Potassium sentence example

potassium
  • It is slightly soluble in potassium sulphide.
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  • On oxidation with potassium permanganate it is converted into acetyl urea, together with other products.
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  • The yellow precipitate obtained is washed with a solution of potassium acetate and finally with dilute alcohol.
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  • It is insoluble in dilute acids, but is readily soluble in excess of potassium cyanide.
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  • It is usually made by distilling tartaric acid with potassium bisulphate at about zoo-250° C., the crude product being afterwards fractionated.
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  • This acid may also be prepared by the electrolysis of concentrated sulphuric acid, and it is distinguishable from persulphuric acid by the fact that it immediately liberates iodine from potassium iodide.
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  • Here the other metal may be one, such as potassium, or two, such as potassium and sodium, and, in the latter case, the proportion between the two may vary continuously throughout wide limits.
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  • It was found, for instance, that a film of insoluble copper ferrocyanide, deposited in the walls of a porous vessel by the inward diffusion and meeting of solutions of copper sulphate and potassium ferrocyanide, would allow water to pass, but retained sugar dissolved in that liquid.
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  • They are soluble in water and give characteristic precipitates with platinic and auric chlorides, and with potassium ferrocyanide.
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  • Its methyl derivatives yield the corresponding carboxylic acids when oxidized by potassium permanganate.
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  • In two cases, however, it has been found in the absence of appreciable quantities of uranium and thorium compounds, namely in beryl, and in sylvine (potassium chloride).
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  • It is also obtained by heating para-chlorphenoldisulphonic acid with potassium hydroxide.
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  • By passing the vapour of this compound through a red-hot tube, it yields the isomeric a0- pyridylpyrrol, the potassium salt of which with methyl iodide gives a substance methylated both in the pyridine and pyrrol nuclei.
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  • On fusion with solid potash at 250° C. it completely decomposes, giving potassium oxalate and hydrogen, C2H602-1-2KHO =K2C204+4H2.
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  • Suppose, for instance, the paper ribbon to be soaked in a solution of iodide of potassium and a light contact spring made to press continuously on its surface as it is pulled forward by the mechanism.
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  • Cadmium hydroxide, Cd(OH) 2, is obtained as a white precipitate by adding potassium hydroxide to a solution of any soluble cadmium salt.
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  • Walden (ibid.) has shown that certain salts dissolve in liquid sulphur dioxide forming additive compounds, two of which have been prepared in the case of potassium iodide: a yellow crystalline solid of composition, KI 14 S0 2, and a red solid of composition, KI 4S0 2.
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  • The potassium salt, after recrystallization from warm water, separates in large tabular crystals.
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  • The solution obtained may be evaporated in vacuo until it attains a density of 1.46 when, if partially saturated with potassium hydroxide and filtered, it yields crystals of potassium pentathionate, K 2 S 5 0 6.3H 2 0.
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  • Hexathionic acid, H 2 S 6 0 6, is probably present in the mother liquors from which potassium pentathionate is prepared.
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  • The solution on the addition of ammoniacal silver nitrate behaves similarly to that of potassium pentathionate, but differs from it in giving an immediate precipitate of sulphur with ammonia, whereas the solution of the pentathionate only gradually becomes turbid on standing.
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  • Thus the equation Cl 2 -1-2KI, Aq=2KC1, Aq+12+52400 cal., or (C12) +2KI, Aq =2KC1, Aq+[12]-I-52400 cal., would express that when gaseous chlorine acts on a solution of potassium iodide, with separation of solid iodine, 52400 calories are evolved.
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  • Many esters of malonic acid have been prepared, the most important being the diethyl ester (malonic ester), CH 2 (000C 2 H 5) 2, which is obtained by dissolving monochloracetic acid in water, neutralizing the solution with potassium carbonate, and then adding potassium cyanide and warming the mixture until the reaction begins.
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  • The half nitrile of malonic acid is cyanacetic acid, CN CH 2 COOH, which, in the form of its ester, may be obtained by the action of a solution of potassium cyanide on monochloracetic acid.
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  • Potassium cyanide reacts with this acid to form the corresponding dinitrile, which is converted by hydrochloric acid into citric acid.
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  • Held synthesized the acid from ethyl chlor-acetoacetate (from chlorine and acetoacetic ester) by heating with potassium cyanide and saponifying the resulting nitrile.
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  • With fused potash it forms potassium oxalate and acetate.
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  • The impurities occasionally present in commercial citric acid are salts of potassium and sodium, traces of iron, lead and copper derived from the vessels used for its evaporation and crystallization, and free sulphuric, tartaric and even oxalic acid.
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  • Tartaric acid, which is sometimes present in large quantities as an adulterant in commercial citric acid, may be detected in the presence of the latter, by the production of a precipitate of acid potassium tartrate when potassium acetate is added to a cold solution.
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  • Potash soap with the same reagent undergoes double decomposition - a proportion being changed into a soda soap with the formation of potassium chloride.
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  • There is no separation of underlyes in potash soap, consequently the product contains the whole constituents of the oils used, as the operation of salting out is quite impracticable owing to the double decomposition which results from the action of salt, producing thereby a hard principally soda soap with formation of potassium chloride.
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  • Soft or green soap (potassium oleate), made by acting on olive oil with caustic potash, is also used; its preparation (Linamentum saponis) is known as opodeldoc. Curd soap is also used, and is chiefly a stearate of sodium.
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  • Potassium, when heated, burns in the vapour of carbon bisulphide, forming potassium sulphide and liberating carbon.
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  • Carbon bisulphide slowly oxidizes on exposure to air, but by the action of potassium permanganate or chromic acid it is readily oxidized to carbon dioxide and sulphuric acid.
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  • These are washed with ammonium chloride until the filtrate is colourless, ignited, fused with caustic potash and nitre, the melt dissolved in water and nitric acid added to the solution until the colour of potassium ruthenate disappears.
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  • Fusion with caustic potash converts it into a mixture of potassium ruthenate and ruthenium sesquioxide, Ru 2 0 3, which is a black, almost insoluble powder.
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  • The peroxide, Ru04, is formed when a solution of potassium ruthenate is decomposed by chlorine, or by oxidizing ruthenium compounds with potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid, or with potassium permanganate and sulphuric acid.
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  • Potassium ruthenium cyanide, K4Ru(CN) 6.3H 2 O, formed when potassium ruthenate is boiled with a solution of potassium cyanide, crystallizes in colourless plates which are soluble in water.
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  • Potassium ruthenate, K2Ru04 H20, obtained by fusion of the metal with caustic potash and nitre, crystallizes in prisms which become covered with a black deposit on exposure to moist air.
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  • Thus copper sulphate was CuO+S0 3, potassium sulphate 2S0 3 +P00 2 (the symbol Po for potassium was subsequently discarded in favour of K from kalium).
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  • The combination, as it is ordinarily termed, of chlorine with hydrogen, and the displacement of iodine in potassium iodide by the action of chlorine, may be cited as examples; if these reactions are represented, as such reactions very commonly are, by equations which merely express the relative weights of the bodies which enter into reaction, and of the products, thus Cl = HC1 Hydrogen.
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  • For example, when a solution of a ferric salt is added to a solution of potassium thiocyanate, a deep red coloration is produced, owing to the formation of ferric thiocyanate.
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  • The manufacture of glass, also practised in Egypt, demanded a knowledge of sodium or potassium carbonates; the former occurs as an efflorescence on the shores of certain lakes; the latter was obtained from wood ashes.
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  • In particular, the salts of potassium, sodium and ammonium were carefully investigated, but sodium and potassium salts were rarely differentiated.
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  • In the same year as Klaproth detected uranium, he also isolated zirconia or zirconium oxide from the mineral variously known as zircon, hyacinth, jacynth and jargoon; but he failed to obtain the metal, this being first accomplished some years later by Berzelius, who decomposed the double potassium zirconium fluoride with potassium.
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  • In 1808 Davy isolated sodium and potassium; he then turned his attention to the preparation of metallic calcium, barium, strontium and magnesium.
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  • At the same time Berzelius obtained the element, in an impure condition, by fusing silica with charcoal and iron in a blast furnace; its preparation in a pure condition he first accomplished in 1823, when he invented the method of heating double potassium fluorides with metallic potassium.
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  • In 1824 he obtained zirconium from potassium zirconium fluoride; the preparation of (impure) titanium quickly followed, and in 1828 he obtained thorium.
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  • Balard completed for many years Berzelius's group of " halogen " elements; the remaining member, fluorine, notwithstanding many attempts, remained unisolated until 1886, when Henri Moissan obtained it by the electrolysis of potassium fluoride dissolved in hydrofluoric acid.
