How to use Potomac in a sentence
It is served by the Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac railway, and is a favourite resort from Richmond.
Pope's army and such of the troops of the Army of the Potomac as had been involved in the catastrophe were driven, tired and disheartened, into the Washington lines.
The principal districts are the Fairmont (or Upper Monongahela) and the Elk Garden (or Upper Potomac) in the northern, and the Pocahontas (or Flat Top) and the New and Kanawha rivers districts in the southern part of the state.
The same year German settlers from Pennsylvania founded New Mecklenburg, the present Shepherdstown, on the Potomac, and others soon followed.
Charles II.of England, in 1661, granted to a company of gentlemen the land between the Potomac and Rappahannock rivers, commonly known as the " Northern Neck."Advertisement
The grant finally came into the possession of Thomas, Lord Fairfax, and in 1746 a stone was erected at the source of the north branch of the Potomac to mark the western limit of the grant.
Berkeley and Jefferson counties lying on the Potomac east of the mountains, in 1863, with the consent of the " Reorganized " government of Virginia voted in favour of annexation to West Virginia.
Experiments of this kind were actually tried by Graham Bell in 1882, with boats on the Potomac river, and signals were detected at a distance of a mile and a half.
The State Hospital at Morganton, opened in 1883, completed in 1886, and intended for the use of the western part of the state, is perhaps the best equipped institution of its kind south of the Potomac. In 1901 a department for criminal insane was opened in a wing of the state prison at Raleigh.
In 1861 he was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, and had command of the 2nd brigade of the Pennsylvania Reserves in the Army of the Potomac under General M'Call.Advertisement
Grant's headquarters henceforth accompanied the Army of the Potomac, and the lieutenant-general directed the campaign in Virginia.
To enable these conditions to be fulfilled, as well as to ensure that the machine, when it fell, should fall on water, the experiments were carried out on the Potomac river, some 30 m.
In the earlier part of the Civil War Humphreys was employed as a topographical engineer with the Army of the Potomac, and rendered conspicuous services in the Seven Days' Battles.
After General Hooker succeeded Burnside, Butterfield was appointed chief of staff, Army of the Potomac, and in this capacity he served in the Chancellorsville and Gettysburg campaigns.
At his own request he was ordered east, and on the 23rd of September 1861 was made brigadier-general of volunteers and assigned to command a brigade in the Army of the Potomac. He took part in the Peninsula campaign, and the handling of his troops in the engagement at Williamsburg on the 5th of May 1862, was so brilliant that McClellan reported "Hancock was superb," an epithet always afterwards applied to him.Advertisement
The battle of Gettysburg began on the 1st of July with the defeat of the left wing of the Army of the Potomac and the death of General Reynolds.
It thus happened that Hancock, who for three years had been one of the most conspicuous figures in the Army of the Potomac did not take part in its final triumph.
As a colonel on the staff of General M'Clellan he organized and trained the artillery reserve of the Army of the Potomac. Throughout the Civil War he contributed more than any officer to the effective employment of the artillery arm.
With the artillery reserve he rendered the greatest assistance at the battle of Malvern Hill, and soon afterwards he became chief of artillery in the Army of the Potomac. On the day after the battle of South Mountain he was made brigadier-general of volunteers.
In March 1785 commissioners from Virginia and Maryland met here to discuss the commercial relations of the two states, finishing their business at Mount Vernon on the 28th with an agreement for freedom of trade and freedom of navigation of the Potomac. The Maryland legislature in ratifying this agreement on the 22nd of November proposed a conference between representatives from all the states to consider the adoption of definite commercial regulations.Advertisement
The Blue Ridge, rising in southern Pennsylvania and there known as South Mountain, attains in that state elevations of about 2000 ft.; southward to the Potomac its altitudes diminish, but 30 m.
On the same side of the Great Valley, south of the Potomac, are the Pinnacle (3007 ft.) and Pidgeon Roost (3400 ft.).
The Park consists of about 265 acres of undulating land with natural woods and rocks, traversed by a gorge cut by Rock Creek, a tributary of the Potomac. The river and gorge extend into the country far beyond the Park, and in addition to the animals that have been introduced, there are many wild creatures living in their native freedom, such as musk rats in the creek, grey squirrels, crested cardinals and turkey buzzards.
