Assisted by French diplomacy at the Porte (Louis XIV.
In February 1700 Dampier called at Juan Fernandez and while there Captain Straddling of the "Cinque Porte" galley quarrelled with his men, forty-two of whom deserted but were afterwards taken on board by Dampier; five seamen, however, remained on shore.
In October 1704 the "Cinque Porte" returned and found two of these men, the others having been apparently captured by the French.
About 1760 a Moslem chieftain, Mehemet of Bushat, after obtaining the pashalik of Scutari from the Porte, succeeded in establishing an almost independent sovereignty in Upper Albania, which remained hereditary in his family for some generations.
Jerusalem is the chief town of a sanjak, governed by a mutessarif, who reports directly to the Porte.
In 1613 he led a large army against his persecutor, on whose murder by two of his officers that year Bethlen was placed on the throne by the Porte, in opposition to the wishes of the emperor, who preferred a prince who would incline more towards Vienna than towards Constantinople.
On the 20th of September 1881 Beheran formally accepted Italian protection, and in the following February an Anglo-Italian convention established the Italian title to Assab on condition that Italy should formally recognise the suzerainty of the Porte and of the khedive over the Red Sea coast, and should prevent the transport of arms and munitions of war through the territory of Assab.
This convention was never recognized by the Porte nor by the Egyptian government.
The Tatars of the Bug, of the Crimea and of the Kuban were liberated from the suzerainty of the Porte; Azov, Kinburn and all the fortified places of the Crimea were ceded to Russia; the Bosphorus and Dardanelles were opened to Russian merchant vessels; and Russian ambassadors obtained the right to intervene in favour of the inhabitants of the Danubian principalities.
Rumours of this gigantic scheme reached Constantinople, and as Catherine's menacing attitude left little doubt as to her aggressive intentions the Porte presented an ultimatum and finally declared war (1787).
Here, on the 14th of September 1829, was signed a treaty by which the Porte ceded to Russia the islands at the mouth of the Danube and several districts on the Asiatic frontier, granted full liberty to Russian navigation and commerce in the Black Sea, and guaranteed the autonomous rights previously accorded to Moldavia, Walachia and Servia.
the Grand Porte), displacing all others in the popular language.
After a period of great distress and cruel oppression, in 1866, on the demand for reforms being again refused, a general insurrection took place, which was only put down by great exertions on the part of the Porte.
In 1894 the Porte, at the instance of the powers, nominated a Christian, Karatheodory Pasha, to the governorship, and the Christians, mollified by the concession, agreed to take part in the assembly which soon afterwards was convoked; no steps, however, were taken to remedy the financial situation, which became the immediate cause of the disorders that followed.
The ambassadors at Constantinople urged peaceful counsels on the Porte, and the Sultan, alarmed at this juncture by an Armenian outbreak, began to display a conciliatory disposition.
It soon became evident, however, that the Porte was endeavouring to obstruct the execution of the new reforms. Several months passed without any step being taken towards this realization; difficulties were raised with regard to the composition of the international commissions charged with the reorganization of the gendarmery and judicial system; intrigues were set on foot against the Christian governorgeneral; and the presence of a special imperial commissioner, who had no place under the constitution, proved so injurious to the restoration of tranquillity that the powers demanded his immediate recall.
At last (July 13, 1909) the powers announced to the Porte, in answer to a formal remonstrance, their decision to withdraw their remaining troops from Crete by July 26 and to station four war-ships off the island to protect the Moslems and to safeguard " the supreme rights " of the Ottoman Empire.
La volonte ouvre la porte aux carrieres brillantes et heureuses; le travail les franchit, et une fois arrive au terme du voyage, le succes vient couronner l'oeuvre."
The creator of the present edifice was Francis I., under whom the architect Gilles le Breton erected most of the buildings of the Cour Ovale, including the Porte Doree, its southern entrance, and the Salle des Fetes, which, in the reign of Henry II., was decorated by the Italians, Francesco Primaticcio and Nicolo dell' Abbate, and is perhaps the finest Renaissance chamber in France.
Napoleon also promised to mediate between Russia and Turkey in the interests of the former, and (in case the Porte refused to accept the proffered terms) to help Russia to drive the Turks from Europe, "the city of Constantinople and the province of Rumelia alone excepted."
He procured the dismissal of four Russo-phil grand-viziers in succession, and between 1710 and 1712 induced the Porte to declare war against the tsar three times.
But after November 1712 the Porte had no more money to spare; and, the tsar making a show of submission, the sultan began to regard Charles as a troublesome guest.
9, 1903) to which the Porte assented in prin- "Miirzsteg ciple, though many difficulties were raised over Pro- details.
Ismail also obtained (July 1875) a firman from the sultan of Turkey making over Zaila to Egypt in return for an increase of £15,000 yearly to the tribute paid to the Porte.
The traffic in slaves has been repeatedly declared by the Ottoman Porte to be illegal throughout its dominions, and a law for its suppression was published in 1889, but it cannot be said to be extinct, owing to the laxity and too often the complicity of the government officials.
The Eure, which at this point divides into three branches, is crossed by several bridges, some of them ancient, and is fringed in places by remains of the old fortifications, of which the Porte Guillaume (14th century), a gateway flanked by towers, is the most complete specimen.
Their opportunity came in 1820, when the Porte was striving to repress the insurrections in Moldavia, Albania and Greece.
The Moslems of Herzegovina, under Ali Pasha Rizvanbegovic, remained loyal to the Porte, but in Bosnia Hussein Aga encountered little resistance.
Here also, with the unimportant exception of the islands of Samos and Cyprus and the somewhat privileged district of Lebanon, all the Turkish possessions constitute vilayets directly controlled by the Porte.
It was there stated that, on the most favourable estimate, the normal deficit of the Turkish treasury was T2,725,000, (upwards of £T,1,700,000 below the truth as now declared.) and the following observations were appended: " This budget represents the normal situation of Ottoman finance; it does not tally with the budget published in 1897, which was prepared with a special object in view, and was obviously full of inaccuracies, nor indeed does it agree with figures which could be officially obtained from the Porte.
In 1905 financial resources had to be found for the special administration of the three European vilayets as insisted upon by the powers, and to this end the Porte initiated negotiations with the latter to increase the import duties by 3%.
In 1534 Jean de La Foret, a knight of St John of Jerusalem, came to Constantinople as first permanent French ambassador to the Porte, and in February 1 535 were signed the first Capitulations (q.v.) with France.
The governors of the more distant provinces enjoyed a considerable amount of independence, which in the case of the Barbary states was more or less complete; these entered into treaties with foreign powers, and by their piratical outrages frequently caused the Porte considerable embarrassment.
After a series of indecisive engagements Venice broke from the league and, under the mediation of France, concluded a treaty with the Porte practically on the basis of uti possidetis (March 7, 1 573).
1 In the following year permanent diplomatic relations were established by England with the Porte by the despatch of William Harebone as ambassador, Queen Elizabeth urging as her special claim to the sultan's friendship their common mission to fight " idolators."
The Porte was at first disposed to comply, but the party of resistance finally prevailed.
The successful defence of Varna and Silistria seemed to justify the stubbornness of the Porte.
This article is of great historical importance as forming the basis of the later claim of Russia to possess by treaty the right to protect the Orthodox subjects of the Porte.'
The Porte, unable to resist, was obliged to consent to the convention of Ainali Ka y ak (March 10, 1779) whereby the Russian partisan, Shahin Girai, was recognized as khan of the Crimea, the admission of Russian vessels to navigate Turkish waters was reaffirmed and Russia's right of intervention in the affairs of the Danubian principalities was formally recognized.