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  • Serullas and Roscoe; Davy and Stadion investigated chlorine peroxide, formed by treating potassium chlorate with sulphuric acid.
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  • Davy also described and partially investigated the gas, named by him " euchlorine," obtained by heating potassium chlorate with hydrochloric acid; this gas has been more recently examined by Pebal.
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  • Within two years of the invention the authors announced the discovery of two metals, rubidium and caesium, closely allied to sodium, potassium and lithium in properties, in the mineral lepidolite and in the Diirkheim mineral water.
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  • The same methyl iodide gave with potassium cyanide, acetonitril, which was hydrolysed to acetic acid; this must be C(Coch) a H b H c H d.
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  • Thus potassium ortho-oxybenzoate is converted into the salt of para-oxybenzoic acid at 220 0; the three bromphenols, and also the brombenzenesulphonic acids, yield m-dioxybenzene or resorcin when fused with potash.
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  • For many years it had been known that a mixture of potassium chlorate and hydrochloric or sulphuric acids possessed strong.
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  • Carius showed that potassium chlorate and sulphuric acid oxidized benzene to trichlorphenomalic acid, a substance afterwards investigated by Kekule and 0.
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  • Potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid oxidize phenol, salicylic acid (o-oxybenzoic acid), and gallic acid ([2.3.4] trioxybenzoic acid) to tri chlorpyroracemic acid (isotrichlorglyceric acid), CC13 C(OH)2 C02H, a substance also obtained from trichloracetonitrile, CC1 3 CO CN, by hydrolysis.
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  • From these results Baeyer concluded that Claus' formula with three para-linkings cannot possibly be correct, for the Q2.5 dihydroterephthalic acid undoubtedly has two ethylene linkages, since it readily takes up two or four atoms of bromine, and is oxidized in warm aqueous solution by alkaline potassium permanganate.
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  • Of the principal workers in this field we may notice Friedrich Hoffmann, Andreas Sigismund Marggraf (who detected iron by its reaction with potassium ferrocyanide, and potassium and sodium by their flame colorations), and especially Carl Scheele and Torbern Olof Bergman.
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  • If the substance does not melt but changes colour, we may have present: zinc oxide - from white to yellow, becoming white on cooling; stannic oxide - white to yellowish brown, dirty white on cooling; lead oxide - from white or yellowish-red to brownish-red, yellow on cooling; bismuth oxide - from white or pale yellow to orange-yellow or reddish-brown, pale yellow on cooling; manganese oxide - from white or yellowish white to dark brown, remaining dark brown on cooling (if it changes on cooling to a bright reddishbrown, it indicates cadmium oxide); copper oxide - from bright blue or green to black; ferrous oxide - from greyish-white to black; ferric oxide - from brownish-red to black, brownish-red on cooling; potassium chromate - yellow to dark orange, fusing at a red heat.
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  • Potassium gives a blue-violet flame which may be masked by the colorations due to sodium, calcium and other elements.
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  • Certain substances are insoluble in all these reagents, and other methods, such as the fusion with sodium carbonate and potassium nitrate, and subsequent treatment with an acid, must be employed.
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  • The solution contains magnesium, sodium and potassium, which are separately distinguished by the methods given under their own headings.
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  • Any lead chloride dissolves, and may be identified by the yellow precipitate formed with potassium chromate.
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  • Filter from the bismuth hydrate, and if copper is present, add potassium cyanide till the colour is destroyed, then pass sulphuretted hydrogen, and cadmium is precipitated as the yellow sulphide.
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  • Where a solution is likely to change in composition on keeping, such as potassium permanganate, iodine, sodium hydrate, &c., it is necessary to check or re-standardize it periodically.
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  • In the second group, we may notice the application of litmus, methyl orange or phenolphthalein in alkalimetry, when the acid or alkaline character of the solution commands the colour which it exhibits; starch paste, which forms a blue compound with free iodine in iodometry; potassium chromate, which forms red silver chromate after all the hydrochloric acid is precipitated in solutions of chlorides; and in the estimation of ferric compounds by potassium bichromate, the indicator, potassium ferricyanide, is placed in drops on a porcelain plate, and the end of the reaction is shown by the absence of a blue coloration when a drop of the test solution is brought into contact with it.
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  • The substance is heated with metallic sodium or potassium (in excess if sulphur be present) to redness, the residue treated with water, filtered, and ferrous sulphate, ferric chloride and hydrochloric acid added.
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  • A blue coloration indicates nitrogen, and is due to the formation of potassium (or sodium) cyanide during the fusion, and subsequent interaction with the iron salts.
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  • Phosphorus is obtained as a soluble phosphate (which can be examined in the usual way) by lixiviating the product obtained when the substance is ignited with potassium nitrate and carbonate.
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  • In 1855 C. Brunner described a method for oxidizing the carbon to carbon dioxide, which could be estimated by the usual methods, by heating the substance with potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid.
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  • The oxidation, which is effected by chromic acid and sulphuric acid, is conducted in a flask provided with a funnel and escape tube, and the carbon dioxide formed is swept by a current of dry air, previously freed from carbon dioxide, through a drying tube to a set of potash bulbs and a tube containing soda-lime; if halogens are present, a small wash bottle containing potassium iodide, and a U tube containing glass wool moistened with silver nitrate on one side and strong sulphuric acid on the other, must be inserted between the flask and the drying tube.
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  • Sulphur and phosphorus can sometimes be estimated by Messinger's method, in which the oxidation is effected by potassium permanganate and caustic alkali, or by potassium bichromate and hydrochloric acid.
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  • Mitscherlich, in the case of the acid phosphate and acid arsenate of potassium, KH 2 P(As)04, who adopted the term isomorphism, and regarded phosphorus and arsenic as isomorphously related elements.
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  • By taking appropriate differences the following facts will be observed: (1) the replacement of potassium by rubidium occasions an increase in the equivalent volumes by about eight units, and of rubidium by caesium by about eleven units; (2) replacement in the same order is attended by a general increase in the three topic parameters, a greater increase being met with in the replacement of rubidium by caesium; (3) the parameters x and, p are about equally increased, while the increase in w is always the greatest.
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  • If the crystal structure be regarded as composed of 0 three interpenetrating point systems, one consisting of sulphur atoms, the second of four times as many oxygen atoms, and the third of twice as many potassium atoms, the systems being so arranged that the sulphur system is always centrally situated with respect to the other two, and the potassium system so that it would affect the vertical axis, then it is obvious that the replacement of potassium by an element of greater atomic weight would specially increase the length of w (corresponding to the vertical axis), and cause a smaller increase in the horizontal parameters (x and 1/ '); moreover, the increments would advance with the atomic weight of the replacing metal.
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  • 7 represents the specific volumes of mixtures of ammonium and potassium sulphates; the ordinates re presenting specific volumes, and the abscissae the per centage composition of the mixture.
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  • 9 illustrates the first case: the ordinates represent specific volumes, and the abscissae denote the composition of isomorphous mixtures of ammonium and potassium dihydrogen phosphates, which mutually take one another up to the extent of 20% to form homogeneous crystals.
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  • It has to some extent the character of a secondary amine; the hydrogen of the imino group can be replaced by potassium.
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  • Pyrrol is readily converted into pyridine derivatives by acting with bromoform, chloroform, or methylene iodide on its potassium salt, t3-brom-and O-chlorpyridine being obtained with the first two compounds, and pyridine itself with the last.
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  • The N-derivatives are prepared by the action of alkyl halides and acid chlorides on potassium pyrrol.
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  • Manasse (German patent 73,279) prepared an intimate mixture of phenol and potassium carbonate, which is then heated in a closed vessel with carbon dioxide, best at 130 -160 C. The Chemische Fabrik vorm.
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  • It is to be noted in the Kolbe method of synthesis that potassium phenolate may be used in place of the sodium salt, provided that the temperature be kept low (about 150° C.), for at the higher temperature (220° C.) the isomeric para-oxybenzoic acid is produced.
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  • Potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid oxidize it to carbon dioxide and water; and potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid to chloranil.
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  • Potassium persulphate oxidizes it in alkaline solution, the product on boiling with acids giving hydroquiirone carboxylic acid (German Patent 81,297).
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  • In a purer condition it may be obtained by the action of sulphuric acid on a mixture of potassium nitrate and ferrous sulphate, or of hydrochloric acid on a mixture of potassium nitrate and ferric chloride.
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  • It does not liberate iodine from potassium iodide, neither does it decolorize iodine solution.
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  • In acid solution, potassium permanganate oxidizes it to nitric acid, but in alkaline solution only to nitrous acid.
