In 65 B.C. Jerusalem was captured by Pompey after a difficult siege.
The people had no responsible head, of whom Rome could take cognisance: so Pompey decided in favour of Hyrcanus and humoured the people by recognizing him, not as king, but as high priest.
The Idumaean Antipater was appointed by Julius Caesar procurator of Judaea, Samaria and Galilee, as a reward for services rendered against Pompey.
In 66 he was superseded by Pompey, who completely defeated both Mithradates and Tigranes.
HORATIO SEYMOUR (1810-1886), American statesman, was born at Pompey, Onondaga county, New York, on the 31st of May 1810.
As God's servant, Pompey destroyed their rulers and every wise councillor: soon the righteous and sinless king of David's house shall reign over them and over all the nations (xvii.).
It was one of the oldest cities of Etruria, but does not appear in history till the Roman colonization of 247 B.C., and was never of great importance, except as a resort of wealthy Romans, many of whom (Pompey, the Antonine emperors) had villas there.
His most influential friend was Pompey, who, when settling the affairs of Asia (63 or 62 B.C.), rewarded him with the title of king and an increase of territory (Lesser Armenia).
8), they became the rivals of the Judaean dynasty in the period of its splendour, and a chief element in the disorders which invited Pompey's intervention in Palestine.
For eighteen years he showed himself no unworthy adversary of Sulla, Lucullus and Pompey.
During the same year, however (according to some, two years later, under Pompey's new law), Scaurus was condemned on a charge of illegal practices when a candidate for the consulship. He went into exile, and nothing further is heard of him.
2) also took it, Pompey (ib.
The Rhodian navy, which had distinguished itself in most of these wars, did further good service on behalf of Pompey in his campaigns against the pirates and against Julius Caesar.
AULUS GABINIUS, Roman statesman and general, and supporter of Pompey, a prominent figure in the later days of the Roman republic. In 67 B.C., when tribune of the people, he brought forward the famous law (Lex Gabinia) conferring upon Pompey the command in the war against the Mediterranean pirates, with extensive powers which gave him absolute control over that sea and the coasts for 50 m.
During his absence in Egypt, whither he had been sent by Pompey, without the consent of the senate, to restore Ptolemy Auletes to his kingdom, Syria had been devastated by robbers, and Alexander, son of Aristobulus, had again taken up arms with the object of depriving Hyrcanus of the high-priesthood.
After the outbreak of the civil war, he was recalled by Caesar in 49, and entered his service, but took no active part against his old patron Pompey.
55-63; Plutarch, Pompey, 25.48; Josephus, Antiq.
It was rebuilt by Pompey, and restored by Aulus Gabinius: but it was to Herod that it owed much of its later glory.
In 49 B.C. it was occupied by Minucius Thermus on behalf of Pompey, but he abandoned the town.
In the civil war between Caesar and Pompey Pollio sided with Caesar, was present at the battle of Pharsalus (48), and commanded against Sextus Pompeius in Spain, where he was at the time of Caesar's assassination.
CORNELIUS SISENNA (119-67), legate of Pompey in the war against the pirates, lost his life in an expedition against Crete.
The prescription for the general antidote known as Mithradatum was found with his body, together with other medical MSS., by Pompey, after his victory over that king.
In 58 he was praetor, sided with Pompey in the Civil War, and after his defeat was banished by Caesar, and died in exile.
On the outbreak of the civil war, DeIotarus naturally sided with his old patron Pompey, and after the battle of Pharsalus escaped with him to Asia.
Several Roman nobles, among them Gnaeus Pompeius (Pompey the Great), Q.
Its chief distinctions are that during the later Republic and earlier Empire it yielded excellent soldiers, and thus much aided the success of Caesar against Pompey and of Octavian against Antony, and that it gave Rome the poet Virgil (by origin a Celt), the historian Livy, the lyrist Catullus, Cornelius Nepos, the elder and the younger Pliny and other distinguished writers?
Aemilius Scaurus (stepson of Sulla) who had been sent into Syria by Pompey (65 B.C.).
But, when Pompey himself arrived at Damascus, Antipater, who pulled the strings and exploited the claims of Hyrcanus, realized that Rome and not the Arabs, who were cowed by the threats of Scaurus, was the ruler of the East.
Pompey deferred his decision until he should have inquired into the state of the Nabataeans, who had shown themselves to be capable of dominating the Jews in the absence of the Roman army.
