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praetor

praetor

praetor Sentence Examples

  • He was praetor in 75, governor of Sicily 74, consul 71.

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  • As praetor elect he ventured to oppose Vitellius in the senate (Tacitus, Hist.

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  • In 58 he was praetor, sided with Pompey in the Civil War, and after his defeat was banished by Caesar, and died in exile.

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  • The German slaves under Crixus were defeated at Mt Garganus in Apulia by the praetor Q.

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  • Aemilius Scaurus, praetor in 53 B.C. Cicero, speaking no doubt to his brief, gives them a very bad character, adding " ignoscent alii viri boni ex Sardinia; credo enim esse quosdam ".

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  • Early in 93 he was appointed praetor (iii.

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  • Praetor ius's Cammerton, or chamber pitch, formulated in his diagrams for voices and instruments, is, he says, a whole tone higher; equivalent, therefore, to a' 475.65.

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  • P. Sextilius, pro praetor Africae, according to coins of Hadrumetum of the year 94 B.C. The towns which had fought on the side of the Romans during the Third Punic War were declared civitates liberae, and became exceedingly prosperous.

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  • He was praetor (66) and twice consul, in 71 with the emperor Vespasian for colleague, and again in 90 with Domitian.

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  • The agency by which these principles were introduced was the edicts of the praetor, an annual proclamation setting forth the manner in which the magistrate intended to administer the law during his year of office.

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  • The place of the praetor was occupied in English jurisprudence.

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  • The native tribes opposed the Romans, but were conquered after several campaigns; 8 the island became a province under the government of a praetor or propraetor, to whose jurisdiction Corsica was added soon afterwards.

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  • Having served in the army in Spain and Sardinia, he became curule aedile, praetor and (after an unsuccessful attempt in 117) consul in 115.

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  • In 61 Gabinius, then praetor, endeavoured to win the public favour by providing games on a scale of unusual splendour, and in 58 managed to secure the consulship, not without suspicion of bribery.

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  • In the reign of Tiberius he held the office of praetor, and was appointed to the superintendence of the roads and bridges.

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  • A hurriedly equipped fleet sent out from Carthage under Hanno was intercepted by the praetor Publius Valerius Falto and totally defeated (battle of the Aegates Islands, March io, 241).

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  • By the aid of bribery and assassination Marius was elected (ioo consul for the sixth time, Glaucia praetor, and Saturninus tribune for the second time.

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  • Servilius Caepio (praetor iio), was to be employed.

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  • Saturninus was elected tribune for the third time for the year beginning the 10th of December ioo, and Glaucia, although at the time praetor and therefore not eligible until after the lapse of two years, was a candidate for the consulship. M.

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  • As praetor in 227, he gained the lasting gratitude of the people of his province (Sicily) by his excellent administration.

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  • He was the first Parthian king who entered into negotiations with Rome, then represented by Sulla, praetor of Cilicia (92 B.C.).

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  • Its importance and historic associations naturally marked it out as the residence of the Roman praetor or governor of Sicily.

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  • Under Augustus the office lost much of its importance, its juridical functions and the care of the games being transferred to the praetor, while its city responsibilities were limited by the appointment of a praefectus urbi.

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  • In 70 he was city praetor, and five years later was sent into Britain to succeed Petilius Cerealis as governor of that island.

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  • It was in this lofty rock-girt hollow that the gladiator Spartacus was besieged by the praetor Claudius Pulcher; he escaped by twisting ropes of vine branches and descending through unguarded fissures in the crater-rim.

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  • Kunze's suggestion is far more probable that it was used at the baptism of Nektarius, praetor of the city, who was elected third president of the council while yet unbaptized.

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  • 8, 8), and soon afterwards became a member of the board of decemviri stlitibus judicandis, which was associated with the praetor in the presidency of the centumviral court.

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  • Praetor in 60, he obtained the governorship of Hispania Citerior (19) through the support of Caesar, to whom he was also indebted for his election to the consulship (J7).

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  • Hence so long as the consuls were the only higher magistrates their frequent absence often rendered the appointment of a praefect necessary, but after the institution of the praetorship (367 B.C.) the necessity only arose exceptionally, as it rarely happened that both the consuls and the praetor were absent simultaneously.

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  • The place of the praetor was occupied in English jurisprudence.

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  • Having served in the army in Spain and Sardinia, he became curule aedile, praetor and (after an unsuccessful attempt in 117) consul in 115.

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  • But the presiding judge, the city praetor, M'.

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  • praefectura, p. 233) that jurisdiction was entrusted in every municipium to praefecti juri dicundo sent out from Rome to represent the Praetor Urbanus.2 The conferment of municipality can therefore hardly have been regarded as other than an imposing of burdens, even in the case of those cities which retained control of their own affairs.

