak and Yugoslav delegates attended.
On the 28th (the same day on which the Czechoslovak Republic was born in Prague) the military command in Zagreb handed over its authority to the National Council, and next day the diet proclaimed the independence of Croatia from Hungary, and assumed control of Fiume.
According to population Lemberg is the fourth city in the Austrian empire, coming after Vienna, Prague and Trieste.
He is also found confirming his old rival Arnulf in the see of Reims; summoning Adalbero or Azelmus of Laon to Rome to answer for his crimes; judging between the archbishop of Mainz and the bishop of Hildesheim; besieging the revolted town of Cesena; flinging the count of Angouleme into prison for an offence against a bishop; confirming the privileges of Fulda abbey; granting charters to bishoprics far away on the Spanish mark; and, on the eastern borders of the empire, erecting Prague as the seat of an archbishopric for the Sla y s.
The passenger traffic, which is in the hands of the Sachsisch-Bohmische Dampfschifffahrtsgesellschaft is limited to Bohemia and Saxony, steamers plying up and down the stream from Dresden to Melnik, occasionally continuing the journey up the Moldau to Prague, and down the river as far as Riesa, near the northern frontier of Saxony, and on the average 12 million passengers are conveyed.
Since 1896 great improvements have been made in the Moldau and the Bohemian Elbe, with the view of facilitating communication between Prague and the middle of Bohemia generally on the one hand, and the middle and lower reaches of the Elbe on the other.
In the year named a special commission was appointed for the regulation of the Moldau and Elbe between Prague and Aussig, at a cost estimated at about I, 000,000, of which sum two-thirds were to be borne by the Austrian empire and one-third by the kingdom of Bohemia.
To overcome it he at length obtained authority (June 15th) to order the army of the Elbe into Saxony, and on the 18th the Prussians entered Dresden, the Saxons retiring along the Elbe into Bohemia; and on the same day the news that the Austrian main body was marching from Olmiitz towards Prague arrived at headquarters.
In 1849 he was placed in charge of the Philological Seminary at Prague, and two years later was appointed professor of classical philology in Prague University.
In 1854 he removed from Prague to a similar appointment at Kiel, and again in 1862 from Kiel to Leipzig.
Gentz, who from the winter of 1806 onwards divided his time between Prague and the Bohemian wateringplaces, seemed to devote himself wholly to the pleasures of society, his fascinating personality gaining him a ready reception in those exalted circles which were to prove of use to him later on in Vienna.
But the peace of 1810 and the fall of Stadion once more dashed his hopes, and, disillusioned and "hellishly blasé," he once more retired to comparative inactivity at Prague.
It was at Prague that Caspar Lehmann and Zachary Belzer learnt the craft of cutting glass.
In the 14th century there were schools at Mainz, Strassburg, Frankfort, Wiirzburg, Zurich and Prague; in the 15th at Augsburg and Nuremberg, the last becoming in the following century, under Hans Sachs, the most famous of all.
The column in the centre of the square was erected in 1638, to commemorate the defeat of the Protestants near Prague by the Bavarians during the Thirty Years' War.
In 1409, in conjunction with his brother William, he founded the university of Leipzig, for the benefit of German students who had just left the university of Prague.
Dlugosz refused the archbishopric of Prague because of his strong dislike of the land of the Hussites; but seven years later he accepted the archbishopric of Lemberg.
An early expression of reviving Lithuanian national consciousness was the appearance of the newspaper" Ausra,"which, printed in East Prussia, lived for three years, though even in that short period its editor, banished from Germany, had to take refuge at Prague.
Stimulated by the example of Charles IV., who had founded the university of Prague in 1348, Casimir on the 12th of May 1364 established and richly endowed the first university of Cracow, which had five professors of Roman law, three of Canon law, two of physics, and one master of arts.
On the outskirts of the town, to the west, in the Bruhl suburb, a stone marks the spot where Hus and Jerome of Prague were burnt to death.
It was so named because a similar rising had recently taken place in Prague, Bohemia, at that time closely associated with France through the house of Luxemburg, kings of Bohemia, and it was caused by the reforms of Charles VII.
In 1588 he went to Prague, then to Helmstadt.
He did not stay long at Prague, and we find him next at Zurich, whence he accepted an invitation to Venice from a young patrician, Giovanni Mocenigo.
At, or only a very little beyond, the usual age he entered the recently (1348) founded university of Prague, where he became bachelor of arts in 1393, bachelor of theology in 1394, and master of arts in 1396.
In 1402 also he was made rector or curate (capellarius) of the Bethlehem chapel, which had in 1391 been erected and endowed by some zealous citizens of Prague for the purpose of providing good popular preaching in the Bohemian tongue.
In 1408, however, the clergy of the city and archiepiscopal diocese of Prague laid before the archbishop a formal complaint against Huss, arising out of strong expressions with regard to clerical abuses of which he had made use in his public discourses; and the result was that, having been first deprived of his appointment as synodal preacher, he was, after a vain attempt to defend himself in writing, publicly forbidden the exercise of any priestly function throughout the diocese.
This decree, as soon as it was published in Prague (March 9, 1410), led to much popular agitation, and provoked an appeal by Huss to the pope's better informed judgment; the archbishop, however, resolutely insisted on carrying out his instructions, and in the following July caused to be publicly burned, in the courtyard of his own palace, upwards of 200 volumes of the writings of Wycliffe, while he pronounced solemn sentence of excommunication against Huss and certain of his friends, who had in the meantime again protested and appealed to the new pope (John XXIII.).
The struggle, however, entered on a new phase with the appearance at Prague in May 141 2 of the papal emissary charged with the proclamation of the papal bulls by which a religious war was decreed against the excommunicated King Ladislaus of Naples, and indulgence was promised to all who should take part in it, on terms similar to those which had been enjoyed by the earlier crusaders to the Holy Land.