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  • In aqueous solution the free acid acts as an oxidizing agent, bleaching indigo and liberating iodine from potassium iodide, or it may act as a reducing agent since it readily tends to pass into nitric acid: consequently it discharges the colour of acid solutions of permanganates and chromates.
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  • It may be recognized by the blue colour it gives with diphenylamine sulphate and by its reaction with potassium iodide-starch paper.
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  • It is also prepared by the action of phosphorus pentachloride on potassium nitrite or on nitrogen peroxide.
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  • - These are the materials which are utilized by the vegetable plankton in the synthesis of living material: they are water, carbonic acid, nitrates and nitrites of calcium, magnesium and other earthy and alkaline metals, phosphates, silica, traces of salts containing iron, sulphur, potassium and a few other elements.
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  • In 1807 he decomposed potash and soda, previously considered to be elements, by passing the current from a powerful battery through the moistened solids, and thus isolated the metals potassium and sodium.
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  • An interesting example of secondary action is shown by the common technical process of electroplating with silver from a bath of potassium silver cyanide.
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  • Here the ions are potassium and the group Ag(CN)2.1 Each potassium ion as it reaches the cathode precipitates silver by reacting with the solution in accordance with the chemical equation K--+KAg(CN) 2 =2KCN+Ag, while the anion Ag(CN) 2 dissolves an atom of silver from the anode, and re-forms the complex cyanide KAg(CN) 2 by combining with the 2KCN produced in the reaction described in the equation.
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  • In such salts as potassium chloride the ions seem to be simple throughout" a wide range of concentration since the transport numbers for the same series of concentrations as those used above run Potassium chloride 0.5 1 5, 0.515, 0.514, 0.513, 0.509, 0.508, 0.507, 0.507, 0.506.
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  • Thus the osmotic pressure, or the depression of the freezing point of a solution of potassium chloride should, at extreme dilution, be twice the normal value, but of a solution of sulphuric acid three times that value, since the potassium salt contains two ions and the acid three.
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  • Results have been obtained for solutions of sugar, where the experimental, number is 1 858, and for potassium chloride, which gives a depression of 3.720.
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  • We may take Arrhenius' first relation as established for the case of potassium chloride.
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  • In simple substances like potassium chloride it seems evident that one kind of dissociation only is possible.
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  • It is necessary to point out that the dissociated ions of such a body as potassium chloride are not in the same condition as potassium and chlorine in the free state.
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  • It is not unlikely, therefore, that even a compound as stable in the solid form as potassium chloride should be thus dissociated when dissolved.
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  • The tests for a salt, potassium nitrate, for example, are the tests not for KNO 3, but for its ions K and NO 3, and in cases of double decomposition it is always these ions that are exchanged for those of other substances.
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  • Plates of platinum and pure or amalgamated zinc are separated by a porous pot, and each surrounded by some of the same solution of a salt of a metal more oxidizable than zinc, such as potassium.
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  • Let us consider the arrangement - silver I silver chloride with potassium chloride solution I potassium nitrate solution I silver nitrate solution I silver.
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  • Silver chloride is a very insoluble substance, and here the amount in solution is still further reduced by the presence of excess of chlorine ions of the potassium salt.
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  • The concentration of the simple copper ions is then so much diminished that the copper plate becomes an anode with regard to zinc. Thus the cell - copper I potassium cyanide solution I potassium sulphate solution - zinc sulphate solution I zinc - gives a current which carries copper into solution and deposits zinc. In a similar way silver could be made to act as anode with respect to cadmium.
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  • Barreswil found that a strongly alkaline solution of copper sulphate and potassium sodium tartrate (Rochelle salt) remained unchanged on boiling, but yielded an immediate precipitate of red cuprous oxide when a solution of glucose was added.
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  • The dissolved salts (potassium, sodium, ammonium, calcium, magnesium, &c.) of the latex are generally nearly entirely absent from the wellprepared rubber.
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  • Grease must be removed by potash, whiting or other means, and tarnish by an acid or potassium cyanide, washing in plenty of water being resorted to after each operation.
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  • For this reason the acid copper-bath is not used for iron or zinc objects, a bath containing copper cyanide or oxide dissolved in potassium cyanide being substituted.
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  • The electro-deposition of brass-mainly on iron ware, such as bedstead tubes-is now very widely practised, the bath employed being a mixture of copper, zinc and potassium cyanides, the proportions of which vary according to the character of the brass required, and to the mode of treatment.
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  • They are silicates, usually orthosilicates, of aluminium together with alkalis (potassium, sodium, lithium, rarely rubidium and caesium), basic hydrogen, and, in some species magnesium, ferrous and ferric iron, rarely chromium, manganese and barium.
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  • The potassium it contains renders it of value as a manure.
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  • It forms crystallizable salts with potassium and calcium hydrates, and functions as a weak acid forming salts named plumbates.
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  • It combines with alkaline chlorides - potassium, rubidium and caesium - to form crystalline plumbichlorides; it also forms a crystalline compound with quinoline.
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  • Lead chromate, PbCrO 4, is prepared industrially as a yellow pigment, chrome yellow, by precipitating sugar of lead solution with potassium bichromate.
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  • The vermilion-like pigment which occurs in commerce as "chromered" is a basic chromate, Pb2Cr05, prepared by treating recently precipitated normal chromate with a properly adjusted proportion of caustic soda, or by boiling it with normal (yellow) potassium chromate.
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  • Solutions of lead salts (colourless in the absence of coloured acids) are characterized by their behaviour to hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid and potassium chromate.
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  • The usual test for solutions of aconitine consists in slight acidulation with acetic acid and addition of potassium permanganate, which causes the formation of a red crystalline precipitate.
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  • The aldehydes may be prepared by the careful oxidation of primary alcohols with a mixture of potassium dichromate and sulphuric acid,-3R�CH OH+K Cr 07+4H SO = K2S04+ Cr (SO) +7H O+3R�CHO; by distilling the calcium salts of the fatty acids with calcium formate; and by hydrolysis of the acetals.
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  • It is prepared by oxidizing ethyl alcohol with dilute sulphuric acid and potassium bichromate, and is a colourless liquid of boiling point 20�8° C., possessing a peculiar characteristic smell.
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  • The simplest member of the series is acrolein, C 3 H 4 0 or CH 2: CH�CHO, which can be prepared by the oxidation of allyl alcohol, or by the abstraction of the elements of water from glycerin by heating it with anhydrous potassium bisulphate.
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  • When heated with alcoholic potassium cyanide they are converted into benzoins.
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  • It is now allowed to stand for some time, decanted from any sediment, and finally mixed with the calculated quantity of potassium sulphate (or if ammonium alum is required, with ammonium sulphate), well agitated, and the alum is thrown down as a finely-divided precipitate of alum meal.
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  • If much iron should be present in the shale then it is preferable to use potassium chloride in place of potassium sulphate.
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  • In the preparation of alum from clays or from bauxite, the material is gently calcined, then mixed with sulphuric acid and heated gradually to boiling; it is allowed to stand for some time, the clear solution drawn off and mixed with acid potassium sulphate and allowed to crystallize.
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  • The precipitate is then dissolved in sulphuric acid, the requisite amount of potassium sulphate added and the solution allowed to crystallize.
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  • Columbium compounds are usually prepared by fusing columbite with an excess of acid potassium sulphate, boiling out the fused mass with much water, and removing tin and tungsten from the residue by digestion with ammonium sulphide, any iron present being simultaneously converted into ferrous sulphide.
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  • It burns readily in air, and is converted into the pentoxide when fused with acid potassium sulphate.
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  • Potassium fluoxy percolumbate, K2Cb02F5 H20, is prepared by dissolving potassium columbium oxyfluoride in a 3 ° solution of hydrogen peroxide.
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  • The silver salt, obtained by shaking an ether solution of nitroform with freshly prepared, slightly moist silver oxide, reacts with methyl iodide to form trinitroethane, a crystalline solid which melts at 56° C. Concentrated caustic potash decomposes the latter compound, forming the potassium salt of dinitroethane, CH3 C(N02)2K.
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  • Metallic uranium, as shown by Peligot, can be obtained by the reduction of a mixture of dry chloride of potassium and dry uranous chloride, UC1 4, with sodium at a red heat.
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  • (I) Commercially pure tin is treated with nitric acid, which converts the tin proper into the insoluble metastannic acid, while the copper, iron, &c., become nitrates; the metastannic acid is washed first with dilute nitric acid, then with water, and is lastly dried and reduced by fusion with black flux or potassium cyanide.