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  • The government of each town consists of magistrates, senate and assembly, and is entirely independent of the Roman government except in certain cases of higher civil jurisdiction, which come under the direct cognisance of the praetor urbanus at Rome.

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  • After Caesar's murder, Balbus seems to have attached himself to Octavian; in 43 or 42 he was praetor, and in 40 consul - an honour then for the first time conferred on an alien.

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  • Mommsen thinks that he had incurred the displeasure of Augustus by his conduct as praetor, and that his African appointment after so many years was due to his exceptional fitness for the post.

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  • The Annales Maximi of the Pontifex Maximus, the annual edicts of the praetor, the lists of Roman and municipal senators, (decuriones) and jurors (album indicum) were exhibited in this manner.

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  • They were never regarded as magistrates, but merely as judices, and as such would be appointed for a fixed term of service by the magistrate, probably by the praetor urbanus.

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  • Two individuals are of some importance: (i) Marcus Cornelius Cethegus, pontifex maximus and curule aedile, 213 B.C. In 211, as praetor, he had charge of Apulia; later, he was sent to Sicily, where he proved a successful administrator.

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  • In 203 he was proconsul in Upper Italy, where, in conjunction with the praetor P. Quintilius Varus, he gained a hard-won victory over Mago, Hannibal's brother, in Insubrian territory, and obliged him to leave Italy.

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  • Swarms of hardy and desperate men now joined the rebels, and when the praetor Publius Varinius took the field against them he found them entrenched like a regular army on the plain.

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  • In 203 he was proconsul in Upper Italy, where, in conjunction with the praetor P. Quintilius Varus, he gained a hard-won victory over Mago, Hannibal's brother, in Insubrian territory, and obliged him to leave Italy.

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  • In 57 he was praetor, in 56 propraetor in Sardinia, and in 54 consul with L.

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  • Antonius Balbus, praetor in Sicily in 82 B.C., and Marcus Atius Balbus, who married Julia, a sister of Caesar, and had a daughter Atia, mother of Augustus.

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  • They were to be elected for five years by seventeen of the tribes chosen by lot from the thirty-five; the imperium was to be conferred upon them by the lex curiata, together with judicial powers and the rank of praetor.

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  • Praetor >>

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  • In the early Roman republic, praetor (q.v.) meant commander of the army: in the later republic praetor and pro praetor were the usual titles for provincial governors with military powers.

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  • The praetor, who had the arrangement of all trials or private suits and the formal appointment of judges for them, referred the great majority of such cases for decision to a judge who was styled usually judex but sometimes arbiter.

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  • Apart from this system of compulsory reference by the praetor, Roman law recognized a voluntary reference (compromissum) to an arbiter or arbitrator by the parties themselves.

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  • If three arbitrators were appointed, a majority could decide; in case of two being appointed and not agreeing, the praetor would compel them to.

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  • Gaius Cassius, governor of Cisalpine Gaul, and the praetor Gnaeus Manlius, who attempted to stop him, were defeated at Mutina.

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  • The conduct of the war was now entrusted to the praetor Marcus Licinius Crassus.

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  • The province was ruled by a praetor sent yearly from Rome.

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  • The praetor, after the occupation of Syracuse, dwelled there in the palace of Hiero, as in the capital of the island.

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  • To the Gothic count again succeeded, under Justinian, a Roman praetor, in Greek 6rparrj'yos.

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  • They were originally a body of jurors which gave a verdict under the presidency of the praetor, but eventually became annual minor magistrates of the Republic, elected by the Comitia Tributa.

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  • In 66 B.C. he was praetor, and was called upon to hear cases of extortion.

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  • Pomponius Atticus, was born about 102 B.C. He was aedile in 67, praetor in 62, and for the three following years propraetor in Asia, where, though he seems to have abstained from personal aggrandizement, his profligacy and ill-temper gained him an evil notoriety.

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  • 25, "ne praetor, quum de bello consuluisset, ipse sententiam diceret").

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  • PRAETOR (Lat.

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  • His distinctive title, was the city praetor.

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  • (praetor urbanus), and in aftertime, when the number of praetors was increased, the city praetor always ranked first.

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  • To this new magistrate the title of "praetor" was thenceforward properly restricted.'

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  • About 242 the increase of a foreign population in Rome necessitated the creation of a second praetor for the decision of suits between foreigners (peregrini) or between citizens and foreigners.

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  • This praetor was known at a later time as the "foreign praetor" (praetor peregrinus).

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  • To meet this increase of business the tenure of office of the praetors and also of the consuls was practically prolonged from one to two years, with the distinction that in their second year of office they bore the titles of propraetor and proconsul instead of praetor and consul.

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  • The courts over which the praetors presided, in addition to those of the city praetor and the foreign praetor, dealt with the following offences: oppression of the provincials by governors (repetundarum), bribery (ambitus), embezzlement (peculatus), treason (majestatis), murder (de sicariis et veneficis), and probably forgery (falsi).