A popular demonstration, in which the papal bulls had been paraded through the streets with circumstances of peculiar ignominy and finally burnt, led to intervention by Wenceslaus on behalf of public order; three young men, for having openly asserted the unlawfulness of the papal indulgence after silence had been enjoined, were sentenced to death (June 1412); the excommunication against Huss was renewed, and the interdict again laid on all places which should give him shelter - a measure which now began to be more strictly regarded by the clergy, so that in the following December Huss had no alternative but to yield to the express wish of the king by temporarily withdrawing from Prague.
In Europe there are excellent collections in London, Cambridge, Paris, Berlin, St Petersburg and Prague.
By the peace of Prague, which transferred Upper Lusatia to Saxony in 1635, stipulations were made in favour of the Roman Catholics of that region, who are ecclesiastically in the jurisdiction of the cathedral chapter of St Peter at Bautzen, the dean of which has ex-officio a seat in the first chamber' of the diet.
After the death of Gustavus Adolphus at the battle of Liitzen, not far from Leipzig, in 1632, the elector, who was at heart an imperialist, detached himself from the Swedish alliance, and in 1635 concluded the peace of Prague with the emperor.
The king of Saxony's faith in Napoleon was shaken by the disasters of the Russian campaign, in which 21,000 Saxon troops had shared; when, however, the allies invaded Saxony in the spring of 1813, he refused to declare against Napoleon and fled to Prague, though he withdrew his contingent from the French army.
He distinguished himself at an early age, and on his ordination to the priesthood (1805) was appointed professor of the philosophy of religion in Prague University.
He died at Prague on the 8th of December 1848.
The German National Union (Nationalverband) agreed to extend temporary hospitality to the Italian university in Vienna, but the Southern Slav Hochschule Club demanded a guarantee that a later transfer to the coast provinces should not be contemplated, together with the simultaneous foundation of Slovene professorial chairs in Prague and Cracow, and preliminary steps towards the foundation of a Southern Slav university in Laibach.
A general strike at the universities was averted by a compromise, by which Wahrmund was transferred from the pious land of Tirol to Prague, which was more than he had desired.
In July a Pan-Slavonic congress took place at Prague, accompanied by anti-German excesses which had a serious sequel in Laibach.
The Germans thereupon paralyzed the Prague Diet by means of obstruction, upon which the Czech members of the Beck Cabinet left it, and the prime minister, seeing himself abandoned by both Germans and Czechs, resigned on Nov.
Finally the old wish was put forward for a separation of nationalities in the representative assembly at Prague, in order that neither of the two nationalities should oppress the other in the internal affairs of Bohemia.
Serious excesses were now indulged in towards the German population and the German students in Prague, where, on the very day of the imperial diamond jubilee, the Government had to proclaim a state of siege.
It was only to be expected that the Germans, whose very existence was in question, should show themselves to be patriotic. But it was somewhat surprising that at Prague, after the declaration of war, Germans and Czechs sang Die TV acht am Rhein together in the streets, and the burgomaster, a Czech, made a speech in German before the town hall in which he called for cheers for the Emperor William and the fraternization of Germans and Czechs.
Prague, the capital (677,000 inhabitants), is picturesquely situated on the Vltava and justly famous for its architectural beauty.
As the war proceeded, further declarations of national and anti-Austrian sentiment were made, the most notable being the " Twelfth Night Manifesto," issued at Prague on Jan.
The National Council at Prague issued a proclamation of independence and took over the reins of government.
In spite of the presence of Austrian and Hungarian garrisons in Prague and other towns, there was no bloodshed.
Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Slovakia and Russinia, united to form one State with a single central Government having its seat at Prague.
The tribunals of the republic are the Supreme Court of Justice, which sits at Brno and is the court of final appeal both in civil and criminal causes, two high courts sitting at Prague and Brno respectively, 33 provincial courts and 410 district courts, all of which possess j urisdiction in both civil and criminal causes.
Commercial cases are dealt with by the ordinary courts, except at Prague where a special commercial court sits.
At Prague there sits also an electoral court which decides upon the validity of disputed elections or forfeiture of seats and other questions relating to parliamentary or elected bodies.
They were strongly represented in Prague and other cities.
In the entire republic there are four universities, three Czech and Slovak - the Charles University of Prague, the Masaryk University of Brno and the Comenius University of Bratislava - and one German (at Prague).
There are four polytechnics enjoying university rank at Prague and Brno, two of them being Czech and two German.
Iron and steel foundries exist at Kladno near Prague, as well as in Moravia and in Slovakia.
Aeroplanes are made at Prague and Plzen (Pilsen).
Eloquent testimony is given by the beautiful churches and palaces of Prague - largely Gothic and baroque in style - to the architectural genius of the nation.
Vitus, rising above the castle (Hrad) on the heights of the Hradcany (Prague), is a magnificent specimen of Gothic. The beautiful church of St.
Nicholas, the King Charles bridge at Prague, are among the many objects of universal admiration which are to be found in Bohemia.
Of modern sculptors the works of Myslbek and Sucharda are prominent in the public monuments at Prague.
The work of Hieronymus Hirnhaim of Prague (1637-1679), De typho generis humani sive scientiarum humanarum inani ac ventoso tumore, was written in the interests of revelation.
The Bohemians invoked the aid of Matthias, who gathered an army; and in 1611 the emperor, practically a prisoner at Prague, was again forced to cede a kingdom to his brother.
Rudolph died at Prague, his usual place of residence, on the 10th of January 1612, and was succeeded as emperor by Matthias.
At the end of the 14th century we find all the great trade gilds established there, and the cloth manufactured at Cracow was eagerly sought after, from Prague to Great Novgorod.