General McClellan had captured the passes of South Mountain farther east on the 14th, and his Army of the Potomac marched to meet Lee's forces which, hitherto divided, had, by the 16th, successfully concentrated between the Antietam and the Potomac. The Confederate Army of Northern Virginia occupied a position which, in relation to the surrounding country, may be compared to the string of a bow in the act of being drawn, Lee's left wing forming the upper half of the string, his right the lower, and the Potomac in his rear the bow itself.
The right wing of the position was covered by the Antietam as it approaches the Potomac, the upper course of that stream formed no part of the battlefield.Advertisement
Pressure was brought to bear on McClellan to renew the fight, but he refused and Lee retired across the Potomac unmolested.
The Army of the Potomac had lost 11,832 men out of 46,000 engaged; the cavalry and two corps in reserve had only lost 578.
The principal rivers crossing this section are the Patuxent, Patapsco and Gunpowder, with which may be grouped the Potomac, forming the state's southern boundary.
All rivers of Western Maryland flow south into the Potomac except in the extreme west, where the waters of theYoughiogheny and its tributaries flow north into the Monongahela.
On the East Shore to the north is a marly loam overlying a yellowish-red clay sub-soil, to the south is a soil quite stiff with light coloured clay, while here and there, especially in the middle and south, are considerable areas both of light sandy soils and tidal marsh loams. On the West Shore the soils range from a light sandy loam in the lower levels south from Baltimore to rather heavy loarns overlying a yellowish clay on the rolling uplands and on the terraces along the Potomac and Patuxent.Advertisement
As early as 1783 steps were taken to extend these facilities to the navigable waters of the Ohio, chiefly by improving the navigation of the Potomac above Georgetown.
When that state was reduced to order, the Potomac became the front, and, later, the base, of the Northern armies.
Lee in West Virginia, which ended in the withdrawal of the Confederates, and a few combats on the Potomac (Ball's Bluff or Leesburg, October 21; Dranesville, December 20), brought to a close the first campaign in the east.
The Southerners undeniably rested on their laurels, and enabled McClellan, who was now called to the chief military command at Washington, to raise, organize and train the famous Army of the Potomac, which, in defeat and victory, won its reputation as one of the finest armies of modern history.
McClellan and the Army of the Potomac faced Johnston, who with the Army of northern Virginia lay at Manassas, exercising and training his men with no less care than his opponent.Advertisement
Two days later McClellan's advanced troops fought a sharp combat at Williamsburg and the Army of the Potomac rendezvoused on the Chickahominy with its base at White House on the Pamunkey (May 7).
McClellan, deprived of McDowell's corps, felt himself reduced to impotence, and three Federal armies were vainly marching up and down the Valley when Johnston fell with all his forces upon the Army of the Potomac. The Federals lay on both sides of the Chickahominy river, and at this moment Johnston heard that McDowell's arrival need not be feared.
Johnston fell severely wounded, and in the end a properly connected and combined advance of the Army of the Potomac drove back his successor into the lines of Richmond (May 31 - June 1).
The disgraced general was not again employed, but the men of the Army of the Ohio retained throughout, as did those of the Army of the Potomac, the impress of their first general's discipline and training.
Banks was eventually beaten, but he had come very near to success, and Jackson soon retired across the Rapidan, where (the Army of the Potomac having now begun to leave the James) Lee joined him (August 17) with the corps of Longstreet.Advertisement
Here Halleek's orders bade him cover both Washington and Aquia Creek (whence the Army of the Potomac was to join him), orders almost impossible of execution, as any serious change of position necessarily uncovered one of these lines.
The leading troops of the Army of the Potomac were now landed, and set out to join Pope's army, which faced Longstreet and Jackson on the Rappahannock between Bealton and Waterloo.
But Lee received no real accession of strength, and when McClellan with all available forces moved out of Washington to encounter the Army of northern Virginia, the Confederates were still but a few marches from the point where they had crossed the Potomac. Lee had again divided his army.
On the 6th of November the Army of the Potomac was at Warrenton, Lee at Culpeper, and Jackson in the Valley.