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  • Stannous iodide, Sn12, forms yellow red needles, and is obtained from potassium iodide and stannous chloride.
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  • Tin compounds when heated on charcoal with sodium carbonate or potassium cyanide in the reducing blowpipe flame yield the metal and a scanty ring of white Sn02.
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  • On oxidation with potassium permanganate it gives homovanillin, vanillin, &c.; with chromic acid in acetic acid solution it is converted into carbon dioxide and acetic acid, whilst nitric acid oxidizes it to oxalic acid.
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  • Another heat test, that of Will, consists in heating a weighed quantity of the guncotton in a stream of carbon dioxide to 130° C., passing the evolved gases over some red-hot copper, and finally collecting them over a solution of potassium hydroxide which retains the carbon dioxide and allows the nitrogen, arising from the guncotton decomposition, to be measured.
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  • The presence of so small a quantity as i% of alcohol may be detected in ether by the colour imparted to it by aniline violet; if water or acetic acid be present, the ether must be shaken with anhydrous potassium carbonate before the application of the test.
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  • Ammonium hydroxide has no appreciable action at ordinary temperatures, but strong solutions of sodium or potassium hydroxides start a decomposition, with rise of temperature, in which some nitrate and always some nitrite is produced.
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  • Calcium or potassium sulphides and potassium hydrosulphides completely reduce nitroglycerin to glycerin, some of the sulphur being oxidized and some precipitated.
    0
    0
  • It may be separated by shaking out with dilute sulphuric acid, and then precipitating the sulphuric acid solution with potassium bichromate, the resulting acridine bichromate being decomposed by ammonia.
    0
    0
  • They combine readily with the alkyl iodides to form alkyl acridinium iodides, which are readily transformed by the action of alkaline potassium ferricyanide to N-alkyl acridones.
    0
    0
  • Silicon fluoride, SiF4, is formed when silicon is brought into contact with fluorine (Moissan); or by decomposing a mixture of acid potassium fluoride and silica, or of calcium fluoride and silica with concentrated sulphuric acid.
    0
    0
  • It is decomposed with great violence when heated in contact with either sodium or potassium.
    0
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  • With potassium hydroxide it yields potassium silicofluoride,.
    0
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  • Alloys of magnesium and silicon are prepared by heating fragments of magnesium with magnesium filings and potassium silico-fluoride.
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  • The latter reacts with chlorine to give silicon nonyl-chloride Si(C2H5)3 C2H4C1, which condenses with potassium acetate to give the acetic ester of silicon nonyl alcohol from which the alcohol (a camphor-smelling liquid) may be obtained by hydrolysis.
    0
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  • 00 2 H 5, is obtained in the form of pearly scales when carbon dioxide is passed into an alcoholic solution of potassium ethylate, C02+KOC2H5 = KO CO.
    0
    0
  • When heated with ammonia it yields guanidine, and on boiling with alcoholic potash it yields potassium carbonate.
    0
    0
  • Potassium percarbonate, K 2 C 2 0 6, is obtained in the electrolysis of potassium carbonate at -10 to -15°.
    0
    0
  • Silver vapour is blue, potassium vapour is green, many others (mercury vapour, for instance) are colourless.
    0
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  • The crystals belong to the following systems: regular system - silver, gold, palladium, mercury, copper, iron, lead; quadratic system - tin, potassium; rhombic system - antimony, bismuth, tellurium, zinc, magnesium.
    0
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  • Of the better known metals potassium and sodium are the softest; they can be kneaded between the fingers like wax.
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  • Water, at ordinary or slightly elevated temperatures, is decomposed more or less readily, with evolution of hydrogen gas and formation of a basic hydrate, by (I) potassium (formation of KHO), sodium (NaHO), lithium (LiOH), barium, strontium, calcium (BaH 2 O 2, &c.); (2) magnesium, zinc, manganese (MgO 2 H 2, &c.).
    0
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  • Potassium, for example, yields peroxide, K202 or K204; sodium gives Na202; the barium-group metals, as well as magnesium, cadmium, zinc, lead, copper, are converted into their monoxides MeO.
    0
    0
  • The following, though volatile at higher temperatures, are not volatilized at dull redness: KC1, NaCI, LiC1, NiC1 2, CoC1 2, MnC1 2, ZnCl 2, MgCl 2, PbCl 2, AgCI, the chlorides of potassium, sodium, lithium, nickel, cobalt, manganese, zinc, magnesium, lead, silver.
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  • Manganese dioxide and sulphuric acid oxidize it to benzoic and o-phthalic acid; potassium chlorate and sulphuric acid breaks the ring; and ozone oxidizes it to the highly explosive white solid named ozo-benzene, C 6 H 6 O 6.
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  • Also Marchlewski (in 1899) synthesized cane sugar from potassium fructosate and acetochloroglucose; and after Fischer discovered that acetochlorohexoses readily resulted from the interaction of the hexose penta-acetates and liquid hydrogen chloride, several others have been obtained.
    0
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  • It has been found by experiment that plants need for their nutritive process and their growth, certain chemical elements, namely, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium and iron.
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  • Ordinary Saltpetre or Potassium Nitrate, KN03, occurs, mingled with other nitrates, on the surface and in the superficial layers of the soil in many countries, especially in certain parts of India, Persia, Arabia and Spain.
    0
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  • The salt is obtained from the soil in which it occurs naturally, or from the heaps in which it is formed artificially, by extracting with water, and adding to the solution wood-ashes or potassium carbonate.
    0
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  • This is generally effected by adding the calculated amount of potassium chloride (of which immense quantities are obtained as a by-product in the Stassfurt salt industry) dissolved in hot water to a saturated boiling solution of sodium nitrate; the common salt, which separates on boiling down the solution, is removed from the hot solution, and on cooling the potassium nitrate crystallizes out and is separated and dried.
    0
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  • At a red heat it evolves oxygen with the formation of potassium nitrite, which, in turn, decomposes at a higher temperature.
    0
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  • Potassium nitrate was used at one time in many different diseased conditions, but it is now never administered internally, as its extremely depressant action upon the heart is not compensated for by any useful properties which are not possessed by many other drugs.
    0
    0
  • The salt fuses at 316°; at higher temperatures it loses oxygen (more readily than the corresponding potassium salt) with the formation of nitrite which, at very high temperatures, is reduced ultimately to a mixture of peroxide, Na202, and oxide, Na 2 0.
    0
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  • Zinc sulphate, like magnesium sulphate, unites with the sulphates of the potassium metals and of ammonium into crystalline double salts, ZnS04 R2S04-+-6H20, isomorphous with one another and the magnesium salts.
    0
    0
  • Further work on cyanogen and connected substances yielded a great number of interesting derivatives, and he described an improved method for the manufacture of potassium cyanide, an agent which has since proved of enormous value in metallurgy and the arts.
    0
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  • A better method is Wohler's, in which the finely powdered mineral is fused with twice its weight of potassium carbonate in a platinum crucible, the melt powdered and treated in a platinum basin with aqueous hydrofluoric acid.
    0
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  • They are obtained by neutralizing the solution of the acid, or by fusing the oxide with potassium carbonate and treating the melt with hydrofluoric acid.
    0
    0
  • Titanic oxides when fused on charcoal, even with potassium cyanide, yield no metal.
    0
    0
  • Trimethylamine, (CH3)3N, is very similar to dimethylamine, and condenses to a liquid which boils at 3.2-3.8° C. It is usually obtained from "vinasses," the residue obtained from the distillation of beet sugar alcohol, and is used in the manufacture of potassium bicarbonate by the Solvay process, since its hydrochloride is much more soluble than potassium carbonate.
    0
    0
  • The corresponding iodides are obtained by the addition of potassium iodide to solutions of the sulphonates, and are optically active antipodes.
    0
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  • On heating piperidine with phosphorus pentachloride to 200°C. in a sealed tube pentamethylene dichloride is obtained, and this on treatment with potassium phthalimide gives a condensation product of composition, C 6 H 4 [CO] 2 N(CH 2) 5 N[CO] 2 C 6 H 4, which is finally hydrolysed by hydrochloric acid.
    0
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  • In addition to magnesium and sodium the lines of potassium, lithium and also the carbon flutings exhibited in cometary spectra, has been seen.
    0
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  • Strontium fluoride, SrF 2, is obtained by the action of hydrofluoric acid on the carbonate, or by the addition of potassium fluoride to strontium chloride solution.
    0
    0
  • It may be obtained crystalline by fusing the anhydrous chloride with a large excess of potassium hydrogen fluoride or by heating the amorphous variety to redness with an excess of an alkaline chloride.
