How to use Potash in a sentence
All other soaps result from the combination' of fatty oils and fat with potash or soda solutions under conditions which favour saponification.
With fused potash it forms potassium oxalate and acetate.
These are washed with ammonium chloride until the filtrate is colourless, ignited, fused with caustic potash and nitre, the melt dissolved in water and nitric acid added to the solution until the colour of potassium ruthenate disappears.
The higher regions produce cork trees, oaks, pines, chestnuts, &c., but the forests have been largely destroyed by speculators, who burned the trees for charcoal and potash, purchasing them on a large scale from the state.
Potash solution converts it into a mixture of potassium cyanide and cyanate.Advertisement
The alkaloid is obtained from an aqueous extract of tobacco by distillation with slaked lime, the distillate being acidified with oxalic acid, concentrated to a syrup and decomposed by potash.
With bromine in acetic acid solution at ordinary temperature, nicotine yields a perbromide, C10H10Br2N20 HBr 3, which with sulphur dioxide, followed by potash, gives dibromcotinine, C10H10Br2N20, from which cotinine, C10H12N20, is obtained by distillation over zinc dust.
The electromotive force of each cell is i 07 volts and the resistance 3 ohms. The Fuller bichromate battery consists of an outer jar containing a solution of bichromate of potash and sulphuric acid, in which a plate of hard carbon is immersed; in the jar there is also a porous pot containing dilute sulphuric acid and a small quantity (2 oz.) of mercury, in which stands a stout zinc rod.
Molybdenum monoxide, MoO.n(H 2 O), is a black powder obtained when the dichloride is boiled with concentrated potash solution.
Dvina, which falls into the sea below Riga, is shallow above the rapids of Jacobstadt, but navigation is carried on as far as Vitebsk - corn, timber, potash, flax, &c., being the principal shipments of its navigable tributaries (the Obsha, Ulla and Kasplya).Advertisement
This last class trades with the other three and despatches caravans to Illorin and other places, where the Kano goods, the "potash" and other merchandise are exchanged for kolas and European goods.
Of mineral constituents, whether used alone or in mixture with nitrogenous manures, phosphates are much more effective than mixtures of salts of potash, soda and magnesia.
Other essential conditions of success will commonly include the liberal application of potash and phosphatic manures, and sometimes chalking or liming for the leguminous crop. As to how long the leguminous crop should occupy the land, the extent to which it should be consumed on the land, or the manure from its consumption be returned, and under what conditions the whole or part of it should be ploughed in - these are points which must be decided as they arise in practice.
But much less potash than phosphoric acid is exported in the cereal grains, much more being retained in the straw, whilst the other products of the rotation - the root and leguminous crops - which are also supposed to be retained on the farm, contain very much more potash than the cereals, and comparatively little of it is exported in meat and milk.
Thus the whole of the crops of rotation take up very much more of potash than of phosphoric acid, whilst probably even less of it is ultimately lost to the land.Advertisement
Of lime, very little is taken up by the cereal crops, and by the root-crops much less than of potash; more by the leguminous than by the other crops, and, by the clover especially, sometimes much more than by all the other crops of the rotation put together.
The nitric acid is most likely taken up chiefly as nitrate of lime, but probably as nitrate of potash also, and it is significant that the high nitrogen-yielding clover takes up, or at least retains, very little soda.
Using average prices paid for nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash when bought in large quantities and in good forms, these ingredients, in a ton of cotton seed, amount to $9.00 worth of fertilizing material.
The hulls thus burned produced an ash containing an average of 9% of phosphoric acid and 24% of potash - a very valuable fertilizer in itself, and one eagerly sought by growers of tobacco and vegetables.
In a scientific definition the compounds of fatty acids with basic metallic oxides, lime, magnesia, lead oxide, &c., should also be included under soap; but, as these compounds are insoluble in water, while the very essence of a soap in its industrial relations is solubility, it is better to speak of the insoluble compounds as " plasters, " limiting the name " soap " as the compounds of fatty acids with soda and potash.Advertisement
The corresponding decomposition of a glyceride into an acid and glycerin takes place when the glyceride is distilled in superheated steam, or by boiling in water mixed with a suitable proportion of caustic potash or soda.
But in this case the fatty acid unites with the alkali into its potash or soda salt, forming a soap C3H5(C16H3102)3+3NaOH =3NaC16H3102+C,H5(OH) 3 Palmitin.
Almost without exception potash soaps, even if made from the solid fatty acids, are " soft," and soda soaps, although made with fluid olein, are " hard "; but there are considerable variations according to the prevailing fatty acid in the compound.
Potash soap with the same reagent undergoes double decomposition - a proportion being changed into a soda soap with the formation of potassium chloride.
Resin soaps are compounds of soda or potash with the complex acids (chiefly abietic) of which coniferous resins consist.Advertisement
Soft Soap. - Soft soaps are made with potash lyes, although in practice a small quantity of soda is also used to give the soap some consistence.
There is no separation of underlyes in potash soap, consequently the product contains the whole constituents of the oils used, as the operation of salting out is quite impracticable owing to the double decomposition which results from the action of salt, producing thereby a hard principally soda soap with formation of potassium chloride.
It is also oxidized when fused with caustic potash and nitre, forming a ruthenate.
Fusion with caustic potash converts it into a mixture of potassium ruthenate and ruthenium sesquioxide, Ru 2 0 3, which is a black, almost insoluble powder.
Potassium ruthenate, K2Ru04 H20, obtained by fusion of the metal with caustic potash and nitre, crystallizes in prisms which become covered with a black deposit on exposure to moist air.Advertisement
When fused with caustic potash it yields phenol and salicylic acid.
On fusion with caustic potash it decomposes with formation of tetrahydroxy-benzophenone, which then breaks up into resorcin and hydroquinone.
The general tendency of this period appears to have taken the form of improving and developing the methods of the alchemists; 1 The definite distinction between potash and soda was first established by Duhamel de Monceau (1700-1781).