The new commander displayed great energy in reorganizing the Army of the Potomac, the discipline of which had not come unscathed through a career of failure.Advertisement
But Hooker could at least make himself obeyed, and when Lee initiated his second invasion of the North a month after the battle of Chancellorsville, the Army of the Potomac was as resolute as ever.
Success was certain, but the scheme was vetoed by the Federal headquarters and government, whose first and ruling idea was to keep the Army of the Potomac between Lee and Washington.
The Army of the Potomac crossed that river only one day later than Lee, and concentrated at Frederick.
Meade was thus able to move promptly, Lee was compelled to meet him, and the Army of the Potomac began to take up its position on Pipe Creek, screened by Generals Reynolds and Buford at Gettysburg (q.v.).
All troops on both sides hurried to the unexpected battlefield, and after a great three days' battle, the Army of the Potomac emerged at last with a decisive victory.Advertisement
One third of the Army of northern Virginia and one quarter of the Army of the Potomac remained on the field.
On the left Sherman made little progress; on the right, however, Hooker and the men from the Potomac army fought and won the extraordinary "Battle above the Clouds" on Lookout Mountain, and on the 25th the Confederate centre on Missionary Ridge was brilliantly stormed by Thomas and the Army of the Cumberland.
Sherman was to command in the west, Grant's headquarters accompanied Meade and the Army of the Potomac. The general plan was simple and comprehensive.
The Army of the James moved towards Richmond on the same day on which the Army of the Potomac crossed the Rapidan.
Hunter's assault (June 18) failed, and the Federals, unable to hold their ground, had to make a circuitous retreat to the Potomac by way of West Virginia.
But the anniversary of Gettysburg saw Lee's works still intact, and 72,000 men of the Army of the Potomac and the Army of the James had fallen since the campaign had opened two months before.
But the attempt ended in failure - the first defeat of the Army of the Potomac which could fairly be called discreditable.
Crossing the Potomac, he marched eastward, and, defeating a motley force which General Lew Wallace had collected to oppose him, appeared before the lines of Washington.
The Army of the Shenandoah was routed and driven towards the Potomac. But the gallant stand of the old Potomac troops of the VI.
General Slocum with Hooker's old Potomac troops garrisoned Atlanta, and every important post along the railway to Chattanooga was held in force.
So ended the gigantic struggle, as to the conduct of which it is only necessary to quote, with a more general application, the envoi of a Federal historian, "It has not seemed necessary to me to attempt a eulogy of the Army of the Potomac or the Army of northern Virginia."
The Federal Army of the Potomac, advancing from the sea and the river Pamunkey over the Chickahominy on Richmond, had come to a standstill after the battle of Seven Pines (or Fair Oaks), and General Robert Lee, who succeeded Joseph Johnston in command of the Confederates, initiated the series of counter attacks upon it which constitute the "Seven Days."
Longstreet and Hill were thus opposed to five Federal divisions, while General McClellan was pushing his wagons forward to Malvern Hill, on which strong position the Army of the Potomac was concentrated at nightfall.
Three weeks later the forces under Banks were being driven over the Potomac at Harper's Ferry, and Jackson was master of the Valley.
The rivers which most perfectly exemplify this habit are the Delaware, Susquehanna and Potomac; the Hudson, the north-eastern boundary of the middle section, is peculiar in having headwaters in the Adirondacks as well as in the Catskills (northern part of the plateau); the James, forming the south-western boundary of the section, rises in the inner valleys of the stratified belt, instead of in the plateau.
This is well shown in the falls of the Potomac a few miles above Washington; in the rapids 01 the lower Susquehanna; and in the falls of the Schuylkill, a branch which joins the Delaware at Philadelphia, where the water-power has long been used in extensive factories.
This subdivision is already necessary in Maryland, where the mountain belt is represented by the Blue Ridge, which is rather a narrow upland belt than a ridge proper where the Potomac cuts across it; while the piedmont belt, relieved by occasional monadnocks stretches from the eastern base of the Blue Ridge to the coastal plain, into which it merges.
The Comanchean formations are found (I) on the inland border of the coastal plain of the Atlantic (Potomac series) and Gulf coasts (Tuscaloosa series at the east and Comanchean at the west); (2) along the western margin of the Great Plains and in the adjacent mountains; and (3) along the Pacific coast west of the Sierras.