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  • 2 [His official title in republican times was Praetor qui inter peregrinos jus dicit, under the empire Praetor qui inter tines peregrinos jus dicit, until the time of Vespasian, when the abbreviated title praetor peregrinus came into use.] (Gallia cisalpina) was added to the previous nine, and thus the number of judicial and provincial departments corresponded to the annual number of praetors, propraetors and proconsuls.

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  • 2 The insignia of the praetor were those common to the higher Roman magistrates - the purple-edged robe (toga praetexta) and the ivory chair (sella curulis); in Rome he was attended by two lictors, in the provinces by six.

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  • A praetor was essentially a civil judge, and as such he was accustomed at or before his entry on office to publish an edict setting forth the rules of law and procedure by which he intended to be guided in his decisions.

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  • As these rules were often accepted by his successors, the praetor thus acquired an almost legislatorial power, and his edicts, thus continued, corrected and amplified from year to year, became, under the title of the "perpetual" edicts, one of the most important factors in moulding Roman law.

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  • Their tendency was to smooth away the occasional harshness and anomalies of the civil law by substituting rules of equity for the letter of the law, and in this respect the Roman praetor has been compared to the English chancellor.

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  • Hitherto the praetor had conducted the preliminary inquiry as to whether an action would lie, and had appointed for the actual trial of the case a deputy, whom he instructed in the law applicable to the case and whose decisions he enforced.

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  • The proceedings before the praetor were technically known as jus in distinction from judicium, which was the actual trial before the deputy judge.

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  • Under the empire various special functions were assigned to certain praetors, such as the two treasury praetors (praetores aerarii),3 appointed by Augustus in 23; the spear praetor (praetor haslarius), who presided over the court of the Hundred Men, which dealt especially with cases of inheritance; the two trust praetors (praetores fideicommissarii), appointed by Claudius to look after cases of trust estates, but reduced by Titus to one; the ward praetor (praetor tutelaris), appointed by Marcus Aurelius to deal with the affairs of minors; and the liberation praetor (praetor de liberalibus causis), who tried cases turning on the liberation of slaves.'

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  • 5 Even the jurisdiction of the city praetor seems not to have survived the reforms of Diocletian, though the office itself continued to exist.

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  • Thus the praetor possessed military power (imperium); even the city praetor, though attached by his office to Rome, could not only levy troops but also in certain circumstances take the command in person.

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  • The city praetor presided over popular assemblies for the election of certain inferior magistrates, but all the praetors officiating in Rome had the right to summon assemblies for the purpose of legislation.

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  • In the absence of the consuls the city praetor, and in default of him the other praetors; were empowered to call meetings of the senate.

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  • But since in the early times the consuls as a rule spent only the first months of their year of office in Rome, it is probable that a considerable share of religious business devolved on the city praetor; this was certainly the case with the Festival of the Cross-roads (compitalia), and he directed the games in honour of Apollo from their institution in 212.

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  • (For the praetor as provincial governor see Province.) (J.

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  • He was praetor in 74 B.C., and received an extraordinary command (similar to that bestowed upon Pompey by the Gabinian law) to clear the sea of pirates, and thereby assist the operations against Mithradates VI.

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  • In spite of his bad reputation, he was elected tribune in 71, praetor in 66, and consul with Cicero in 63.

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  • In 44 he was city praetor, his brothers Marcus and Lucius being consul and tribune respectively in the same year.

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  • Practically nothing is known of his life except that he was the friend of Catullus, whom he accompanied to Bithynia in the suite of the praetor Memmius.

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  • It is chiefly interesting for its connexion with the Puteal Scribonianum or Puteal Libonis in the forum at Rome, 3 dedicated or restored by one of its members, perhaps the praetor of 204 B.C., or the tribune of the people in 149.

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  • In its vicinity the praetor's tribunal, removed from the comitium in the 2nd century B.C., held its sittings, which led to the place becoming the haunt of litigants, money-lenders and business people.

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  • When Tigranes attempted to seize Cappadocia, and the Roman praetor P. Cornelius Sulla advanced against him, Mithradates in 92 B.C. concluded the first treaty between Parthia and Rome (Plut.

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  • The members of the last-named board were appointed by the praetor urbanus of Rome to administer justice in ten Campanian towns (list in Mommsen), and received their name from the two most important of these.

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  • It supplied them with an incentive to scientific research in archaeology and grammar; it penetrated jurisprudence until the belief in the ultimate identity of the jus gentium with the law of nature modified the praetor's edicts for centuries.

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  • When praetor urbanus (70 B.C.) he presided at the trial of Verres.

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  • Soon afterwards (77) he was elected praetor, and was next appointed to the province of Africa, where he again won a good name as a just and considerate governor.