    0
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  • The acid potassium salt is also found in the leaves and stalks of rhubarb.
    0
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  • Potassium bichromate oxidizes it to malonic acid; nitric acid oxidizes it to oxalic acid; and hydriodic acid reduces it to succinic acid.
    0
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  • The causticity of alkaline bodies was explained at that time as depending on the presence in them of the principle of fire, "phlogiston"; quicklime, for instance, was chalk which had taken up phlogiston, and when mild alkalis such as sodium or potassium carbonate were causticized by its aid, the phlogiston was supposed to pass from it to them.
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  • For the theory and elemental laws of electro-deposition see Electrolysis; and for the construction and use of electric generators see Dynamo and Battery: Electric. The importance of the subject may be gauged by the fact that all the aluminium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, calcium carbide, carborundum and artificial graphite, now placed on the market, is made by electrical processes, and that the use of such processes for the refining of copper and silver, and in the manufacture of phosphorus, potassium chlorate and bleach, already pressing very heavily on the older non-electrical systems, is every year extending.
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  • Oettel, using a 20% solution of potassium chloride, obtained the best yield of hypochlorite with a high current-density, but as soon as II% of bleaching chlorine (as hypochlorite) was present, the formation of chlorate commenced.
    0
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  • Similarly, the formation of organic halogen products may be effected by electrolytic chlorine, as, for example, in the production of chloral by the gradual introduction of alcohol into an anode cell in which the electrolyte is a strong solution of potassium chloride.
    0
    0
  • In Berzelius' system + potassium sulphate is to be regarded as K 2 0.S0 3; electrolysis should simply effect the disruption of the positive and negative components, potash passing with the current, and sulphuric acid against the current.
    0
    0
  • By this theory potassium is liberated at the negative electrode and combines immediately with water to form potash and hydrogen.
    0
    0
  • An important nucleus-synthetic reaction is the saponification of nitriles, which may be obtained by the interaction of potassium cyanide with a halogen substitution derivative or a sulphonic acid.
    0
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  • If a solution of potassium acetate be electrolysed the products are ethane, carbon dioxide, potash and hydrogen; in a similar manner, normal potassium succinate gives ethylene, carbon dioxide, potash and hydrogen; these reactions may be represented: CH 3 �CO 2;K CH 3 CO 2 K' CH 2 �CO 2 1K CH 2 CO 2 K' --> I + + I I -i iI + CH 3 �CO 21 K CH 3 CO 2 K' CH 2 �CO 2 iK CH 2 CO 2 K' By electrolysing a solution of potassium ethyl succinate, KO 2 C�(CH 2) 2 CO 2 C 2 H 5, the KO 2 C� groups are split off and the two residues �(CH 2) 2 CO 2 C 2 H 5 combine to form the ester (CH2)4(C02C2H5)2.
    0
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  • In the same way, by electrolysing a mixture of a metallic salt and an ester, other nuclei may be condensed; thus potassium acetate and potassium ethyl succinate yield CH 3 * CH2 � CH2 � C02 C2H5.
    0
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  • It is found in the form of its acid potassium salt in many plants, especially in wood-sorrel (Oxalis acetosella) and in varieties of Rumex; as ammonium salt in guano; as calcium salt in rhubarb root, in various lichens and in plant cells; as sodium salt in species of Salicornia and as free acid in varieties of Boletus.
    0
    0
  • Potassium permanganate in acid solution oxidizes it to carbon dioxide and water; the manganese sulphate formed has a catalytic accelerating effect on the decomposition.
    0
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  • Potassium ferrous oxalate, FeK2(C204)2 H20, is a strong reducing agent and is used as a photographic developer.
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  • Potassium ferric oxalate, FeK3(C204)3, is used in the preparation of platinotypes, owing to the fact that its solution is rapidly decomposed by sunlight, 2FeK3(0204) 3 = 2FeK2(C204) 2+ K2C204+2C02.
    0
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  • It is also obtained by the action of hydrogen peroxide on hydrocyanic acid, or of manganese dioxide and sulphuric acid on potassium cyanide.
    0
    0
  • Traces of ethyl alcohol in solutions are detected and estimated by oxidation to acetaldehyde, or by conversion into iodoform by warming with iodine and potassium hydroxide.
    0
    0
  • Potassium and sodium readily dissolve in ethyl alcohol with the production of alcoholates of the formula C2 H5 OK(Na).
    0
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  • The atomic weight of gold was first determined with accuracy by Berzelius, who deduced the value 195.7 (H= i) from the amount of mercury necessary to precipitate it from the chloride, and 195.2 from the ratio between gold and potassium chloride in potassium aurichloride, KAuC1 4.
    0
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  • Thorpe and Laurie converted potassium auribromide into a mixture of metallic gold and potassium bromide by careful heating.
    0
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  • The relation of the gold to the potassium bromide, as well as the amounts of silver and silver bromide which are equivalent to the potassium bromide, were determined.
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  • Kriiss worked with the same salt, and obtained the value 195.65; while Mallet, by analyses of gold chloride and bromide, and potassium auribromide, obtained the value 195.77.
    0
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  • It dissolves in alkalis to form well-defined crystalline salts; potassium aurate, KAu0 2.3H 2 O, is very soluble in water, and is used in electrogilding.
    0
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  • The potassium salt is obtained by crystallizing equivalent quantities of potassium and auric chlorides.
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  • Aurous iodide, Aul, is a light-yellow, sparingly soluble powder obtained, together with free iodine, by adding potassium iodide to auric chloride; auric iodide, Au13, is formed as a dark-green powder at the same time, but it readily decomposes to aurous iodide and iodine.
    0
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  • The iodaurates, correspond to the chlorand bromaurates; the potassium salt, KAuI 4, forms highly lustrous, intensely black, four-sided prisms.
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  • Aurous cyanide, AuCN, forms yellow, microscopic, hexagonal tables, insoluble in water, and is obtained by the addition of hydrochloric acid to a solution of potassium aurocyanide, KAu(CN)2.
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  • This salt is prepared by precipitating a solution of gold in aqua regia by ammonia, and then introducing the well-washed precipitate into a boiling solution of potassium cyanide.
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  • Potassium auricyanide, 2KAu(CN) 4.3H 2 O, is obtained as large, colourless, efflorescent tablets by crystallizing concentrated solutions of auric chloride and potassium cyanide.
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  • The acid, auricyanic acid, 2HAu (CN) 4.3H20, is obtained by treating the silver salt (obtained by precipitating the potassium salt with silver nitrate) with hydrochloric acid; it forms tabular crystals, readily soluble in water, alcohol and ether.
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  • Aurous sulphide, Au 2 S, is a brownishblack powder formed by passing sulphuretted hydrogen into a solution of potassium aurocyanide and then acidifying.
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  • The addition of potassium cyanide has been suggested to assist the amalgamation and to prevent " flouring," but Skey has shown that its use is attended with loss of gold.
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  • - This process depends upon the solubility of gold in a dilute solution of potassium cyanide in the presence of air (or some other oxidizing agent), and the subsequent precipitation of the gold by metallic zinc or by.
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  • The action proceeds in two stages; in the first hydrogen peroxide and potassium aurocyanide are formed, and in the second the hydrogen peroxide oxidizes a further quantity of gold and potassium cyanide to aurocyanide, thus (1) 2Au+4KCN +02+2H20=2KAu(CN)2+4KOH+H202;(2)2Au+4KCN+2H202= 2KAu(CN) 2 +4KOH.
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  • According to Christy, the precipitation with zinc follows equations for 2 according as potassium cyanide is present or not: (1) 4 KAu(CN)2+4Zn+2H20=2Zn(CN)2+ K 2 Zn(CN) 4 +Zn(OK) 2 +4H+4Au; (2) 2KAu (CN) 2 +3Zn+4KCN+2H 2 0 = 2K 2 Zn(CN) 4 +Zn(OK) 2 +4H+2Au; one part of zinc precipitating 3.1 parts of gold in the first case, and 2.06 in the second.
    0
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  • It may be noticed that the potassium zinc cyanide is useless in gold extraction, for it neither dissolves gold nor can potassium cyanide be regenerated from it.
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  • Since it does not form an addition product with bromine, reduction must have taken place in one of the nuclei only, and on account of the aromatic character of the compound it must be in that nucleus which does not contain the amino group. This tetrahydro compound yields adipic acid, (CH 2) 4 (CO 2 H) 2, when oxidized by potassium permanganate.
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  • A brittle potassium alloy of silver-white colour and lamellar fracture is obtained by calcining 20 parts of bismuth with 16 of cream of tartar at a strong red heat.