It was the central point of one of the greatest battles of the Civil War, fought on the 2nd and 3rd of May 1863, between the Union Army of the Potomac under Major-General Hooker, and the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia under General Lee.
The Pocono plateau, nearly all of the central and south-east provinces and the north-east portion of the Alleghany plateau are drained by the Susquehanna and Delaware river-systems into the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays; the greater part of the Alleghany plateau is drained by the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers into the Ohio river; the extreme southern portion of the central province and the extreme western portion of the south-east province are drained by tributaries of the Potomac; the Erie plain is drained by short streams into Lake Erie; and a very small section of the Alleghany plateau, in the northern part of Potter county, is drained by the Genesee river into Lake Ontario.
He served on McClellan's staff during the West Virginia campaign, and was commissioned brigadiergeneral of volunteers and appointed chief of cavalry of the Army of the Potomac in August 1861, in which capacity he took part in the Peninsular campaign and the Seven Days' Battle.
On the bank of the Potomac is a brick house which was for several years the home of Francis Scott Key, author of "The Star-Spangled Banner"; on Analostan Island in the river was a home of James Murray Mason; Georgetown Heights was the home of the popular novelist, Mrs Emma Dorothy Eliza Nevitte Southworth (1819-1899).
He served in the Army of the Potomac until Gettysburg, where he lost a leg.
Thence, when the well-drilled Army of be so or not, Lee took part in preparing for the divorce pro Potomac was about to descend upon Richmond, he was ceedings against Catherine of Aragon, and in January 1534 the hurriedly recalled to Richmond.
The first settlement here was made about 1747 by Robert Harper, who ran a ferry across the Potomac. The position of Harper's Ferry at the lower end of the Shenandoah Valley rendered it a place of strategic importance during the Civil War.
Grant, at the head of the Army of the Potomac, followed Lee to Richmond and Petersburg, and held him in siege to within a few days of final surrender.
The brothers were attached to the staff of General McClellan, commanding the "Army of the Potomac."
Shortly after his inauguration he expressed a desire to lay up the larger men of war in the eastern branch of the Potomac, where they would require only "one set of plunderers to take care of them."
Sheridan's leading of his division at the latter battle attracted the notice of General Grant, and when the latter, as general in chief of the U.S. armies, was seeking an "active and energetic man, full of spirit and vigour and life" to command the cavalry of the Army of the Potomac, Sheridan was chosen on the suggestion of General Halleck.
General Sheridan was president of the Society of the Army of the Potomac and of the Society of the Army of the Cumberland, the latter for fourteen years.
The government owns the waterworks, by which an abundant supply of water is taken from the Potomac at the Great Falls, condudted for 12 m.
Virginia and Maryland promised such a cession; President Washington was known to be in favour of a site on the Potomac, and in July 1790 Alexander Hamilton, in return for Thomas Jefferson's assistance in passing the bill for the assumption of the state war debts by the Federal government, helped Jefferson to pass a bill for establishing the capital on the Potomac, by which the president was authorized to select a site anywhere along the Potomac between the Eastern Branch (Anacostia) and the Conococheague river, a distance of about So m., and to appoint three commissioners who under his direction should make the necessary surveys and provide accommodations for the reception of Congress in r800.
Such is the origin of the branching bays or "drowned river valleys," among which may be noted the lower Potomac, Rappahannock, York and James rivers.
Connexion between Richmond and Washington is by a union line (Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac and Washington Southern railways) operated jointly by the Southern, Atlantic Coast line, Seaboard Air line, Chesapeake & Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Baltimore & Ohio railways.
Lawrence inherited the estate at Hunting Creek, on the Potomac,_ later known as Mount Vernon, and George the estate on the Rappahannock, nearly opposite Fredericksburg, where his father usually lived.
When the legislature of Virginia gave him 150 shares of stock in companies formed for the improvement of the Potomac and James rivers, and he was unable to refuse them lest his action should be misinterpreted, he extricated himself by giving them to educational institutions.
Among these, in March 1785, were the commissioners from Virginia and Maryland, who met at Alexandria to form a commercial code for Chesapeake Bay and the Potomac, and made an opportunity to visit Mount Vernon.