Thus potassium ortho-oxybenzoate is converted into the salt of para-oxybenzoic acid at 220 0; the three bromphenols, and also the brombenzenesulphonic acids, yield m-dioxybenzene or resorcin when fused with potash.
Horbaczewski's method, which consists in boiling the substance with strong potash, saturating the cold solution` with chlorine, adding hydrochloric acid, and boiling till no more chlorine is liberated, and then testing for sulphuric acid with barium chloride.Advertisement
The other end is connected with the absorption vessels, which consist of a tube (e) containing calcium chloride, and a set of bulbs (f) containing potash solution.
Various forms of potash bulbs are employed; fig.
After having previously roasted the tube and copper oxide, and reduced the copper spiral a, the weighed calcium chloride tube and potash bulbs are put in position, the boat containing the substance is inserted (in the case of a difficultly combustible substance it is desirable to mix it with cupric oxide or lead chromate), the copper spiral (d) replaced, and the air and oxygen supply connected up. The apparatus is then tested for leaks.
When there is no more absorption in the potash bulbs, the oxygen supply is cut off and air passed through.
The increase in weight of the calcium chloride tube gives the weight of water formed, and of the potash bulbs the carbon dioxide.Advertisement
The oxidation, which is effected by chromic acid and sulphuric acid, is conducted in a flask provided with a funnel and escape tube, and the carbon dioxide formed is swept by a current of dry air, previously freed from carbon dioxide, through a drying tube to a set of potash bulbs and a tube containing soda-lime; if halogens are present, a small wash bottle containing potassium iodide, and a U tube containing glass wool moistened with silver nitrate on one side and strong sulphuric acid on the other, must be inserted between the flask and the drying tube.
The increase in weight of the potash bulbs and soda-lime tube gives the weight of carbon dioxide evolved.
The magnesite (a) serves for the generation of carbon dioxide which clears the tube of air before the compound (mixed with fine copper oxide (b)) is burned, and afterwards sweeps the liberated nitrogen into the receiving vessel (e), which contains a strong potash solution; c is coarse copper oxide; and d a reduced copper gauze spiral, heated in order to decompose any nitrogen oxides.
For example, episomorphs of white potash alum and violet chrome alum, of white magnesium sulphate and green nickel sulphate, and of many other pairs of salts, have been obtained.
A boiling solution of caustic potash hydrolyses it to ammonia and succinic acid.Advertisement
In 1807 he decomposed potash and soda, previously considered to be elements, by passing the current from a powerful battery through the moistened solids, and thus isolated the metals potassium and sodium.
In dilute solution such substances as hydrochloric acid and potash are almost completely dissociated, so that, instead of representing the reaction as HC1+KOH = KC1 d-H20, we must write The ions K and Cl suffer no change, but the hydrogen of the acid and the hydroxyl (OH) of the potash unite to form water, which is only very slightly dissociated.
Grease must be removed by potash, whiting or other means, and tarnish by an acid or potassium cyanide, washing in plenty of water being resorted to after each operation.
A hydrated oxide, 2PbO H 2 O, is obtained when a solution of the monoxide in potash is treated with carbon dioxide.
Lead sesquioxide, Pb203, is obtained as a reddish-yellow amorphous powder by carefully adding sodium hypochlorite to a cold potash solution of lead oxide, or by adding very dilute ammonia to a solution of red lead in acetic acid.Advertisement
The beautiful yellow precipitate is little soluble in dilute nitric acid, but soluble in caustic potash.
Potash alum is the common alum of commerce, although both soda alum and ammonium alum are manufactured.
The presence of sulphuric acid in potash alum was known to the alchemists.
This property seems to characterize a solution of iron sulphate in water; a solution of ordinary (potash) alum would possess no such property.
Alcoholic potash decomposes it into piperidine, C5H,1N, and piperic acid, C 12 H 10 O 4.
Conversely, by heating protocatechuic acid with potash and methylene iodide, piperonylic acid was regained.
Precipitated stannous hydrate dissolves readily in caustic potash; if the solution is evaporated quickly it suffers decomposition, with formation of metal and stannate, 2SnO+2KOH = K2Sn03+Sn+H20.
This acid, H 2 Sn0 3, is readily soluble in acids forming stannic salts, and in caustic potash and soda, with the formation of orthostannates.
From whatever cause the tissues become disorganized and undergo fatty degeneration, the fatty acids may become liberated and combine with the alkalies to form potash and soda soaps.
The potash and soda is then gradually replaced by calcium to.
The essential materials of which these mixtures are made are, for English flint glass, sand, carbonate of potash and red lead; for plate and sheet glass, sand, carbonate or sulphate of soda.
The older optical glasses, now generally known as the " ordinary " crown and flint glasses, are all of the nature of pure silicates, the basic constituents being, in the case of crown glasses, lime and soda or lime and potash, or a mixture of both, and in the case of flint glasses, lead and either (or both) soda and potash.
A more important outcome, however, of Italian influence was the production, in emulation of Venetian glass, of a glass made of refined potash, lime and sand, which was more colourless than the material it was intended to imitate.
The term flint-glass is now understood to mean a glass composed of the silicates of potash and lead.
The invention, if it may be regarded as one, consisted in eliminating lime from the glass mixture, substituting refined potash for soda, and using a very large proportion of lead oxide.
The former is completely decomposed when fused with caustic potash and the latter by a prolonged boiling with nitric acid.
When heated with ammonia it yields guanidine, and on boiling with alcoholic potash it yields potassium carbonate.
Of metals not decomposing liquid pure water, only a few dissolve in aqueous caustic potash or soda, with evolution of hydrogen.
In addition to the manufacture of woollen wares, for which it has long been known, there is now extensive production of vinegar, paraffin, potash and especially beetroot-sugar; while the surrounding district, which was formerly devoted in great part to marketgardening, is now turned almost entirely into beetroot fields.