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  • In 79 he was curule aedile with his brother, in 77 praetor, in 73 consul with Gaius Cassius Varus.

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  • When praetor he forbade the carrying of arms by slaves, and with his.

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  • In 62 he prevented the execution of the praetor Antistius, who had written a libel upon the emperor, and persuaded the senate to pass a milder sentence.

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  • As praetor (136) and consul (133) Piso fought against the slaves in Sicily.

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  • He contrived, however, to escape; reappeared in Macedonia with a large body of Thracians; and, having completely defeated the praetor Publius Juventius (149), he assumed the title of king.

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  • Then the owner also laid his rod on the slave, declaring his intention to enfranchise him, and the praetor by his addictor confirmed the owner's declaration.

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  • (See CONSUL, PRAETOR and AEDILE.)

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  • In 89 Norbanus as praetor successfully defended Sicily against the Italian socii.

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  • Although he had impeached the turbulent tribune C. Norbanus (q.v.), and resisted the proposal to repeal judicial sentences by popular decree, he did not hesitate to incur the displeasure of the Julian family by opposing the candidature for the consulship of C. Julius Caesar (Strabo Vopiscus), who had never been praetor and was consequently ineligible.

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  • " praetor de senatus sententia " (zenatuo for senatuos., an archaic genitive).

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  • He made such progress in literature, law and rhetoric, that the praetor Anicius Probus first gave him a place in the council and then made him consular prefect of Liguria and Emilia, with headquarters at Milan, where he made an excellent administrator.

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  • After the war Laelius advanced from plebeian aedile (197) to praetor in Sicily (196) to consul (190 ).

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  • special collocations: peregrine falcon: see sense 1 above. peregrine praetor Rom.

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  • plebeian aedile (197) to praetor in Sicily (196) to consul (190 ).

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  • But the presiding judge, the city praetor, M'.

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  • The agency by which these principles were introduced was the edicts of the praetor, an annual proclamation setting forth the manner in which the magistrate intended to administer the law during his year of office.

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  • Each successive praetor adopted the edict of his predecessor, and added new equitable rules of his own, until the further growth of the irregular code was stopped by the praetor Salvius Julianus in the reign of Hadrian.

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  • The native tribes opposed the Romans, but were conquered after several campaigns; 8 the island became a province under the government of a praetor or propraetor, to whose jurisdiction Corsica was added soon afterwards.

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  • Aemilius Scaurus, praetor in 53 B.C. Cicero, speaking no doubt to his brief, gives them a very bad character, adding " ignoscent alii viri boni ex Sardinia; credo enim esse quosdam ".

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  • Praetor ius's Cammerton, or chamber pitch, formulated in his diagrams for voices and instruments, is, he says, a whole tone higher; equivalent, therefore, to a' 475.65.

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  • In 56 Scaurus was praetor, and in the following year governor of Sardinia.

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  • In 61 Gabinius, then praetor, endeavoured to win the public favour by providing games on a scale of unusual splendour, and in 58 managed to secure the consulship, not without suspicion of bribery.

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  • In the reign of Tiberius he held the office of praetor, and was appointed to the superintendence of the roads and bridges.

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  • In 58 he was praetor, sided with Pompey in the Civil War, and after his defeat was banished by Caesar, and died in exile.

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  • In 93 he was elected praetor 'after a lavish squandering of money, and he delighted the populace with an exhibition of a hundred lions from Africa.

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  • A hurriedly equipped fleet sent out from Carthage under Hanno was intercepted by the praetor Publius Valerius Falto and totally defeated (battle of the Aegates Islands, March io, 241).

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  • In for Hadrian was quaestor, in 10s tribune of the people, in 106 praetor.

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  • By the aid of bribery and assassination Marius was elected (ioo consul for the sixth time, Glaucia praetor, and Saturninus tribune for the second time.

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  • Servilius Caepio (praetor iio), was to be employed.

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  • Saturninus was elected tribune for the third time for the year beginning the 10th of December ioo, and Glaucia, although at the time praetor and therefore not eligible until after the lapse of two years, was a candidate for the consulship. M.

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  • They were to be elected for five years by seventeen of the tribes chosen by lot from the thirty-five; the imperium was to be conferred upon them by the lex curiata, together with judicial powers and the rank of praetor.

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  • After having served with the army in Thrace and been quaestor in Crete and Cyrene, Vespasian rose to be aedile and praetor, having meanwhile married Flavia Domitilla, the daughter of a Roman knight, by whom he had two sons, Titus and Domitian, afterwards emperors.

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  • In the last method the master turned the slave round, with the words " Tiber esto," in the presence of the praetor, that officer or his lictor at the same time striking the slave with his rod.