But the aristocratic youth still preferred frequenting the universities of Prague, Padua and Paris, and accordingly the newly founded studium languished.
Fleury disavowed his own letter, and died a few days after the French evacuation of Prague on the 29th of January 1743.
He says that, although Napier's book had been published five years, he first saw it at Prague two years before; he was then unable to read it, but last year he had met with a little work by Benjamin Ursinus 4 containing the substance of the method, and he at once recognized the importance of what had been effected.
He was the first to attempt a comprehensive treatment of all invertebrates from the genetic point of view; but unfortunately his great work, entitled Die Stcimme des Thierreichs (Vienna and Prague, 1889), was uncompleted.
Ultimately he had to flee from England, and took refuge in Bohemia, where he was received by the university of Prague on the 13th of February 1417, and soon became a leader of the reformers.
The party of the nobles, who had been ready to make terms, were attacked in the Diet at Prague, by the Orphans and Taborites.
He died at Prague in 1 455.
His embarrassment was relieved however by an offer from Tycho Brahe of the position of assistant in his observatory near Prague, which, after a preliminary visit of four months, he accepted.
The arrangement was made just in time; for in August 1600 he received definitive notice to leave Gratz, and, having leased his wife's property, he departed with his family for Prague.
The first works executed by him at Prague were, nevertheless, a homage to the astrological proclivities of the emperor.
In De fundamentis astrologiae certioribus (Prague, 1602) he declared his purpose of preserving and purifying the grain of truth which he believed the science to contain.
From the time of his first introduction to Tycho he had devoted himself to the investigation of the orbit of Mars, which, on account of its relatively large eccentricity, had always been especially recalcitrant to theory, and the results appeared in Astronomia nova ainoXayrgrii, seu Physica coelestis tradita commentariis de motibus stellae Martis (Prague, 1609).
On the 23rd of May 1611 Matthias, brother of the emperor, assumed the Bohemian crown in Prague, compelling Rudolph to take refuge in the citadel, where he died on the 20th of January following.
His correspondence with Herwart von Hohenburg, unearthed by C. Anschiitz at Munich, was printed at Prague in 1886.
When the news reached Rome of the martyrdom of Adalbert, bishop of Prague (997), Bruno determined to take his place, and in 1004, after being consecrated by the pope as archbishop of the eastern heathen, he set out for Germany to seek aid of the emperor Henry II.
It is the second oldest university in Europe - the oldest being that of Prague - and was famous during the 15th and 16th centuries.
He lived under supervision by doctors and guardians at Prague till his death on the 29th of June 1875.
Leitmeritz was originally the castle of a royal count and is first mentioned, in 993, in the foundation charter of the convent of St Margaret near Prague.
In 1635 by the treaty of Prague they were definitely transferred from Bohemia to Saxony, although the emperor as king of Bohemia retained a certain supremacy for the purpose of guarding the rights and privileges of the Roman Catholics.
The intervention of Austria in the War of Liberation, and the consequent advance of the Allies under the Austrian field-marshal Prince Schwarzenberg from Prague upon Dresden, recalled Napoleon from Silesia, where he was engaged against the Prussians and Russians under Blucher.
He pursued his studies still further in Cologne, and perhaps in Prague.
In 1184 Raudnitz is mentioned as belonging to the see of Prague.
Lamont was a member of the academies of Brussels, Upsala and Prague, of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, of the Cambridge Philosophical Society and of many other learned corporations.
By the treaty of Prague Hesse-Cassel was annexed to Prussia.
The result was the raising of the siege of Prague and the evacuation of Bohemia by the Prussians.
In 1421 it was captured by the men of Prague, and the German inhabitants who refused to accept "the four articles" were expelled.
In 1427 the town declared against Prague, was besieged by Prokop the Great, and surrendered to him upon conditions at the close of the year.
Rabbi Enoch Altschul of Prague recorded his own escape on the 22nd of Tebet 1623 in a special roll or megillah, which was to be read by his family on that date with rejoicing similar to the general Purim.
Marching into Bohemia the Saxons occupied Prague, but John George soon began to negotiate for peace and consequently his soldiers offered little resistance to Wallenstein, who drove them back into Saxony.
However, for the present the efforts of Gustavus Adolphus prevented the elector from deserting him, but the position was changed by the death of the king at Lutzen in 1632, and the refusal of Saxony to join the Protestant league under Swedish leadership. Still letting his troops fight in a desultory fashion against the imperialists, John George again negotiated for peace, and in May 1635 he concluded the important treaty of Prague with Ferdinand II.
After the peace of Westphalia, which with regard to Saxony did little more than confirm the treaty of Prague, John George died on the 8th of October 1656.
The South German Confederation, contemplated by the with 6th article of the treaty of Prague, never came into being; and, though Prussia, in order not prematurely to excite the alarm of France, opposed the suggestion that the southern states should join the North German Confederation, the bonds of Bavaria, as of the other southern states, with the north, were strengthened by an offensive and defensive alliance with Prussia, as the result of Napoleon's demand for "compensation" in the Palatinate.
His father, Daniel Doddridge, was a London merchant, and his mother the orphan daughter of the Rev. John Bauman, a Lutheran clergyman who had fled from Prague to escape religious persecution, and had held for some time the mastership of the grammar school at Kingston-upon-Thames.
From this time the town remained faithful to the royal cause, and in 1547 was granted by the emperor Ferdinand the privilege of ranking at the diet next to Prague and Pilsen.
It is navigable above this point through its tributary, the Moldau, to Prague.
Unfortunately the council of Constance, which met mainly through the efforts of Sigismund in 1414, marred its labors by the judicial murders of John Huss and of Jerome of Prague.
Meanwhile Tilly advanced into Bohemia, and in November 1620 Fredericks army was utterly routed at the battle of the White Hill, near Prague, and the unfortunate elector had just time to escape from the kingdom he had rashly undertaken to govern.