The Porte also sent an army against Pasvan Oglu, but after reducing him to submission reinstated him in his government.
Russia, desirous of deriving some return for the support which she had given the sultan during his rupture with the French, induced the Porte to address to her a note in which the right of intervention in the affairs of the principalities, conferred on her by the treaty of Kainarji and reaffirmed in the convention of Ainali Ka y ak, was converted into a specific stipulation that the hospodars should be appointed in future for seven years and should not be dismissed without the concurrence of the Russian ambassador at Constantinople.
Their intrigues in favour of the Greek and other revolutionary movements induced the Porte to dismiss them in 1806, contrary to the arrangement of 1802.
The British ambassador sought by every means in his power to induce Turkey to give way to Russia, going so far as to guarantee the withdrawal of the Russian troops from Moldo-Walachia if the Porte remained at peace, and threatening that if Turkey persisted in her opposition England would join with Russia against her.
With Sebastiani's encouragement the Porte resisted these demands; in one day a thousand guns were ranged along both sides of the Bosporus; and after a stay of ten days the British fleet was ordered to leave, and was considerably damaged by the fire of the forts while passing down.
The treaties as to the principalities were renewed; and though Servia was restored to the direct rule of Turkey it was stipulated that clemency was to be observed in the Porte's dealings with the country, which was given the power of regulating its own affairs.
But nothing could be done until the Porte should have come to terms with Russia as to the Treaty of Bucharest; for, as the British ambassador, Sir Robert Liston, was instructed to point out to the Ottoman government, " it is impossible to guarantee the possession of a territory of which the limits are not determined."
The secret organization, temporarily checked by Rhigas's arrest and execution in 1798, was revived at Odessa in 1814; it extended throughout Turkey, and in 1820 the insurrection took shape, a favourable opportunity being afforded by the outbreak of hostilities between Ali Pasha and the Porte.
Moreover, the Porte was thrown into a suspicious mood by the contrast between the friendly language of the western powers and the active sympathy of the western peoples for the Greeks, who were supported by volunteers and money drawn from all Europe.
The sole outcome of the conference was the offer in March 1825 of the joint mediation of Austria and Russia, which the Porte rejected.
Should the Porte refuse, the two powers were to take the earliest opportunity, either separately or in common, of establishing a reconciliation on the basis of the protocol.
Russia, meanwhile, had seized the occasion to send to Constantinople an ultimatum demanding satisfaction for her own particular grievances; the Porte resented the intrusion of new demands before the others had been dealt with, and hurried on preparations for war.
Its terms were: the confirmation of the Treaty of Bucharest and the opening of the navigation of the Black Sea to the Russian flag; a stipulation that the hospodars of Walachia and Moldavia should be elected by the boyars for seven years, their election being confirmed by the Porte which, however, had no power to dismiss them without the concurrence of the Russian ambassador at Constantinople; finally, Servia's autonomy was recognized, and, save in the fortresses, no Mussulman might reside there.
He now invited the co-operation of Russia in representations to the Porte on xxvii.
By additional secret articles it was agreed that, in the event of the Porte not accepting the offered mediation, consuls should be established in Greece, and an armistice proposed to both belligerents and enforced by all the means that should " suggest themselves to the prudence " of the high contracting powers.
The Porte, in alarm, turned to Great Britain for advice and assistance.
In August a conference of the four powers assembled at Vienna, but the settlement they proposed, which practically conceded everything demanded by Russia except the claim to the protectorate, though accepted by the tsar, was rejected by the Porte, now fallen into a mood of stubborn resentment at the Russian invasion.
As the Russians withdrew from the Danubian principalities, Austrian troops occupied them, and by a convention with the Porte the Austrian government undertook to resist by arms any attempt of the Russians to return.
The immediate local result was the institution, by a reglement,' signed at Constantinople on the 6th of September 1864, of autonomy for the Lebanon under a Christian governor appointed by the powers with the concurrence of the Porte, an arrangement which has worked satisfactorily until the present day.
The decisions of the conference, moderate though they were, in the end requiring merely the nomination of an international commission to investigate the state of the European provinces of Turkey, and the appointment by the sultan, with the approval of the powers, of governors-general for five years, were rejected by the Porte.
A commission composed of British, French and Russian officials held an inquiry into the events which had occurred, and early in 1895 England, France and Russia entered actively into negotiations with a view to the institution of reforms. The scheme propounded by the three powers encountered great objections from the Porte, but under pressure was accepted in October 1895.
The Porte opposed the project, and an international naval demonstration and the occupation of Mytilene by the powers became necessary before Turkey gave way in December 1905.
On the 3rd of February 1910 the Porte accepted a Bulgarian proposal for a mixed commission to delimit disputed sections of the Turco-Bulgarian frontier, and in March King Ferdinand visited Constantinople.
A provisional convention was granted to a German company by the Porte, and an irade was obtained in 1902.
It not only made the efforts of the Turks to suppress the Greek revolt hopeless, but it made a breach difficult to heal in the traditional friendship between Great Britain and Turkey, which had its effect during the critical period of the struggle between Mehemet Ali and the Porte (1831-1841).
It has extensive remains of fortifications of the 13th century, the most remarkable feature of which is the Porte de Laon, a gateway flanked by massive towers and surmounted by a fine a,partmmt.
Some relics of old military architecture survive, among them a cylindrical tower of the 15th century near the Porte Notre-Dame, the southern gate of the city, and the Porte Rivotte, a gate of the 16th century, flanked by two round towers.
Close to the cathedral there is a triumphal arch decorated with bas-reliefs known as the Porte Noire, which is generally considered to have been built in commemoration of the victories of Marcus Aurelius over the Germans in 167.
Remains of a Roman theatre, of an amphitheatre, of an aqueduct which entered the town by the Porte Taillee, gate cut in the rock below the citadel, and an arch of a former Roman bridge, forming part of the modern bridge, are also be seen.
Poland was restrained by his alliances with the Teutonic Knights and the tsardom of Muscovy, and his envoys appeared in Persia and in Egypt to combat the diplomacy of the Porte.
During the last six years (1534-1540) of John's reign, his kingdom, beneath the guidance of the Paulician monk, Frater Gyorgy, or George Martinuzzi, the last great statesman of old Hungary, enjoyed a stability and prosperity marvellous in the difficult circumstances of the period, Martinuzzi holding the balance exactly between the emperor and the Porte with 3 I was kept secret for some years for fear of Turkish intervention.
The emperor, on the other hand, was freed from the humiliating annual tribute to the Porte on payment of a war indemnity of X400,000.
For the next six years the war languished owing to the timidity of the emperor, the incompetence of his generals and the exhaustion of the Porte; but on the 11th of September 1697 Prince Eugene of Savoy routed the Turks at Zenta and on the 13th of November 1698 a peace-congress was opened at Karlowitz which resulted in the peace of that name (Jan.
The mother of the cardinal, Susanne de La Porte, belonged to a family of the magistrature, her father, Francois de La Porte, being one of the first advocates of the parlement of Paris.
A Russian army destined for the Bosporus, which had been gathered near Odessa, obliging the Porte to keep strong bodies of troops about Constantinople, had been called to Galicia, thus liberating several Turkish divisions for service at the Dardanelles.
In 1747, alliances were also concluded with Denmark and the Porte.
He was the coachman of the fiacre which drove the royal family from the Carrousel to the Porte Saint-Martin.
It was no longer the Porte that decided, but the Seraglio, and the sultan's private secretary had more ififluence on the policy of the Ottoman empire than the grand vizier.
