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pontiff

pontiff

pontiff Sentence Examples

  • Here are Pinturicchio's famous frescoes of scenes from the life of the latter pontiff, and the collection of choir books (supported on sculptured desks) with splendid illuminations by Sienese and other artists.

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  • These negotiations ended when the pontiff grossly insulted the envoys of the king of Bohemia.

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  • Van Espen says: " The whole right of appeal to the Roman pontiff omisso medio had undoubtedly its origin in this principle, that the Roman pontiff is ordinary of ordinaries, or, in other words, has immediate episcopal authority in all particular churches, and this principle had its own beginning from the False Decretals."

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  • was able before his death in 1455 to secure the modern status of the pontiff as a splendid patron and a wealthy temporal potentate.

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  • Before he reached Rome, Pope John XV., who had invited him to Italy, had died, whereupon he raised his own cousin Bruno, son of Otto duke of Carinthia, to the papal chair as Pope Gregory V., and by this pontiff Otto was crowned emperor on the 21st of May 996.

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  • of Germany at once forced the pontiff to crown him emperor, and three or four years later took possession of the Norman kingdom of Sicily; he refused tribute and the oath of allegiance, and even appointed bishops subject to his own jurisdiction; moreover, he gave his brother in fief the estates which had belonged to the countess Matilda of Tuscany.

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  • Article 4 allotted the pontiff an annuity of 3,225,000 lire (~I29,ooo) for the maintenance of the Sacred College, the sacred palaces, the congregations, the Vatican chancery and the diplomatic service.

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  • Trustworthy evidence, they said, proved to them that this pontiff accepted the dogma of the superiority of the council as it had been defined at Constance and at Basel.

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  • As chief pontiff he inquired rigorously into the character of the vestal virgins, three of whom were buried alive; he enforced the laws against adultery, mutilation, and the grosser forms of immorality, and forbade the public acting of mimes.

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  • Fesch ventured to write to the aged pontiff a letter which came into the hands of the emperor.

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  • At the same time the duke of Aosta, commander of the Rome army corps, ordered the troops to render royal honors to the pontiff should he officially appear in the capital.

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  • and seized this opportunity of lavishing on the pontiff friendly congratulations mingled with useful advice.

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  • Hildebrand, now pope as Gregory VII., next summoned him to Rome, and, in a synod held there in 1078, tried once more to obtain a declaration of his orthodoxy by means of a confession of faith drawn up in general terms; but even this strong-minded and strong-willed pontiff was at length forced to yield to the demands of the multitude and its leaders; and in another synod at Rome (1079), finding that he was only endangering his own position and reputation, he turned unexpectedly upon Berengar and commanded him to confess that he had erred in not teaching a change as to substantial reality of the sacramental bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ.

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  • With the decay of the empire the title very naturally fell to the popes, whose functions as administrators of religious law closely resembled those of the ancient Roman priesthood, hence the modern use of "pontiff" and "pontifical."

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  • and seized this opportunity of lavishing on the pontiff friendly congratulations mingled with useful advice.

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  • All obeyed the pontiff of Rome - save Rome itself.

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  • All obeyed the pontiff of Rome - save Rome itself.

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  • From this time onwards his life was one of incessant toil; he was continually engaged in the active service of his order, was frequently travelling upon long and tedious journeys, and was constantly consulted on affairs of state by the reigning pontiff.

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  • (Rome, 1625; contained in Platina, De vitis pontiff.

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  • 1626), who depicts Paul as a paragon of all public and private virtues; Vitorelli, continuator of Ciaconius, Vitae et res gestae summorum pontiff.

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  • Under the same pontiff, the Holy See absorbed the duchy of Urbino on the death of Francesco Maria II., the last representative of Montefeltro and Della Rovere.

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  • For some time past the relations between Napoleon and the pope, Pius VII., had been Napoleon severely strained, chiefly because the emperor insisted ~pacj~ on controlling the church, both in France and in the kingdom of Italy, in a way inconsistent with the traditions of the Vatican, but also because the pontiff refused to grant the divorce between Jerome Bonaparte and the former Miss Patterson on which Napoleon early in the year 1806 laid so much stress.

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  • See the contemporary life by Vitorelli, continuator of Ciaconius, Vitae et res gestae summorum pontiff.

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  • See Panvinio, continuator of Platina, De vitis pontiff.

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  • rom.; Ciaconius, Vitae et res gestae summorum pontiff.

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  • at Avignon, Pierre d'Ailly was entrusted by the king with a mission of congratulation to the new pontiff.

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  • The progress of heresy, the reported troubles in Germany, the war which had lately broken out between the dukes of Austria and Burgundy, and finally, the small number of fathers who had responded to the summons of Martin V., caused that pontiff's successor, Eugenius IV., to think that the synod of Basel was doomed to certain failure.

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  • It was in vain that Sigismund journeyed to Perpignan, and that the kings of Aragon, Castile and Navarre ceased to obey the aged pontiff.

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  • in his Vestments as Supreme Pontiff.