When he repented of his attempted resistance and treated with Pompey for peace, his followers threw themselves into Jerusalem, and, when the faction of Hyrcanus resolved to open the gates, into the Temple.
But Pompey's partisans were beforehand with him: he was taken off by poison and got not so much as a burial in his fatherland.
At the same time his son Alexander was beheaded at Antioch by Pompey's order as an enemy of Rome.
As yet our authorities do not permit us to follow them to Egypt with any certainty, but the Psalms of Solomon express the mind of one who survived to see Pompey the Great brought low.
Although Pompey had spared the temple treasure, he was the embodiment of the power of Rome, which was not always so considerately exercised.
Order was restored by Varus the governor of Syria in a campaign which Josephus describes as the most important war between that of Pompey and that of Vespasian.
Philopator (51-47) and Cleopatra Philopator, Egyptian history coalesces with the general history of the Roman world, owing to the murder of Pompey off Pelusium in 48 and the Alexandrine War of Julius Caesar (48-47).
When Pompey appeared in Syria in 64, Antiochus XIII.
Pompey refused and made Syria a Roman province.
25-27; Plutarch, Pompey, 30; Vell.
In 67 and 66 Catulus unsuccessfully opposed, as prejudicial to constitutional freedom, the Gabinian and Manilian laws, which conferred special powers upon Pompey.
After having been reckoned for a short time (from 83 to 69 B.C.) among the dominions of Tigranes, king of Armenia, the country was conquered for the Romans by Pompey (64-63 B.C.).
the tomb of Pompey at Pelusium with great magnificence.
In the great civil wars Athens sided with Pompey and held out against Caesar's lieutenants, but received a free pardon " in consideration of her great dead."
From 83 to 69 is the transient episode of Armenian conquest, and in 64 the last shadow of Seleucid rule vanished, when Syria was made a Roman province by Pompey.
Only those were eligible who personally gave in their names, a clause obviously intended to exclude Pompey, who was at the time absent in the East.
The revenues of the provinces which were ° now being organized by Pompey, and the booty and money taken or received by generals during war were also to be applied to this purpose.
The pirates sold great numbers of slaves at Delos, where was the chief market for this kind of wares; and these sales went on as really, though more obscurely, after the successful expedition of Pompey.
In the southern part of the city are the Arab cemetery, "Pompey's Pillar" and the catacombs.
"Pompey's Pillar," which stands on the highest spot in Alexandria, is nearly 99 ft.
Botti, late director of the museum, in the neighbourhood of "Pompey's Pillar," where there is a good deal of open ground.
The wealth underground is doubtless immense; but, despite all efforts, there is not much for antiquarians to see in Alexandria outside the museum and the neighbourhood of "Pompey's Pillar."
Among the titles of his tragedies are Aegisthus, Lycurgus, Andromache or Hector Proficiscens, Equus Trojanus, the last named being performed at the opening of Pompey's theatre (55).
A third Epidaurus was situated in Illyricum, on the site of the present Ragusa Vecchia; but it is not mentioned till the time of the civil wars of Pompey and Caesar, and has no special interest.
In 63 B.C. Pompey placed it (together with the Tectosagan territory) under one chief, and it continued under native rule till it became the capital of the Roman province of Galatia in 25 B.C. By this time the population included Greeks, Jews, Romans and Romanized Gauls, but the town was not yet Hellenized, though Greek was spoken.
Aesopus made a last appearance in 55 B.C. - when Cicero tells us that he was advanced in years - on the occasion of the splendid games given by Pompey at the dedication of his theatre.
Modified though never essentially changed, (1) by contact with the star-worship of the Chaldaeans, who identified Mithras with Shamash, god of the sun,(2) by the indigenous Armenian religion and other local Asiatic faiths and (3) by the Greeks of Asia Minor, who identified Mithras with Helios, and contributed to the success of his cult by equipping it for the first time with artistic representations (the famous Mithras relief originated in the Pergamene school towards the 2nd century B.C.), Mithraism was first transmitted to the Roman world during the 1st century B.C. by the Cilician pirates captured by Pompey.
The latter, however, made it the base of his operations against the Romans in 89, 72 and 67 B.C. Pompey made it a free city in 65, after Mithradates' fall.
Originally a town of the Vascones, Pamplona was rebuilt in 68 B.C. by Pompey the Great, whence the name Pompaelo or Pompelo (Strabo).