The diortho and dipara dinitro compounds result from the action of alcoholic potash on orthoand para-nitrobenzyl chlorides.
The sulphur exists in the soil chiefly in the form of sulphates of magnesium, calcium and other metals; the phosphorus mainly as phosphates of calcium, magnesium and iron; the potash, soda and other bases as silicates and nitrates; calcium and magnesium carbonates are also common constituents of many soils.
In the ordinary chemical analyses of the soil determinations are made of the nitrogen and various carbonates present as well as of the amount of phosphoric acid, potash, soda, magnesia and other components soluble in strong hydrochloric acid.
Soils containing less than 25% of potash are likely to need special application of potash fertilizers to give good results, while those containing as much as.
In soils where the potash available to citric acid is less than.
It has long been known that when organic materials such as the dung and urine of animals, or even the bodies of animals and plants, are applied to the soil, the nitrogen within them becomes oxidized, and ultimately appears in the form of nitrate of lime, potash or some other base.
It also sets free potash and possibly other useful plant food-constituents of the soil.
The beneficial effects of marls may also be partially due to the presence in them of available potash.
The burnt clay moreover carried Cl ay with it potash and other materials in a state readily available to the crops.
On the light, poor sands of Saxony Herr Schultz, of Lupitz, made use of serradella, yellow lupins and vetches as green manures for enriching the land in humus and nitrogen, and found the addition of potash salts and phosphates very profitable for the subsequent growth of potatoes and wheat.
Zinc is also soluble in soda and potash solutions, but not in ammonia.
Zinc hydroxide, Zn (OH) 2, is prepared as a gelatinous precipitate by adding a solution of any zinc salt to caustic potash.
Rejecting the old notion that plants derive their nourishment from humus, he taught that they get carbon and nitrogen from the carbon dioxide and ammonia present in the atmosphere, these compounds being returned by them to the atmosphere by the processes of putrefaction and fermentation - which latter he regarded as essentially chemical in nature - while their potash, soda, lime, sulphur, phosphorus, &c., come from the soil.
The pure substances are best obtained by fusion of the corresponding toluene sulphonic acids with potash.
It may be prepared by fusion of ortho-toluene sulphonic acid with potash; by the action of phosphorus pentoxide on carvacrol; or by the action of zinc chloride on camphor.
Propylene is liberated during the reaction, and the phosphoric acid ester of meta-cresol which is formed is then fused with potash.
It may be prepared by the fusion of para-toluene sulphonic acid with potash; by the action of nitrous acid on para-toluidine; or by heating para-oxyphenyl acetic acid with lime.
Titanium trioxide, T103, is obtained as a yellow precipitate by dropping the chloride into alcohol, adding hydrogen peroxide, and finally ammonium carbonate or potash.
When shaken with potash and air it undergoes autoxidation, hydrogen peroxide being formed first, which converts the trioxide into the dioxide and possibly pertitanic acid.
Primary amines when heated with alcoholic potash and chloroform yield isonitriles, which are readily detected by their offensive smell.
Instances of its application are found in the separation of orthoand para-nitrophenol, the o-compound distilling and the p- remaining behind; in the separation of aniline from the mixture obtained by reducing nitrobenzene; of the naphthols from the melts produced by fusing the naphthalene monosulphonic acids with potash; and of quinoline from the reaction between aniline, nitrobenzene, glycerin, and sulphuric acid (the product being first steam distilled to remove any aniline, nitrobenzene, or glycerin, then treated with alkali, and again steam distilled when quinoline comes over).
The best yield of chlorate was obtained when from I to 4% of caustic potash was present.
In Berzelius' system + potassium sulphate is to be regarded as K 2 0.S0 3; electrolysis should simply effect the disruption of the positive and negative components, potash passing with the current, and sulphuric acid against the current.
Experiment showed, however, that instead of only potash appearing at the negative electrode, hydrogen is also liberated; this is inexplicable by Berzelius's theory, but readily explained by the " hydrogen-acid " theory.
By this theory potassium is liberated at the negative electrode and combines immediately with water to form potash and hydrogen.
We may also notice the disruption of unsaturated acids at the double linkage into a mixture of two acids, when fused with potash.
In this process cellulose (in the form of sawdust) is made into a stiff paste with a mixture of strong caustic potash and soda solution and heated in flat iron pans to 20o-250 C. The somewhat dark-coloured mass is lixiviated with a small amount of warm water in order to remove excess of alkali, the residual alkaline oxalates converted into insoluble calcium oxalate by boiling with milk of lime, the lime salt separated, and decomposed by means of sulphuric acid.
But carbolic acid and caustic potash destroy it only after a day or two, consequently they are not a remedy.
Aurous oxide, Au 2 0, is obtained by cautiously adding potash to a solution of aurous bromide, or by boiling mixed solutions of auric chloride and mercurous nitrate.
When a concentrated solution of auric chloride is treated with caustic potash, a brown precipitate of auric hydrate, Au(OH) 3, is obtained, which, on heating, loses water to form auryl hydrate, AuO(OH), and auric oxide, Au 2 0 3.
The hydrate, Bi(OH) 3 i is obtained as a white powder by adding potash to a solution of a bismuth salt.
Bismuth dioxide, BiO or Bi 2 O 2, is said to be formed by the limited oxidation of the metal, and as a brown precipitate by adding mixed solutions of bismuth and stannous chlorides to a solution of caustic potash.
Bismuth tetroxide, Bi 2 O 4, sometimes termed bismuth bismuthate, is obtained by melting bismuth trioxide with potash, or by igniting bismuth trioxide with potash and potassium chlorate.
Traces of bismuth may be detected by treating the solution with excess of tartaric acid, potash and stannous chloride, a precipitate or dark coloration of bismuth oxide being formed even when only one part of bismuth is present in 20,000 of water.
Tantalum is not affected by alkaline solutions, but is disintegrated when fused with potash.