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  • The abbe again declared "it is impossible for me honestly and sincerely to make the act of absolute retractation and submission exacted by the sovereign pontiff."

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  • See Guarnacci, Vitae et res gestae Pontiff.

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  • (Rome, 1751); Sandini, Vitae Pontiff.

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  • The pope condemned this marriage as adulterous; and Abbo of Fleury, who visited Rome shortly after Gregory V.'s accession, is said to have procured the restoration of Arnulf at the new pontiff's demand.

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  • At the present day the canonization of saints is reserved in the Roman Church to the sovereign pontiff.

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  • Contemporary lives are to be found in Panvinio, continuator of Platina, De vitis pontiff.

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  • rom.; and Ciaconius, Vitae et res gestae summorum pontiff.

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  • Pontiff.

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  • His work brought him into intercourse with this great pontiff, who soon saw what he could best do, and how his vast scholarship might be made of use to the church.

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  • See the contemporary lives by Cicarella, continuator of Platina, De vitis pontiff.

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  • Rom.; Ciaconius, Vitae et res gestae summorum pontiff.

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  • The general ardour for the restoration of the arts and of learning created an aristocratic public, of which Erasmus was supreme pontiff.

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  • The vows of this grade are the same as the last formula, with the addition of the following important clause: "Moreover I promise the special obedience to the Sovereign Pontiff concerning missions, as is contained in the same Apostolic Letter and Constitutions."

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  • " Ye know," he said, " that Rome is the capital of the world, that ye hold your dignities of the Roman pontiff as a vassal holds his fiefs of his sovereign, and that ye cannot retain them without his assent."

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  • That a sovereign like St Louis should be able to associate himself officially with the feudalism of his realm to repress abuses of church jurisdiction; that a contemporary of Philip the Fair, the lawyer Pierre Dubois, should dare to suggest the secularization of ecclesiastical property and the conversion of the clergy into a class of functionaries paid out of the royal treasury; and that Philip the Fair, the adversary of Boniface VIII., should be able to rely in his conflict with the leader of the Church on the popular consent obtained at a meeting of the Three Estates of France - all point to a singular demoralization of the sentiments and principles on which were based the whole power of the pontiff of Rome and the entire organization of medieval Catholicism.

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  • The feud between Italian and Frenchman broke out in a violent form; and it was in vain that St Catherine of Siena proffered her mediation in the bloody strife betwixt the pope and the Florentine republic. The letters that she addressed to the pontiff, on this and other occasions, are documents, which are, perhaps, unique in their kind, and of great literary beauty.

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  • But, though illuminated by the rays of art, and loaded with the exuberant panegyrics of humanists and poets, the reign of the first Medicean pontiff, by its unbounded devotion to purely secular tendencies and its comparative neglect of the Church herself proved disastrous for the See of St Peter.

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  • - so the new pontiff styled himself - was soon VII., 1523- to discover the weight of the crown which he had 1534.

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  • The first noteworthy pontiff of the period was Clement VIII., who gained a vast advantage by allying the papacy with the rising power of France.

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  • The relations of one pope became the enemies of the next; and each pontiff governed at the expense of his successors.

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  • During republican agitation at Rome the French general Duphot was killed, a French army advanced on the city, and carried the aged pontiff a prisoner of war to Valence in Dauphine, where he died on the 29th of August 1799.

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  • On the pontiff's death he retired, with impaired health, to Padua, and there lived for a number of years engaged in literary labours and amusements.

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  • See Panvinio, continuator of Platina, De Vitis Pontiff.

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  • Rom.; Ciaconius, Vitae et res gestae summorum Pontiff.

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  • In 1245 the Roman pontiff sent two embassies - one, a party of four Dominicans, sought the commander-in-chief of the Mongol forces in Persia; the second, consisting of Franciscans, made their way into Tartary, and sought to convert the successor of Oktai-Khan.

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  • See Guarnacci, Vitae et gestae Pontiff.

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  • For contemporary accounts of Urban see: Tommasucci, in Platina, De vitas Pontiff.

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  • Rom.; Oldoin, continuator of Ciaconius, Vitae et res gestae summorum Pontiff.

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  • For contemporary lives of Innocent see Oldoin, continuator of Ciaconius, Vitae et res gestae summorum Pontiff.

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  • Rom.; and Palazzi, Gesta Pontiff.

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  • The pope might have said, like a later pontiff on another day, " remittimus irremissibile."

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  • The assumption of the style " vicar of Christ " by the popes coincided with a tendency on the part of the Roman chancery to insist on placing the pontiff's name before that of emperors and kings and to refuse to other bishops the right to address him as " brother " (Mas Latrie, s.

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  • nevertheless soon revealed his personal feelings by having a constitution read in consistory which forbade any appeal from the judgment of the sovereign pontiff in matters of faith (May Io, 1418).

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  • Even in the case of the sovereign pontiff the word pope is officially only used as a less solemn style: though the ordinary signature and heading of briefs is, e.g.