He flew his smallest models in the great lecture room of the National Museum, and his larger ones on the Potomac river about 40 m.
These were made largely of steel and aluminium, and one of them in 1896 made the longest flight then recorded for a flying machine, namely, fully half a mile on the Potomac river.
During the autumn, winter and spring he created the famous Army of the Potomac, which in victory and defeat retained to the end the impress of McClellan's work.
Again in command of the Army of the Potomac, he was sent with all available forces to oppose Lee, who had crossed the Potomac into Maryland early in September.
But the Confederates safely recrossed the Potomac, and McClellan showed his former faults in a tardy pursuit.
Besides the report mentioned above, General McClellan wrote a Bayonet Exercise (1852); Report on Pacific Railroad Surveys (1854); Report on the Organization, &c., of the Army of the Potomac (1864), a government publication which he himself republished with the addition of a memoir of the West Virginian campaign.
North of the junction is Bull Run, a small stream which empties into the Occoquan, an arm of the Potomac. In this neighbourhood two important battles of the American Civil War, the first and second battles of Bull Run, were fought on the 21st of July 1861 and on the 29th-30th of August 1862 respectively; by Southern historians these battles are called the battles of Manassas.
Lester Ward records no fewer than 737 distinct forms, consisting chiefly of Ferns, Cycads, Conifers and Dicotyledons, the Ferns and Cycads being con fined mainly to the Older Potomac, FIG.
Six successive stages have been defined in the Potomac formation.
The leading characteristic of this Middle Potomac flora is the proportion of Dicotyledons.
Notwithstanding this apparent passage-bed, there is a marked difference between the Older and the Newer Potomac floras, very few species passing from the one to the other.
The parallel valleys are drained by north-east and south-west flowing streams, those in the north-east being tributary to the Potomac, those farther south tributary to the Great Kanawha.
The diary kept by the young surveyor indicates that there were already many squatters, largely of German origin, along the South Branch of the Potomac. Christopher Gist, a surveyor in the employ of the first Ohio Company (see Ohio Company), which was composed chiefly of Virginians, in1751-1752explored the country along the Ohio river north of the mouth of the Kanawha, and the company sought to have a fourteenth colony established with the name " Vandalia."
Crossing the Potomac, he marched eastward, and, defeating a motley force (action of the Monocacy)which General Lew Wallace had collected to oppose him, appeared before the lines of Washington.
Grant felt that this was a mere feint to screen some other move, and instantly carried the Army of the Potomac to the westward, leaving a bare screen of troops in his lines.
Several rivers surround the resort, including the Savage, North Branch of the Potomac, Youghiogheny and Casselman Rivers, all teeming with rainbows, browns, brookies and cutthroat trout.
At this time, the McMillan Commission decided that West Potomac Park would be the site for the memorial.
The McMillan Commission decided that it should be an open mall area from the Capitol to the Potomac River in Washington, D.C. Chest French designed the statue.
Lee after the Confederate States' defeat in the Civil War. During that conflict, the house served as the base for the Army of the Potomac.
It is bounded on the north-west by Ohio, from which it is separated by the Ohio river, on the north by Pennsylvania and Maryland, the Potomac river dividing it from the latter state; on the east and south-east by Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia, the boundary lines in the first two cases being meridians, in the last case a very irregular line following the crest of mountain ridges in places; and on the south-west by Virginia and Kentucky, the Big Sandy river separating it from the latter state.
Richmond is served by the Atlantic Coast Line, the Chesapeake & Ohio, the Seaboard Air Line, the Southern and the Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac railways, and by the Old Dominion, the Virginia Navigation and the Chesapeake steamship lines.
In the spring Banks was ordered to move against Jackson in the Shenandoah Valley, but the latter with superior forces defeated him at Winchester, Virginia, on the 25th of May, and forced him back to the Potomac river.
The more important railway lines are the Baltimore & Ohio, the Philadelphia, Baltimore & Washington (controlled by the Pennsylvania and a consolidation of the Philadelphia, Wilmington & Baltimore, and the Baltimore & Potomac), the Western Maryland, the West Virginia Central & Pittsburg (leased by the Western Maryland), the Northern Central, the Maryland electric railways (including what was formerly the Baltimore & Annapolis Short Line), and the Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis electric railway.