Equally guarded was his attitude to the Turkish authorities; it is not improbable that Talal had also entered into relations with the viceroy of Egypt to ensure his position in case of a collision with the Porte.
In the meantime Sheik Mubarak had found useful allies in the Muntafik Arabs from the lower Euphrates, and the Wahhabis of Riad; the latter under the amir Ibn Saud marched against Ibn Rashid, who at the instigation of the Porte had again threatened Kuwet (Koweit), compelled him to retire to his own territory and took possession of the towns of Bureda and Aneza.
The Porte now made another effort to assist its protégé two columns were despatched from Medina and Basra respectively, to relieve Hail, and drive out the Wahhabis.
The protests of the Porte were ignored by the French, and in 1892 Turkey so far recognized the actual situation as to determine the TunisiaTripoli frontier as far south as Ghadames.
Golovin's first achievement as foreign minister was to supplement the treaty of Carlowitz, by which peace with Turkey had only been secured for three years, by concluding with the Porte a new treaty at Constantinople (June 13, 1700), by which the term of the peace was extended to thirty years and, besides other concessions, the Azov district and a strip of territory extending thence to Kuban were ceded to Russia.
A treaty concluded here in 1826 between Russia and the Porte secured considerable advantages to the former.
At times he had the sagacity to recognize the utility of alliances, as was shown by those he concluded with the Porte and with the Protestant princes of Germany.
Among the contributors of Freron was another manufacturer of criticism, the abbe de la Porte, who, having quarrelled with his confrere, founded Observations sur la litterature moderne (1749-1752) and L'Observateur litteraire (1758-1761).
The Lebanon has now been constituted a sanjak or mutessariflik, dependent directly on the Porte, which acts in this case in consultation with the six great powers.
At first appointed for three years, then for ten, his term has been fixed since 1892 at five years, the longer term having aroused the fear of the Porte, lest a personal domination should become established.
The attention of the porte was called to these tendencies in 1892 and again in 1902, on the appointments of new governors.
His wisdom is shown by the prudent measures which he took by enacting the Nizam-ijedid, or new regulations for the improvement of the condition of the Christian rayas, and for affording them security for life and property; a conciliatory attitude which at once bore fruit in Greece, where the people abandoned the Venetian cause and returned to their allegiance to the Porte.
Of the ten city gates the most interesting are the Porte d'Allemagne, or Deutsche Tor, on the east, a castellated structure erected in 1445 and still bearing traces of the siege by Charles V.; the Porte Serpenoise, or Romer Tor, on the south, and the Porte Frangaise, or Franzosische Tor, on the west.
As ambassador he induced the Porte to declare war on Russia, as a soldier he directed with success the defence of Constantinople against the British squadron of Admiral (Sir) J.
Calvin replied (r3th February 1546) in a letter now lost; in which, he says, he expressed himself " plus durement que ma coustume ne porte."
The old fortifications, of which the Porte de Valenciennes (15th century) is the chief survival, have been demolished to make room for boulevards and public gardens.
The political relations between the Porte and the European states, more frequent in proportion as the Ottoman power declined, compelled the sultan's ministers to make use of interpreters, who rapidly acquired considerable influence.
It soon became necessary to create the important post of chief dragoman at the Porte, and there was no choice save to appoint a Greek, as no other race in Turkey combined the requisite knowledge of languages with the tact and adroitness essential for conducting diplomatic negotiations.
The first chief dragoman of the Porte was Panayot Nikousia, who held his office from 1665 to 1673.
the Porte found it necessary, in the absence of duly qualified countrymen of their own, to engage the services of natives, Greek, Armenian, or Levantine, more or less thoroughly acquainted with the language, laws and administration of the country.
Their duties were by no means confined to those of a mere translator, and they became the confidential and indispensable go-betweens of the foreign missions and the Porte.
The functions of the first dragoman are mainly political; he accompanies the ambassador or minister at his audiences of the sultan and usually of the ministers, and it is he who is charged with the bulk of diplomatic negotiations at the palace or the Porte.
that England's relations with the Porte began.
Negotiations were opened in 157 9 with Queen Elizabeth through certain British merchants; in 1580 the first Capitulations with England were signed; in 1583 William Harebone, the first British ambassador to the Porte, arrived at Constantinople, and in 1593 commercial Capitulations were signed with England granting the same privileges as those enjoyed by the French.
Beyond the Bab-el-Bahar (sea-gate), now called Porte de France, on the level ground by the Bahira, is the marine town, or Quartier Franc, built since the French occupation in 1881.
The main thoroughfare is continued westwards by the Avenue de France, which leads to the Porte de France.
From the Porte electric trams run to the harbour and also in a circle round the native city.
The Porte de France is the threshold of the ancient city.
The governorship of the pashalik was long hereditary in the originally Christian family of the `Abd-al-Jalil, until the Porte, during the course of the 19th century, succeeded after a long and severe contest in establishing a more centralized system of government.
the relations of the various states to the old Holy Roman Empire; the relations of the Ottoman Porte to its Christian provinces.
By the terms of the same treaty, he acceded to the grand league against the Porte, but his two expeditions against the Crimea (1687 and 1689), "the First Crimean War," were unsuccessful and made him extremely unpopular.
The chief relic is a gateway flanked by massive round towers, known as the Porte Saint-Pierre.
The Porte de Hal is the only one of the eight gates in the old wall left standing.
to accede to a general league against the Porte.
It was owing to Laski's intrigues that the new hospodar of Moldavia, Petrylo, after doing homage to the Porte, intervened in the struggle as the foe of both Ferdinand and Sigismund, and besieged the Grand Hetman of the Crown, Jan Tarnowski, in Obertyn, where, however, the Moldavians (August 22, 1531) sustained a crushing defeat, and Petrylo was slain.
Within three years of his accession he compelled the Muscovites (Treaty of Polyankova, May 28, 1634) to retrocede Smolensk and the eastern provinces lost by Sigismund II., overawed the Porte by a military demonstration in October of the same year, and, by the Truce of Stumdorf (Sept.
Indeed, it is not too much to say that, until the days of Sobieski, the Cossacks were invariably the chief cause of the breaches between the Porte and the Republic. We have seen how carefully the Jagiellos avoided participating in any of the crusades directed by the Holy See against the arch-enemies of the Cross.
Almost simultaneously a civil war broke out in the Crimea and the Porte declared war against the Venetian republic, with which Wladislaus at once concluded an offensive and defensive alliance (1645).
In 1699 the long Turkish War, which had been going on ever since 1683, was concluded by the peace of Karlowitz, whereby Podolia, the Ukraine and the fortress of Kamenets Podolskiy were retroceded to the Republic by the Ottoman Porte.
In August 1787 Russia and Austria provoked the Porte to declare war against them both, and two months later a defensive alliance was concluded between Prussia, England and Holland, as a counterpoise to the alarming preponderance of Russia.
Alexander made no objection provided that the Porte would submit all outstanding claims to arbitration.
In the case of the Petite Porte the walls in some places are not more than twelve feet apart.
The last three were governed by beys dependent upon the representative of the Porte resident at Algiers.
The Porte, after much futile temporizing, yielded to France.
Thus the Bosporus and Dardanelles under the Treaty of Paris of 1856 and by the Treaty of London 1871 were and remain closed to the passage of foreign armed vessels in time of war, though the Porte may permit their passage in time of peace in certain cases.
Turkey was too formidable to be fought single-handed, and it was therefore determined to send a grand embassy to the principal western powers to solicit their co-operation against the Porte.