But the thoughts of many had already turned in the direction of peace, and in this manner John George of Saxony took the lead, signing in May 1635 the important treaty of Prague with the emperor.
In spite of the diplomatic efforts of Sweden the treaty of Prague was accepted almost at once by the elector of Brandenburg, the duke of Wurttemberg and other princes, and also by several of the most important of the free cities.
While the signatories of the peace of Prague were making ready to assist the emperor the only Germans on the other side were found in the army under Bernhard of SaxeBernhard Weimar.
When the time came, after the famous interview with Napoleon at Dresden, and the breakdown of the abortive congress of Prague, Austria threw in her lot with the allies.
These Articles, enbodying the more important terms, were included with slight verbal alterations in the treaty of peace signed at Prague on the 23rd of August.
Up to the year 1878 they could appeal to the treaty of Prague; one clause in it determined that the inhabitants of selected districts should be allowed to vote whether they should be Danish or German.
In 1878, when the Triple Alliance was concluded, Bismarck, in answer to the Guelphic demonstration at Copenhagen, arranged with Austria, the other party to the treaty of Prague, that the clause should lapse.
After the war of 1866 he was chosen as Italian plenipotentiary for the negotiation of the treaty of Prague and for the transfer of Venetia to Italy.
On the i 1 th of March a meeting of " young Czechs " at Prague drew up a petition embodying nationalist and liberal demands; and on the same day the diet of Lower Austria petitioned the crown to summon a meeting of the delegates of the diets to set the Austrian finances in order.
But the great object lesson was furnished by the events in Prague, where the quarrel between Czechs and Germans, radicals and conservatives, issued on the 12th of June in a rising of the Czech students and populace.
By the treaty of Prague (August 23, 1866) the emperor surrendered the position in Germany which his ancestors had held for so many centuries; Austria and Tirol, Bohemia and Salzburg, ceased to be German, and eight million Germans were cut off from all political union with their fellow-countrymen.
This was done in the teeth of the expressed wish of Russia; it roused the helpless resentment of Servia, whose economic dependence upon the Dual Monarchy was emphasized by the outcome of the war of tariffs into which she had plunged in 1906, and who saw in this scheme another link in the chain forged for her by the Habsburg empire; it 1 Alois, Count Lexa von Aerenthal, was born on the 27th of September 1854 at Gross-Skal in Bohemia, studied at Bonn and Prague, was attache at Paris (1877) and afterwards at St Petersburg, envoy extraordinary at Bucharest (1895) and ambassador at St Petersburg (1896).
A great party, led by Palacky and Rieger, demanded the restoration of the Bohemian monarchy in its fullest extent, including Moravia and Silesia, and insisted that the emperor should be crowned as king of Bohemia at Prague as his predecessors had been, and that Bohemia should have a position in the monarchy similar to that obtained by Hungary.
Not only did the party include all the Czechs, but they were supported by many of the great nobles who were of German descent, including Count Leo Thun, his brother-in-law Count Heinrich Clam-Martinitz, and Prince Friedrich von Schwarzenberg, cardinal archbishop of Prague, who hoped in a self-governing kingdom of Bohemia to preserve that power which was threatened by the German Liberals.
In Bohemia the Czechs were very active; while the Poles were parading their hostility to Russia in such a manner as to cause the emperor to avoid visiting Galicia, some of the Czech leaders attended a Slav demonstration at Moscow, and in 1868 they drew up and presented to the diet at Prague a " declaration " which has since been regarded as the official statement of their claims. They asked for the full restoration of the Bohemian kingdom; they contended that no foreign assembly was qualified to impose taxes in Bohemia; that the diet was not qualified to elect representatives to go to Vienna, and that a separate settlement must be made with Bohemia similar to that with Hungary.
Rieger and Thun were summoned to Vienna; he himself went to Prague, but after two days he had to give up the attempt in despair.
This was agreed to; and on the 12th of September at the opening of the diet, the governor read a royal message recognizing the separate existence of the Bohemian kingdom, and promising that the emperor should be crowned as king at Prague.
Parliament was dissolved in the summer, and Taaffe, by private negotiations, first of all persuaded the Bohemian feudal proprietors to give the Feudalists, who had long been excluded, a certain number of seats; secondly, he succeeded where Potocki had failed, and came to an agreement with the Czechs; they had already, in 1878, taken their seats in the diet at Prague, and now gave up the policy of " passive resistance," and consented to take their seats also in the parliament at Vienna.
In Prague the victory of the Czechs has been marked by the removal of all German street names, and the Czech town council even passed a by-law forbidding private individuals to have tablets put up with the name of the street in German.
It was another step in the same direction when, in 1886, it was ordered that " to avoid frequent translations " business introduced in Czech should be dealt with in the same language in the high courts of Prague and Briinn.
Then not only were a large number of Czech elementary schools founded, but also many middle schools were given to the Czechs, and Czech classes introduced in German schools; and, what affected the Germans most, in 1882 classes in Czech were started in the university of Prague - a desecration, as it seemed, of the oldest German university.
Prague was no longer the German city it had been fifty years before; the census of 1880 showed 36,000 Germans to 120,000 Czechs.
When Count Thun was appointed governor of Bohemia their hopes ran high, for he was supposed to favour the coronation of the emperor at Prague.
The Czechs also were offended; they arranged riots at Prague; the professors in the university refused to lecture unless the German students were defended from violence; Gautsch resigned, and Thun, who had been governor of Bohemia, was appointed minister.
