Leo was disturbed throughout his pontificate by heresy and schism.
During his pontificate the church was brought to its lowest level of degradation.
Paul III., who had begun his pontificate with the intention of purifying the curia, was unaware of the grave danger in which Fisher lay; and in the hope of reconciling the king with the bishop, created him (loth of May 1535) cardinal priest of St Vitalis.
Paul III.s pontificate was further marked by important changes in the church, all of which confirmed the spiritual autocracy of Rome.
to the pontificate; the death of Piero de' Medici in the same year made Giovanni head of his family.
In the past many conflicting estimates were made of the character and achievements of the pope during whose pontificate Protestantism first took form.
But he is chiefly famous for his History of the Church of Rome to the Pontificate of Innocent III.
It was during his pontificate that St Polycarp visited the Roman Church.
Somewhat later it disappeared also in the case of the churches of less importance, patronal rights over these being substituted for the former absolute ownership. The pontificate of Alexander III.
The authority of the pontificate was seriously impaired by these circumstances.
A supreme priestly rank, that of Rish 'amma: or "head of the people," is recognized, but only in theory; since the time of Pharaoh this sovereign pontificate has only once been filled.
Borgia's elevation did not at the time excite much alarm, except in some of the cardinals who knew him, and at first his reign was marked by a strict administration of justice and an orderly method of government in satisfactory contrast with the anarchy of the previous pontificate, as well as by great outward splendour.
In the pontificate of Clement XIII they ruled the Vatican, and almost succeeded in embroiling the pope with the concerted Bourbon potentates of Europe.
His pontificate was marked by protracted controversies with France and Portugal.
The toleration edicts of Galerius and of Constantine and Licinius were published during his pontificate, which was also marked by the holding of the Lateran synod in Rome (313) at which Caecilianus, bishop of Carthage, was acquitted of the charges brought against him and Donatus condemned.
His pontificate was not altogether happy.
On all sides it was felt that the Italian alliance must be tightened; and one of the last, best acts of Nicholas V.s pontificate was the appeal in 1453 to the five great powers in federation.
The others followed at intervals - the fifth, which appeared in 1842, bringing down the narrative to the pontificate of Boniface Viii.
From the first the Crusade, however clerical in its conception, was largely secular in its conduct; and thus, somewhat paradoxically, a religious enterprise aided the growth of the secular motive, and contributed to the escape of the laity from that tendency towards a papal theocracy, which was evident in the pontificate of Gregory VII.
Meanwhile, and throughout his long episcopate of thirty-two years, he foreshadowed the zeal and the enlightened policy later to be displayed in the prolonged period of his pontificate, building and restoring many churches, striving to elevate the intellectual as well as the spiritual tone of his clergy, and showing in his pastoral letters an unusual regard for learning and for social reform.
The numerous encyclicals by which the pontificate of Leo XIII.
The worship of Mary, largely developed during the reign of Pius IX., received further stimulus from Leo; nor did he do anything during his pontificate to correct the superstitions connected with popular beliefs concerning relics and indulgences.
Among the canonizations and beatifications of his pontificate that of Sir Thomas More, author of Utopia, is memorable.
An important event of his pontificate was the capture of Granada (2nd of January 1492), which was celebrated at Rome with great rejoicing and for which Innocent gave to Ferdinand of Aragon the title of "Catholic Majesty."
Although these annals were no doubt destroyed at the time of the burning of Rome by the Gauls, they were restored as far as possible and continued until the pontificate of P. Mucius Scaevola, by whom they were finally published in eighty books.
Throughout the course of his crowded and magnificent pontificate, Innocent III.
Fredericks long minority was occupied by Innocents pontificate.
A weak and easily-influenced old man, his resignation was the noblest act of his pontificate.
Unhappily Frederick preferred to put his Sicilian house in order, and the legate preferred to listen to the Italians, who had their own 3 A canon of the third Lateran council (1179) forbade traffic with the Saracens in munitions of war; and this canon had been renewed by Innocent in the beginning of his pontificate.
on reaching his ninety-third year and the twenty-fifth year of his pontificate.
He held a largely attended council at Clermont in November 1095, where the preaching of the First Crusade marked the most prominent feature of Urban's pontificate.
