Pontus Sentence Examples
In the Black Sea they exploited the shores of Pontus and Scythia, whose products they exchanged for textiles spun from the wool of their own country.
During what is called the Second Mithradatic War, Murena invaded Pontus without any good reason in 83, but was defeated in 82.
An electuary of opium, known as Mithradatum, was invented by Mithradates VI., king of Pontus, who lived in constant fear of being poisoned, and tested the effects of poisons on criminals, and is said to have taken poisons and their antidotes every day in the year.
It contains a description of the southern coast of the Euxine from the Thracian Bosporus to the river Iris in Pontus.
In Cappadocia two Persian houses, relics of the old aristocracy of Achaemenian days had carved out principalities, one of which became the kingdom of Pontus and the other the kingdom of Cappadocia (in the narrower sense); the former regarding Mithradates (281-266) as its founder, the latter being the creation of the second Ariarathes (?302-?281).Advertisement
Syria, Pontus, Lydia, Galatia, and above all Thrace were sources of supply.
Ancient Amasia has left little trace of itself except on the castle rock, on the left of the river, where the acropolis walls and a number of splendid rock-cut tombs, described by Strabo as those of the kings of Pontus, can be seen.
Amasia rose into historical importance after the time of Alexander as the cradle of the power of Pontus; but the last king to reign there was the father of Mithradates Eupator "The Great."
With the destruction of this kingdom by Pompey in 64 B.C., the meaning of the name Pontus underwent a change.
But it was also frequently used to denote (in whole or part) that portion of the old Mithradatic kingdom which lay between the Halys (roughly) and the borders of Colchis, Lesser Armenia, Cappadocia and Galatia - the region properly designated by the title "Cappadocia towards the Pontus," which was always the nucleus of the Pontic kingdom.Advertisement
To distinguish this district from the province Pontus and Polemon's Pontus, it was henceforth called Pontus galaticus (as being the first part attached to Galatia).
Though deserted by the Khazars, with whom he had made an alliance upon entering into Pontus, he gained a decisive advantage by a brilliant march across the Armenian highlands into the Tigris plain, and a hard-fought victory over Chosroes' general, Shahrbaraz, in which Heraclius distinguished himself by his personal bravery.
He finds that materials fail for Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Syria, Palestine, Egypt.
They went through Thrace, visiting Athens, Bithynia, Galatia, Pontus, Cappadocia and Cilicia, to Antioch, Jerome observing and making notes as they went.
During part of that time Pliny was imperial legate in the provinces of Bithynia and Pontus, and in constant communication with Trajan.Advertisement
Cornelius Sulla defeated the army of Mithradates VI., king of Pontus, near Chaeroneia.
While he was still a child, the family removed to Pontus; but he soon returned to Cappadocia to live with his mother's relations, and seems to have been brought up by his grandmother Macrina.
After this we find him at the head of a convent near Arnesi in Pontus, in which his mother Emilia, now a widow, his sister Macrina and several other ladies, gave themselves to a pious life of prayer and charitable works.
Caesarea was an important diocese, and its bishop was, ex officio, exarch of the great diocese of Pontus.
At the council of Constantinople (381) the bishop of Constantinople or New Rome was ranked next after the bishop of Rome (canon 3), and at the council of Chalcedon (451) he was given authority over the churches of the political dioceses of Pontus, Asia and Thrace (canon 28).Advertisement
But the last king, Nicomedes III., was unable to maintain himself against Mithradates of Pontus, and, after being restored to his throne by the Roman senate, he bequeathed his kingdom by will to the Romans (74 B.C.).
Its limits were frequently varied, and it was commonly united for administrative purposes with the province of Pontus.
When (c. 360) Basil formed his monastery in the neighbourhood of Neocaesarea in Pontus, he deliberately set himself against these tendencies.
After the death of Pompey, Pharnaces, the son of Mithradates, rose in rebellion against the Roman yoke, subdued Colchis and Armenia, and made head, though but for a short time, against the Roman arms. After this Colchis was incorporated with Pontus, and the Colchians are not again alluded to in ancient history till the 6th century, when, along with the Abasci or Abasgi, under their king Gobazes, whose mother was a Roman, they called in the aid of Chosroes I.
