He was praetor in 75, governor of Sicily 74, consul 71.
As praetor elect he ventured to oppose Vitellius in the senate (Tacitus, Hist.
In 58 he was praetor, sided with Pompey in the Civil War, and after his defeat was banished by Caesar, and died in exile.
The German slaves under Crixus were defeated at Mt Garganus in Apulia by the praetor Q.
Early in 93 he was appointed praetor (iii.
The agency by which these principles were introduced was the edicts of the praetor, an annual proclamation setting forth the manner in which the magistrate intended to administer the law during his year of office.
The place of the praetor was occupied in English jurisprudence.
The native tribes opposed the Romans, but were conquered after several campaigns; 8 the island became a province under the government of a praetor or propraetor, to whose jurisdiction Corsica was added soon afterwards.
Aemilius Scaurus, praetor in 53 B.C. Cicero, speaking no doubt to his brief, gives them a very bad character, adding " ignoscent alii viri boni ex Sardinia; credo enim esse quosdam ".
Praetor ius's Cammerton, or chamber pitch, formulated in his diagrams for voices and instruments, is, he says, a whole tone higher; equivalent, therefore, to a' 475.65.
Having served in the army in Spain and Sardinia, he became curule aedile, praetor and (after an unsuccessful attempt in 117) consul in 115.
In 61 Gabinius, then praetor, endeavoured to win the public favour by providing games on a scale of unusual splendour, and in 58 managed to secure the consulship, not without suspicion of bribery.
In the reign of Tiberius he held the office of praetor, and was appointed to the superintendence of the roads and bridges.
A hurriedly equipped fleet sent out from Carthage under Hanno was intercepted by the praetor Publius Valerius Falto and totally defeated (battle of the Aegates Islands, March io, 241).
By the aid of bribery and assassination Marius was elected (ioo consul for the sixth time, Glaucia praetor, and Saturninus tribune for the second time.
Servilius Caepio (praetor iio), was to be employed.
Saturninus was elected tribune for the third time for the year beginning the 10th of December ioo, and Glaucia, although at the time praetor and therefore not eligible until after the lapse of two years, was a candidate for the consulship. M.
As praetor in 227, he gained the lasting gratitude of the people of his province (Sicily) by his excellent administration.
P. Sextilius, pro praetor Africae, according to coins of Hadrumetum of the year 94 B.C. The towns which had fought on the side of the Romans during the Third Punic War were declared civitates liberae, and became exceedingly prosperous.
He was the first Parthian king who entered into negotiations with Rome, then represented by Sulla, praetor of Cilicia (92 B.C.).
Its importance and historic associations naturally marked it out as the residence of the Roman praetor or governor of Sicily.
Under Augustus the office lost much of its importance, its juridical functions and the care of the games being transferred to the praetor, while its city responsibilities were limited by the appointment of a praefectus urbi.
In 70 he was city praetor, and five years later was sent into Britain to succeed Petilius Cerealis as governor of that island.
It was in this lofty rock-girt hollow that the gladiator Spartacus was besieged by the praetor Claudius Pulcher; he escaped by twisting ropes of vine branches and descending through unguarded fissures in the crater-rim.
Kunze's suggestion is far more probable that it was used at the baptism of Nektarius, praetor of the city, who was elected third president of the council while yet unbaptized.
8, 8), and soon afterwards became a member of the board of decemviri stlitibus judicandis, which was associated with the praetor in the presidency of the centumviral court.
Praetor in 60, he obtained the governorship of Hispania Citerior (19) through the support of Caesar, to whom he was also indebted for his election to the consulship (J7).
Hence so long as the consuls were the only higher magistrates their frequent absence often rendered the appointment of a praefect necessary, but after the institution of the praetorship (367 B.C.) the necessity only arose exceptionally, as it rarely happened that both the consuls and the praetor were absent simultaneously.
But the presiding judge, the city praetor, M'.
In the early Roman republic, praetor (q.v.) meant commander of the army: in the later republic praetor and pro praetor were the usual titles for provincial governors with military powers.
The praetor, who had the arrangement of all trials or private suits and the formal appointment of judges for them, referred the great majority of such cases for decision to a judge who was styled usually judex but sometimes arbiter.