The greater part of the year that followed was occupied in one of those progresses through Italy, Germany and France which form a marked feature in Leo's pontificate.
But the usual sequence has been observed under Pius X., who appeared to be greatly in favour of the Society and to rely upon them for many of the measures of his pontificate.
His friend and instructor, Bernard of Clairvaux, the most influential ecclesiastic of the time, remonstrated against his election on account of his "innocence and simplicity," but Bernard soon acquiesced and continued to be the mainstay of the papacy throughout Eugenius's pontificate.
It is significant in this connexion that it was under Adrian (c. 774) that the papal chancery ceased to date by the regnal years of the Eastern emperor and substituted that of the pontificate.
and III.), and in the 11th century of the lords of Tusculum, the latter nominating themselves and choosing members of their own family for the pontificate.
For ten years a Germany weakened and divided by the rivalry of Philip of Swabia and Otto of Brunswick left his hands free to act in Italy, and his pontificate marks a period of comparative quiet in the ardent Empire* conflict between pope and emperor which continued throughout the middle ages.
The fact of many of the popes being of French birth and France the field of their diplomacy shows that the supreme pontificate was already becoming French in character.
himself at the beginning of his pontificate yielded to the current, and, like his predecessors, adapted his external policy to the pretensions and interests of vlll.
The war which ensued between the pope and the king of France ended in the complete defeat of the papacy, which was reduced to impotence (1303), and though the storm ceased during the nine months' pontificate of Benedict XI., the See of St Peter recovered neither its normal equilibrium Papacy nor its traditional character.
In Rome there ensued, during the pontificate of Clement, the revolutions of the visionary Cola di Rienzo (q.v.) who restored the old republic, though not for long.
sciences and all the arts of peace, enjoyed only a brief pontificate, but his reign is not without importance, if only as an example of the generous patronage which the papacy - even in its darkest days - has lavished on literature and science.
The crisis came to a head in the pontificate of Gregory XII.
The legitimate pope, Gregory XII., now consented to resign, but under strict reservation of the legality of his pontificate.
From the universal standpoint of history the significance of Nicholas's pontificate lies in the fact that, he put himself at the head of the artistic and literary Renaissance.
The long pontificate of the Franciscan Francesco della Rovere, under the title of Pope Sixtus IV., displays striking contrasts of light and shade; and with him begins the series of the so-called " political popes."
The College of Cardinals, and the Curia in general, grew more and more infected with worldliness during his pontificate.
The beginning of his reign was not unpromising; but all too soon that nepotism began which attained its height under this Spanish pope, and dominated his whole pontificate.
Even though, in his all too brief pontificate, he failed to attain any definite results, he at least fulfilled the first condition of any cure by laying bare the seat of disease, gave an important impetus to the cause of the reform of the Church, and laid down the principles on which this was afterwards carried through.
The harvest was reaped during the long pontificate of the Farnese pope, Paul III.
The last pope to be canonized, his pontificate marks the zenith of the Catholic reformation.
When we reflect than all this was achieved in a single pontificate of but five years' duration, the energy of Sixtus V.
Gregory's brief but notable pontificate marks nevertheless the hightide of the counter Reformation.
The pontificate of Gregory XVI.
Although the Liberal record of the pope was a thing of the past, and his policy had, since Gaeta, become firmly identified with the reactionary policy of Antonelli, yet the early years of his pontificate were in such lively recollection as to allow of Pius IX.'s appearing to some extent in the light of a national hero.
He had long passed the traditional years of Peter's pontificate, had reigned longer than any previous wearer of the tiara, and had seen some brilliant days - days of illusory glory.
The following years of Leo XIII.'s pontificate only tended to increase their dissatisfaction.
The pontificate of Leo XIII.
One of the earliest acts of the new pontificate was to forbid the use in the services of the Church of any music later than Palestrina, a drastic order justified by the extreme degradation into which church music had fallen in Italy, but in general honoured rather in the spirit than in the letter.
and the History (Paris, 1891) of his pontificate have been published by Ulysse Robert.
On the pontificate of Innocent III.
The pontificate of Honorius III.
The pontificate of John XXI.
(1886-1893), and Otto Schiff deals with his pontificate in his Studien zur Geschichte Papst Nikolaus IV.