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  • (I) In the matter of jurisdiction: "If any one say that the Roman Pontiff has an office merely of inspection and direction, and not the full and supreme power of jurisdiction over the whole Church, not only in matters of faith and morals, but also as regards discipline and the government of the Church scattered throughout the whole world; or that he has only the principal portion and not the plenitude of that supreme power; or that his power is not ordinary and immediate, as much over each and every church as over each and every pastor and believer: anathema sit."

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  • (2) In the matter of infallibility: "We decree that when the Roman Pontiff speaks ex cathedra, that is to say, when, in his capacity as Pastor and Doctor of all Christians he defines, in virtue of his supreme apostolic authority, a certain doctrine concerning faith or morals to be held by the whole Church, he enjoys, by the divine assistance promised to him in the Blessed Peter, that infallibility with which the divine Redeemer has thought good to endow His Church in order to define its doctrine in matters of faith and morals; consequently, these definitions of the Roman Pontiff are irreformable in themselves and not in consequence of the consent of the Church."

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  • He was an enlightened pontiff and collaborated with Cassiodorus in founding at Rome a library of ecclesiastical authors.

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  • 105 sqq.; Palazzi, Gesta Pontiff.

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  • Formerly all cases, civil and criminal, were referred to the clergy, and until the 17th century the clergy were subordinate to a kind of chief pontiff, named sadr-us-sodur, who possessed a very extended jurisdiction, nominated the judges, and managed all the religious endowments of the mosques, colleges, shrines, &c. Shah Safi (1629-1642), in order to diminish the influence of the clergy, appointed two such pontiffs, one for the court and nobility the other for the people.

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  • 137 sqq., 381 sqq.; Sandini, Vitae Pontiff.

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  • The younger men of letters regarded Castilho as the self-elected pontiff of a mutual-praise school, who, ignorant of the literary movement abroad, claimed to direct them in the old paths, and would not tolerate criticism.

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  • The second division of the work was dedicated to Caesar as supreme pontiff.

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  • I seq.; Palazzi, Gesta Pontiff.

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  • which attributed to a synod assembled by the cardinals the right of constituting itself judge of a sovereign pontiff, was far from being established.

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  • Down to the time of the Gracchi (131 B.C.) the Pontifex Maximus inscribed the year's events upon annual tablets of wood which were preserved in the Regia, the official residence of the pontiff in the Forum.

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  • See Ciaconius, Vitae et res gestae summorum Pontiff.

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  • (Rome, 1601-1602); Cicarella, continuator of Platina, De Vitis Pontiff.

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  • See Ciaconius, Vitae et res gestae summorum pontiff.

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  • (Rome, 1601-1602); Cicarella, continuator of Platina, De vitis pontiff.

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  • To his high connexions and his adroitness, as well as to the gross mistakes of his rival, Clement owed the immediate support of Queen Joanna of Naples and of several of the Italian barons; and the king of France, Charles V., who seems to have been sounded beforehand on the choice of the Roman pontiff, soon became his warmest protector.

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  • See the contemporary life by Vitorelli, continuator of Ciaconius, Vitae et res gestae summorum Pontiff.

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  • See Oldoin, continuator of Ciaconius, Vitae et res gestae summorum Pontiff.

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  • Rom.; Palazzi, Gesta Pontiff.

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  • Robert Winchelsea, the archbishop of Can.terbur~, an enthusiastic exponent of clerical rights and grievances., declared himself in conscience bound to obey the pontiff, and persuaded the representatives of the Church in the parliament to refuse supplies.

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  • Newman), which throws so new a light upon the meaning of tradition, is a valuable support of the conception of a sovereign pontiff drawing out dogmas from implicit into explicit life.

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  • On the 8th the festival of the Supreme Being was solemnized, Robespierre acting as pontiff amid the outward deference and secret jeers of his colleagues.

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  • On returning to Rome, he was cordially received by the newly elected pontiff Nicolas IV., who gave him communion on Palm Sunday, 1288, allowed him to celebrate his own Eucharist in the capital of Latin Christendom, commissioned him to visit the Christians of the East, and entrusted to him the tiara which he presented to Mar Yaballaha.

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  • (Rome, 1601-2); Cicarella, continuator of Platina, De vitis Pontiff.

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  • But the humiliation of Theodosius before St Ambrose proved that the emperor could never claim to be a pontiff, and that the dogma of the Church remained independent of the The sovereign as well as of the people; if she sacrificed Chu~J,s her liberty it was but to claim it again and maintain independit more effectively amid the general languor.

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  • According to that apocryphal document, the emperor after his baptism had ceded to the sovereign pontiff his imperial power and honors, the purple chlamys, the golden crown, the town of Rome, the districts and cities of Italy and of all the West.

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  • The festival of the new doctrine, which turned the head of the new pontiff (June 8), the loi de Prairial, or code of legal murder (June 10), which gave the deputies themselves into his hand; and the multiplication of executions at a time when the victory of Fleurus (June 25) showed the uselessness and barbarity of this aggravation of the Reign of Terror provoked against him the victorious coalition of revenge, lassitude and fear.