These public works were chiefly a canal from the Danube to the Oder; a ship canal from the Danube to the Moldau near Budweis, and the canalization of the Moldau from Budweis to Prague; a ship canal running from the projected Danube-Oder canal near Prerau to the Elbe near Pardubitz, and the canalization of the Elbe from Pardubitz to Melnik; a navigable connexion between the Danube-Oder Canal and the Vistula and the Dniester.
At Prague, Graz and other towns, demonstrations and collisions with the police were frequent.
At the peace of Prague, which terminated the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, Napoleon III.
He studied at Prague and at Olmiitz, and, after travelling extensively in search of historical material, became professor of history at the university of Prague and archivist for Bohemia in 1862.
He died at Prague on the 24th of October 1892.
Gindely's chief work is his Geschichte des dreissigjahrigen Krieges (Prague, 1869-1880), which has been translated into English (New York, 1884); and his historical work is mainly concerned with the period of the Thirty Years' War.
Frederick began the second Silesian War by entering Bohemia in August 1744 and taking Prague.
In 1757, after defeating the Austrians at Prague, he was himself defeated by them at Kolin; and by the shameful convention of Closter-Seven, he was freely exposed to the attack of the French.
The picture painted by Darer on this commission was the "Adoration of the Virgin," better known as the "Feast of Rose Garlands"; it was subsequently acquired by the emperor Rudolf II., and carried as a thing beyond price upon men's shoulders to Vienna; it now exists in a greatly injured state in the monastery of Strahow at Prague.
By the peace of Prague, however, in 1635, the archbishopric was given to Augustus, prince of Saxe-Weissenfels, who retained it until his death in 1680.
He was educated at the monastery of Magdeburg; and in 983 was chosen bishop of Prague.
After prosecuting his studies at Berlin, Vienna, Prague, Paris, London, Dublin and Edinburgh, and devoting special attention to ophthalmology he, in 1850, began practice as an oculist in Berlin, where he founded a private institution for the treatment of the eyes, which became the model of many similar ones in Germany and Switzerland.
He signed the armistice of Pleswitz, June 1813, represented France at the congress of Prague, in August 1813, at the congress of Chatillon, in February 1814, and concluded the treaty of Fontainebleau on the 10th of April 1814.
At the peace of Prague in 1635 it passed with Lusatia to Saxony as a war indemnity.
They were ordered to abandon the archbishop. Three of them consented, but Pomuk, who refused to submit and was already on the point of death, was carried to the bridge of Prague and thrown into the Vltava.
The principal treaties affecting the distribution of territory between the various states of Central Europe are those of Westphalia (Osnabruck and Miinster), 1648; Utrecht, 1713;1713; Paris and Hubertusburg, 1763; for the partition of Poland, 1772, 1793; Vienna, 1815; London, for the separation of Belgium from the Netherlands, 1831, 1839; Zurich, for the cession of a portion of Lombardy to Sardinia, 1859; Vienna, as to SchleswigHolstein, 1864; Prague, whereby the German Confederation was dissolved, Austria recognizing the new North German Confederation, transferring to Prussia her rights over SchleswigHolstein, and ceding the remainder of Lombardy to Italy, 1866; Frankfort, between France and the new German Empire, 1871.
Prague in 1681 lost 83,000 by plague.
Thence it passed to Prague and Ratisbon - to the former, possibly to the latter, almost certainly conveyed by human intercourse.
After beginning his studies at the university of Prague, where he never attempted to obtain any ecclesiastical office, Jerome proceeded to Oxford in 1398.
Always inclined to a roving life, he soon proceeded to the university of Paris and afterwards continued his studies at Cologne and Heidelberg, returning to Prague in 1407.
In Prague Jerome soon attracted attention by his advanced and outspoken opinions.
In 1410 Jerome, who had incurred the hostility of the archbishop of Prague by his speeches in favour of Wycliffe's teaching, went to Ofen, where King Sigismund of Hungary resided, and, though a layman, preached before the king denouncing strongly the rapacity and immorality of the clergy.
Sigismund shortly afterwards received a letter from the archbishop of Prague containing accusations against Jerome.
He was accused of spreading Wycliffe's doctrines, and his general conduct at Oxford, Paris, Cologne, Prague and Ofen was censured.
He went first to Vdttau in Moravia, and then to Prague.
Contrary to the wishes of the archbishop of Prague a meeting of the members of the university took place, at which both Hus and Jerome spoke strongly against the sale of indulgences.
The eloquence of the Italian humanist has bestowed a not entirely merited aureole on the memory of Jerome of Prague.
The Lives of John Wicliffe, Lord Cobham, John Huss, Jerome of Prague and 21ika by William Gilpin (London, 1765) still has a certain value.
C. Krofta, in Monumenta vaticana res gestas Bohemicas illustrantia (Prague, 1905); Der Liber Cancellariae Apostolicae vom Jahre 1380, ed.
Thus of samples of meat bought in Prague and kept in a cool room for about two days, luminosity was present in 52% of the samples in the case of beef, 50% for veal, and 39% for liver.
Of the churches the chief are the Protestant Peterskirche dating from the 15th century and restored in 1873, to the door of which Jerome of Prague in 1460 nailed his theses; the Heilige Geist Kirche (Church of the Holy Ghost), an imposing Gothic edifice of the 15th century; the Jesuitenkirche (Roman Catholic), with a sumptuously decorated interior, and the new Evangelical Christuskirche.
Its lowest-lying points are not in the middle but in the north, in the valley of the Elbe, and the country can be divided into two parts by a line passing through Hohenmauth - Prague - Komotau.
Industrial and agricultural machinery are manufactured at Reichenberg, Pilsen and Prague, and at the last-named place is also to be found a great establishment for the production of railway rolling-stock.
The centre of the railway system, which had in 1898 a length of some 3500 m., or 30% of the total length of the Austrian railways, is Prague; and through the Elbe Bohemia has easy access to the sea for its export trade.