Of the vast literature on this pontificate we must content ourselves with citing: Heinrich Finke, Aus den Tagen Bonifaz' VIII.
The pontificate of Benedict XI.
What progress reform made during his pontificate was due to its acquired momentum, rather than to the zeal of the pope.
The fourteen years of Gregory's pontificate were marked by extraordinary vigour and activity.
During his pontificate the estates increased in value, while at the same time the real grievances of the tenants were redressed and their general position was materially improved.
Before his elevation to the pontificate he had been suspected of favouring the Pelagians, but when he became pope he disappointed their expectations, and repelled their attempts to enter again into communion with the Church.
During his pontificate the dispute was settled between Cyril of Alexandria and John of Antioch, who had been at variance since the council of Ephesus, but he himself had some difficulties with Proclus of Constantinople with regard to the vicariate of Thessalonica.
Boniface escaped from his captors only to die (October 11), and the short pontificate of his saintly successor, Benedict XI., was occupied in a vain effort to restore harmony to the Church.
He was made cardinal and archbishop of Naples by Innocent XI., whose pontificate he took as a model for his own, which began on the 12th of July 1691.
In the same work the archbishop claims to have written his Chronicon januense in the second year of his pontificate (1293), but it extends to 1296 or 1297.
In the second year of his pontificate he baptized King Ceadwalla of Wessex at.
D.*) A full account of the events of his pontificate will be found in Hefele's Conciliengeschichte, vol.
To prevent abuses, a minute tariff of expenses was drawn up during the pontificate of Leo XIII.
He was loaded with favours during his uncle's pontificate, being made bishop of Carpentras, bishop of Bologna, bishop of Vercelli, archbishop of Avignon, cardinalpriest of S.
During the remainder of that pontificate Della Rovere remained in France, nominally in support of the pope, for whom he negotiated the treaty of 1498 with Louis XII., but in reality bitterly hostile to him.
and Henry III., who were then morally responsible for the pontificate, at length disgusted the Romans, who drove him out in 1044 and appointed Silvester III.
He was the first bishop of London, since the Reformation, to "pontificate" in a mitre as well as the cope, and though no man could have been less essentially "sacerdotal" he was always careful of correct ceremonial usage.
In 1560 his uncle, Cardinal Angelo de'Medici, was raised to the pontificate as Pius IV.
(loth July 1753), regulated the matter until the pontificate of Leo XIII.
In the last years of his pontificate he was busied with preparations for a crusade and for the reunion of Christendom, and sent to Constantinople the celebrated Carmelite monk, Peter Thomas, to negotiate with the claimants to the Greek throne.
During the pontificate of Gregory XIII.
One of the things that commended his candidacy to certain cardinals was his physical vigour, which seemed to promise a long pontificate.
Sixtus set no limit to his plans; and what he achieved in his short pontificate is almost incredible; the completion of the dome of St Peter's; the loggia of Sixtus in the Lateran; the chapel of the Praesepe in Sta Maria Maggiore; additions.
The only territory gained during Urban's pontificate, the duchy of Urbino, the last addition to the papal states, was acquired by reversion (1631); and in his one war, with the duke of Parma, for the district of Castro, he met defeat and humiliation (1644).
The eight years of his pontificate were important in the political, scientific and literary history of the world.
He was compelled, however, to add that the lustre of his pontificate would be for ever dulled by the tragic fall of Constantinople, which the Turks took in 1453.
the pontificate of Formosus was declared valid and all his acts confirmed.
Throughout his pontificate Innocent was completely dominated by his sister-in-law, Donna Olimpia Maidalchini, a woman of masculine spirit.
Although the pontificate of Innocent witnessed the conversion of many Protestant princes, the most notable being Queen Christina of Sweden, the papacy had nevertheless suffered a perceptible decline in prestige; it counted for little in the negotiations at Minster, and its solemn protest against the peace of Westphalia was entirely ignored.
It was under his pontificate that a general council was convened at Capua in 391, at which various Eastern affairs were brought forward.
It was during his pontificate that the last attempt to revive paganism in Rome was made (392-394) by Nicomachus Flavianus.
His brief pontificate was marked by several important events.