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  • Sigismund, king of the Romans, not only extorted, it is said, a sum of 50,000 florins from the pontiff in his extremity, but insisted upon his summoning the council at Constance (December 9).

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  • Duke Frederick of Austria had hitherto sheltered John's flight; but, laid under the ban of the empire, attacked by powerful armies, and feeling that he was courting ruin, he preferred to give up the pontiff who had trusted to him.

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  • However irregular this sentence may have been from the canonical point of view (for the accusers do not seem to have actually proved the crime of heresy, which was necessary, according to most scholars of the period, to justify the deposition of a sovereign pontiff), the condemned pope was not long in confirming it.

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  • He died on the 22nd of December 1419, and all visitors to the Baptistery at Florence may admire, under its high baldacchino, the sombre figure sculptured by Donatello of the dethroned pontiff, who had at least the merit of bowing his head under his chastisement, and of contributing by his passive resignation to the extinction of the series of popes which sprang from the council of Pisa.

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  • But this pontiff died soon after his election; and after a delay of eighteen months, during which Frederick marched against Rome on two occasions and devastated the lands of his opponents, one of his partisans, Sinibaldo Fiesco,was chosen pope, and took the name of Innocent IV.

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  • Huillard-Breholles that he wished to unite to the functions of emperor those of a spiritual pontiff, and aspired to be the founder of a new religion, is insufficiently supported by evidence to be credible.

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  • After his death she became the devoted attendant and supporter of the Roman pontiff and cherished an extraordinary affection for him.

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  • The mind boggles at the thought of that rather ascetic pontiff as the Harold Shipman of the Vatican.

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  • boggles at the thought of that rather ascetic pontiff as the Harold Shipman of the Vatican.

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  • leftymust find a suitable pontiff of the left to excommunicate lefties who are on the turn.

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  • Clement III. was elected pontiff in the year 1188.

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  • The Vatican said the 84-year-old pontiff was recovering well... .

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  • This then developed during the medieval period to the bhattaraka becoming an important pontiff, at times like a king.

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  • We must find a suitable pontiff of the left to excommunicate lefties who are on the turn.

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  • The late pontiff made Lustiger Archbishop of Orleans in 1979.

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  • Boniface hastened to send a delegation to the new pontiff, to pay his respects and to assure him of his fidelity.

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  • The sovereign pontiff never claimed any power of absolving in grievous matters apart from these.

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  • A ferocious letter from the pope to the papal nuncios, on the 19th of March 1423, denounced the proceeding as calculated " to ensnare simple souls and extort from them a profane reward, thereby setting up themselves against the apostolic see and the Roman pontiff, to whom alone so great a faculty has been granted by God " (Cal.

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  • Pastor aeternus, cap. iv.); " we teach and define as a divinely revealed dogma, that the Roman Pontiff, when he speaks ex cathedra - i.e.

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  • supreme apostolic authority, he lays down that a certain doctrine concerning faith or morals is binding, upon the universal Church, - possesses, by the Divine assistance which was promised to him in the person of the blessed Saint Peter, that same infallibility with which the Divine Redeemer thought fit to endow His Church, to define its doctrine with regard to faith and morals; and, consequently, that these definitions of the Roman Pontiff are irreformable in themselves, and not in consequence.

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  • These negotiations ended when the pontiff grossly insulted the envoys of the king of Bohemia.

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  • From this time onwards his life was one of incessant toil; he was continually engaged in the active service of his order, was frequently travelling upon long and tedious journeys, and was constantly consulted on affairs of state by the reigning pontiff.

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  • (Rome, 1625; contained in Platina, De vitis pontiff.

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  • 1626), who depicts Paul as a paragon of all public and private virtues; Vitorelli, continuator of Ciaconius, Vitae et res gestae summorum pontiff.

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  • But the affairs of Lombardy left him no leisure to persecute a recalcitrant pontiff.

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  • was able before his death in 1455 to secure the modern status of the pontiff as a splendid patron and a wealthy temporal potentate.

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  • Under the same pontiff, the Holy See absorbed the duchy of Urbino on the death of Francesco Maria II., the last representative of Montefeltro and Della Rovere.

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  • at Valence (August 29, 1799) deprived the French of whatever advantage they had hoped to gain by dragging him into exile; on the 24th of March 1800 the conclave, assembled for greater security on the island of San Giorgio at Venice, electec a new pontiff, Pius VII.

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  • For some time past the relations between Napoleon and the pope, Pius VII., had been Napoleon severely strained, chiefly because the emperor insisted ~pacj~ on controlling the church, both in France and in the kingdom of Italy, in a way inconsistent with the traditions of the Vatican, but also because the pontiff refused to grant the divorce between Jerome Bonaparte and the former Miss Patterson on which Napoleon early in the year 1806 laid so much stress.

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  • The first, containing thirteen articles, recognized (Articles 1 and 2) the person of the pontiff as sacred and intangible, and while providing for free discussion of religious questions, punished insults and outrages against the pope in the same way as insults and outrages against the king.

