On some of these buildings are still seen the arms of the popes and of some of the royal and noble houses of Europe.
On various occasions the popes found asylum within its walls, and it was the meeting-place of the conclaves which elected Honorius II.
These German popes were short-lived and inefficient.
That cession, renewed after the death of Gregory to his successors, conferred upon the popes indefinite rights, of which they afterwards availed themselves in the consolidation of their temporal power.
The greatest of the popes thus breathed his last; but the new spirit he had communicated to the papacy was not destined to expire with him.
The popes were henceforth to be chosen by the cardinals, the bishops by the chapters subject to the popes approval.
Upon this point, though the battle seemed to be a drawn one, the popes were really victors.
In the first place, from this time forward, owing to the election of popes by the Roman curia, the Holy See remained in the hands ~ of Italians; and this, though it was by no means an cities.
In the next place, the antagonism of the popes to the emperors, whicl became hereditary in the Holy College, forced the former tc - assume the protectorate of the national cause.
Though the communes gained so much by the war of investitures, the division of the country between the popes and emperors parties was no small price to pay for inde- Munlelpendence.
The formation of a Latin empire in the East increased the popes prestige; while at home it was his policy to organize Countess Matildas heritage by the formation of Guelph leagues, over which he presided.
The communes, no less than the popes, felt that they must prepare themselves for contest to the death with a power which threatened their existence.
The popes had been successful; but they hac purchased their bloody victory at a great cost.
Left to themselves by absentee emperors and exiled popes, the Italians pursued their own course of development unchecked.
At the same time, the change which had now come over Italian politics, the desire on all sides for a settlement, and the growing conviction that a federation was necessary, proved advantageous to the popes as sovereigns.
Having become despots, the popes sought to establish their relatives in principalities.
There was great resentment throughout Italy, and in answer to the popes request Charles Albert declared that he was with him in everything, while from South America Giuseppe Garibaldi wrote to offer his services to Hi~ Holiness.
On the 11th a constitution drawn up by a commission of cardinals, without the knowledge of the ministry, was promulgated, a constitution which attempted the impossible task of reconciling the popes temporal power with free institutions.
In Rome the popes authority weakened day by day, and disorder increased.
The letter had been written at the popes request, on the understanding that it should not be published.
Having filled the post of nuncio in England and Spain, he served successive popes as adviser in matters pertaining to heresy and reform.