His pontificate was signalized by efforts to unite the Greek and Latin churches, by the establishment of the Inquisition in France, by favours shown to the mendicant orders, and by an attempt to organize a crusade against the Tatars.
Towards the end of the pontificate trouble began anew in England, Paschal complaining (1115) that councils were held and bishops translated without his authorization, and threatening Henry I.
and in 590 a great epidemic at Rome is connected with the pontificate of Gregory the Great.
The papacy received its full monarchial structure under Hildebrand (Gregory VII.) in the middle of the II th century; its political decline set in suddenly after the pontificate of Boniface VIII.
Thus he may grant indulgences, issue censures, give dispensations, canonize saints, institute bishops, create cardinals - in short, perform all the acts of his jurisdiction, even though he be no more than a layman; but by custom certain of his more solemn acts are postponed till after the ceremony of his coronation, from which his pontificate is officially dated.
At the head of this is the college of cardinals, who are the princes and senators of the Church, the counsellors of the pope, and his vicars in the functions of the pontificate.
established in 1887 three special vicariates apostolic (Vicariates apostolici Syro-Malabarorum); the vicars apostolic are Latins, but have the right to pontificate and to confirm according to the Syrian rite.
At Viterbo, where he spent most of his pontificate, Clement died on the 29th of November 1268, leaving a name unsullied by nepotism.
Though the process went on from the pontificate of Paul III.
The pontificate of Innocent fell within an important period in European politics, and he himself played no insignificant role.
Urban was frugal and never practised simony, but harshness, lack of tact, and fondness for unworthy nephews disgraced his pontificate.
The thirty-eighth and last Abbasid caliph, Mostasim, was brutally murdered, and thus the Mahommedan caliphate ceased to exist even as an emasculated pontificate.
the Paris Breviary of 1680 by Archbishop Francois de Harlay (1625-1695) and that of 1736 by Archbishop Charles Gaspard Guillaume de Vintimille (1655-1746) - show a deep knowledge of Holy Scripture, and much careful adaptation of different texts; but during the pontificate of Pius IX.
In this pontificate Rome was ravaged, and the churches of St Peter and St Paul robbed, by Saracens (August 846).
At the consecration of a church twelve lights are placed round the walls at the twelve spots where these are anointed by the bishop with holy oil, of a and on every anniversary these are relighted; at the dedication of an altar tapers are lighted and censed at each place where the table is anointed (Pontificate Rom.
Conversely, the extinction of lights is part of the ceremony of excommunication (Pontificate Rom.
We find it laid down in the pontificate of Archbishop Ecgbert of York, A.D.
732-766, and referred to as a canonical rule in a capitulary of Charlemagne, and it was finally established as a law of the church in the pontificate of Gregory VII., c. 1085.
(2) It was written before 96 B.C. or some years earlier in the reign of John Hyrcanus; for since our author is of the strictest sect a Pharisee and at the same time an upholder of the Maccabean pontificate, Jubilees cannot have been written after 96 when the Pharisees and Alexander Jannaeus came to open strife.
In the next place he was an upholder of the Maccabean pontificate.
His masterpiece, Libri octo de synodo diocesana, begun in Bologna, appeared during his pontificate.
On the 14th of September 1523 he died, after a pontificate too short to be effective.
His opposition to the pretensions of the Roman senate to govern the Papal States, moreover, compelled him to remain in exile through his pontificate.
In 1574, during the pontificate of Gregory XIII., a stone was dug up in the island of the Tiber bearing the inscription - " Semoni Sango Deo Sacrum Sex.
During his short pontificate the States of the Church suffered dire calamities, famine, epidemic and a fresh outbreak of brigandage.
He was the first pope placed on the throne by the power of the German emperors, but his short pontificate was only signalized by the convocation of a council in which decrees were enacted against simony.
John's pontificate was continually disturbed by his conflict with Louis of Bavaria and by the theological revolt of the Spiritual Franciscans.
After installing himself in the Vatican, Louis got himself crowned by the deputies of the Roman people; instituted proceedings for the deposition of John, whom the Roman people, displeased by the spectacle of the papacy abandoning Rome, declared to have forfeited the pontificate (April 18, 1328); and finally caused a Minorite friar, Pietro Rainalucci da Corvara, to be elected pope under the name of Nicholas V.