To the Roman Catholic Church belong 96% of the total population; Bohemia is divided into the archbishopric of Prague, and the three bishoprics of Budweis, Käniggratz and Leitmeritz.
At the head of the educational establishments stand the two universities at Prague, one German and the other Czech.
For administrative purposes Bohemia is divided into ninety-four districts and two autonomous municipalities, Prague (pop. 204,478), the capital, and Reichenberg (34,204).
Rivnac, Reisehandbuch fiir das Konigreich Bohmen (Prague, 1882), very useful for its numerous and detailed historical notes.
Prague was his favourite residence, and by the foundation of the nove mesto (new town) he greatly enlarged the city, which now had three times its former extent, and soon also trebled its population.
He also added greatly to the importance of the city by founding the famous university of Prague.
The nobles of Bohemia and Moravia met at Prague on the 2nd of September 1415, and sent to the council the famed Protestatio Bohemorum, in which they strongly protested against the execution of Huss, " a good, just and catholic man who had for many years been favourably known in the Kingdom by his life, conduct and fame, and who had been convicted of no offence."
A large number of the nobles and knights who had met at Prague formed a confederacy and declared that they consented to freedom of preaching the word of God on their estates, that they declined to recognize the authority of the council of Constance, but would obey the Bohemian bishops and a future pope lawfully elected.
Meanwhile they declared the university of Prague the supreme authority in all matters of religion.
Wenceslas decreed that they should be reinstated, and it was only after some hesitation that he even permitted that religious services according to the Utraquist doctrine should be held in three of the churches of Prague.
Some of the more advanced reformers left Prague and formed the party known as the Taborites, from the town of Tabor which became their centre.
Troubles soon broke out at Prague.
When on the 30th of July 1419, the Hussite priest, John of Zelivo, was leading a procession through the streets of Prague, stones were thrown at him and his followers from the town hall of the " new town."
The news of the death of the king caused renewed rioting in Prague and many other Bohemian cities, from which many Germans, mostly adherents of the Church of Rome, were expelled.
An attempt of Sigismund to relieve the besieged garrison of the Vysehrad fortress on the outskirts of Prague also failed, as he was again entirely defeated at the battle of the Vysehrad (November I, 1420).
After the Compacts had been formally recognized at Iglau in Moravia, Sigismund proceeded to Prague and was accepted as king.
Those who signed it pledged themselves to recognise the Compacts, and to support as archbishop of Prague, John of Rokycan, who had been chosen by the estates in accordance with an agreement made simultaneously with the Compacts, but whom the Church of Rome refused to recognize.
He assembled a considerable army at Kutna Hora and marched on Prague (1448).
In October 1453 Ladislas arrived in Bohemia and was crowned king at Prague; but he died somewhat suddenly on the 23rd of November 1457.
Though the Romanist lords, whom Podébrad had for a time won over, also voted for him, the election was considered a great victory of the national party and was welcomed with enthusiasm by the citizens of Prague.
Serious riots took place at Prague, and the more advanced Hussites stormed the three town halls of the city.
On his arrival at Prague he dismissed all the Bohemian state officials, including the powerful Leo of Rozmital.
The new officials appear to have supported the more advanced Hussite party, while Rozmital and the members of the town council of Prague who had acted in concert with him had been the allies of the Romanists and those Utraquists who were nearest to the Church of Rome.
When a great fire broke out at Prague in 1541, which destroyed all the state documents, Ferdinand obtained the consent of the estates to the substitution of a charter stating that he had been recognized as king in consequence of the hereditary rights of his wife Anna, in the place of the former one, which had stated that he had become king by election.
The estates met at Prague in March 1547, without awaiting a royal summons, -, undoubtedly an unconstitutional proceeding.
The assembly, in which the influence of the representatives of the town of Prague and of the knights and nobles who belonged to the Bohemian Brotherhood was predominant, had a very revolutionary character.
This became yet more marked when the news of the elector of Saxony's victory at Rochlitz reached Prague.
The army of Pflug hastily dispersed, and the estates still assembled at Prague endeavoured to propitiate Ferdinand.
Ferdinand demanded that the Bohemians should renounce all alliances with the German Protestants, and declared that he would make his will known after his arrival in Prague.
On the other hand he dealt very severely with the towns - Prague in particular.
Ferdinand also forced the townsmen to accept the control of state officials who were to be called town-judges and in Prague town-captains.
Only four of the principal leaders of the revolt - two knights, and two citizens of Prague - were sentenced to death.
The king maintained a vacillating attitude, influenced now by the threats of the Bohemians, now by the advice of the papal nuncio, who had followed him to Prague.
It became, indeed, subservient to the Romanist archbishopric of Prague, which had been reestablished by Ferdinand I.
Rudolph was a great patron of the arts, and he greatly contributed to the embellishment of Prague, which, as it was his favourite residence, became the centre of the vast Habsburg dominions.
Matthias, the eldest of his brothers, came to Prague and pointed out to Rudolph the necessity of appointing a coadjutor, should he be incapacitated from fulfilling his royal duties, and also of making arrangements concerning the succession to the throne.
The papal nuncio at Prague, in particular, appears for a time to have obtained great influence over the king.
The estates of Bohemia met at Prague in January 1603.
The estates met at Prague in March 1608, and, though again submitting their demands concerning ecclesiastical matters to Rudolph, authorized him to levy troops for the defence of Bohemia.
The forces of Matthias had meanwhile entered Bohemia and had arrived at Liben, a small town near Prague now incorporated with that city.
When they returned to Prague, Adam of Sternberg, the burgrave, again informed Budova that the king would grant no concessions in ecclesiastical matters.
He further granted to the Protestant estates the control over the university of Prague, and authorized them to elect the members of the Utraquist consistory.