In the second portion the carbonic acid is driven out by means of a current of hydrogen, collected over mercury and absorbed by caustic potash.
In another form of apparatus advantage is taken of the property possessed by sodium-potassium peroxide of giving off oxygen when damped; the residue of caustic soda and potash yielded by the reaction is used to absorb the carbonic acid of the expired air.
Picric acid can also be obtained from it by first treating acetylene with sulphuric acid, converting the product into phenol by solution in potash and then treating the phenol with fuming nitric acid.
When fused with caustic potash, it gives benzoic acid.
The aqueous product is then dehydrated with potash or lime.
To obtain it perfectly pure the crude alcohol is combined with oxalic, benzoic or acetic acid, and the resulting ester separated, purified, and finally decomposed with potash.
On fusion with caustic potash it yields potassium osmiate.
In this attempt he was unsuccessful, but the observations he made in the course of his experiments induced him, early in 1856, to try the effect of treating aniline sulphate with bichromate of potash.
In point of absolute mass they are insignificant compared with the abundance and variety of potassiferous silicates, which occur everywhere in the earth's crust; orthoclase (potash felspar) and potash mica may be quoted as prominent examples.
Ashes particularly rich in potash are those of burning nettles, wormwood (Artemisia absinthium), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare), fumitory (Fumaria officinalis), and tobacco.
In fact, the ashes of herbs generally are richer in potash than those of the trunks and branches of trees; yet, for obvious reasons, the latter are of greater industrial importance as sources of potassium carbonate.
To Sir Humphry Davy belongs the merit of isolating this element from potash, which itself had previously been considered an element.
It forms a grey brittle mass, having a conchoidal fracture; it is very deliquescent, combining very energetically with water to form caustic potash.
Glass and (to a less extent) porcelain are attacked by caustic potash ley, slowly in the cold, more readily on boiling.
A dilute potash readily emulsionizes fats, and on boiling saponifies them with formation of a soap and glycerin.
All commercial caustic potash is contaminated with excess of water (over and above that in the KHO) and with potassium carbonate and chloride; sulphate, as a rule, is absent.
Potassium chloride, KC1, also known as muriate of potash, closely resembles ordinary salt.
Potassium iodide, KI, is obtained by dissolving iodine in potash, the deoxidation of the iodate being facilitated by the addition of charcoal before ignition, proceeding as with the bromide.
Crude potash is used for the manufacture of glass, and, after being causticized, for the making of soft soap. For many other purposes it must be refined, which is done by treating the crude product with the minimum of cold water required to dissolve the carbonate, removing the undissolved part (which consists chiefly of sulphate), and evaporating the clear liquor to dryness in an iron pan.
The solution is more easily prepared by saturating potash solution with sulphuretted hydrogen.
Potassium sulphite, K 2 S0 3, is prepared by saturating a potash solution with sulphur dioxide, adding a second equivalent of potash, and crystallizing in a vacuum, when the salt separates as small deliquescent, hexagonal crystals.
The salt K2S03 H20 may be obtained by crystallizing the metabisulphite, K 2 S 2 0 5 (from sulphur dioxide and a hot saturated solution of the carbonate, or from sulphur dioxide and a mixture of milk of lime and potassium sulphate) with an equivalent amount of potash.
The salt is soluble in water, but insoluble in caustic potash of sp. gr.
It decomposes in moist air, or with water, giving caustic potash and ammonia, in the latter case with considerable evolution of heat.
From caustic potash are made (I) Potassii Permanganas, dose 1 to 3 grs., used in preparing Liquor Potassii Permanganatis, a I A solution, dose 2 to 4 drs.
Poisoning by caustic potash may take place or poisoning by pearl ash containing caustic potash.
The permanganate of potash is an irritant if used pure.
Potash fusion decomposes it into benzoic and acetic acids.
It is soluble in a solution of caustic potash, a dilute solution most probably containing the hypoiodite, which, however, changes slowly into iodate, the change taking place rapidly on warming.
Potassium ferricyanide, K 3 Fe(NC)s, red prussiate of potash, is obtained by oxidizing potassium ferrocyanide with chlorine, bromine, &c., 2K 4 Fe(NC) 6 + C1 2 = 2K 3 Fe(NC) 6 + 2KC1.
The metallic cyanides may be detected by adding ferrous sulphate, ferric chloride, and hydrochloric acid to their solution, when a precipitate of Prussian blue is produced; if the original solution contains free acid it must be neutralized by caustic potash before the reagents are added.
The amount of hydrocyanic acid in a solution may be determined by adding excess of caustic potash and a small quantity of an alkaline chloride, and running into the dilute solution standard silver nitrate until a faint permanent turbidity (of silver chloride) is produced, that is, until the reaction, 2KNC+AgNO 3 = KAg(NC) 2 - -KNO 3, is completed.
They may be extracted by exhausting the plant-tissues with a dilute acid, and precipitating the bases with potash, soda, lime or magnesia.
Shutt have proved that soils from the NorthWest Provinces contain an average of 18,000 lb of nitrogen, 15,580 lb of potash and 6,700 lb of phosphoric acid per acre, these important elements of plant food being therefore present in much greater abundance than they are in ordinary cultivated European soils of good quality.
Azoxy Compounds, R N O N R', are usually yellow or red crystalline solids which result from the reduction of nitro or nitroso compounds by heating them with alcoholic potash (preferably using methyl alcohol).
After protracted experimenting Sir Thomas Wardle was able in 1873 to show a series of tussurs well dyed in all the darker shades of colour, but the lighter and bright blues, pinks, scarlets, &c., he could not produce, Subsequently Tessie du Motay found that the fawn colour of natural tussur could be discharged by solution of permanganate of potash, but the oxidizing action was so rapid and violent that it destroyed the fibre itself.
The percentage of potash in the ash is as 18 to 23 in wheat.