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  • But the praetor Rutilius, about the beginning of the 1st century B.C., limited the excessive imposition of such conditions, and his restrictions were carried further by the later jurists and the imperial constitutions.

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  • As praetor in 227, he gained the lasting gratitude of the people of his province (Sicily) by his excellent administration.

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  • In 193, as praetor, he carried on a successful war against the insubordinate populations of his recently constituted province of Hispania Citerior.

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  • The government of the Roman province thus delimited was entrusted to a praetor or pro praetor, of whom several are now known, e.g.

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  • P. Sextilius, pro praetor Africae, according to coins of Hadrumetum of the year 94 B.C. The towns which had fought on the side of the Romans during the Third Punic War were declared civitates liberae, and became exceedingly prosperous.

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  • He was the first Parthian king who entered into negotiations with Rome, then represented by Sulla, praetor of Cilicia (92 B.C.).

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  • Its importance and historic associations naturally marked it out as the residence of the Roman praetor or governor of Sicily.

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  • Under Augustus the office lost much of its importance, its juridical functions and the care of the games being transferred to the praetor, while its city responsibilities were limited by the appointment of a praefectus urbi.

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  • In 70 he was city praetor, and five years later was sent into Britain to succeed Petilius Cerealis as governor of that island.

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  • The place was the residence of the quaestor in charge of the western half of the island, and Verres, as praetor, seems to have spent a good deal of time here.

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  • It was in this lofty rock-girt hollow that the gladiator Spartacus was besieged by the praetor Claudius Pulcher; he escaped by twisting ropes of vine branches and descending through unguarded fissures in the crater-rim.

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  • In 63 he was quaestor in Asia, in 65 tribune, in 68 praetor, and when Vespasian was proclaimed emperor, he immediately declared himself his supporter.

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  • Kunze's suggestion is far more probable that it was used at the baptism of Nektarius, praetor of the city, who was elected third president of the council while yet unbaptized.

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  • 8, 8), and soon afterwards became a member of the board of decemviri stlitibus judicandis, which was associated with the praetor in the presidency of the centumviral court.

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  • Early in 93 he was appointed praetor (iii.

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  • He was praetor in 75, governor of Sicily 74, consul 71.

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  • Praetor in 60, he obtained the governorship of Hispania Citerior (19) through the support of Caesar, to whom he was also indebted for his election to the consulship (J7).

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  • Hence so long as the consuls were the only higher magistrates their frequent absence often rendered the appointment of a praefect necessary, but after the institution of the praetorship (367 B.C.) the necessity only arose exceptionally, as it rarely happened that both the consuls and the praetor were absent simultaneously.

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  • In the early Roman republic, praetor (q.v.) meant commander of the army: in the later republic praetor and pro praetor were the usual titles for provincial governors with military powers.

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  • peregrinus, a stranger, foreigner, particularly a resident alien in Rome (see Praetor, and Roman Law).

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  • The praetor, who had the arrangement of all trials or private suits and the formal appointment of judges for them, referred the great majority of such cases for decision to a judge who was styled usually judex but sometimes arbiter.

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  • Apart from this system of compulsory reference by the praetor, Roman law recognized a voluntary reference (compromissum) to an arbiter or arbitrator by the parties themselves.

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  • If three arbitrators were appointed, a majority could decide; in case of two being appointed and not agreeing, the praetor would compel them to.

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  • He was praetor (66) and twice consul, in 71 with the emperor Vespasian for colleague, and again in 90 with Domitian.

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  • This gave him a new social status, and being at the same time a popular favourite and a brave, energetic soldier, he was in 115 elected praetor, in which capacity he effected the subjugation of the troublesome province of Further Spain.

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  • Next year he was praetor, and he was once dictator.

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  • In 57 he was praetor, in 56 propraetor in Sardinia, and in 54 consul with L.

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  • It was governed by three aediles: Horace's jest against the officious praetor (sic) is due to the exigencies of metre (Th.

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  • As praetor (62 B.C.) Caesar supported proposals in Pompey's favour which brought him into violent collision with the senate.

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  • As praetor elect he ventured to oppose Vitellius in the senate (Tacitus, Hist.

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  • 91), and as praetor (70) he maintained, in opposition to Vespasian, that the management of the finances ought to be left to the discretion of the senate; he proposed that the capitol, which had been destroyed in the Neronian conflagration, should be restored at the public expense; he saluted Vespasian by his private name, and did not recognize him as emperor in his praetorian edicts.

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  • His brother, Lucius Aurelius Cotta, when praetor in 70 B.C. brought in a law for the reform of the jury lists, by which the judices were to be eligible, not from the senators exclusively as limited by Sulla, but from senators, equites and tribuni aerarii.

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  • praefectura, p. 233) that jurisdiction was entrusted in every municipium to praefecti juri dicundo sent out from Rome to represent the Praetor Urbanus.2 The conferment of municipality can therefore hardly have been regarded as other than an imposing of burdens, even in the case of those cities which retained control of their own affairs.