He had concluded peace with the Porte (June 13, 1700) on very advantageous terms, in order to devote himself wholly to a war with Sweden to the end that Russia might gain her proper place on the Baltic. The possession of an ice-free seaboard was essential to her natural development; the creation of a fleet would follow inevitably upon the acquisition of such a seaboard; and she could not hope to obtain her due share of the trade and commerce of the world till she possessed both.
Other methods of disposing of him having failed, the Porte made his nephew a rival sheikh; but he basely assassinated him.
Since Ferhan's death the Porte has favoured one after another of his many sons, hoping to keep the South Shammar disunited, especially as they are more than the others.
For some years the Porte has been applying steady pressure on the nomads to induce them to settle, by increasing the number of military posts, by introducing Circassian colonies, as at Ras al-`Ain, sometimes by forcible settlement.
She formed a corps of Greek cadets, caused her younger grandson to be christened Constantine, and began the policy of presenting Russia to the Christian subjects of the Porte as their deliverer.
The introduction into the treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji of 1774 of a clause by which the Porte guaranteed the rights of its Christian subjects, and of another 'giving Russia the right to interfere on behalf of a new Russian church in Constantinople, advertised the claim of the tsars to be the natural protectors of the Orthodox in the Ottoman dominions; but when she took up arms again in 1788 in alliance with Joseph II., it was to make a mere war of conquest and partition.
It aimed at a close alliance with the house of Austria, with the double object of drawing Sweden within its orbit and overawing the Porte by the conjunction of the two great Catholic powers of central Europe.
Generally, however, they confined themselves to raiding on a grand scale and, encouraged by the Porte or the Muscovite, systematically devastated whole provinces, penetrating even into the heart of Poland proper and disappearing with immense booty.
In 1737 he was appointed the second Russian plenipotentiary at the abortive congress of Nemirov held for the conclusion of peace with the Porte.
After occupying various subordinate posts at the Porte he became successively under-secretary of state for foreign affairs, governorgeneral of Syria and Smyrna, minister of commerce, and governor-general of Tripoli; minister successively of justice and of marine (1869); grand vizier from 1871 to 1872 and from 1875 to 1876.
Ottoman power; and for a while the policy of Austria towards the Porte underwent a change that foreshadowed her attitude towards the Eastern Question in the 19th century.
In spite of the reluctance of Maria Theresa, Kaunitz, in July 1771, concluded a defensive alliance with the Porte.
In 1879 the Porte, after long delay, recognized the occupation on the distinct understanding that the sovereignty of the sultan was acknowledged.
Bright, however, distrusted the ambassador at the Porte, and gave reasons for doubting the alarming telegram.
1805) obtained from the Porte in 1841 the right to bequeath the sovereignty to his descendants, one of whom, Ismail Pasha, received the title Khedive, which is still held by Mehemet Alis descendants.
As will be seen from the tables, it was the practice of the Porte to change the governor of Egypt at very short intervalsaftet a year or even some months.
In July I623 there came an order from the Porte dismissing Mu~tafg Pasha and appointing All Pasha governor in his place.
The officers met and demanded from the newly-appointed governors deputy the customary gratuity; when this was refused they sent letters to the Porte declaring that they wished to have Mu~tafg Pasha and not Ali Pasha as governor.
Omar, who obtained for him the goodwill of the Porte and reinstatement in his post as Sheik al-Balad.
In 1769 a demand came to All Bey for a force of 12,000 men to be employed by the Porte in the Russian war.
It was suggested, however, at Constantinople that Ali would employ this force when he collected it for securing his own independence, and a messenger was sent by the Porte to the pasha with orders for his execution.
The Porte was not able at the time to take active measures for the suppression of All Bey, and the latter endeavoured to consolidate his dominions by sending expeditions against marauding tribes, both in north and south Egypt, reforming the finance, and improving the administration of justice.
Reinforced by All Beys ally ~Ahir, he easily took the chief cities, ending with Damascus; but at this point he appears to have entered into secret negotiations with the Porte, by which he undertook to restore Egypt to Ottoman suzerainty.
He sent one of his officers, All Bey al-Tantawi, to recover the Syrian towns evacuated by Abul-Dhahab, and now in the possession of the Porte.
After All Beys death Egypt became once more a dependency of the Porte, governed by Abul-Dhahab as Sheik al-Balad with the title pasha.
He shortly afterwards received permission from the Porte to invade Syria, with the view of punishing All Beys supporter ~ahir, and left as his deputies in Cairo Ismgil Bey and Ibrahim Bey, who, by deserting All at the battle of Salihia, had brought about his downfall.
The two were soon involved in quarrels, which at one time threatened to break out into open war; but this catastrophe was averted, and the joint rule was maintained till 1786, when an expedition was sent by the Porte to restore Ottoman supremacy in Egypt.
That there might be no doubt of the friendly feeling of the French to the Porte, villages and towns which capitulated to the invaders were required to hoist the flags of both the Porte and the French republic, and in the thanksgiving prescribed to the Egyptians for their deliverance from the Mamelukes, prayer was to be offered for both the sultan and the French army.
In consequence of despatches which reached Bonaparte on the 3rd of January 1799, announcing the intention of the Porte to invade the country with the object of recovering it by force, Bonaparte resolved on his Syrian expedition, and appointed governors for Cairo, Alexandria, and Upper Egypt, to govern during his absence.
A double expedition shortly after Bonapartes departure was sent by the Porte for the recovery of Egypt, one force being despatched by sea to Damietta, while another under Yflsuf Pasha took tle land route from Damascus by al-Arish.
At length, in consequence of the remonstrances of the English, and a promise made by al-Alfi of 1500 purses, the Porte consented to reinstate the twenty-four beys and to place al-Alfi at their head; but this measure met with the opposition of Mehemet Ali and the determined resistance of the majority of the Mamelukes, who, rather than have al-AlfI at their head, preferred their present condition; for the enmity of al-Bardisi had not subsided, and he commanded the voice of most of the other beys.
This wily chief professed his willingness to obey the commands of the Porte, but stated that his troops, to whom he owed a vast sum of money, opposed his departure.
Al-Alfi and his partisans were unable to pay the sum promised to the Porte; Salih Pasha received plenipotentiary powers from Consta,ntinople, in consequence of the letter from the ulema; and, on the condition of Mehemet Alls paying 4000 purses to the Porte, it was decided that he should continue in his post, and the reinstatement of the beys was abandoned.
The suzerainty of the sultan he acknowledged, and at the reiterated commands of the Porte he despatched in 1811 an army of 8000 men, including 2000 horse, under the command of his son Tflsfln, a youth of sixteen, against the WahhgbIs (q.v.).
The government 0 the pashalik of Egypt was made hereditary in the family of Mehemet Ali.i A map showing the boundaries of Egypt accompanied the firman granting Mehemet Ali the pashalik, a duplicate copy being retained by the Porte.
In September 1848 Ibrahim was acknowledged by the Porte as ruler of the pashalik, but he died in the November (i.) Mehemet Ali, b.
Lord Palmerston was opposed to this project, and the British opposition delayed the ratification of the concession by the Porte for two years.
In other words th claim of the Porte was, to quote Lord Cromer: to carry the Turkish frontier and strategical railways to Suez on the banks of the canal; or that if the Ras Mahommed line were adopted, the Turkish frontier would be advanced to the neighborhood of Nekhl, i.e.
With a view to establishing his authority he now made overtures to the Porte and was commissioned to chastise the rebellious pasha of Scutari, whom he defeated and killed.
He earned the confidence of the Porte by the cruel discipline he maintained in his own sanjak, and the regular flow of tribute and bribes which he directed to Constantinople; while he bent all his energies to extending his territories at the expense of his neighbours.