Potash fusion converts it into acetic acid; nitric acid oxidizes it to acetic and oxalic acids; chromic acid mixture to acetaldehyde and acetic acid, and potassium permanganate to a0-dioxybutyric acid.
Magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH) 2, occurs native as the minerals brucite and nemalite, and is prepared by precipitating solutions of magnesium salts by means of caustic soda or potash.
In the other view the spermatia are the male sexual cells and thus A, Optical longitudinal section of the ex are rightly named; it tremity of a thin branch of the thallus should, however, be which has become transparent in pointed out that this solution of potash.
The substances used as tests in these reactions are caustic potash and calcium hypochlorite; the former being the substance dissolved in an equal weight of water and the latter a saturated extract of bleaching powder in water.
A yellow colour with caustic potash solution is produced not only by atranoric acid but also by evernic acid, thamnolic acid, &c. Again in the case of Xanthoria parietina vulpinic acid is only to be found in young thalli growing on sandstone; in older forms or in those growing on another substratum it is not to be detected.
In 1808 Sir Humphry Davy, fresh from the electrolytic isolation of potassium and sodium, attempted to decompose alumina by heating it with potash in a platinum crucible and submitting the mixture to a current of electricity; in 1809, with a more powerful battery, he raised iron wire to a red heat in contact with alumina, and obtained distinct evidence of the production of an iron-aluminium alloy.
Potassium aluminate, K 2 Al 2 0 4, is obtained in solution by dissolving aluminium hydrate in caustic potash; it is also obtained, as crystals containing three molecules of water, by fusing alumina with potash, exhausting with water, and crystallizing the solution in vacuo.
The industries of the town include sugar-refining, steam mills, brewing, and the manufacture of starch, syrup, spirits, potash and tin ware.
The most commonly used nitrogenous manures are nitrate of soda, nitrate of potash and sulphate of ammonia, the prices of which are constantly fluctuating.
Potash and soda are also valuable inorganic manures in the form of carbonates, sulphates, silicates and phosphates, but the most valuable is the nitrate of potash.
Cheaper substitutes, however, are now found in sulphate of potash, and muriate of potash and kainit.
On this account the salts of soda are of less importance than those of potash.
The value of wood ashes as a manure very much depends upon the carbonate and other salts of potash which they contain.
Soot forms a good top-dressing; it consists principally of charcoal, but contains ammonia and a smaller proportion of phosphates and potash, whence its value as a manure is derived.
Chloroform may be readily detected by the production of an isonitrile when it is heated with alcoholic potash and a primary amine; thus with aniline, phenyl isocyanide (recognized by its nauseating smell) is produced, CHC13+C6H5NH2+3KHO=C6H5NC+3KC1+3H20.
When prepared by the action of metals on bases, zinc or aluminium and caustic soda or caustic potash are used.
Hydrogen may also be obtained by the action of zinc on ammonium salts (the nitrate excepted) (Lorin, Comptes rendus, 1865, 60, p. 745) and by heating the alkali formates or oxalates with caustic potash or soda, Na2C204+2NaOH = H 2 +2Na 2 CO 3.
Formerly famous for its carpets and its oil of roses, Kairawan is now known in northern Africa rather for copper vessels, articles in morocco leather, potash and saltpetre.
Should it be thought that the traces of the more valuable sorts of plant food (such as compounds of nitrogen, phosphates, and potash salts) existing in ordinary brook or river water can never bring an appreciable amount of manurial matter to the soil, or exert an appreciable effect upon the vegetation, yet the quantity of water used during the season must be taken into account.
In his researches on the bleaching compounds of chlorine he was the first to advance the view that bleaching-powder is a double compound of calcium chloride and hypochlorite; and he devoted much time to the problem of economically obtaining soda and potash from seawater, though here his efforts were nullified by the discovery of the much richer sources of supply afforded by the Stassfurt deposits.
Tobacco, leather, linen, carpets and war-material are manufactured in Agram, which also contains the works of the Hungarian state railways, and has a brisk trade in grain, wine, potash, honey, silk and porcelain.
Salt and " potash " are imported from Absen in the Sahara; and ivory, ostrich feathers and leather goods are exported to Tripoli.
For use with wood which is exposed to moisture, as in the case of wooden cisterns, a mixture may be made of 4 parts of linseed oil boiled with litharge, and 8 parts of melted glue; other strong cements for the same purpose are prepared by softening gelatine in cold water and dissolving it by heat in linseed oil, or by mixing glue with one-fourth of its weight of turpentine, or with a little bichromate of potash.
The hydroxide is obtained as brown hexagonal plates by fusing thallic oxide with potash to which a little water has been added.
It may be synthetically prepared by the fusion of cymol sulphonic acid with caustic potash; by the action of nitrous acid on 1-methyl-2-amino-4-propyl benzene; by prolonged heating of 5 parts of camphor with r part of iodine; or by heating carvol with glacial phosphoric acid.
It is extracted from Origanum oil by means of a Io% potash solution.
For the quantitative determination of the metal, the salts are precipitated by caustic potash, the precipitate washed, dried and heated, and finally weighed as the dioxide.
The word " alkali " denotes both soda and potash, but by "alkali manufacture" we understand merely the manufacture of sodium sulphate, carbonate and hydrate.
The corresponding potash compounds are not manufactured in the United Kingdom, but exclusively in Germany (from potassium chloride and from the mother-liquor of the strontia process in the manufacture of beetroot sugar) and in France (from vinasse).
The gaseous mixture, issuing from the latter, is washed with water in the usual condensing apparatus, to remove the 40 or 50 parts of hydrochloric acid left unchanged, and can then be immediately employed for the manufacture of chlorate of potash.
But most of the chlorine is utilized for the production of bleaching-powder, of bleach-liquor, and of chlorate of potash.
When this solution is concentrated by evaporation and cooled down, about five-sixths of the chlorate of potash crystallizes out.