Leopold succeeded in obtaining possession of part of the town of Prague, but his army was defeated by the troops which the Bohemian estates had hurriedly raised, and he was obliged to leave Bohemia.
None the less the state officials of Bohemia, by not very scrupulous means, succeeded in persuading the estates to accept Ferdinand as heir to the throne and to consent to his coronation, which took place at Prague on the 17th of June 1617.
In December 1617, the archbishop of Prague and the abbot of Bfevnov (Braunau) ordered the suppression of the Protestant religious services in churches that had been built on their domains.
The defenders took immediate action, by inviting all Protestant members of the diet to meet at Prague.
Finally these two councillors, together with Fabricius, secretary of the royal council, were thrown from the windows of the Hradcany into the moat below - an event known in history as the Defenestration of Prague.
Both Martinic and Slavata were but little injured, and succeeded in escaping from Prague.
The new king and his queen, Elizabeth of England, arrived in Bohemia in October, and were crowned somewhat later at St Vitus's cathedral in Prague.
After several skirmishes, in all of which the Bohemians were defeated, the imperial forces arrived at the outskirts of Prague on the evening of the 7th of November.
The Bohemians were defeated after a struggle of only a few hours, and on the evening of battle the imperialists already occupied the port of Prague, situated on the left bank of the Vltava (Moldau).
King Frederick, who had lost all courage, hurriedly left Prague on the following morning.
This estate, which was to take precedence of all the others, consisted of the Roman archbishop of Prague and of all the ecclesiastics who were endowed with landed estates.
During the later period of the Thirty Years' War Bohemia was frequently pillaged by Swedish troops, ion m and the taking of part of Prague by the Swedish general.
The estates of Bohemia, at a meeting that took place at Prague on the 16th of October 1720, sanctioned the female succession to the Bohemian throne and recognized the so-called Pragmatic Sanction which proclaimed the indivisibility of the Habsburg realm.
He occupied Prague, and a large part of the nobles and knights of Bohemia took the oath of allegiance to him (December 19, 1741).
The power of the royal officials who constituted the executive government of Bohemia was greatly curtailed, and though the chief representative of the sovereign in Prague continued to bear the ancient title of supreme burgrave, he was instructed to conform in all matters to the orders of the central government of Vienna.
Yet more extreme measures tending to centralization were introduced by the emperor Joseph, who refused to be crowned at Prague as king of Bohemia.
The powers of the Bohemian diet and of the royal officials at Prague were yet further limited, and the German language was introduced into all the upper schools of Bohemia.
When the news of the February revolution in Paris reached Prague the excitement there was very great.
In consequence of the general national movement which is so characteristic of the year 1848, it was decided to hold at Prague a " Slavic congress " to which Sla y s of all parts of the Austrian empire, as well as those belonging to other countries, were invited.
The deliberations were interrupted by the serious riots that broke out in the streets of Prague on the 12th of June.
The Bohemians indeed consented to send their representatives to Vienna, but they left the parliament in 1863, stating that the assembly had encroached on the power which constitutionally belonged to the diet of Prague.
The treaty with Prussia, signed at Prague on the 23rd of August 1866, excluded from Germany all lands ruled by the house of Habsburg.
An imperial message addressed to the diet of Prague (September 14, 1871) stated that the sovereign " in consideration of the former constitutional position of Bohemia and remembering the power and glory which its crown had given to his ancestors, and the constant fidelity of its population, gladly recognized the rights of the kingdom of Bohemia, and was willing to confirm this assurance by taking the coronation oath."
In 1872 a government with a pronounced German tendency took office in Vienna, and the Bohemians for a time again refused to attend the parliamentary assemblies of Vienna and Prague.
The government of Count Taaffe also consented to the foundation of a Bohemian university at Prague, which greatly contributed to the intellectual development of the country.
In consequence troubles broke out in Prague, and were severely repressed by the Austrian authorities.
The valuable collection of historical documents entitled Fontes Rerum Bohemicarum, published at Prague in the latter part of the 19th century, has superseded earlier ones such as Freherus (Marquard Freher), Rerum Bohemicarum Antiqui Scriptores.
Similarly, the earlier historical works of Pubitschka, Pelzl and De Florgy are superseded by Frantisek Palacky's Geschichte von Bohmen (Prague, 1844-1867), which, however, ends with the year 1526.
Very little known on the other hand are the works of Bartos, surnamed " pisaf " (the writer), as he was for many years employed as secretary by the city of Prague, and those of Sixt of Ottersdorf.
The work of Bartos (or Bartholomew) entitled the Chronicle of Prague has great historical value.
He describes the troubles that befell Prague and Bohemia generally during the reign of the weak and absentee sovereign King Louis.
His epic poem entitled Vysehrad, which celebrates the ancient glory of the acropolis of Prague, has great value, and of his many novels Jan Maria Plojhar has had the greatest success.
Mention should be made of Alois Jirdsek, also a distinguished dramatic author; Jacob Arbes, whose Romanetta have great merit; and Vaclav Hladik, whose Evzen Voldan is a very striking representation of the life of modern Prague.
Wenceslas Tomek (1818-1905) left many historical works, of which his Dejepis miesta Prahy (history of the town of Prague) is the most important.
After being ordained subdeacon, he went to Rome and became a Jesuit in 1573, spending some years at Briinn, Vienna and Prague.
More lately she has by some been conjecturally recognized in a doubtful, though Leonardesque, portrait of a lady with a weasel in the Czartoryski collection at Prague.
He resolved to appeal to the emperor, rode to Prague, won over Rudolph by his singular address, and, richly supplied with funds, reappeared in Transylvania as imperial governor.
At Prague, too, there are some relics of the saint, who is the patron of Bohemia and also of Saxony, and one of the fourteen "protectors" (Nothhelfer) of the church in Germany.