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  • Bismuth tetroxide, Bi 2 O 4, sometimes termed bismuth bismuthate, is obtained by melting bismuth trioxide with potash, or by igniting bismuth trioxide with potash and potassium chlorate.
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  • The precipitated tellurium is then fused with potassium cyanide, the melt extracted with water and the element precipitated by drawing a current of air through the solution and finally distilled in a current of hydrogen.
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  • Telluric acid, H2Te04, is obtained in the form of its salts when tellurium is fused with potassium carbonate and nitre, or by the oxidizing action of chlorine on a tellurite in alkaline solution.
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  • For statuary, and "undercut" work generally, an elastic mould - of glue and treacle (80: 20 parts) - may be used; the mould, when set, is waterproofed by immersion in a solution of potassium bichromate followed by exposure to sunlight, or in some other way.
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  • Insecticides, of which the bisulphide of carbon (CS 2) and the sulpho-carbonate of potassium (KS CS2) remain in use, were injected into the earth to kill the phylloxera on the roots of the vine.
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  • Berzelius, who prepared tantalic acid from the mineral tantalite in 1820, obtained an impure metal by heating potassium tantalofluoride with potassium.
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  • It is obtained from potassium tantalofluoride by heating with sulphuric acid to 400°, boiling out with water, and decomposing the residual compound of the oxide and sulphuric acid by ignition, preferably with the addition of ammonium carbonate.
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  • Pertantalic acid, HTaO 4, is obtained in the hydrated form as a white precipitate by adding sulphuric acid to potassium pertantalate, K 3 Ta0 5.
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  • The word alkali supplied the symbol for potassium, K (kalium).
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  • In modern chemistry alkali is a general term used for compounds which have the property of neutralizing acids, and is applied more particularly to the highly soluble hydrates of sodium and potassium and of the three rarer "alkali metals," caesium, rubidium and lithium, also to aqueous ammonia.
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  • The elements in addition to oxygen which exist in largest amount in sea salt are chlorine, bromine, sulphur, potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium.
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  • The yellow solution is made up of i part of neutral potassium chromate in 199 parts of water, and to give the various degrees of the scale, 1, 2, 3, 4, &c.,% of the yellow solution is mixed with 99, 9 8, 97, 96, &c.,% of the blue in successive tubes.
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  • This residue consists of sodium, potassium and lithium chlorides, with small quantities of caesium and rubidium chlorides.
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  • The bromide, CsBr, and iodide, CsI, resemble the corresponding potassium salts.
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  • Edmund Davy first made acetylene in 1836 from a compound produced during the manufacture of potassium from potassium tartrate and charcoal, which under certain conditions yielded a black compound decomposed by water with considerable violence and the evolution of acetylene.
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  • Berzelius, who showed it to be potassium carbide.
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  • The amount of methyl alcohol present in wood spirit is determined by converting it into methyl iodide by acting with phosphorus iodide; and the acetone by converting it into iodoform by boiling with an alkaline solution of iodine in potassium iodide; ethyl alcohol is detected by giving acetylene on heating with concentrated sulphuric acid, methyl alcohol, !under the same circumstances, giving methyl ether.
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  • Chemical methods of sterilization have also been suggested, depending on the use of iodine, chlorine, bromine, ozone, potassium permanganate, copper sulphate or chloride and ()their substances.
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  • Perkin by heating crude aniline with potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid.
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  • On fusion with caustic potash it yields potassium osmiate.
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  • The dioxide, 0s0 2, is formed when potassium osmichloride is heated with sodium carbonate in a current of carbon dioxide, or by electrolysis of a solution of the tetroxide in the presence of alkali.
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  • It is insoluble in acids and exists in several hydrated forms. The osmiates, corresponding to the unknown trioxide 0503, are red or green coloured salts; the solutions are only stable in the presence of excess of caustic alkali; on boiling an aqueous solution of the potassium salt it decomposes readily, forming a black precipitate of osmic acid, H20s04.
    0
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  • Potassium osmiate, K 2 0sO 4 2H 2 0, formed when an alkaline solution of the tetroxide is decomposed by alcohol, or by potassium nitrite, crystallizes in red octahedra.
    0
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  • It acts as an oxidizing agent, liberating iodine from potassium iodide, converting alcohol into acetaldehyde, &c.
    0
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  • Potassium osmichloride, K 2 OsC1 6, is formed when a mixture of osmium and potassium chloride is heated in a current of chlorine, or on adding potassium chloride and alcohol to a solution of the tetroxide in hydrochloric acid.
    0
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  • Seubert (Ber., 1888, 21, p. 1839) from the analysis of potassium and ammonium osmichlorides, the values obtained being approximately 191.
    0
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  • The metal was obtained by Berzelius as an iron-grey powder by heating potassium zirconofluoride with metallic potassium.
    0
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  • For its extraction from zircon the mineral is heated and quenched in water to render it brittle, and then reduced to a fine powder, which is fused with three to four parts of acid potassium fluoride in a platinum crucible.
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  • The porcelain-like melt is powdered, boiled with water, and acidified with hydrofluoric acid, and the residual potassium fluosilicate is filtered off.
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  • The filtrate on cooling deposits crystals of potassium zirconofluoride, K 2 ZrF 6, which are purified by crystallization from hot water.
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  • Davy, inspired by his successful isolation of the metals sodium and potassium by the electrolysis of their hydrates, attempted to decompose a mixture of lime and mercuric oxide by the electric current; an amalgam of calcium was obtained, but the separation of the mercury was so difficult that even Davy himself was not sure as to whether he had obtained pure metallic calcium.
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  • It readily dissolves sodium and potassium, giving in each case a dark blue solution.
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  • The hydrogen in ammonia is capable of replacement by metals, thus magnesium burns in the gas with the formation of magnesium nitride Mg3N2, and when the gas is passed over heated sodium or potassium, sodamide, NaNH 2, and potassamide, KNH 2, are formed.
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  • Ammonium nitrate, NH 4 NO 3, is prepared by neutralizing nitric acid with ammonia, or ammonium carbonate, or by double decomposition between potassium nitrate and ammonium sulphate.
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  • Compounds are known which may be looked upon as derived from ammonia by the replacement of its hydrogen by the sulpho-group (HS0 3); thus potassium ammon-trisulphonate,N(SO 3 K) 3.2H20,is obtained as a crystalline precipitate on the addition of excess of potassium sulphite to a solution of potassium nitrite, KN02+3K2S03+2H20=N(S03K) 3 +4KHO.
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  • The amount of ammonia in ammonium salts can be estimated quantitatively by distillation of the salts with sodium or potassium hydroxide, the ammonia evolved being absorbed in a known volume of standard sulphuric acid and the excess of acid then determined volumetrically; or the ammonia may be absorbed in hydrochloric acid and the ammonium chloride so formed precipitated as ammonium chlorplatinate, (NH4)2PtC16.
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  • Moissan in 1886 by the electrolysis of pure anhydrous hydrofluoric acid containing dissolved potassium fluoride.
    0
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  • Potassium and sodium readily dissolve in the anhydrous acid with evolution of hydrogen and formation of x.
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  • The atomic weight of fluorine has been determined by the conversion of calcium, sodium and potassium fluorides into the corresponding sulphates.
    0
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  • From this source all soils contain small proportions of sodium in soluble forms, hence the ashes of plants, although they preferably imbibe potassium salts, contain traces and sometimes notable quantities of sodium salts.
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  • Electrolytic processes had, in fact, been considered since 1851, when Charles Watt patented his method for the production of sodium and potassium from fused chlorides.
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  • Among the difficulties here to be contended with are the destructive action of fused chlorides and of the reduced alkali metals upon most non-metallic substances available for the containing vessel and its partition, and also of the anode chlorine upon metals; also the low fusing-point (95° C. for sodium, and 62° C. for potassium) and the low specific gravity of the metals, so that the separated metal floats as a fused layer upon the top of the melted salt.
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  • Matthiessen, sodium ranks fourth to silver, copper and gold as a conductor of electricity and heat, and according to Bunsen it is the most electropositive metal with the exception of caesium, rubidium and potassium.
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  • A fragment thrown on the surface of water rapidly disengages hydrogen, which gas, however, does not inflame, as happens with potassium; but inflammation occurs if hot water be used, or if the metal be dropped on moist filter paper.
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  • Heated in a current of carbon dioxide sodamide yields caustic soda and cyanamide, and with nitrous oxide it gives sodium azoimide; it deflagrates with lead or silver nitrate and explodes with potassium chlorate.
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  • Generally speaking, sodium salts closely resemble the corresponding potassium salts, and their methods of preparation are usually the same.