Mollat, La Fiscalite pontificate en France au XIVe siecle (Paris, 1905); A.
In his pontificate the Saracens began to attack the southern coasts of Europe, and effected a settlement in Sardinia.
He died on the 27th day of his pontificate, and was succeeded by Paul V.
The dignity of sherif (or grand sherif, as Europeans usually say for the sake of distinction, since all the kin of the princely houses reckoning descent from the Prophet are also named sherifs), although by no means a religious pontificate, is highly respected owing to its traditional descent in the line of Hasan, son of the fourth caliph `Ali.
sent to the university of Bologna an authentic collection of the decretals issued during the first twelve years of his pontificate; this collection he had c?
This was the Compilatio tertia; for soon after, Joannes Galensis (John of Wales) collected the decretals published between the collection of Bernard of Pavia and the pontificate of Innocent III.; and this, though of later date, became known as the Compilatio secunda.
The most memorable acts of his pontificate were those arising out of the contumacy of the French king, Robert, who was ultimately brought to submission by the rigorous infliction of a sentence of excommunication.
He never visited Rome, but lived most of his pontificate at Orvieto.
There is no doubt that the expenditures of his pontificate were prodigal.
The most praiseworthy side of his pontificate was his munificence as a founder or restorer of useful institutions, and a patron of letters and art.
in the Pontificate and Caeremoniale were consequently not new, but in accordance with ancient and universal custom.
Intended for a business career, he took orders during the pontificate of his uncle, Eugenius IV., and was appointed successively archdeacon of Bologna, bishop of Cervia, bishop of Piacenza, protonotary of the Roman Church, and in 1440 cardinal-deacon of Sta Maria Nuova.
The long projected codification of the whole of the ecclesiastical law of the Church of Rome, a work of gigantic labour, was not taken in hand until the pontificate of Pius X.
As Johannes Gratianus he had earned a high reputation for learning and probity, and in 1045 he bought the Roman pontificate from his godson Benedict IX.
The king voluntarily abandoned lay investiture and the claim to homage during the pontificate of Paschal II., but continued to interfere with elections, to appropriate the revenues of vacant benefices, and to exact an oath of fealty before admitting the elect to the enjoyment of his temporalities.
pontificate had claimed the famous Donation of Constantine.
In 1693, under the pontificate of Innocent XII., he went, like so many others, to Canossa.
(Baldassare Cossa), pope, or rather anti-pope from 1410 to 1415 (fn1), was born of a good Neapolitan family, and began by leading the life of a corsair before entering the service of the Church under the pontificate of Boniface IX.
Cossa kept his word never to appeal against the sentence which stripped him of the pontificate.
He is described as a man of little intelligence or strength of character, and the somewhat important controversies on doctrine and discipline that marked his pontificate are more appropriately associated with the names of Hippolytus and of Calixtus, his principal adviser and afterwards his successor.
In the stormy conflict between the rival popes which followed, the German king, Frederick IV., after some hesitation sided with Eugenius, and having steadily lost ground Felix renounced his claim to the pontificate in 1449 in favour of Nicholas V., who had been elected on the death of Eugenius.
His pontificate was signalized by the continuance of the policy of ecclesiastical reform associated with the name of Hildebrand (afterwards Gregory VII.).
Personally he was one of the least important of the popes, and the great importance of the events of his pontificate is due to the fact that, as Peter Damian wrote (Epist.
The term olibano was used in ecclesiastical Latin as early as the pontificate of Benedict IX., in the iith century.
pontificate on this subject.
John Paul II His 25-year pontificate is 25 years of world history.
It was the first time that John Paul II had failed to deliver the Angelus blessing in his 26-year pontificate.
However he insists that he is not one to just pontificate but get things done.
BROWN: I am not an expert on that subject, so I will not pontificate on it.
Boy, he read her feelings and he did n't pontificate, he asked a question.
pontificate is no bar to the daily chore of pontificating on complex matters.
pontificate EU Heads of Government were pontificating away in Laeken, we were holding a counter-summit on the other side of town.
Though the sale of offices and oppressive taxation which disgraced his pontificate may in part be explained by the desperate condition of the papal finances and by his saving up gold for a crusade, nevertheless he indulged in unbecoming pomp. Showing favouritism toward his family and his nation, he brought untold disaster on the Church.