The minor dynasties of non-Greek origin, the native Bithynian and the two Persian dynasties in Pontus and Cappadocia, were Hellenized before the Romans drove the Seleucid out Native of the country.Advertisement
The later sepulchral monuments belong to a class which is widely spread over Asia Minor from Lycia to Pontus.
An order was despatched for his removal to the extreme desert of Pityus; and his guards so faithfully obeyed their instructions that, before he reached the sea-coast of the Euxine, he expired at Comana in Pontus, in the year 407.
Paphlagonia is an ancient district of Asia Minor, situated on the Euxine Sea between Bithynia and Pontus, separated from Galatia by a prolongation to the east of the Bithynian Olympus.
It continued, however, to be governed by native princes until it was absorbed by the encroaching power of Pontus.
From this time the whole province was incorporated with the kingdom of Pontus until the fall of the great Mithradates (65 B.C.).
It seems perhaps most probable that they belonged to the same race as the Cappadocians, who held the adjoining province of Pontus, and were undoubtedly a Semitic race.
The name Anatolia, in the form Anadol, is used by natives for the western part of the peninsula (cis Halym) and not as including ancient Cappadocia and Pontus.
Errors in policy and in government facilitated the rise of Pontus into a formidable power under Mithradates, who was finally driven out of the country by Pompey, and died 63 B.C. Under the settlement of Asia Minor by Pompey, Bithynia-Pontus and Cilicia became provinces, whilst Galatia and Cappadocia were allowed to retain nominal independence for over half a century more under native kings, and Lycia continued an autonomous League.
Hydarnids held its ground; and to these must be added, in the east of Asia Minor, the kingdoms of Pontus and Cappadocia, founded c. 301, by the Persians Mithradates I.
Under their dominion, on the contrary, it expanded with great vigour, not only in the west (Armenia, north Syria and Asia Minor, where it was the official religion of the kings of Pontus and Cappadocia), but also in the east, in the countries of the Indian frontier.
The Lagidae, especially, with their much more compact and effective empire, employed every means to weaken their Asiatic rivals; and auxiliaries were found in the minor states on the frontierAtropatene, Armenia, Cappadocia, Pontus and Bithynia.
In vain Mithradates of Pontus and Tigranes turned to the Parthian king, the latter Confilets even proffering restitution of the conquered frontier with the provinces.
Marcion was a wealthy shipowner, belonging to Sinope in Pontus.
Henceforth Ephesus remained subject to the Romans, save for a short period, when, at the instigation of Mithradates Eupator of Pontus, the cities of Asia Minor revolted and massacred their Roman residents.
Such lands as Cyprus, Cilicia and Syria, such cities as Citium, Soli, Heraclea in Pontus, Sidon, Carthage, Seleucia on the Tigris, Apamea by the Orontes, furnished the school with its scholars and presidents; Tarsus, Rhodes and Alexandria became famous as its university towns.
The latter died in 133, and bequeathed his kingdom to the Romans, who erected part of it (excluding Great Phrygia, which they gave to Mithradates of Pontus) into a province under the name of Asia.
The imperial diocese of Pontus was governed by the exarch of Caesarea, who ruled over thirteen metropolitans with more than 100 suffragans.
He was the first king of Pontus to recognize the suzerainty of the Romans, of whom he was a loyal ally.
For several years the kings of Pontus and Bithynia bid against each other, till in 116 Phrygia was declared independent, although in reality it was treated as part of the province of Asia.
Thus Pontus, with the exception of some of the maritime cities, such as Sinope, Heraclea and Amisus, became Roman territory.
Meantime Mithradates was again in Pontus, and in a disastrous engagement at Ziela the Roman camp was taken and the army slaughtered to a man.
Lucullus was obliged to retreat into Asia Minor, leaving Tigranes and Mithradates masters of Pontus and Cappadocia.
She married Seleucus Cybiosactes, but soon caused him to be slain, and married Archelaus, who had been made king of Comana in Pontus (or in Cappadocia) by Pompey.