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  • (4) Soda tartarata (Rochelle salt), a tartrate of sodium and potassium, from which is made pelvis sodae tartaratae effervescens, known as Seidlitz powder.
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  • The symptoms and treatment are the same as described under Potassium.
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  • The salts of sodium resemble potassium in their action on the alimentary tract, but they are much more slowly absorbed, and much less diffusible; therefore considerable amounts may reach the small intestine and there act as saline purgatives.
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  • On the latter they act as diuretics, but less powerfully than potassium, increasing the flow of water and the output of urea and rendering the urine less acid.
    0
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  • Sodium salts have not the depressant effect so marked in those of potassium.
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  • A variety of animal charcoal is sometimes prepared by calcining fresh blood with potassium carbonate in large cylinders, the mass being purified by boiling out with dilute hydrochloric acid and subsequent reheating.
    0
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  • It may also be prepared by heating formic and oxalic acids (or their salts) with concentrated sulphuric acid (in the case of oxalic acid, an equal volume of carbon dioxide is produced); and by heating potassium ferrocyanide with a large excess of concentrated sulphuric acid, K 4 Fe(CN) 6 -i-6H2S04+6H20=2K2S04+FeS04+3(NH4)2S04+6C0.
    0
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  • The gas is rapidly absorbed by solutions of the caustic alkalis, with the production of alkaline carbonates (q.v.), and it combines readily with potassium hydride to form potassium formate.
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  • It Is Also Formed When Sulphur Trioxide Reacts With Carbon Bisulphide At 100° C., Cs2 3S03 =Cos 4So 2, And By The Decomposition Of Ethyl Potassium Thiocarbonate With Hydrochloric Acid, Co(0C2115)Sk Hc1= Cos Kc1 C 2 H 5 Oh.
    0
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  • Hot concentrated nitric acid oxidizes it to picric acid and oxalic acid, whilst on treatment with hydrochloric acid and potassium chlorate it yields chloranil (tetrachloroquinone).
    0
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  • Quinone-dioxime, HON: C 6 H 4: NOH, crystallizes in colourless or yellow needles, which decompose when heated to about 240° C. Potassium ferrocyanide in alkaline solution oxidizes it to dinitrosobenzene, whilst cold concentrated nitric acid oxidizes it to para-dinitrobenzene.
    0
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  • These potassium minerals are not confined to Stassfurt; larger quantities of sylvine and kainite are met with in the salt mines of Kalusz in the eastern Carpathian Mountains.
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  • Such potassiferous silicates are found in almost all rocks, both as normal and as accessory components; and their disintegration furnishes the soluble potassium salts which are found in all fertile soils.
    0
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  • In fact, the ashes of herbs generally are richer in potash than those of the trunks and branches of trees; yet, for obvious reasons, the latter are of greater industrial importance as sources of potassium carbonate.
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  • According to Liebig, potassium is the essential alkali of the animal body; and it may be noted that sheep excrete most of the potassium which they take from the land as sweat, one-third of the weight of raw merino consisting of potassium compounds.
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  • On placing a piece of potash on a platinum plate, connected to the negative of a powerful electric battery, and bringing a platinum wire, connected to the positive of the battery, to the surface of the potassium a vivid action was observed: gas was evolved at the upper surface of the fused globule of potash, whilst at the lower surface, adjacent to the platinum plate, minute metallic globules were formed, some of which immediately inflamed, whilst others merely tarnished.
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  • Brunner's process consisted in forming an intimate mixture of potassium carbonate and carbon by igniting crude tartar in covered iron crucibles, cooling the mass, and then distilling it at a white heat from iron bottles, the vaporized metal being condensed beneath the surface of paraffin or naphtha contained in a copper vessel.
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  • It was found, however, that if the cooling be not sufficiently rapid explosions occurred owing to the combination of the metal with carbon monoxide (produced in the oxidation of the charcoal) to form the potassium salt of hexaoxybenzene.
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  • The metal, however, is not in great demand, for it is generally found that sodium, which is cheaper, and, weight for weight, more reactive, will fulfil any purpose for which potassium may be desired.
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  • Pure potassium is a silvery white metal tinged with blue; but on exposure to air it at once forms a film of oxide, and on prolonged exposure deliquesces into a solution of hydrate and carbonate.
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  • A pellet of potassium when thrown on water at once bursts out into a violet flame and the burning metal fizzes about on the surface, its extremely high temperature precluding absolute contact with the liquid, exce p t at the very end, when the last remnant, through loss of temperature, is wetted by the water and bursts with explosive violence.
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  • The reaction may be written 2K+ 211 2 0= 2K0H+H2, and the flame is due to the combustion of the hydrogen, the violet colour being occasioned by the potassium vapour.
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  • The metal also reacts with alcohol to form potassium ethylate, while hydrogen escapes, this time without inflammation: K+C 2 H 5.
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  • When heated to redness the amide is decomposed into ammonia and potassium nitride, NK 3, which is an almost black solid.
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  • - Potassium forms two well-defined oxides, K 2 0 and K204, whilst several others, of less certain existence, have been described.
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  • Potassium hydroxide or caustic potash, KOH, formerly considered to be an oxide but shown subsequently to be a hydroxide of potassium, may be obtained by dissolving the metal or monoxide in water, but is manufactured by double decomposition from potassium carbonate and slaked lime: K 2 CO 3 -E-Ca(OH) 2 =2KOH+CaC03.
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  • At a white heat the vapour breaks down into potassium, hydrogen and oxygen.
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  • All commercial caustic potash is contaminated with excess of water (over and above that in the KHO) and with potassium carbonate and chloride; sulphate, as a rule, is absent.
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  • Exposed to moist air it loses oxygen, possibly giving the dioxide, K 2 0 2; water reacts with it, evolving much heat and giving caustic potash, hydrogen peroxide and oxygen; whilst carbon monoxide gives potassium carbonate and oxygen at temperatures below loo°.
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  • - Potassium fluoride, KF, is a very deliquescent salt, crystallizing in cubes and having a sharp saline taste, which is formed by neutralizing potassium carbonate or hydroxide with hydrofluoric acid and concentrating in platinum vessels.
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  • Potassium chloride, KC1, also known as muriate of potash, closely resembles ordinary salt.
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  • For the purpose of the manufacturer of this salt these are assorted into a raw material containing approximately, in Ioo parts, 55-65 of carnallite (representing 16 parts of potassium chloride), 20-25 of common salt, 15-20 of kieserite; 2-4 of tachhydrite (CaC12 2MgC12 12H20), and minor components.
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  • The decanted ley deposits on standing a 70% potassium chloride, which is purified by washing with cold water.
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  • The carnallite produced is dissolved in hot water and the solution allowed to cool, when it deposits a coarse granular potassium chloride containing up to 99% of the pure substance.
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  • Chemically pure chloride of potassium is most conveniently prepared from the pure perchlorate by heating it in a platinum basin at the lowest temperature and then fusing the residue in a wellcovered platinum crucible.
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  • If the original solution contained the chlorides of magnesium or calcium or sulphate of potassium all impurities remain in the mother-liquor (the sulphur as KHS04), and can be removed by washing the precipitate with strong hydrochloric acid.
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  • It is extensively employed for the preparation of other potassium salts, but the largest quantity (especially of the impure product) is used in the production of artificial manures.
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  • Potassium iodide, KI, is obtained by dissolving iodine in potash, the deoxidation of the iodate being facilitated by the addition of charcoal before ignition, proceeding as with the bromide.
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  • The commercial salt usually has an alkaline reaction; it may be purified by dissolving in the minimum amount of water, and neutralizing with dilute sulphuric acid; alcohol is now added to precipitate the potassium sulphate, the solution filtered and crystallized.
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  • This salt is very deliquescent; it melts at 45°, and at 100° decomposes into iodine and potassium iodide.
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  • Potassium bicarbonate, Khco 3, is obtained when carbonic acid is passed through a cold solution of the ordinary carbonate as long as it is absorbed.
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  • The filtrate is evaporated at a temperature not exceeding 60° or at most 70° C.; after sufficient concentration it deposits on cooling anhydrous crystals of the salt, while the potassium chloride, which may be present as an impurity, remains mostly in the motherliquor; the rest is easily removed by repeated recrystallization.
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  • Potassium sulphide, K 2 S, was obtained by Berzelius in pale red crystals by passing hydrogen over potassium sulphate, and by Berthier as a flesh-coloured mass by heating the sulphate with carbon.
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  • The solution is strongly caustic. It turns yellow on exposure to air, absorbing oxygen and carbon dioxide and forming thiosulphate and potassium carbonate and liberating sulphuretted hydrogen, which decomposes into water and sulphur, the latter combining with the monosulphide to form higher salts.