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  • Article 4 allotted the pontiff an annuity of 3,225,000 lire (~I29,ooo) for the maintenance of the Sacred College, the sacred palaces, the congregations, the Vatican chancery and the diplomatic service.

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  • As foreign minister of a young state which had attained unity in defiance of the most formidable religious organization in the world and in opposition to the traditional policy of France, it could but be ViscontiVenostas aim to uphold the dignity of his country while convincing European diplomacy that United Italy was an element of order and progress, and that the spiritual independence of the Roman pontiff had suffered no diminution.

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  • At the same time the duke of Aosta, commander of the Rome army corps, ordered the troops to render royal honors to the pontiff should he officially appear in the capital.

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  • More important than all was the interest of the Roman curia, composed almost exclusively of Italians, to retain in its own hands the choice of the pontiff and to maintain the predominance 01 the Italian element and the Italian spirit in the ecclesiastical hierarchy.

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  • The new pontiff, although nominally upholding the claims of the temporal power, in practice attached but little importance to it.

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  • Before he reached Rome, Pope John XV., who had invited him to Italy, had died, whereupon he raised his own cousin Bruno, son of Otto duke of Carinthia, to the papal chair as Pope Gregory V., and by this pontiff Otto was crowned emperor on the 21st of May 996.

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  • Van Espen says: " The whole right of appeal to the Roman pontiff omisso medio had undoubtedly its origin in this principle, that the Roman pontiff is ordinary of ordinaries, or, in other words, has immediate episcopal authority in all particular churches, and this principle had its own beginning from the False Decretals."

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  • of Germany at once forced the pontiff to crown him emperor, and three or four years later took possession of the Norman kingdom of Sicily; he refused tribute and the oath of allegiance, and even appointed bishops subject to his own jurisdiction; moreover, he gave his brother in fief the estates which had belonged to the countess Matilda of Tuscany.

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  • See the contemporary life by Vitorelli, continuator of Ciaconius, Vitae et res gestae summorum pontiff.

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  • See Panvinio, continuator of Platina, De vitis pontiff.

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  • rom.; Ciaconius, Vitae et res gestae summorum pontiff.

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  • at Avignon, Pierre d'Ailly was entrusted by the king with a mission of congratulation to the new pontiff.

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  • As chief pontiff he inquired rigorously into the character of the vestal virgins, three of whom were buried alive; he enforced the laws against adultery, mutilation, and the grosser forms of immorality, and forbade the public acting of mimes.

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  • At first the emperor succeeded in persuading the aged pontiff to sign the preliminaries of an agreement, known as the "Fontainebleau Concordat" (25th of January 1813); but, on its insidious character becoming apparent, Pius VII.

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  • Nevertheless Napoleon ordered the preliminary agreement to be considered as a definitive treaty, and on the 2nd of April gave instructions that one of the refractory cardinals should be carried off secretly by night from Fontainebleau, while the pontiff was to be guarded more closely than before.

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  • Hildebrand, now pope as Gregory VII., next summoned him to Rome, and, in a synod held there in 1078, tried once more to obtain a declaration of his orthodoxy by means of a confession of faith drawn up in general terms; but even this strong-minded and strong-willed pontiff was at length forced to yield to the demands of the multitude and its leaders; and in another synod at Rome (1079), finding that he was only endangering his own position and reputation, he turned unexpectedly upon Berengar and commanded him to confess that he had erred in not teaching a change as to substantial reality of the sacramental bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ.

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  • The progress of heresy, the reported troubles in Germany, the war which had lately broken out between the dukes of Austria and Burgundy, and finally, the small number of fathers who had responded to the summons of Martin V., caused that pontiff's successor, Eugenius IV., to think that the synod of Basel was doomed to certain failure.

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  • In vain did the pope explain his reasons and yield certain points; the fathers would listen to nothing, and, relying on the decrees of the council of Constance, which amid the troubles of the schism had proclaimed the superiority, in certain cases, of the council over the pope, they insisted upon their right of remaining assembled, hastily beat up the laggards, held sessions, promulgated decrees, interfered in the government of the papal countship of Venaissin, treated with the Hussites, and, as representatives of the universal Church, presumed to impose laws upon the sovereign pontiff himself.

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  • Trustworthy evidence, they said, proved to them that this pontiff accepted the dogma of the superiority of the council as it had been defined at Constance and at Basel.

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  • It was in vain that Sigismund journeyed to Perpignan, and that the kings of Aragon, Castile and Navarre ceased to obey the aged pontiff.

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  • The reform which the council had set itself to effect was a subject the fathers could not broach without stirring up dissension: some stood out obstinately for preserving the status quo, while others contemplated nothing less than the transformation of the monarchical administration of the church into a parliamentary democracy, the subordination of the sovereign pontiff, and the annihilation of the Sacred College.

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  • in his Vestments as Supreme Pontiff.

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  • The abbe again declared "it is impossible for me honestly and sincerely to make the act of absolute retractation and submission exacted by the sovereign pontiff."

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  • See Guarnacci, Vitae et res gestae Pontiff.