The first of these was the resistance of the little Christian hill community of Suli; the second the Venetian occupation of the coast, within a mile of which - by convention with the Porte - no Ottoman soldier might penetrate.
Finally chance gave him an opportunity to show his talents, and at the Porte Saint Martin he became the popular interpreter of romantic drama of the Alexandre Dumas type.
After the defeat of the Turks at Vienna in 1683, their influence in Transylvania waned, and in 1699, by the peace of Carlowitz, the Porte acknowledged the suzerainty of Leopold I.
Meanwhile the corsairs of Greece and Africa were free to raid the unprotected southern shores of Italy; and Venice was besieged with complaints from the Porte, the Vatican, the Viceroy of Naples and his sovereign, the king of Spain.
No territorial changes within the Peninsula followed the Crimean War; but the continuance of the weakened authority of the Porte tended indirectly to the independent development of the various nationalities.
The scheme, which found favour in Servia, was frustrated by the opposition of Stamboloff, who denounced it to the Porte.
Further steps were taken after Goluchowski's interview with the tsar at Miirzsteg in 1903, and two civil agents representing the countries were appointed for two years to ensure the execution of the promised reforms. This period was extended in 1905, when Goluchowski was the chief mover in forcing the Porte, by an international naval demonstration at Mitylene, to accept financial control by the powers in Macedonia.
For the next few years he defended the Ukraine against the Tatars and Cossacks, and in 1617 was involved in a war with the Porte owing to the unauthorized interference of the Polish nobles in the affairs of Wallachia and Moldavia.
The Crimean War of 1856 brought home to the Porte the slowness of communication between the Persian Gulf and the outlying provinces of the Turkish Empire, while the Mutiny of 1857 taught the British Government a similar lesson in regard to India.
By treaty with the Porte in 1800, the emperor Paul erected the "Septinsular Republic," but anarchy and confusion followed till a secret article in the treaty of Tilsit, in 1807, declared the Islands an integral part of the French empire.
In 1777 the Porte, under whose suzerainty Moldavia was, ceded this province to Austria.
In 1775-76 he was ambassador at the Porte.
A great European treaty has usually commenced " In the name of the Most Holy and Indivisible Trinity," or, when the Porte is a party, " In the name of Almighty God."
It was the interest of the Porte to change the princes as often as possible, as the accession donation thus became due more frequently.
The active part taken by the Greek princes in the revolt of 1820-21 induced the Porte to revert to the appointment of native princes.
In the troubled years that followed, Mehemet Ali, leader of a compact body of Albanian clansmen, was in the best position to draw advantage from the struggle for power between the Mamelukes and the representatives of the Porte.
The new French ambassador, Admiral Roussin, had arrived on the 17th; he now, with the full concurrence of Mandeville, the British charge d'affaires, persuaded the Porte to invite the Russians to withdraw, undertaking that France would secure the acceptance by Mehemet Ali of the sultan's terms. A period of suspense followed.
Meanwhile, Mehemet Ali had scornfully rejected the offers of the Porte; he would be content with nothing but the concession of his full demands - Syria, Icheli, Aleppo, Damascus and Adana.
The Porte now tried once more to modify its terms; but the Western powers were now intent on getting rid of the Russians at all costs, and as a result of the pressure they brought to bear on both parties the preliminary convention of Kutaiah, conceding all the Egyptian demands, was signed on the 8th of April, and Ibrahim began his withdrawal.
"It is manifest," wrote Lord Ponsonby, "that the Porte stands in the relation of vassal to the Russian government."
In March the Egyptians were severely defeated by the revolted Arabs of the Hauran; and the Porte, though diplomatic pressure kept it quiet, hurried on preparations for war.
On the 27th of July the ambassadors of the five powers presented to the Porte a joint note, in which they declared that an agreement on the Eastern Question had been reached by the five Great Powers, and urged it "to suspend all definite decision made without their concurrence, pending the effect of their interest in its welfare."
On the ist of August Palmerston wrote to Ponsonby impressing upon him that the representatives of the powers, in their communications with the Porte, "should act not only simultaneously in point of time, but identically in point of manner" - a principle important in view of later developments.
He proposed to the French consul-general at Alexandria to make advances to the Porte, and suggested sending back the Ottoman fleet as an earnest of his good intentions, a course which, it was hoped, "would lead to a direct and amicable arrangement of the Turco-Egyptian question."
On the 21st of June his envoy, Sami Bey, actually arrived at Constantinople, ostensibly to congratulate the sultan on the birth of a daughter, really to make use of the French influence now supreme at the Porte in order to effect a settlement.
They regarded it as an attempt to ruin the work of the concert and to secure for France a "complete individual triumph" at Alexandria and Constantinople; and their countermove was to sign at London on the 15th of July, without the concurrence of France, a convention with the Porte for the settlement of the affairs of the Levant.
By this instrument it was agreed that the terms to be offered to Mehemet Ali having been concerted with the Porte, the signatory powers would unite their forces in order to compel the pasha to accept the settlement.
When therefore, on the 8th of October, Guizot, in an interview with Palmerston, presented what was practically an ultimatum on the part of France, "it was determined that this intimation should be met in a friendly spirit, and that Lord Palmerston should see the Ministers of the other powers and agree with them to acquaint the French that they with England would use their good offices to induce the Porte not to insist on the deprivation of Mehemet Ali so far as Egypt is concerned."
This arrangement was ratified by Palmerston; and all four powers now combined to press it on the reluctant Porte, pointing out, in a joint note of the 30th of January 1841, that "they were not conscious of advising a course out of harmony with the sovereignty and legitimate rights of the sultan, or contrary to the duties imposed on the Pasha of Egypt as a subject appointed by His Highness to govern a province of the Ottoman Empire."
to the Porte) who descended it with a numerous suite and held high mass there on Christmas day 1673.
These tidings profoundly impressed Sultan Murad, and when the victorious Wladislaus appeared at Lemberg, the usual starting-point for Turkish expeditions, the Porte offered terms which were accepted in October, each power engaging to keep their borderers, the Cossacks and Tatars, in order, and divide between them the suzerainty of Moldavia and Walachia, the sultan binding himself always to place philo-Polish hospodars on those slippery thrones.
Simultaneously Wladislaus contracted an offensive and defensive alliance with Venice against the Porte, a treaty directly contrary indeed to the pacta conventa he had sworn to observe, but excusable in the desperate circumstances.
The whole enterprise fell through, owing partly to the death of Koniecpolski before it was matured, partly to the hastiness with which the king published his intentions, and partly to the careful avoidance by the Porte of the slightest occasion of a rupture.
The Bosporus is under Turkish dominion, and by treaty of 1841, confirmed by the treaty of Berlin in 1878 and at other times, no ship of war other than Turkish may pass through the strait (or through the Dardanelles) without the countenance of the Porte.
was put in hand, and this work lasted from November 1857 till March 1865, when the Porte was informed in May of that year that in the opinion of the mediating Powers, the future line of boundary between the respective dominions of the sultan and the shah was to be found within the limits traced o~i the map; that the two Mahommedan governments should themselves mark out the line; and that in the event of any differences arising between them in regard to any particular locality, the points in dispute should be referred to the decision of the governr~ients of England and 1~ussia.
A partition treaty had been signed between these two powers in 1723, by which the czar was to take Astarabad, Mazandaran, Gilan, part of Shirvan and Daghistan, while the acquisitions of the Porte were to be traced out by a line drawn from the junction of the Aras and Kur rivers, and passing along by Ardebil, Tabriz and Hamadan, and thence to Kerm~nshah.