The dibrominated product so obtained was then fused with caustic potash, the melt dissolved in water, and on the addition of hydrochloric acid to the solution, alizarin was precipitated.
Thenard, who had no battery at their disposal, to search for a chemical method of obtaining those metals, and by the action of red-hot iron on fused potash - a method of which Davy admitted the advantages - they succeeded in 1808 in preparing potassium, going on to make a full study of its properties and to use it, as Davy also did, for the reduction of boron from boracic acid in 1809.
His services to industry included his improvements in the processes for the manufacture of sulphuric acid (1818) and oxalic acid (1829); methods of estimating the amount of real alkali in potash and soda by the volume of standard acid required for neutralization, and for estimating the available chlorine in bleaching powder by a solution of arsenious acid; directions for the use of the centesimal alcoholometer published in 1824 and specially commended by the Institute; and the elaboration of a method of assaying silver by a standard solution of common salt, a volume on which was published in 1833.
It is soluble in a mixture of nitric and hydrofluoric acids, and the powdered metal, in aqua regia, but slowly attacked by sulphuric, hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids separately; it is also soluble in boiling potash solution, giving a tunstate and hydrogen.
It dissolves in potash, giving potassium tungstate and hydrogen, and is readily oxidized to the trioxide.
It may be synthetically obtained by distilling oxindole (C 8 H 8 NO) with zinc dust; by heating orthonitrocinnamic acid with potash and iron filings; by the reduction of indigo blue; by the action of sodium ethylate on orthoaminochlorstyrene; by boiling aniline with dichloracetaldehyde; by the dry distillation of ortho-tolyloxamic acid; by heating aniline with dichioracetal; by distilling a mixture of calcium formate and calcium anilidoacetate; and by heating pyruvic acid phenyl hydrazone with anhydrous zinc chloride.
This consists chiefly of cream of tartar (bitartrate of potash), tartrate of lime, yeast cells and of albuminous and colouring matters.
The character of the acidity, however, changes, the free tartaric acid gradually disappearing, forming bitartrate of potash and being otherwise broken up. On the other hand, the free malic acid increases and the tannin decreases.
The main result of plastering is that the soluble tartrates in the wine are decomposed, forming insoluble tartrate of lime and soluble sulphate of potash.
About 1839, on the recommendation of Graham, whom in 1837 he had accompanied to University College, London, he was appointed chemist at James Muspratt's alkali works in Lancashire; in connexion with alkali he showed that cast-iron vessels could be satisfactorily substituted for silver in the manufacture of caustic soda, and worked out improvements in the production of chlorate of potash.
Berthollet by the action of chlorine on caustic potash, and this method was at first used for its manufacture.
In repeating and extending the experiments of Haiiy much later, Sir David Brewster discovered that various artificial salts were pyro-electric, and he mentions the tartrates of potash and soda and tartaric acid as exhibiting this property in a very strong degree.
In 1806 Davy communicated to the Royal Society of London a celebrated paper on some " Chemical Agencies of Electricity," and after providing himself at the Royal Institution of London with a battery of several hundred cells, he announced in 1807 his great discovery of the electrolytic decomposition of the alkalis, potash and soda, obtaining therefrom the metals potassium and sodium.
In the Polyesie the principal occupations are connected with the export of timber and firewood, the preparation of pitch, tar, potash and wooden wares, and boat-building.
A hydrated cuprous oxide, (4Cu 2 O, H 2 0), is obtained as a bright yellow powder, when cuprous chloride is treated with potash or soda.
Cupric hydroxide, Cu(OH) 2, is obtained as a greenish-blue flocculent precipitate by mixing cold solutions of potash and a cupric salt.
This precipitate always contains more or less potash, which cannot be entirely removed by washing.
The oxychloride Cu 3 0 2 C1 2.4H 2 O is obtained as a pale blue precipitate when potash is added to an excess of cupric chloride.
Moringa-tannin or maclurin, C1,H1006 H20, found in Morus tinctoria, hydrolyses on fusion with caustic potash to phloroglucin and protocatechuic acid.
Investigation of the cyanic ethers (1848) yielded a class of substances which opened out a new field in organic chemistry, for, by treating those ethers with caustic potash, he obtained methylamine, the simplest organic derivative of ammonia (1849), and later (1851) the compound ureas.
Calcium chloride gives a white precipitate of calcium tartrate in neutral solutions, the precipitate being soluble in cold solutions of caustic potash but re-precipitated on boiling.
During an attack of acute gout nothing relieves so much as colchicum, but during the intervals potash or lithia salts taken in water are advisable, as tending to prevent the deposits of urate of soda.
The daily use of potash, and especially nitrate of potash, tends to reduce the tension and increase the patient's safety, but if pushed too far may sometimes render him very weak and depressed.
In visiting the most famous wateringplaces, it is curious to note how one finds, in the various waters, here some chloride, there some sulphate, here some potash, there some magnesium, but in all of them we find water.
It is much prized for bedsteads, writing-desks, shoe-lasts, &c. The wood forms excellent fuel and charcoal, while the ashes are rich in alkaline principles, furnishing a large proportion of the potash exported from Boston and New York.
The chief value of the potato as an article of diet consists in the starch it contains, and to a less extent in the potash and other salts.
The "ash" contains on the average of thirty-one analyses as much as 59.8% of potash, and 19.1% of phosphoric acid, the other ingredients being in very minute proportion.
After oxidation, the product is reduced by heating with carbon, care being taken to prevent any loss through volatilization, by covering the mass with a layer of some protective substance such as potash, soda or glauber salt, which also aids the refining.
The amorphous variety may be obtained from the crystalline form by dissolving it in caustic potash or soda or in solutions of alkaline sulphides, and precipitating the hot solution by dilute sulphuric acid.
It is obtained on fusing many resins (galbanum, asafoetida, &c.) with caustic potash, or by the distillation of Brazil-wood extract.