From about 438 B.C. till the conquest of this region by Mithradates the Great, king of Pontus, about 100 B.C., the town and territory formed the kingdom of the Bosporus, ruled over by an independent dynasty.
The first example seems to be that of the province of Pontus, where after the twenty canons of Nicaea were placed the twentyfive canons of the council of Ancyra (314), and the fifteen of that of Neocaesarea (315-3 20).
His strict orthodoxy on the subject of the Trinity and the Incarnation, together with his vigorous eloquence, combined to make him peculiarly obnoxious to the Arian faction, which was at that time in the ascendant through the protection of the emperor Valens; and in 375, the synod of Ancyra, convened by Demetrius the Arian governor of Pontus, condemned him for alleged irregularities in his election and in the administration of the finances of his diocese.
Protests in favour of freedom were occasionally raised, not always in a very wise manner, or on very wise grounds, by various individuals such as Eustathius of Sebaste (c. 350), Aerius of Pontus (c. 375), and Jovinian, a Roman monk (c. 388).
The tenet of its axial movement was held by many of his followers - in an obscure form by Philolaus of Crotona after the middle of the 5th century B.C., and more explicitly by Ecphantus and Hicetas of Syracuse (4th century B.C.), and by Heraclides of Pontus.
Marcion and His Theology Marcion was a native of Pontus, born late in the first century, who became a wealthy shipowner.
In historic times it was applied to the inhabitants of (I) Attica, where some believed the Ionians to have originated; (2) parts of Euboea; (3) the Cycladic islands, except Melos and Thera; (4) a section of the west coast of Asia Minor, from the gulf of Smyrna to that of Iasus (see Ionia); (5) colonies from ' any of the foregoing, notably in Thrace, Propontis and Pontus in the west, and in Egypt (Naucratis, Daphnae); some authorities have found traces of an ancient Ionian population in (6) north-eastern Peloponnese.
His son Ariobarzanes, called "Eusebes" and "Philo-Romaeus," earned the gratitude of Cicero during his proconsulate in Cilicia, and fought for Pompey in the civil 492 wars, but was afterwards received with honour by Julius Caesar, who subsequently reinstated him when expelled by Pharnaces of Pontus.
The Greeks used it loosely of various parts of the shores of the Euxine, and the term did not get a definite connotation till after the establishment of the kingdom founded beyond the Halys during the troubled period following the death of Alexander the Great, about 301 B.C., by Mithradates I., Ktistes, son of a Persian satrap in the service of Antigonus, one of Alexander's successors, and ruled by a succession of kings, mostly bearing the same name, till 64 B.C. As the greater part of this kingdom lay within the immense region of Cappadocia, which in early ages extended from the borders of Cilicia to the Euxine, the kingdom as a whole was at first called "Cappadocia towards the Pontus" (irpos TW H6vro), but afterwards simply "Pontus," the name Cappadocia being henceforth restricted to the southern half of the region previously included under that title.
Under the last king, Mithradates Eupator, commonly called the Great, the realm of Pontus included not only Pontic Cappadocia but alsd the seaboard from the Bithynian frontier to Colchis, part of inland Paphlagonia, and Lesser Armenia (see under MrTHRADATES).
In any case, during the years following 40 B.C. all inland Pontus was handed over, like north-east Paphlagonia, to native dynasts.
Under the Roman Empire Paphlagonia, with the greater part of Pontus, was united into one province with Bithynia, as we find to have been the case in the time of the younger Pliny; but the name was still retained by geographers, though its boundaries are not distinctly defined by Ptolemy.
The Zeibeks of the west and south-west are apparently representatives of the Carians and Lycians; and the peasants of the Black Sea coast range of the people of Bithynia, Paphlagonia and Pontus.
From Gaia alone sprang Mountains, Ouranos (the Latinized version is Uranus - it means "the sky") and Pontus.
From Gaia sprang Mountains, Ouranos (the Latinized version is Uranus - it means "the sky") and Pontus.
Hereafter the simple name Pontus without qualification was regularly employed to denote the half of this dual province, especially by Romans and people speaking from the Roman point of view; it is so used almost always in the New Testament.