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  • (Rome, 1751); Sandini, Vitae Pontiff.

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  • Here are Pinturicchio's famous frescoes of scenes from the life of the latter pontiff, and the collection of choir books (supported on sculptured desks) with splendid illuminations by Sienese and other artists.

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  • In the domain of letters he remained until his death a veritable pontiff, and an article or book of his was an event celebrated from one end of Portugal to the other.

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  • The pope condemned this marriage as adulterous; and Abbo of Fleury, who visited Rome shortly after Gregory V.'s accession, is said to have procured the restoration of Arnulf at the new pontiff's demand.

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  • At the present day the canonization of saints is reserved in the Roman Church to the sovereign pontiff.

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  • Other classes of chaplains are: - (r) Parochial or Auxiliary Chaplains, appointed either by a parish priest (under a provision authorized by the Council of Trent) or by a bishop to take over certain specified duties which he is unable to perform; (2) Chaplains of Convents, appointed by a bishop: these must be men of mature age, should not be regulars unless secular priests cannot be obtained, and are not generally to be appointed for life; (3) Pontifical Chaplains, some of whom (known as Private Chaplains) assist the pontiff in the celebration of Mass; others attached directly to the pope are honorary private chaplains who occasionally assist the private chaplains, private clerics of the chapel, common chaplains and supernumerary chaplains.

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  • Contemporary lives are to be found in Panvinio, continuator of Platina, De vitis pontiff.

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  • rom.; and Ciaconius, Vitae et res gestae summorum pontiff.

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  • Savonarola addressed to the pontiff a letter of condolence, boldly urging him to bow to the will of Heaven and repent while there was yet time.

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  • Undismayed by personal danger, Savonarola resolved to appeal to all Christendom against the unrighteous pontiff, and despatched letters to the rulers of Europe adjuring them to assemble a council to condemn this antipope.

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  • Theodosius the Great, in 380, soon after his baptism, issued, with his coemperors, the following edict: "We, the three emperors, will that all our subjects steadfastly adhere to the religion which was taught by St Peter to the Romans, which has been faithfully preserved by tradition, and which is now professed by the pontiff Damasus of Rome, and Peter, bishop of Alexandria, a man of apostolic holiness.

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  • His work brought him into intercourse with this great pontiff, who soon saw what he could best do, and how his vast scholarship might be made of use to the church.

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  • See the contemporary lives by Cicarella, continuator of Platina, De vitis pontiff.

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  • Fesch ventured to write to the aged pontiff a letter which came into the hands of the emperor.

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  • The general ardour for the restoration of the arts and of learning created an aristocratic public, of which Erasmus was supreme pontiff.

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  • The vows of this grade are the same as the last formula, with the addition of the following important clause: "Moreover I promise the special obedience to the Sovereign Pontiff concerning missions, as is contained in the same Apostolic Letter and Constitutions."

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  • The Bab was succeeded on his death by Mirth Yahya of Nur (at that time only about twenty years of age), who escaped to Bagdad, and, under the title of Subh-i-Ezel (" the Morning of Eternity "), became the pontiff of the sect.

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  • " Ye know," he said, " that Rome is the capital of the world, that ye hold your dignities of the Roman pontiff as a vassal holds his fiefs of his sovereign, and that ye cannot retain them without his assent."

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  • That a sovereign like St Louis should be able to associate himself officially with the feudalism of his realm to repress abuses of church jurisdiction; that a contemporary of Philip the Fair, the lawyer Pierre Dubois, should dare to suggest the secularization of ecclesiastical property and the conversion of the clergy into a class of functionaries paid out of the royal treasury; and that Philip the Fair, the adversary of Boniface VIII., should be able to rely in his conflict with the leader of the Church on the popular consent obtained at a meeting of the Three Estates of France - all point to a singular demoralization of the sentiments and principles on which were based the whole power of the pontiff of Rome and the entire organization of medieval Catholicism.

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  • The feud between Italian and Frenchman broke out in a violent form; and it was in vain that St Catherine of Siena proffered her mediation in the bloody strife betwixt the pope and the Florentine republic. The letters that she addressed to the pontiff, on this and other occasions, are documents, which are, perhaps, unique in their kind, and of great literary beauty.

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  • On the 25th of June 1439 the synod - which had already pronounced sentence of heresy on Eugenius IV., by reason of his obstinate disobedience to the assembly of the Church - formally deposed him; and, on the 5th of November, a rival pontiff was elected in the person of the ambitious Amadeus of Savoy, who now took the Felix V.

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  • On the other hand, the troubled and not impeccable past of the new pontiff was bound to excite some misgiving; while, at the same time, severe bodily suffering had brought old age on a man of but 53 years.

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  • But, though illuminated by the rays of art, and loaded with the exuberant panegyrics of humanists and poets, the reign of the first Medicean pontiff, by its unbounded devotion to purely secular tendencies and its comparative neglect of the Church herself proved disastrous for the See of St Peter.