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  • The government of each town consists of magistrates, senate and assembly, and is entirely independent of the Roman government except in certain cases of higher civil jurisdiction, which come under the direct cognisance of the praetor urbanus at Rome.

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  • Antonius Balbus, praetor in Sicily in 82 B.C., and Marcus Atius Balbus, who married Julia, a sister of Caesar, and had a daughter Atia, mother of Augustus.

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  • After Caesar's murder, Balbus seems to have attached himself to Octavian; in 43 or 42 he was praetor, and in 40 consul - an honour then for the first time conferred on an alien.

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  • Mommsen thinks that he had incurred the displeasure of Augustus by his conduct as praetor, and that his African appointment after so many years was due to his exceptional fitness for the post.

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  • The Annales Maximi of the Pontifex Maximus, the annual edicts of the praetor, the lists of Roman and municipal senators, (decuriones) and jurors (album indicum) were exhibited in this manner.

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  • When praetor (193 B.C.) he served with distinction in Spain, and as consul in 189 he completely broke the power of the Aetolian league.

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  • Having filled with more than usual success the offices of quaestor and praetor, he obtained the consulship in 120; he was next chosen one of the four consulars for Italy, and greatly increased his reputation by his conduct as proconsul of Asia.

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  • They were never regarded as magistrates, but merely as judices, and as such would be appointed for a fixed term of service by the magistrate, probably by the praetor urbanus.

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  • In 59 Calenus was praetor, and brought forward a law that the senators, knights, and tribuni aerarii, who composed the judices, should vote separately, so that it might be known how they gave their votes (Dio Cassius xxxviii.

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  • Two individuals are of some importance: (i) Marcus Cornelius Cethegus, pontifex maximus and curule aedile, 213 B.C. In 211, as praetor, he had charge of Apulia; later, he was sent to Sicily, where he proved a successful administrator.

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  • Swarms of hardy and desperate men now joined the rebels, and when the praetor Publius Varinius took the field against them he found them entrenched like a regular army on the plain.

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  • The German slaves under Crixus were defeated at Mt Garganus in Apulia by the praetor Q.

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  • Gaius Cassius, governor of Cisalpine Gaul, and the praetor Gnaeus Manlius, who attempted to stop him, were defeated at Mutina.

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  • The conduct of the war was now entrusted to the praetor Marcus Licinius Crassus.

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  • The province was ruled by a praetor sent yearly from Rome.

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  • The praetor, after the occupation of Syracuse, dwelled there in the palace of Hiero, as in the capital of the island.

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  • To the Gothic count again succeeded, under Justinian, a Roman praetor, in Greek 6rparrj'yos.

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  • They were originally a body of jurors which gave a verdict under the presidency of the praetor, but eventually became annual minor magistrates of the Republic, elected by the Comitia Tributa.

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  • In his time the college consisted of a master (magister), a vice-master (promagister), a flamen, and a praetor, with eight ordinary members, attended by various servants, and in particular by four chorus boys, sons of senators, having both parents alive.

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  • In 66 B.C. he was praetor, and was called upon to hear cases of extortion.

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  • Pomponius Atticus, was born about 102 B.C. He was aedile in 67, praetor in 62, and for the three following years propraetor in Asia, where, though he seems to have abstained from personal aggrandizement, his profligacy and ill-temper gained him an evil notoriety.

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  • 25, "ne praetor, quum de bello consuluisset, ipse sententiam diceret").

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  • PRAETOR (Lat.

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  • His distinctive title, was the city praetor.

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  • (praetor urbanus), and in aftertime, when the number of praetors was increased, the city praetor always ranked first.

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  • To this new magistrate the title of "praetor" was thenceforward properly restricted.'

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  • About 242 the increase of a foreign population in Rome necessitated the creation of a second praetor for the decision of suits between foreigners (peregrini) or between citizens and foreigners.

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  • This praetor was known at a later time as the "foreign praetor" (praetor peregrinus).

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  • To meet this increase of business the tenure of office of the praetors and also of the consuls was practically prolonged from one to two years, with the distinction that in their second year of office they bore the titles of propraetor and proconsul instead of praetor and consul.

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  • The courts over which the praetors presided, in addition to those of the city praetor and the foreign praetor, dealt with the following offences: oppression of the provincials by governors (repetundarum), bribery (ambitus), embezzlement (peculatus), treason (majestatis), murder (de sicariis et veneficis), and probably forgery (falsi).

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  • 2 [His official title in republican times was Praetor qui inter peregrinos jus dicit, under the empire Praetor qui inter tines peregrinos jus dicit, until the time of Vespasian, when the abbreviated title praetor peregrinus came into use.] (Gallia cisalpina) was added to the previous nine, and thus the number of judicial and provincial departments corresponded to the annual number of praetors, propraetors and proconsuls.