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  • The hydrosulphide, KHS, was obtained by Gay-Lussac on heating the metal in sulphuretted hydrogen, and by Berzelius on acting with sulphuretted hydrogen on potassium carbonate at a dull red heat.
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  • Potassium sulphite, K 2 S0 3, is prepared by saturating a potash solution with sulphur dioxide, adding a second equivalent of potash, and crystallizing in a vacuum, when the salt separates as small deliquescent, hexagonal crystals.
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  • The salt K2S03 H20 may be obtained by crystallizing the metabisulphite, K 2 S 2 0 5 (from sulphur dioxide and a hot saturated solution of the carbonate, or from sulphur dioxide and a mixture of milk of lime and potassium sulphate) with an equivalent amount of potash.
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  • On the isomeric potassium sodium sulphites see Sulphur.
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  • Potassium sulphate, K2S04, a salt known early in the 14th century, and studied by Glauber, Boyle and Tachenius, was styled in the 17th century arcanum or sal duplicatum, being regarded as a combination of an acid salt with an alkaline salt.
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  • Analysis, &c. - All volatile potassium compounds impart a violet coloration to the Bunsen flame, which is masked, however, if sodium be present.
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  • - Numerous salts and preparations of potassium are used in medicine; viz.
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  • In the stomach potassium salts neutralize the gastric acid, and hence small doses are useful in hyperchloridia.
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  • Potassium salts are strongly diuretic, acting directly on the renal epithelium.
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  • Potassium nitrate is chiefly used to make nitre paper, which on burning emits fumes useful in the treatment of the asthmatic paroxysm.
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  • Lozenges of potassium chlorate are used in stomatitis, tonsilitis and pharyngitis, it can also be used in a gargle, to grs.
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  • The action of potassium bromide and potassium iodide has been treated under bromine and iodine (q.v.).
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  • All potassium salts if taken in large doses are cardiac depressants, they also depress the nervous system, especially the brain and spinal cord.
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  • Wood has studied the iridescent colours seen when a precipitate of potassium silicofluoride is produced by adding silicofluoric acid to a solution of potassium chloride, and found that they are due to the same cause, the refractive index of the minute crystals precipitated being about the same as that of the solution, which latter can be varied by dilution.
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  • Zinc and hydrochloric acid in the cold convert it into alloxantin, hydroxylamine gives nitroso-barbituric acid, C 4 H 2 N 2 0 3: NOH, baryta water gives alloxanic acid, C 4 H 4 N 2 0 5, hot dilute nitric acid oxidizes it to parabanic acid, hot potassium hydroxide solution hydrolyses it to urea and mesoxalic acid and zinc and hot hydrochloric acid convert it into dialuric acid, C4H4N204.
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  • Iodine does not occur in nature in the uncombined condition, but is found very widely but sparingly distributed in the form of iodides and iodates, chiefly of sodium and potassium.
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  • Commercial iodine may be purified by mixing it with a little potassium iodide and then subliming the mixture; in this way any traces of bromine or chlorine are removed.
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  • Stas recommends solution of the iodine in potassium iodide and subsequent precipitation by the addition of a large excess of water, the precipitate being washed, distilled in steam, and dried in vacuo over solid calcium nitrate, and then over solid caustic baryta.
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  • The iodides can be prepared either by direct union of iodine with a metal, from hydriodic acid and a metal, oxide, hydroxide or carbonate, or by action of iodine on some metallic hydroxides or carbonates (such as those of potassium, sodium, barium, &c.; other products, however, are formed at the same time).
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  • The solution is readily decomposed on the addition of sodium or potassium bicarbonates, with liberation of iodine.
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  • The iodates of the alkali metals are, however, readily soluble in water (except potassium iodate).
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  • The most commonly used salt is the iodide of potassium; the iodides of sodium and ammonium are almost as frequently employed, and those of calcium and strontium are in occasional use.
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  • Small quantities of the iodate (KIO 3) are a frequent impurity in iodide of potassium, and cause the congeries of symptoms known as iodism.
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  • It is a monobasic acid, forming one normal and two acid potassium salts, and basic salts with iron, aluminium, lead and copper.
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  • The acetates constitute a valuable group of medicinal agents, the potassium salt being most frequently employed.
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  • Those of the heavy metals are mostly insoluble in water, but are soluble in a solution of potassium cyanide, forming more or less stable double salts, for example KAg(NC)2, KAu(NC) 2.
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  • Lead cyanide, Pb(NC) 2, however, does not form such a salt, and is insoluble in potassium cyanide solution.
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  • It is obtained by passing ammonia gas over hot coal; by subliming a mixture of ammonium chloride and potassium cyanide; by passing a mixture of ammonia gas and chloroform vapour through a red hot tube; and by heating a mixture of ammonia and carbon monoxide: CO+2NH 3 = NH 4 NC+H 2 0.
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  • Barium cyanide, Ba(NC) 2, prepared by the action of potassium cyanide on baryta, or by passing air over a heated mixture of barium carbonate and coal, is a white solid, which when heated with water to 300° C. loses the whole of its nitrogen in the form of ammonia.
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  • Silver cyanide, AgNC, is formed as a white precipitate by adding potassium cyanide to silver nitrate solution; or better, by adding silver nitrate to potassium silver cyanide, KAg(NC) 2, this double cyanide being obtained by the addition of one molecular proportion of potassium cyanide to one molecular proportion of silver nitrate, the white precipitate so formed being then dissolved by adding a second equivalent of potassium cyanide.
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  • Dilute mineral acids decompose it with the formation of insoluble silver cyanide and hydrocyanic acid: KNC AgNC+HN03=HCN+ KNO 3 +AgNC. A boiling solution of potassium chloride with the double cyanide gives silver chloride and potassium cyanide.
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  • Potassium cyanide, KNC, and sodium cyanide, NaNC, are two of the most important of the salts of hydrocyanic acid, the former being manufactured in large quantities for consumption in the extraction of gold.
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  • Rossler and Hasslacher prepare the double potassium sodium cyanide by fusing potassium ferrocyanide with sodium, the product of fusion being extracted with water and the solution evaporated: K 4 Fe(NC) 6 +2Na = Fe+ 4KNC 2NaNC. This process gives a product free from cyanate, which was always formed in the older fusion processes.
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  • The potassium sulphocyanide is obtained from ammonium sulphocyanide, which is formed by washing crude coal gas with water containing suspended sulphur.
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  • The sulphocyanide is converted into the potassium salt by adding potassium sulphate, and finally desulphurized by lead, zinc, or iron.
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  • Potassium cyanide is an excessively poisonous, colourless, deliquescent solid; it is readily soluble in water, but almost insoluble in absolute alcohol.
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  • The double cyanides formed by the solution of the cyanide of a heavy metal in a solution of potassium cyanide are decomposed by mineral acids with liberation of hydrocyanic acid and formation of the cyanide of the heavy metal.
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  • Potassium ferrocyanide, K 4 Fe(NC) 6, (yellow prussiate of potash), was first obtained by decomposing Prussian blue with caustic potash: Fe4[Fe(NC)6]3 + 12KHO = 3K 4 Fe(NC) 6 +4Fe(OH) 3; it may be also obtained by warming a solution of ferrous sulphate with an excess of potassium cyanide: FeS04-I-6KNC = K4Fe(NC)6+ K2S04.
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  • The soluble salts are removed by lixiviation, and the residue is boiled with lime to form the soluble calcium ferrocyanide, which is finally converted into the potassium salt by potassium chloride or carbonate.
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  • When fused with potassium carbonate it yields potassium cyanide; warmed with dilute sulphuric acid it yields hydrocyanic acid, but with concentrated sulphuric acid it yields carbon monoxide: 6H 2 O + K 4 Fe(NC) 6 + 6H 2 SO 4 = 2K 2 SO 4 + FeSO 4 + 3(NH4)2S04 + 6C0.
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  • Potassium ferrocyanide may be estimated quantitatively in acid solution by oxidation to ferricyanide by potassium permanganate (in absence of other reducing agents): 5K 4 Fe(NC)s + KMnO 4 + 4H2S04= 5K 3 Fe(NC)s + 3K2S04+MnS04+4H20.
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  • Hydroferrocyanic acid, H 4 Fe(NC)s, is best obtained by decomposing the lead salt with sulphuretted hydrogen under water, or by passing hydrochloric acid gas into a concentrated ether solution of the potassium salt.
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  • On the small scale it may be prepared by adding an acid solution of a ferrous salt to a solution of potassium ferrocyanide.
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