Kemalu d-Din was a native of Hamadan and a Persian subject, and as the assassin repeatedly stated that he was the sheikhs emissary ~and had acted by his orders, the Persian government demanded the extradition of Kemal from the Porte; but during the protracted negotiations which followed he died.
The relations of these states to the Ottoman Porte are very varied.
jouir, sous la suzerainete de la Porte et sous la garantie des Puissances contractantes, des privileges et des' immunites dont elles sont en possession."
The patriarch-elect is presented to the Porte, which thereupon grants the berat or diploma of investiture and several customary presents; after which the new ruler is enthroned.
Amongst them, actually or potentially, are the grand steward (0yas oircovo,uos), who serves him as deacon in the liturgy and presents candidates for orders; the grand visitor (µryas oaKEAAaptos), who superintends the monasteries; the sacristan (o - KEvocAuAa); the chancellor (X apr041,Xa), who superintends ecclesiastical causes; the deputyvisitor (o rou caKEAAiov), who visits the nunneries; the protonotary (7rpwrovorapcos); the logothete (Aoy06Erns), a most important lay officer, who represents the patriarch at the Porte and elsewhere outside; the censer-bearer, who seems to be also a kind of captain of the guard (Kavarpio-cos or Kavvrp11vQLos); the referendary (pEckpevSapcos); the secretary (i)7rown L uoyp x4wv); the chief syndic (7rpwrEK&Kos), 1 The numbers have varied from time to time.
The Porte espoused the cause of the Bulgarians, partly to pacify them, but still more to strengthen its hold on all the Christians of Turkey by fostering their differences.
(and V.), who had previously occupied the patriarchal throne from 1878 to 1884, when he was deposed through the ill-will of the Porte and banished to Mount Athos.
ALEXANDER YPSILANTI (1725-1805) was dragoman of the Porte, and from 1 774 to 1782 hospodar of Wallachia, during which period he drew up a code for the principality.
The two great aims he had in view were to prevent the establishment of Russia on the Bosporus and of France on the Nile, and he regarded the maintenance of the authority of the Porte as the chief barrier against both these aggressions.
He regarded the treaty of Unkiar Skelessi which Russia extorted from the Porte in 1832, when she came to the relief of the sultan after the battle of Konieh, with great jealousy; and, when the power of Mehemet Ali in Egypt appeared to threaten the existence of the Ottoman dynasty, he succeeded in effecting a combination of all the powers,who signed the celebrated collective note of the 27th of July 1839, pledging them to maintain the independence and integrity of the Turkish Empire as a security for the peace of Europe.
On two former occasions, in 1833 and in 1835, the policy of Lord Palmerston, who proposed to afford material aid to the Porte against the pasha of Egypt, was overruled by the cabinet; and again, in 1839, when Baron Brunnow first proposed the active interference of Russia and England, the offer was rejected.
After the defeat of the Turkish army at Konia it was granted to Ibrahim Pasha, and though the firman announcing his appointment named him only muhassil, or collector of the crown revenue, it continued to be held by the Egyptians till the treaty of July 1840 restored it to the Porte.
On his deposition by the Porte in 1610, there followed a succession of princes who, though still for the most part of Ruman origin, bought their appointment at Stambul.
The emperor granted him a diploma creating him count of the empire and recognizing his descent from the imperial house of Cantacuzene, §erban meanwhile collecting his forces for an open breach with the Porte.
Immediately on erban's death the boiars, to prevent the Porte from handing over the office to the Greek adventurer who bid the highest, proceeded to elect his sister's son Constantine Brancovan.
Brancovan was accused of secret correspondence with the emperor, the tsar, the king of Poland and the Venetian republic, of betraying the Porte's secrets, of preferring Tirgovishtea to Bucharest as a residence, of acquiring lands and palaces in Transylvania, of keeping agents at Venice and Vienna, in both of which cities he had invested large sums, and of striking gold coins with his effigy.'
From this period onwards the Porte introduced a new system with regard to its Walachian vassals.
Like pashas they rarely held their office more than three years, it being the natural policy of the Porte to multiply such lucrative nominations.
Already, by the peace of Passarowitz Pozharevats in 1718, the banat of Craiova had been ceded to the emperor, though by the peace of Belgrade in 1739 it was recovered by the Porte for its Walachian vassal.
The liberties of the country were guaranteed, taxation reformed and in 1772 the negotiations at Fokshani between Russia and the Porte broke down because the empress's representatives insisted on the sultan's recognition of the independence of Walachia and Moldavia under a European guarantee.
The expelled voivode Alexander was now restored by the Porte, the schools were destroyed, and the country relapsed into its normal state of barbarism under Bogdan IV.
Bogdan's successor, John the Terrible (1572-74), was provoked by the Porte's demand for 120,000 ducats as tribute instead of 60,000 as heretofore to rise against the oppressor; but after gaining three victories he was finally defeated and slain (1574), and the country was left more than ever at the mercy of the Ottoman.
On Michael's murder the Poles under Zamoyski again asserted their supremacy, but in 1618 the Porte once more recovered its dominion and set up successively two creatures of its own as voivodes - Gratiani, an Italian who had been court jeweller, and a Greek custom-house official, Alexander.
The voivodes owed their nomination entirely to the Porte, and the great officers of the realm were appointed at their discretion.
The office of voivode or hospodar was farmed out by the Porte to a succession of wealthy Greeks from the Phanar quarter of Constantinople.
The system favoured Turkish extortion in two ways: the presence of the voivode's family connexions at Stambul gave the Porte so many hostages for his obedience; on the other hand the princes themselves could not rely on any support due to family influence in Moldavia itself.
The people of the principalities were to enjoy all the privileges that they had possessed under Mahomet IV.; they were to be freed from tribute for two years, as some compensation for the ruinous effects of the last war; they were to pay a moderate tribute; the agents of Walachia and Moldavia at Constantinople were to enjoy the rights of national representatives, and the Russian minister at the Porte should on occasion watch over the interests of the principalities.
The treaty was hardly concluded when it was violated by the Porte, which refused to recognize the right of the Walachian boiars to elect their voivode, and nominated Alexander Ypsilanti, a creature of its own.
In defiance of treaties, however, the Porte continued to change the hospodars almost yearly and to exact extraordinary installation presents.
On the accession of Constantine Ypsilanti (1802-6) in Walachia, and of Alexander Murusi (1802-6) in Moldavia, the Porte was constrained to issue a new hattisherif by which every prince was to hold his office for at least seven years, unless the protec- Porte satisfied the Russian minister that there were good and sufficient grounds for his deposition.
The Porte, instigated by Napoleon's ambassador Sebastiani, resolved on Ypsilanti's deposition, but the hospodar succeeded in escaping to St Petersburg.
Adria- By this peace all the towns on the left bank of the Danube were restored to the principalities, and the Porte undertook to refrain from fortifying any position on the Walachian side of the river.
A Russian army occupied the country until the Porte fulfilled its promises.
It was ratified by the Porte in 1834, and the Russian army of occupation thereupon withdrew.
By the treaty of Paris in 1856 the principalities with their existing privileges were placed under the collective guarantee of the contracting Powers, while remaining under the Paris, suzerainty of the Porte - the Porte on its part engag 1856.
The existing laws and statutes of both principalities were to be revised by a European Commission, sitting at Bucharest, and their work was to be assisted by a Divan or national council which the Porte was to convoke for the purpose in each of the two provinces, and in which all classes of Walachian and Moldavian society were to be represented.