Many ortho and, para-compounds of the aromatic series (for example, the brom-phenols, benzene para-disulphonic acid) also yield resorcin on fusion with caustic potash.
Potash fusion converts it into benzene and benzoic acid.
Narceine, C23H27N08, obtained by the action of potash on the methyl iodide of narcotine, is probably IV.
By the action of various reagents such as lime, caustic potash, hydrochloric acid, &c., acetone is converted into condensation products, mesityl oxide C6H10O, phorone C 9 1 14 0, &c., being formed.
It is also obtained by digesting freshly precipitated silver chloride with potash.
It is reduced to metallic silver by certain metals - zinc, iron, &c. - in the presence of water, by fusion with alkaline carbonates or cyanides, by heating in a current of hydrogen, or by digestion with strong potash solution, or with potassium carbonate and grape sugar.
The oxypyridines may be prepared by distilling the corresponding oxypyridine carboxylic acids with lime, or by fusing the pyridine carboxylic acids with caustic potash.
To prepare it olive oil is saponified with potash, and lead acetate added; the lead salts are separated, dried, and extracted with ether, which dissolves the lead oleate; the solution is then treated with hydrochloric acid, the lead chloride filtered off, the liquid concentrated, and finally distilled under diminished pressure.
In 1810 Gomez of Lisbon obtained a mixture of alkaloids which he named cinchonino, by treating an alcoholic extract of the bark with water and then adding a solution of caustic potash.
It results in the alkaline fusion of many resins, and may be prepared by fusing ortho-phenolsulphonic acid, o-chlorphenol, o-bromphenol, and o-phenoldisulphonic acid with potash, or, better, by heating its methyl ether, guaiacol, C 6 H 4 (OH) (OCH 3), a constituent of beechwood tar, with hydriodic acid.
Another important part of the cure is the so-called moor or mud-baths, prepared from the peat of the Franzensbad marsh, which is very rich in mineral substances, like sulphates of iron, of soda and of potash, organic acids, salt, &c.
It phosphoresces in ozone, but not in air, and is nonpoisonous; from its solution in alcoholic potash acids precipitate the hydride P 12 H 6, and when heated it is transformed into the red modification.
When warmed with alcoholic potash it yields gaseous phosphine, hydrogen and a hypophosphite.
On boiling with caustic potash they evolve hydrogen, yielding a phosphate.
The stomach may be washed out with warm water and then with a 2% solution of permanganate of potash, an enema of the same solution being given.
Lepidine(y-methylquinoline) was first obtained by distilling cinchonine with caustic potash.
The trans-acid is produced on heating pyrazolin-4.5-dicarboxylic ester, or by the action of alcoholic potash on a-bromglutaric ester.
For example, on reduction with zinc and alcoholic potash, the a/' compounds give saturated ketones and also bi-molecular compounds, the Jay being unaffected; the Jay series react with hydroxylamine in a normal manner, the a/3 yield oxamino-oximes.
Of the dihydroterephthalic acids, the A acid is obtained by heating the dibromide of the 2 tetrahydro acid with alcoholic potash.
This scheme is particularly applicable to coal-gas Carbon dioxide is absorbed by a potash solution containing one part of potash to between two and three of water; the stronger solution absorbs about 40 volumes of the gas.
When small in amount, it is better to estimate as carbon dioxide by burning with oxygen and absorbing in potash; when large in amount, the bulk is absorbed in ammoniacal cuprous chloride and the residue burned.
Methane cannot be burnt in this way even when there is much hydrogen present, and several other methods have been proposed, such as mixing with air and aspirating over copper oxide heated to redness, or mixing with oxygen and burning in a platinum tube heated to redness, the carbon dioxide formed being estimated by absorption in potash.
Euler (Ber., 97, 30, 1989) by distilling the addition compound of methyl iodide and 2 3 5-trimethylpyrollidine with caustic potash.
It may also be prepared as a black velvety powder which readily takes up oxygen from the air by adding ferrous oxalate to boiling caustic potash.
Ferrous hydrate, Fe(OH)2, when prepared from a pure ferrous salt and caustic soda or potash free from air, is a white powder which may be preserved in an atmosphere of hydrogen.
Fremy investigated this discovery, made by Stahl in 1702, and showed that the same solution resulted when chlorine is passed into strong potash solution containing ferric hydrate in suspension.
Linen, leather, canvas, cordage, mats, tallow, potash and beer are manufactured.
The nitro-alkyl is then treated with potassium nitrite dissolved in concentrated potash, and sulphuric acid is added.
So long as Mr. Lloyd George was Minister, Dr. Addison was his right-hand man in the strenuous labours of the office, resulting in the enormous multiplication of engines of war, and in the redeeming of many vital industries, fertilizers, tungsten and potash from German control; and when Mr. Lloyd George formed a Government himself in December 1916, he placed him at the head of the department.
He gained a prize of 12,000 gulden (about £1000) for his new method of employing Glauber's salts instead of potash in the making of glass.
When combined with potash or soda it is used to saturate flypapers, and strong solutions can be obtained by soaking these in water; this fact has also been used with criminal intent.
Bromine and potash give anthranilic acid, C 6 H 4 (NH 2) (CO 2 H).
Rocella tinctoria, Lecanora, and formed by fusing extract of aloes with potash.
Large grain elevators have been built, and a new commercial town has grown up. Besides cereals, which amount to 69% of the whole, the exports consist of petroleum and petroleum waste, oilcake, linseed, timber, bran, millet seed, wool, potash, zinc ore and liquorice, the total annual value ranging between 32 and 54 millions sterling.
Fritzsche showed that by treating indigo with caustic potash it yielded an oil, which he named aniline, from the specific name of one of the indigo-yielding plants, Indigofera anil, anil being derived from the Sanskrit nila, dark-blue, and nila, the indigo plant.
Potassium chromate, K2Cr04, may be prepared by neutralizing a solution of potassium bichromate with potassium carbonate or with caustic potash.