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  • 2 The insignia of the praetor were those common to the higher Roman magistrates - the purple-edged robe (toga praetexta) and the ivory chair (sella curulis); in Rome he was attended by two lictors, in the provinces by six.

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  • A praetor was essentially a civil judge, and as such he was accustomed at or before his entry on office to publish an edict setting forth the rules of law and procedure by which he intended to be guided in his decisions.

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  • As these rules were often accepted by his successors, the praetor thus acquired an almost legislatorial power, and his edicts, thus continued, corrected and amplified from year to year, became, under the title of the "perpetual" edicts, one of the most important factors in moulding Roman law.

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  • Their tendency was to smooth away the occasional harshness and anomalies of the civil law by substituting rules of equity for the letter of the law, and in this respect the Roman praetor has been compared to the English chancellor.

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  • Hitherto the praetor had conducted the preliminary inquiry as to whether an action would lie, and had appointed for the actual trial of the case a deputy, whom he instructed in the law applicable to the case and whose decisions he enforced.

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  • The proceedings before the praetor were technically known as jus in distinction from judicium, which was the actual trial before the deputy judge.

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  • Under the empire various special functions were assigned to certain praetors, such as the two treasury praetors (praetores aerarii),3 appointed by Augustus in 23; the spear praetor (praetor haslarius), who presided over the court of the Hundred Men, which dealt especially with cases of inheritance; the two trust praetors (praetores fideicommissarii), appointed by Claudius to look after cases of trust estates, but reduced by Titus to one; the ward praetor (praetor tutelaris), appointed by Marcus Aurelius to deal with the affairs of minors; and the liberation praetor (praetor de liberalibus causis), who tried cases turning on the liberation of slaves.'

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  • 5 Even the jurisdiction of the city praetor seems not to have survived the reforms of Diocletian, though the office itself continued to exist.

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  • But of the praetorships with special jurisdiction (especially the ward praetorship and the liberation 1 [Until the time of Tiberius, when their election was transferred to the Senate.] [The age for the office was forty under the republic, thirty under the empire.] 3 [They took the place of the quaestors; this arrangement continued till the time of Claudius.] ' [The fiscal praetor (praetor fiscalis) was appointed by Nerva to hear claims preferred against the imperial fiscus.] Marquardt conjectures with much probability that when Caracalla extended the Roman franchise to the whole empire he at the same time abolished the foreign praetorship.

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  • Thus the praetor possessed military power (imperium); even the city praetor, though attached by his office to Rome, could not only levy troops but also in certain circumstances take the command in person.

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  • The city praetor presided over popular assemblies for the election of certain inferior magistrates, but all the praetors officiating in Rome had the right to summon assemblies for the purpose of legislation.

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  • In the absence of the consuls the city praetor, and in default of him the other praetors; were empowered to call meetings of the senate.

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  • But since in the early times the consuls as a rule spent only the first months of their year of office in Rome, it is probable that a considerable share of religious business devolved on the city praetor; this was certainly the case with the Festival of the Cross-roads (compitalia), and he directed the games in honour of Apollo from their institution in 212.

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  • (For the praetor as provincial governor see Province.) (J.

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  • Marcus Antonius (143-87 B.C.), one of the most distinguished Roman orators of his time, was quaestor in 113, and praetor in 102 with proconsular powers, the province of Cilicia being assigned to him.

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  • He was praetor in 74 B.C., and received an extraordinary command (similar to that bestowed upon Pompey by the Gabinian law) to clear the sea of pirates, and thereby assist the operations against Mithradates VI.

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  • In spite of his bad reputation, he was elected tribune in 71, praetor in 66, and consul with Cicero in 63.

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  • In 44 he was city praetor, his brothers Marcus and Lucius being consul and tribune respectively in the same year.

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  • Practically nothing is known of his life except that he was the friend of Catullus, whom he accompanied to Bithynia in the suite of the praetor Memmius.

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  • It is chiefly interesting for its connexion with the Puteal Scribonianum or Puteal Libonis in the forum at Rome, 3 dedicated or restored by one of its members, perhaps the praetor of 204 B.C., or the tribune of the people in 149.

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  • In its vicinity the praetor's tribunal, removed from the comitium in the 2nd century B.C., held its sittings, which led to the place becoming the haunt of litigants, money-lenders and business people.

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  • When Tigranes attempted to seize Cappadocia, and the Roman praetor P. Cornelius Sulla advanced against him, Mithradates in 92 B.C. concluded the first treaty between Parthia and Rome (Plut.

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  • The members of the last-named board were appointed by the praetor urbanus of Rome to administer justice in ten Campanian towns (list in Mommsen), and received their name from the two most important of these.