The European commission, in arriving at its conclusions, was to take into consideration the opinion expressed by the representative councils; the Powers were to come to terms with the Porte as to the recommendations of the commission; and the final result was to be embodied in a hattisherif of the sultan, which was to lay down the definitive organization of the two principalities.
A new conference met in Paris to discuss the situation, and in 1861 the election of Prince Cuza was ratified by the Powers and the Porte.
Meanwhile the Porte, in issuing Midhat Pasha's famous scheme of reforms, had greatly irritated Rumanian politicians by including their country in the same category as the other privileged provinces, and designating its inhabitants as Ottoman subjects.
The historians of the time under pressure of political exigencies did not scruple to invent treaties between the Porte and the Rumanian principalities.
In 1652 he openly interfered in the affairs of Transylvania and Walachia, and assumed the high-sounding title of "guardian of the Ottoman Porte."
Its former greatness is attested by many Roman remains, the chief of which are two well-preserved stone gateways, the Porte d'Arroux and the Porte St Andre, both pierced with four archways and surmounted by arcades.
Austria and Russia addressed demands to the Porte for their surrender.
Lord Palmerston determined to support the Porte in its refusal to give up these exiles, and actually sent the British fleet to the Dardanelles with this object.
Thus, at the close of 1852, and in the beginning of 1853, Russia and France were both addressing opposite and irreconcilable demands to the Porte, and France was already talking of sending her fleet to the Dardanelles, while Russia was placing an army corps on active service and despatching Prince Menshikov on a special mission to Constantinople.
So (ar the, quarrel which had occurred at the Porte was obviously one in which Great Britain had no concern.
Lord Stratford soon discovered that Prince Menshikov was the hearer of larger demands, and that he was requiring the Porte to agree to a treaty acknowledging the right of.
In October the Porte, encouraged by the presence of the British fleet in the Bosporus, took the bold step of summoning the Russians to evacuate the principalities.
But these significant actions were almost forgotten in the presence of a new crisis; for in 1876 misgovernment in Turkey had produced its natural results, and the European provinces of the Porte were in a state Of armed insurrection.
In the presence of a grave danger, Count Andrassy, the Austrian minister, drew up a note which was afterwards known by his name, declaring that t,he Porte had failed to carry into effect the promises of reform which she had made, and that some combined action on the part of Europe was necessary to compel her to do so.
The note was accepted by the three continental empires, but Great Britain refused in the first instance to assent to it, and only ultimately consented at the desire of the Porte, whose statesmen seem to have imagined that the nominal co-operation of England would have the effect of restraining the action ~.i1Zar,1ah3 of other powers.
The three northern powers thereupon agreed upon what was known as the Berlin Memorandum, in which they demanded an armistice, and proposed to watch over the completion of the reforms which the Porte had promised.
Gladstone, emerging from his retirement, denounced the conduct of the Turks, In a phrase which became famous he declared that the, only remedy for the European provinces of the Porte was to turn out the Ottoman government bag and baggage.
A superficial pacification effected by Shekib Effendi, the Ottoman commissioner, lasted only till his departure; and the Porte was obliged to despatch a force of 12,000 men to the Lebanon.
In accordance with the recommendation of the European powers the Porte determined to appoint a Christian governor not belonging to the district, and independent of the pasha of Beirut, to hold office for three years.
In accordance with the provisions of the Berlin treaty, Thessaly was ceded to the Greeks by the Porte in 1881, and became a portion of the Hellenic kingdom.
He secured the truce with Poland and carefully avoided complications with the Porte.
occupied the country in 1459, making it a pashalik under the direct government of the Porte.
Three days before his abdication he was induced to sign a constitution (that of 1838) imposed on Servia by the Porte, at the instance of Russia, with the object of undermining his position.
He introduced many important reforms in administration, and replaced the old constitution, granted to Servia by the Porte in 1830, by a new constitution which he himself gave to the country.
In the beginning of 1867 he addressed to the Porte a formal demand that the Turkish garrisons should be withdrawn from Belgrade and other Serb fortresses.
In 1831, his father's quarrel with the Porte having become flagrant, Ibrahim was sent to conquer Syria.
In 1838 the Porte felt strong enough to renew the struggle, and war broke out once more.
The chief survivals from the demolition are the huge square citadel, which rises to the east of the town, the château de Selles, a good specimen of the military architecture of the 13th century, and, among other gates, the Porte Notre-Dame, a stone and brick structure of the early 17th century.
In general, however, his Turkish policy was sound, as he consistently adopted the Jagiellonic policy of being friendly with so dangerous a neighbour as the Porte.
In 1588 he attained his majority, and, following the advice of his favourite councillor Alfonso Carillo, departed from the traditional policy of Transylvania in its best days (when friendly relations with the Porte were maintained as a matter of course, in order to counterpoise the ever hostile influence of the house of Habsburg), and joined the league of Christian princes against the Turk.
By the Cyprus convention, 4th of June 1878, the sultan promised Great Britain to introduce necessary reforms " for the protection of the Christians and other subjects of the Porte " in the Turkish territories in Asia.
The presentation of identic and collective notes to the Porte by the powers, in 1880, produced no result, and in 1882 it was apparent that Turkey would only yield to compulsion.
During 1900 Russia showed renewed interest in Turkish Armenia by securing the right to construct all railways in it, and in the Armenians by pressing the Porte to restore order and introduce reforms.
The Porte made counter-proposals, and officials concerned in the Sasun massacres were decorated and rewarded.
On the 1st of October 1895 a number of Armenians, some armed, went in procession with a petition to the Porte and were ordered by the police to disperse.
The project was known to the Porte, and the rabble, previously armed and instructed, were at once turned loose in the streets.
17, 1672) whereby Poland ceded to the Porte the whole of the Ukraine with Podolia and Kamieniec. Aroused to duty by a series of disasters for which he himself was primarily responsible, Sobieski now hastened to the frontier, and won four victories in ten days.
The movement, which was instigated by the Porte with the object of evading the provisions of the treaty, was so far successful that the restoration .of Playa and Gusinye to Albania was sanctioned by the powers, Montenegro receiving in exchange the town and district of Dulcigno.
Il mourut l'an 1616, et fut enterre hors la Porte Occidentale d'Edinbourg, dans l'Eglise de Sainct Cudbert.'" There can be no doubt that Napier's devotion to mathematics was not due to old age and the gout, and that he died in 1617 and not in 1616; still these sentences were written within eighteen years of Napier's death, and their author seems to have had some special sources of information.
This was not a difficult matter, because the Sublime Porte had many things to complain of in the past and had good reason to fear aggression in the near future.
The concessions extorted from the Porte in the preliminary treaty of San Stefano (March 3, 1878) were revived and considerably modified in favour of Turkey by the congress of Berlin (June 13 - July 13, 1878); see Europe: history.
This unhappy state of affairs was aggravated and perpetuated by the intrigues set on foot at Constantinople against successive governors of the island, the conflicts between the Palace and the Porte, the duplicity of the Turkish authorities, the dissensions of the representatives of the great powers, the machinations of Greek agitators, the rivalry of Cretan politicians, and prolonged financial mismanagement.
The Porte, having induced the Greek government to persuade the insurgents not to oppose the occupation of several strategic posts, despatched a military governor to the island, proclaimed martial law, and issued a firman abrogating many important provisions of the Halepa Pact.
The Porte offered an obstinate resistance to the project and only yielded (Dec. 5) when the fleets of the powers appeared near the Dardanelles.
Each ministry and department then sent in a detailed budget to the Sublime Porte before the end of November of each year.