Prague was by its geographical situation naturally destined to become the capital of Bohemia, as it lies in the centre of the country.
The origin of Prague goes back to a very early date, though, as is the case with most very ancient cities, the tales connected with its origin are no doubt legendary.
The ancient Bohemian chronicler Cosmas of Prague gives a very picturesque account of this semi-mythical occurrence.
The city continued to increase, and during the reign of King Vratislav (1061-1092) many Germans were attracted to Prague.
The sovereign, however, to whom Prague is most indebted is the emperor Charles IV.
He has rightly been called the second founder of Prague.
During the Hussite wars Prague suffered greatly.
Two of the greatest battles of the Hussite wars, that of the Zizkov and that of the Vysehrad (both 1420), were fought on the outskirts of Prague, and after the last-named battle the ancient Vysehrad castle was entirely destroyed.
Prague gradually recovered during the reign of King George of Podebrad, and became yet more prosperous during that of King Vladislay..
When the antagonism between the Romanist dynasty and the Bohemian Protestants culminated in the troubles of 1546 and 1547 and the Bohemians, after a weak and unsuccessful attempt to assert their liberties, were obliged to submit unconditionally to the house of Habsburg, Prague was deprived of many of its liberties and privileges.
The importance of the city of Prague greatly increased during the reign of Rudolph II.
That sovereign chose Prague as his permanent residence and it thus became - as Rudolph, besides being king of Bohemia, was also German emperor, king of Hungary and ruler of the hereditary Habsburg lands - the centre of his vast domains.
It was in Prague that the Thirty Years' War broke out.
On the 8th of November 1520 the Bohemian forces were decisively defeated by the Imperialists on the White Mountain at the outskirts of Prague.
In 1631 Prague was occupied for a short time by the Saxon allies of Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden, but the Imperial army led by Wallenstein soon obliged them to retire.
The citizens, now entirely Romanists, bravely defended the bridge, and the Swedes were unable to obtain possession of the part of Prague situated on the right bank of the Vltava.
In November the news of the conclusion of the peace of Westphalia reached Prague and put a stop to hostilities.
Henceforth the history of Prague continues uneventful for a considerable period.
On the 26th of November 1741 Prague was stormed by an army consisting of Bavarians, French and Saxons which upheld the cause of Charles, elector of Bavaria, who claimed the succession to the Bohemian throne and to the other domains of the house of Habsburg.
On the 27th of June 1742 the armies of the empress Maria Theresa began to besiege the French army of Marshal Belle-Isle in Prague, and the French commander was obliged to evacuate the city in December 1742.
In the spring of the following year Maria Theresa arrived at Prague and was crowned there, but in 1744 the city was again the scene of warfare.
In that year Frederick the Great of Prussia invaded Bohemia and obtained possession of Prague after a severe and prolonged bombardment, in the course of which a large part of the town was destroyed.
At the beginning of the Seven Years' War Prague was - in 1757 - again besieged by Frederick the Great after he had defeated the Austrians in a battle between the Zizkov and Pocernic (commonly called the battle of Prague, see Seven Years' War).
Prague, which had suffered even more during the second bombardment, now enjoyed a long period of quiet.
In the beginning of the 19th century Prague, which had become almost a German city, became the centre of a movement that endeavoured to revive the almost extinct Bohemian nationality.
It was determined to hold at Prague a " Slavic congress " at which all Slavic countries were to be represented.
In 1866 the Prussians, who had invaded Bohemia, occupied Prague (July 8) without encountering any resistance.
In the years of peace that followed, the development of Prague was constant and vast.
Though numerous ancient monuments at Prague have been destroyed in consequence of intestine strife and foreign warfare, the city still contains many of great value and may be considered one of the most interesting cities of central Europe.
The centre of the old town and indeed of the entire community of Prague is the town hall (staromestska radnice), which is surrounded by the market-place, the scene of the execution of the Bohemian patriots in 1621.
Close to the town hall is the Joseph-Stadt, the ancient ghetto of Prague.
The synagogue is one of the oldest in Europe, and the adjoining cemetery - part of which has unfortunately been destroyed in the course of the modern sanitary improvement of this part of Prague - has great historical interest.
The Carolinum, first built about the year 1383 but frequently altered, has a closer connexion with Hus and the Hussite movement than any other building at Prague.
This building was formerly a college of the Jesuits, who established themselves in Prague in 1556 and erected these extensive buildings at various periods between 1578 and 1715.
The " new town " of Prague, though not equal in interest to the " old town," is also well worth notice.
The Vysehrad, now a part of Prague, adjoins the " new town."
The districts of Prague situated on the left bank of the Vltava are connected with the other parts of the city by bridges, of which the oldest is the Karlovo most (bridge of Charles).
The monastery possesses one of the most valuable libraries in Prague and a small picture gallery.
The Hradcany was for a time the residence of Rudolph, crown prince of Austria, and it is also occupied by the emperor of Austria during his visits to Prague.
The suburbs of Prague contain few objects of interest, but they are centres of the rapidly increasing trade and industry of Prague.
See Count Liitzow, Prague, in " Mediaeval Towns" Series (London, 1902); Tomek, Dejepis Mesta Pralay (History of the town of Prague), the standard work on Prague, which the author only continued up to the year 1608.
After studying at the universities of Vienna, GÃ¶ttingen and Berlin, he became professor at the university of Lemberg in 1866, and in quick succession held similar positions at Prague, Strassburg and Berlin.
By the peace of Prague in 1635 it came into the possession of the elector of Saxony, and in 1815 it was, with the rest of Lower Lusatia, united to Prussia.
He made botanical excursions into different countries, and Flora Marienbadensis, oder Pflanzen and Gebirgsarten, gesammelt and beschrieben, written by him, was published at Prague by Kedler, 1837.