Apart from this system of compulsory reference by the praetor, Roman law recognized a voluntary reference (compromissum) to an arbiter or arbitrator by the parties themselves.
If three arbitrators were appointed, a majority could decide; in case of two being appointed and not agreeing, the praetor would compel them to.
Praefectura, p. 233) that jurisdiction was entrusted in every municipium to praefecti juri dicundo sent out from Rome to represent the Praetor Urbanus.2 The conferment of municipality can therefore hardly have been regarded as other than an imposing of burdens, even in the case of those cities which retained control of their own affairs.
The government of each town consists of magistrates, senate and assembly, and is entirely independent of the Roman government except in certain cases of higher civil jurisdiction, which come under the direct cognisance of the praetor urbanus at Rome.
After Caesar's murder, Balbus seems to have attached himself to Octavian; in 43 or 42 he was praetor, and in 40 consul - an honour then for the first time conferred on an alien.
Mommsen thinks that he had incurred the displeasure of Augustus by his conduct as praetor, and that his African appointment after so many years was due to his exceptional fitness for the post.
The Annales Maximi of the Pontifex Maximus, the annual edicts of the praetor, the lists of Roman and municipal senators, (decuriones) and jurors (album indicum) were exhibited in this manner.
They were never regarded as magistrates, but merely as judices, and as such would be appointed for a fixed term of service by the magistrate, probably by the praetor urbanus.
Two individuals are of some importance: (i) Marcus Cornelius Cethegus, pontifex maximus and curule aedile, 213 B.C. In 211, as praetor, he had charge of Apulia; later, he was sent to Sicily, where he proved a successful administrator.
In 203 he was proconsul in Upper Italy, where, in conjunction with the praetor P. Quintilius Varus, he gained a hard-won victory over Mago, Hannibal's brother, in Insubrian territory, and obliged him to leave Italy.
Swarms of hardy and desperate men now joined the rebels, and when the praetor Publius Varinius took the field against them he found them entrenched like a regular army on the plain.
In 56 Scaurus was praetor, and in the following year governor of Sardinia.
In the last method the master turned the slave round, with the words " Tiber esto," in the presence of the praetor, that officer or his lictor at the same time striking the slave with his rod.
But the praetor Rutilius, about the beginning of the 1st century B.C., limited the excessive imposition of such conditions, and his restrictions were carried further by the later jurists and the imperial constitutions.
The government of the Roman province thus delimited was entrusted to a praetor or pro praetor, of whom several are now known, e.g.
He was praetor (66) and twice consul, in 71 with the emperor Vespasian for colleague, and again in 90 with Domitian.
His chosen councillors in all affairs of state were senators, and the hearing of claims against the Fiscus was taken from the imperial procuratores and entrusted to the more impartial jurisdiction of a praetor and a court of judices (Dio Cassius lxviii.
This gave him a new social status, and being at the same time a popular favourite and a brave, energetic soldier, he was in 115 elected praetor, in which capacity he effected the subjugation of the troublesome province of Further Spain.
Next year he was praetor, and he was once dictator.
In 57 he was praetor, in 56 propraetor in Sardinia, and in 54 consul with L.
As praetor (62 B.C.) Caesar supported proposals in Pompey's favour which brought him into violent collision with the senate.
91), and as praetor (70) he maintained, in opposition to Vespasian, that the management of the finances ought to be left to the discretion of the senate; he proposed that the capitol, which had been destroyed in the Neronian conflagration, should be restored at the public expense; he saluted Vespasian by his private name, and did not recognize him as emperor in his praetorian edicts.
His brother, Lucius Aurelius Cotta, when praetor in 70 B.C. brought in a law for the reform of the jury lists, by which the judices were to be eligible, not from the senators exclusively as limited by Sulla, but from senators, equites and tribuni aerarii.
Antonius Balbus, praetor in Sicily in 82 B.C., and Marcus Atius Balbus, who married Julia, a sister of Caesar, and had a daughter Atia, mother of Augustus.
When praetor (193 B.C.) he served with distinction in Spain, and as consul in 189 he completely broke the power of the Aetolian league.