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  • - so the new pontiff styled himself - was soon VII., 1523- to discover the weight of the crown which he had 1534.

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  • The first noteworthy pontiff of the period was Clement VIII., who gained a vast advantage by allying the papacy with the rising power of France.

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  • The relations of one pope became the enemies of the next; and each pontiff governed at the expense of his successors.

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  • During republican agitation at Rome the French general Duphot was killed, a French army advanced on the city, and carried the aged pontiff a prisoner of war to Valence in Dauphine, where he died on the 29th of August 1799.

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  • On the pontiff's death he retired, with impaired health, to Padua, and there lived for a number of years engaged in literary labours and amusements.

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  • In 1245 the Roman pontiff sent two embassies - one, a party of four Dominicans, sought the commander-in-chief of the Mongol forces in Persia; the second, consisting of Franciscans, made their way into Tartary, and sought to convert the successor of Oktai-Khan.

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  • See Guarnacci, Vitae et gestae Pontiff.

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  • For contemporary accounts of Urban see: Tommasucci, in Platina, De vitas Pontiff.

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  • Rom.; Oldoin, continuator of Ciaconius, Vitae et res gestae summorum Pontiff.

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  • For contemporary lives of Innocent see Oldoin, continuator of Ciaconius, Vitae et res gestae summorum Pontiff.

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  • Rom.; and Palazzi, Gesta Pontiff.

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  • The pope might have said, like a later pontiff on another day, " remittimus irremissibile."

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  • The assumption of the style " vicar of Christ " by the popes coincided with a tendency on the part of the Roman chancery to insist on placing the pontiff's name before that of emperors and kings and to refuse to other bishops the right to address him as " brother " (Mas Latrie, s.

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  • nevertheless soon revealed his personal feelings by having a constitution read in consistory which forbade any appeal from the judgment of the sovereign pontiff in matters of faith (May Io, 1418).

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  • Even in the case of the sovereign pontiff the word pope is officially only used as a less solemn style: though the ordinary signature and heading of briefs is, e.g.

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  • (I) In the matter of jurisdiction: "If any one say that the Roman Pontiff has an office merely of inspection and direction, and not the full and supreme power of jurisdiction over the whole Church, not only in matters of faith and morals, but also as regards discipline and the government of the Church scattered throughout the whole world; or that he has only the principal portion and not the plenitude of that supreme power; or that his power is not ordinary and immediate, as much over each and every church as over each and every pastor and believer: anathema sit."

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  • (2) In the matter of infallibility: "We decree that when the Roman Pontiff speaks ex cathedra, that is to say, when, in his capacity as Pastor and Doctor of all Christians he defines, in virtue of his supreme apostolic authority, a certain doctrine concerning faith or morals to be held by the whole Church, he enjoys, by the divine assistance promised to him in the Blessed Peter, that infallibility with which the divine Redeemer has thought good to endow His Church in order to define its doctrine in matters of faith and morals; consequently, these definitions of the Roman Pontiff are irreformable in themselves and not in consequence of the consent of the Church."

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  • He was an enlightened pontiff and collaborated with Cassiodorus in founding at Rome a library of ecclesiastical authors.

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  • 105 sqq.; Palazzi, Gesta Pontiff.

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  • Formerly all cases, civil and criminal, were referred to the clergy, and until the 17th century the clergy were subordinate to a kind of chief pontiff, named sadr-us-sodur, who possessed a very extended jurisdiction, nominated the judges, and managed all the religious endowments of the mosques, colleges, shrines, &c. Shah Safi (1629-1642), in order to diminish the influence of the clergy, appointed two such pontiffs, one for the court and nobility the other for the people.

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  • There the seat of its pontiff was at Samarkand; thence it penetrated into Central Atia, where, buried in the desert sands which entomb the cities of eastern Turkestan, numerous fragments of the works of Mani and his disciples, in the Persian language (Pahlavi) and Syrian script, and in an East Iranian dialect, called Sogdian, which was used by the Manichaeans of Central Asia, have been discovered (K.

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  • 137 sqq., 381 sqq.; Sandini, Vitae Pontiff.

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  • The younger men of letters regarded Castilho as the self-elected pontiff of a mutual-praise school, who, ignorant of the literary movement abroad, claimed to direct them in the old paths, and would not tolerate criticism.

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  • The second division of the work was dedicated to Caesar as supreme pontiff.

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  • I seq.; Palazzi, Gesta Pontiff.

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  • which attributed to a synod assembled by the cardinals the right of constituting itself judge of a sovereign pontiff, was far from being established.

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  • Down to the time of the Gracchi (131 B.C.) the Pontifex Maximus inscribed the year's events upon annual tablets of wood which were preserved in the Regia, the official residence of the pontiff in the Forum.

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  • See Ciaconius, Vitae et res gestae summorum Pontiff.

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  • (Rome, 1601-1602); Cicarella, continuator of Platina, De Vitis Pontiff.

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  • To his high connexions and his adroitness, as well as to the gross mistakes of his rival, Clement owed the immediate support of Queen Joanna of Naples and of several of the Italian barons; and the king of France, Charles V., who seems to have been sounded beforehand on the choice of the Roman pontiff, soon became his warmest protector.