The Sublime Porte forwarded these budgets, with its own added thereto, to the minister of finance, who thereupon drew up a general budget of receipts and expenses and addressed it to the Sublime Porte before the 15th of December.
The commission formed by them in conjunction with the delegates of the Sublime Porte is more generally known as the " Valfrey-Bourke commission," from the leading parts played by the Right Hon.
But the aggressive policy of Russia in the direction of the Caspian and Black Seas became more and more evident; complaints reached the Porte of a violation of the neutrality of Kabardia, of a seditious propaganda in Moldavia by Russian monks, and of Russian aid given to the malcontents in Servia and Montenegro.
of the treaty the Sublime Porte undertook " to protect the Christian religion and its churches " and conceded to the ministers of Russia the specific right to " make representations in favour of the new Church " which, under article xiv.
With the consent of the tsar, it was proposed to submit the questions at issue to the decision of Great Britain, France and Austria; and the Porte was informed that, in the event of its accepting this arrangement, the powers would at once proceed to guarantee the integrity of the Ottoman Empire.
In 1811 he was called upon by the Porte to put down the Wahhabi insurgents (see Arabia, vol.
Austria and Prussia protested against any coercion of the Porte " to serve revolutionary ends " and, failing to carry their views, withdrew from the conference.
In 1837 the " council of the Sublime Porte " and the " supreme council of legal affairs " were established: the latter was the tribunal to which were referred all complaints against officials or claims pending between the state and private individuals; the council of the Sublime Porte was in 1839 transferred to the ministry of commerce; the supreme council of legal affairs after undergoing various modifications was in 1868 absorbed in the council of state.
The British government did its best to help the Porte to evolve a compromise on the questions immediately at issue, and in March 1852 a firman was issued, which to Protestants and Mahommedans might well seem to have embodied a reasonable settlement.
The neglect of the Porte to carry out all the stipulations of the Cretan arrangement of 1896 led to a renewal of the disturbances, and Greece began to take steps for the invasion of t he island; in February 1897 Colonel Vassos sailed of 1897.
The Porte strove by every means at its disposal to thwart their activity; but elsewhere they were regarded as a body of academic enthusiasts, more noisy than dangerous, who devoted their scanty funds to the publication of seditious matter in Paris or Geneva, and sought to achieve the impossible by importing western institutions into a country fit only to be ruled by the sheriat and the sword.
This project, which lacked neither ability nor audacity, foundered upon Louis XV.'s invincible jealousy of the growth of Russian influence in eastern Europe and his fear of offending the Porte.
During the peace negotiations, when Kiamil, as Grand Vizier, took the wise course of deferring to the wishes of the British, Enver with his friends arrived in front of the Sublime Porte, shot the War Minister, Nazim Pasha, turned out Kiamil, forced himself upon the Sultan, and in collusion with the Young Turk Committee filled all the offices with Young Turks.
(See Aubusson, Pierre D'.) So long as Jem lived he was a perpetual menace to the sultan's peace, and there was considerable rivalry among the sovereigns of Europe for the possession of so valuable an instrument for bringing pressure to bear upon the Porte for the purpose of extracting money or concessions.
1832) and the death of Mahmud see Mehemet Alt.) The personal attitude of the sultan, which alone concerns us here, was determined throughout by his overmastering hatred of the upstart pasha, of whom he had stooped to ask aid, and who now defied his will; and the importance of this attitude lies in the fact that, as the result of the success of his centralizing policy, and notably of the destruction of the janissaries (q.v.), the supreme authority, hitherto limited by the practical power of the ministers of the Porte and by the turbulence of the privileged military caste, had become concentrated in his own person.
The Porte now made another effort to assist its protÃ©gÃ© two columns were despatched from Medina and Basra respectively, to relieve Hail, and drive out the Wahhabis.
Article 8 of the Treaty of Paris, concluded in the same year, stipulated that "if there should arise between the Sublime Porte and one or more of the other signing powers any misunderstanding which might endanger the maintenance of their relations, the Porte and each of such powers, before having recourse to the use of force, shall afford the other contracting parties the opportunity of preventing such as extremity by means of mediation."
The divan of the Sublime Porte was for long the council of the empire, presided over by the grand vizier.
Unfortunately, Venice, for her own safety's sake, insisted on the publication of Wladislaus's antiTurkish alliance; the Porte, well informed of the course of Polish affairs, remained strictly neutral despite the most outrageous provocations; and Wladislaus, bound by his coronation oath not to undertake an offensive war, found himself at the mercy of the diet which, full of consternation and rage, assembled at Warsaw on the 2nd of May 1647.
The beylerbeys were replaced in 1587 by pashas sent triennially by the Porte.
Supposing that the Porte would yield to diplomatic pressure and menace so far as to make some reasonable concessions, he delivered his famous Moscow speech, in which he declared that if Europe would not secure a better position for the oppressed Sla y s he would act alone.
The ostensible object of the French expedition to Egypt was to reinstate the authority of the Sublime Porte, and suppress the Mamelukes; and in the proclamation printed with the Arabic types brought from the Propaganda press, and issued shortly after the taking of Alexandria, Bonaparte declared that he reverenced the prophet Mahomet and the Koran far more than the Mamelukes reverenced either, and argued that all men were equal except so far as they were distinguished by their intellectual and moral excellences, of neither of which the Mamelukes had any great share.
As the result of endless discussions between the representatives of the powers, the Porte and the pasha, the convention of Kutaya was signed on the i4th of May 1833, by which the sultan agreed to bestow on Mehemet All the pashaliks of Syria, Damascus, Aleppo and Itcheli, together with the district of Adana.
Such proposals could not be entertained by Great Britain; and as the sultan remained obstinate the British ambassador on the 3rd of May presented a note to the Porte requiring compliance with the British proposals within ten days.
The person raised to the princely dignity was usually the chief dragoman of the Sublime Porte, and was consequently well versed in contemporary politics and the statecraft of the Ottoman government.
To raise funds to satisfy the rapacity of the Porte the princes became past masters in the art of spoliation, and the inhabitants, liable to every species of tax which the ingenuity of their Greek rulers could devise, were reduced to the last stage of destitution.
In 1870 he quitted the military service and was attached to the translation bureau of the Sublime Porte.
The country, however, was again ravaged by the retiring troops, quarters of Jassy and Bucharest burnt, and the complete evacuation delayed till 1824, when the British government again remonstrated with the Porte (see Eastern Question; Greece; Ypsilanti; Alexander).
By means of negotiations instigated and prosecuted with great perseverance by the university of Paris and the Inquisition, and through the persistent scheming of Pierre Cauchon, the bishop of Beauvais - a Burgundian partisan, who, chased from his own see, hoped to obtain the archbishopric of Rouen - she was sold in November by John of Luxemburg and Burgundy to the English, who on the 3 rd of January 1431, at the instance of the The Porte St Honore where Joan was wounded stood where the Comedic Francaise now stands.
In his dealings with Turkey, the suzerain power, he displayed considerable acuteness; he gained the confidence of the Sultan, whom he flattered and occasionally menaced; and aided by the ambassadors of the friendly powers, he succeeded in obtaining on two occasions important concessions for the Bulgarian episcopate in Macedonia (see Macedonia), while securing the tacit sanction of the Porte for the technically illegal situation in the principality.
The chief survivals from the demolition are the huge square citadel, which rises to the east of the town, the chÃ¢teau de Selles, a good specimen of the military architecture of the 13th century, and, among other gates, the Porte Notre-Dame, a stone and brick structure of the early 17th century.
In fact, the flags which adorn the hotel's porte cochere represent the countries that participated in the drafting of the United Nations Charter in the hotel's Garden Room.
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