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  • It supplied them with an incentive to scientific research in archaeology and grammar; it penetrated jurisprudence until the belief in the ultimate identity of the jus gentium with the law of nature modified the praetor's edicts for centuries.

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  • When praetor urbanus (70 B.C.) he presided at the trial of Verres.

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  • In 77 he was quaestor, in 68 praetor, and in 67-66 governor of Africa.

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  • Soon afterwards (77) he was elected praetor, and was next appointed to the province of Africa, where he again won a good name as a just and considerate governor.

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  • In 79 he was curule aedile with his brother, in 77 praetor, in 73 consul with Gaius Cassius Varus.

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  • When praetor he forbade the carrying of arms by slaves, and with his.

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  • In 62 he prevented the execution of the praetor Antistius, who had written a libel upon the emperor, and persuaded the senate to pass a milder sentence.

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  • As praetor (136) and consul (133) Piso fought against the slaves in Sicily.

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  • He contrived, however, to escape; reappeared in Macedonia with a large body of Thracians; and, having completely defeated the praetor Publius Juventius (149), he assumed the title of king.

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  • The praetor or consul who appeared in the pompa circensis wore the robes of a triumphing general (see Mommsen, Staatsrecht I.

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  • The word is especially used of the promulgations of the Roman praetor, of the Roman emperors, and also of the kings of France (see also Roman Law).

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  • He was successively quaestor in Sardinia (103 B.C.), praetor (94), propraetor in Sicily (93) and consul (89).

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  • Then the owner also laid his rod on the slave, declaring his intention to enfranchise him, and the praetor by his addictor confirmed the owner's declaration.

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  • (See CONSUL, PRAETOR and AEDILE.)

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  • When a new consul, praetor or quaestor entered on his first day of office and prayed the gods for good omens, it was a matter of custom to report to him that lightning from the left had been seen.

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  • In 199 he was quaestor, and the next year, passing over the regular stages of aedile and praetor, he obtained the consulship.

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  • In 89 Norbanus as praetor successfully defended Sicily against the Italian socii.

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  • Although he had impeached the turbulent tribune C. Norbanus (q.v.), and resisted the proposal to repeal judicial sentences by popular decree, he did not hesitate to incur the displeasure of the Julian family by opposing the candidature for the consulship of C. Julius Caesar (Strabo Vopiscus), who had never been praetor and was consequently ineligible.

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  • " praetor de senatus sententia " (zenatuo for senatuos., an archaic genitive).

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  • He made such progress in literature, law and rhetoric, that the praetor Anicius Probus first gave him a place in the council and then made him consular prefect of Liguria and Emilia, with headquarters at Milan, where he made an excellent administrator.

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  • In this movie, Captain Jean Luc Picard is surprised to learn that the new praetor, Shinzon, is a human.

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  • In 56 Scaurus was praetor, and in the following year governor of Sardinia.

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  • In the last method the master turned the slave round, with the words " Tiber esto," in the presence of the praetor, that officer or his lictor at the same time striking the slave with his rod.

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  • But the praetor Rutilius, about the beginning of the 1st century B.C., limited the excessive imposition of such conditions, and his restrictions were carried further by the later jurists and the imperial constitutions.

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  • The government of the Roman province thus delimited was entrusted to a praetor or pro praetor, of whom several are now known, e.g.

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  • His chosen councillors in all affairs of state were senators, and the hearing of claims against the Fiscus was taken from the imperial procuratores and entrusted to the more impartial jurisdiction of a praetor and a court of judices (Dio Cassius lxviii.

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  • This gave him a new social status, and being at the same time a popular favourite and a brave, energetic soldier, he was in 115 elected praetor, in which capacity he effected the subjugation of the troublesome province of Further Spain.

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  • Next year he was praetor, and he was once dictator.

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  • As praetor (62 B.C.) Caesar supported proposals in Pompey's favour which brought him into violent collision with the senate.

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  • 91), and as praetor (70) he maintained, in opposition to Vespasian, that the management of the finances ought to be left to the discretion of the senate; he proposed that the capitol, which had been destroyed in the Neronian conflagration, should be restored at the public expense; he saluted Vespasian by his private name, and did not recognize him as emperor in his praetorian edicts.

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  • His brother, Lucius Aurelius Cotta, when praetor in 70 B.C. brought in a law for the reform of the jury lists, by which the judices were to be eligible, not from the senators exclusively as limited by Sulla, but from senators, equites and tribuni aerarii.

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  • When praetor (193 B.C.) he served with distinction in Spain, and as consul in 189 he completely broke the power of the Aetolian league.

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  • His chosen councillors in all affairs of state were senators, and the hearing of claims against the Fiscus was taken from the imperial procuratores and entrusted to the more impartial jurisdiction of a praetor and a court of judices (Dio Cassius lxviii.

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