Leo's lively interest in art and literature, to say nothing of his natural liberality, his nepotism, his political ambitions and necessities, and his immoderate personal luxury, exhausted within two years the hard savings of Julius II., and precipitated a financial crisis from which he never emerged and which was a direct cause of most of the calamities of his pontificate.
The chief episode in his uneventful pontificate was the visit of Constans to Rome; the pope received him "almost with religious honours," a deference which he requited by stripping all the brazen ornaments of the city - even to the tiles of the Pantheon - and sending them to Constantinople.
With his defects of temper, his violent antipathies, his extravagant notion of papal prerogative, his pontificate was filled with strife.
as popes rather than as antipopes, and accordingly count Gregory's pontificate from 1406 to 1409.
Since the pontificate of Innocent III., however, the Latin Church has placed the subdiaconate among the greater or sacred orders, the subdeacon being obliged to the law of celibacy and bound to the daily recitation of the breviary offices.
During his short pontificate, however, he played the part of a peacemaker; he came to terms with the emperor Frederick I.
had always the well-being of the Church primarily in view; and the highest goal of his pontificate, which inaugurated 'the Maecenatian era of the popedom, was to ennoble that Church by the works of intellect and art.
and Gregory XI., and the Beguines were not formally reinstated until the pontificate of Eugenius IV.
In 1480 he was made legate to France, mainly to settle the question of the Burgundian inheritance, and acquitted himself with such ability during his two years' stay that he acquired an influence in the college of cardinals which became paramount during the pontificate of Innocent Viii.
Cardinal Peter de Luna took him with him to Paris in 1391; and on his own election to the pontificate as antipope Benedict XIII.
This conclusion is drawn from the following facts: - (1) The book was written during the pontificate of the Maccabean family, and not earlier than 135 B.C. For in xxxii.
Several events of his pontificate are noteworthy: he granted many privileges to the mendicant orders, especially to the Franciscans; he endeavoured to suppress abuses in the Spanish Inquisition; he took measures against the Waldenses; he approved (1475) the office of the Immaculate Conception for the 8th of December; in 1478 he formally annulled the decrees of the council of Constance; and he canonized St Bonaventura (14th of April 1482).
Say a few words of introduction about each wine but don't, I repeat, don't lecture or pontificate about wine.
Their institution has therefore to be sought for at an earlier date than his pontificate.
The real aims of his rule were disclosed in the second phase of his pontificate.
Practically nothing is recorded of him, his pontificate falling in the period when Rome was in the power of the Roman nobles.
in 1215, was the most brilliant and the most numerously attended of all, and marks the culminating point of a pontificate which itself represents the zenith attained by the medieval papacy.
Throughout the major part of his pontificate he had to reckon with the presence of the powerful antipope Clement III.
Cicero states that from the earliest period down to the pontificate of Publius Mucius Scaevola (c. 131 B.C.), it was usual for the pontifex maximus to record on a white tablet (album), which was exhibited in an open place at his house, so that the people might read it, first, the name of the consuls and other magistrates, and then the noteworthy events that had occurred during the year (per singulos dies, as Servius says).
After the pontificate of Publius, the practice of compiling annals was carried on by various unofficial writers, of whom Cicero names Cato, Pictor and Piso.
The long poem celebrating the triumph of Christ and His saints was called forth by the favour shown him by Pope Leo VII., during whose pontificate he visited Rome, and he devotes fourteen books to the history of the popes.
During the brief pontificate of Pius III., who succeeded Alexander VI.
It was during his pontificate that the 6th oecumenical council was held at Constantinople, to which he sent his legates and those from a Roman council held in 679.
He was a man of upright, moderate and pacific intentions, but his pontificate of eleven years was anything but tranquil.
This is the story of the appearance at Rome (1122), in the pontificate of Calixtus II., of a certain Oriental ecclesiastic, whom one account styles "John, the patriarch of the Indians," and another "an archbishop of India."
In 431 he appeared in Rome to interview Pope Celestine regarding the teachings of St Augustine and then all traces of him are lost until 440, the first year of the pontificate of Leo I., who had been in Gaul and thus probably had met Prosper.