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  • See Oldoin, continuator of Ciaconius, Vitae et res gestae summorum Pontiff.

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  • Rom.; Palazzi, Gesta Pontiff.

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  • Robert Winchelsea, the archbishop of Can.terbur~, an enthusiastic exponent of clerical rights and grievances., declared himself in conscience bound to obey the pontiff, and persuaded the representatives of the Church in the parliament to refuse supplies.

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  • Newman), which throws so new a light upon the meaning of tradition, is a valuable support of the conception of a sovereign pontiff drawing out dogmas from implicit into explicit life.

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  • On the 8th the festival of the Supreme Being was solemnized, Robespierre acting as pontiff amid the outward deference and secret jeers of his colleagues.

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  • On returning to Rome, he was cordially received by the newly elected pontiff Nicolas IV., who gave him communion on Palm Sunday, 1288, allowed him to celebrate his own Eucharist in the capital of Latin Christendom, commissioned him to visit the Christians of the East, and entrusted to him the tiara which he presented to Mar Yaballaha.

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  • (Rome, 1601-2); Cicarella, continuator of Platina, De vitis Pontiff.

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  • With the decay of the empire the title very naturally fell to the popes, whose functions as administrators of religious law closely resembled those of the ancient Roman priesthood, hence the modern use of "pontiff" and "pontifical."

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  • But the humiliation of Theodosius before St Ambrose proved that the emperor could never claim to be a pontiff, and that the dogma of the Church remained independent of the The sovereign as well as of the people; if she sacrificed Chu~J,s her liberty it was but to claim it again and maintain independit more effectively amid the general languor.

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  • According to that apocryphal document, the emperor after his baptism had ceded to the sovereign pontiff his imperial power and honors, the purple chlamys, the golden crown, the town of Rome, the districts and cities of Italy and of all the West.

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  • The festival of the new doctrine, which turned the head of the new pontiff (June 8), the loi de Prairial, or code of legal murder (June 10), which gave the deputies themselves into his hand; and the multiplication of executions at a time when the victory of Fleurus (June 25) showed the uselessness and barbarity of this aggravation of the Reign of Terror provoked against him the victorious coalition of revenge, lassitude and fear.

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  • Sigismund, king of the Romans, not only extorted, it is said, a sum of 50,000 florins from the pontiff in his extremity, but insisted upon his summoning the council at Constance (December 9).

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  • Duke Frederick of Austria had hitherto sheltered John's flight; but, laid under the ban of the empire, attacked by powerful armies, and feeling that he was courting ruin, he preferred to give up the pontiff who had trusted to him.

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  • However irregular this sentence may have been from the canonical point of view (for the accusers do not seem to have actually proved the crime of heresy, which was necessary, according to most scholars of the period, to justify the deposition of a sovereign pontiff), the condemned pope was not long in confirming it.

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  • He died on the 22nd of December 1419, and all visitors to the Baptistery at Florence may admire, under its high baldacchino, the sombre figure sculptured by Donatello of the dethroned pontiff, who had at least the merit of bowing his head under his chastisement, and of contributing by his passive resignation to the extinction of the series of popes which sprang from the council of Pisa.

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  • But this pontiff died soon after his election; and after a delay of eighteen months, during which Frederick marched against Rome on two occasions and devastated the lands of his opponents, one of his partisans, Sinibaldo Fiesco,was chosen pope, and took the name of Innocent IV.

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  • Huillard-Breholles that he wished to unite to the functions of emperor those of a spiritual pontiff, and aspired to be the founder of a new religion, is insufficiently supported by evidence to be credible.

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  • The Pontiff's goal is to connect with the younger generation in terms and with technology that they know and understand.

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  • at Valence (August 29, 1799) deprived the French of whatever advantage they had hoped to gain by dragging him into exile; on the 24th of March 1800 the conclave, assembled for greater security on the island of San Giorgio at Venice, electec a new pontiff, Pius VII.

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  • More important than all was the interest of the Roman curia, composed almost exclusively of Italians, to retain in its own hands the choice of the pontiff and to maintain the predominance 01 the Italian element and the Italian spirit in the ecclesiastical hierarchy.

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  • The new pontiff, although nominally upholding the claims of the temporal power, in practice attached but little importance to it.

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  • Two years later, before the same pontiff, he preached in the city of Genoa a sermon which led to the general institution, in the countries of the obedience of Avignon, of the festival of the Holy Trinity.

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  • In the domain of letters he remained until his death a veritable pontiff, and an article or book of his was an event celebrated from one end of Portugal to the other.

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  • (1721), after which he was for a short time imprisoned by the pontiff on the demand of Spain.

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  • Two years later, before the same pontiff, he preached in the city of Genoa a sermon which led to the general institution, in the countries of the obedience of Avignon, of the festival of the Holy Trinity.

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  • (1721), after which he was for a short time imprisoned by the pontiff on the demand of Spain.

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