It is readily soluble in caustic potash, but insoluble in ammonia.
Caustic potash and caustic soda are locally very irritating, and destroy the tissues, but lose this quality when combined with acids as in the case of their carbonates, bicarbonates and borax.
Some clays, however, such as fireclays, contain very little potash or soda, while they are rich in alumina; and it is a fair inference that hydrated aluminous silicates, such as kaolin, are well represented in these rocks.
This compound is then decomposed by ammonia, dinitrophenylhydrazoate being formed, which on hydrolysis with alcoholic potash gives potassium hydrazoate (azide) and dinitrophenol.
Somewhat later, they found that it could be prepared from diazobenzene imide, provided a nitro group were present in the ortho or para position to the diazo group. The para-nitro compound is dropped slowly into a cold solution of one part of caustic potash in ten parts of absolute alcohol; the solution becomes dark red in colour and is then warmed for two days on the water bath.
Inventor of a process for making potash alum, used in textile dyeing.
In the wood below is a pit, which could have been used for charcoal burning, or for burning twigs to produce potash.
Edinbane Pottery make up their own clay body, blending very plastic clays from Dorset, china clay from Cornwall and potash feldspar.
For soils with higher soil fertility levels no potash required.
The plagioclase often shows very thin exsolution lamellae of potash feldspar, but nevertheless the original bulk chemical composition was probably low in potassium.
Bracken and male fern were gathered from the woods during the 17th and 18th centuries, and burned to make potash for bleaching linen.
Potash is an essential nutrient for all crops and for grassland and livestock nutrition.
Add fertilizer 10 days before sowing, 2oz super phosphate, 1oz potash per square yard.
Action for low P & K fields NOW is the time to apply potash to improve low K soils.
The presence of water appearing thus to prevent any decomposition, I used potash in igneous fusion.
However, the ability of some soil clays to fix or release potash complicates the picture.
It contains potash, which is valuable garden nutrient.
Clearly adequate soil potash is one key part of good crop growth.
But during growth crops need as much potash as nitrogen - some need more.
A weekly feed of a high potash proprietary liquid fertilizer should be given, about 2 pints per ring.
Sustainable nutrient management All systems of production should maintain an adequate supply of available potash to the plant.
Potatoes take up more potash than most other crops.
Care was required when doing this, as the liquid electrolyte contained caustic potash which would attack the hands or clothes.
At soil K index 1 responses to fertilizer potash are well worthwhile.
The cost of normal potash recommendations as shown in the table is modest and is covered by only a very small yield difference.
Simply put, sultanas lie on the ground for around one week and are then artificially dipped in a potash solution.
The hydroxide, Ir(OH) 3, may be obtained by the addition of caustic potash to iridium sodium chloride, the mixture being then heated with alcohol.
The corresponding hydroxide, Ir(OH) 4, is formed when potassium iridate is boiled with ammonium chloride, or when the tetrachloride is boiled with caustic potash or sodium carbonate.
Thus 5 parts by weight of soda, 7 of potash and 3.5 of quicklime will each neutralize 4.56 parts of hydrochloric acid or 7.875 of nitric or 6.125 parts of sulphuric acid; these weights, in fact, are mutually equivalent to one another.
Cobaltous hydroxide, Co(OH) 21 is formed when a cobaltous salt is precipitated by caustic potash in the absence of air.
By the action of bromine and alcoholic potash on the amides,, they are converted into amines containing one carbon atom less than the original amide, a reaction which possesses great.
Boron can be estimated by precipitation as potassium fluoborate, which is insoluble in a mixture of potassium acetate and alcohol, For this purpose only boric acid or its potassium salt must be present; and to ensure this, the borate can be distilled with sulphuric acid and methyl alcohol and the volatile ester absorbed in potash.
In one form a drum, mounted on an axis and covered by a band of paper soaked in a solution of caustic potash, was turned under a spring the end of which was in contact through a platinum point with the paper.
Although, therefore, different, and sometimes very large, amounts of these typical mineral constituents are taken up by the various crops of rotation, there is no material export of any in the saleable products, excepting of phosphoric acid and of potash; and, so far at least as phosphoric acid is concerned, experience has shown that it may be advantageously supplied in purchased manures.
In 1466 the abbess of St Croix of Poitiers received a gross of glasses from the glass-works of La FerriÃªre, for the privilege of gathering fern for the manufacture of potash.
He established works in Crutched Friars, and to him is probably due the introduction of the use of soda-ash, made from seaweed and seaside plants, in place of the crude potash made from fern and wood ashes.
Chemically pure carbonate of potash is best prepared by igniting pure bicarbonate (see below) in iron or (better) in silver or platinum vessels, or else by calcining pure cream of tartar.
Most of the chlorate of potash is now prepared by electrolysis of potassium chloride (see below).
By fusing iron with saltpetre and extracting the melt with water, or by adding a solution of ferric nitrate in nitric acid to strong potash, an amethyst or purple-red solution is obtained which contains potassium ferrate.
The crop of English hay is carefully weighed, the moisture calculated, the silicates and the potash; but in all dells and pond-holes in the woods and pastures and swamps grows a rich and various crop only unreaped by man.
It is made of quartz sand, soda or potash, and lime.
The "potash" finds a ready sale among the Yorubas, being largely used for cooking purposes.
Of potash, each of the rotation crops takes up very much more than of phosphoric acid.
Potash lyes also may be bought direct, but in some cases they are sharpened or causticized by the soap-boiler himself from the carbonate.
Soft or green soap (potassium oleate), made by acting on olive oil with caustic potash, is also used; its preparation (Linamentum saponis) is known as opodeldoc. Curd soap is also used, and is chiefly a stearate of sodium.
The residue is then fused with caustic potash and nitre, dissolved in water, saturated with chlorine and distilled on the water-bath in a current of chlorine.
These studies indicate a greater removal of potash by fodder beet in practice than existing standards allow for.