He entered the Celestine order and came into prominence during the pontificate of his uncle, Gregory XII., by whom he was appointed bishop of Siena, papal treasurer, protonotary, cardinal-priest of St Marco e St Clemente, and later cardinal-priest of Sta Maria in Trastevere.
But by far the most important feature of Eugenius's pontificate was the great struggle between pope and council.
Although his pontificate had been so stormy and unhappy that he is said to have regretted on his death-bed that he ever left his monastery, nevertheless Eugenius's victory over the council of Basel and his efforts in behalf of church unity contributed greatly to break down the conciliar movement and restore the papacy to the position it had held before the Great Schism.
(July 939 to October 949) were virtually nonentities, who held the pontificate while the real direction of the pontifical state was in the hands of Marozia and, afterwards, of her son Alberic, senator of the Romans.
He also threw Lorenzo Ricci, the general, into prison, first in the English college and then in the castle of St Angelo, where he died in 1775, under the pontificate of Pius VI., who, though not unfavourable to the Society, and owing his own advancement to it, dared not release him, probably because his continued imprisonment was made a condition by the powers who enjoyed a right of veto in papal elections.
PASCHAL I., pope from 817 to 824, a native of Rome, was raised to the pontificate by the acclamation of the clergy, shortly after the death of Stephen IV., and before the sanction of the emperor (Louis the Pious) had been obtained - a circumstance for which it was one of his first cares to apologize.
During his pontificate a decree against simony was engraven on marble and placed before the altar of St Peter's.
Perceiving That The Measure Was Likely To Confer A Great Eclat On His Pontificate, Undertook The Long Desired Reformation; And Having Found The Governments Of The Principal Catholic States Ready To Adopt His Views, He Issued A Brief In The Month Of March 1582, In Which He Abolished The Use Of The Ancient Calendar, And Substituted That Which Has Since Been Received In Almost All Christian Countries Under The Name Of The Gregorian Calendar Or New Style.
The years of his pontificate were marked by the steady development and diffusion of those ultramontane ideas which were ultimately formulated, under the presidency of his successor Pius IX., by the council of the Vatican.
and Alexander III., achieved the widest extension of the power entrusted to them, and in many respects their pontificates may be regarded as a preparation for and adumbration of the pontificate of Innocent III.
The papacy, however, recovered its ascendancy during the pontificate of Alexander III., and seemed more powerful than ever.
The heretic peril, which increased during his pontificate, forced him to take decisive measures against the Albigenses in the south of France, but before proscribing them he spent ten years (1198-1208) in endeavouring to convert the misbelievers, and history should not forget the pacific character of these early efforts.
On his release Consalvi hastened to his master's assistance; and he was soon after allowed to resume his functions under the restored pontificate at Rome.
It was said that the long pontificate of Pius IX.
Simon, its reputed author, and exalts him above Moses; (2) it mystically explains the Hebrew vowel points, which did not obtain till 570; (3) the compiler borrows two verses from the celebrated hymn called " The Royal Diadem," written by Ibn Gabirol, who was born about 1021; (4) it mentions the capture of Jerusalem by the crusaders and the re-taking of the Holy City by the Saracens; (5) it speaks of the comet which appeared at Rome, 15th July 1264, under the pontificate of Urban IV.; (6) by a slip the Zohar assigns a reason why its contents were not revealed before5060-5066A.M., i.e.1300-1306A.D., (7) the doctrine of the En Soph and the Sephiroth was not known before the 13th century; and (8) the very existence of the Zohar itself was not known prior 1 See, e.g., G.
The pontificate of Paul III.
the Roman question was complicated during his pontificate with the desperate struggle with the Empire.
Several minor events of Leo's pontificate are worthy of mention.
Roscoe, Life and Pontificate of Leo X.
In the early years of his father's pontificate he led a profligate life at the Vatican.
JOHN XVIII., pope from 1003 to 1009, was, during his whole pontificate, the mere creature of the patrician John Crescentius, and ultimately he abdicated and retired to a monastery, where he died shortly afterwards.
The Fifth Crusade is the last which is started in that pontificate of Crusades - the pontificate of Innocent III.
1321), seems to reckon him as living during the pontificate of Gregory X.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.