Cilicia Trachea became the haunt of pirates, who were subdued by Pompey.
Cilicia Pedias became Roman territory in 103 B.C., and the whole was organized by Pompey, 64 B.C., into a province which, for a short time, extended to and included part of Phrygia.
A native of Apamea in Syria and a pupil of Panaetius, he spent after his teacher's death many years in travel and scientific researches in Spain (particularly at Gades), Africa, Italy, Gaul, Liguria, Sicily and on the eastern shores of the Adriatic. When he settled as a teacher at Rhodes (hence his surname "the Rhodian") his fame attracted numerous scholars; next to Panaetius he did most, by writings and personal intercourse, to spread Stoicism in the Roman world, and he became well known to many leading men, such as Marius, Rutilius Rufus, Pompey and Cicero.
He was rapturously welcomed on the Pompeian side; but he brought no great strength with him, and his ill fortune under Pompey was as marked as his success had been under Caesar.
After the defeat at Thapsus he joined the younger Pompey in Spain, and was killed at Munda (March 17th, 45)
Henri de Tourville, in his Histoire de la formation particulariste (1903), basing his argument on the Ynglinga Saga, interpreted in the light of " Social Science," reveals Odin, " the traveller," as a great " caravan-leader " and warrior, who, driven f rem Asgard - a trading city on the borders of the steppes east of the Don - by " the blows that Pompey aimed at Mithridates," brought to the north the arts and industries of the East.
With the destruction of this kingdom by Pompey in 64 B.C., the meaning of the name Pontus underwent a change.
The chief towns in the interior were Amasia, on the Iris, the birthplace of Strabo, the capital of Mithradates the Great, and the burial-place of the earlier kings, whose tombs still exist; Comana, higher up the river, a famous centre of the worship of the goddess Ma (or Cybele); Zela, another great religious centre, refounded by Pompey, now Zilch; Eupatoria, refounded by Pompey as Magnopolis at the junction of the Lycus and Iris; Cabira, Pompey's Diospolis, afterwards Neocaesarea, now Niksar; Sebastopolis on the Scylax, now Sulu Seral; Sebasteia, now Sivas; and Megalopolis, a foundation of Pompey, somewhere in the same district.
Part of it was handed over by Pompey to client princes: the coast-land east of the Halys (except the territory of Amisus) and the hill-tribes of Paryadres were given, with Lesser Armenia, to the Galatian chief Deiotarus, with the title of king; Comana was left under the rule of its high-priest.
In the civil wars he at first took the side of Pompey, but afterwards went over to Caesar, and was present at the battle of Pharsalus.
private worship that it had to be suppressed by decree of the Senate in 186 B.C., and later on were established the cults of Ma of Phrygia, introduced by Sulla and identified with Bellona, the Egyptian Isis, and, after Pompey's war with the pirates, even the Persian Mithras.
he confounds Dionysius the elder and Dionysius the younger, Mithradates satrap of Artaxerxes and Mithradates the Great, Scipio the elder and Scipio the younger, Perseus, king of Macedonia and Perseus the companion of Alexander; he mixes up the stratagems of Caesar and Pompey; he brings into immediate connexion events which were totally distinct; he narrates some events twice over, with variations according to the different authors from whom he draws.
Thirdly, the vials source from the time of Pompey (circa 63),- x.
He landed at Pelusium the day after the murder of Pompey, was immediately seized by Ptolemy, imprisoned, and put to death.
104; Plutarch, Pompey, 80.
The Albani became known to the Romans during Pompey's pursuit of Mithradates the Great (65 B.C.), against which they are said to have opposed a force of 60,000 foot and 20,000 cavalry.
Pompey exacted from them a nominal submission, but their independence was not seriously affected by the Romans.
In the Civil War it sided with Pompey, and later on with Brutus and Cassius.
In this case "the Synagogue of the Libertines" is the assembly of "the Freedmen" from Rome, descendants of the Jews enslaved by Pompey after his conquest of Judaea 63 B.C. If, however, we take Ac13EpTLvwv Kai Kvprivaiwv Kai AXE avbpLov closely together, the first name must denote the people of some city or district.
Through the intervention of Pompey, he became reconciled to Cicero, who had been greatly offended because Claudius had indirectly opposed his return from exile.
His connexion with Pompey brought upon him the enmity of Caesar, at whose march on Rome he fled from Italy.
Capture of Jerusalem by Pompey.
He was not, however, destined to compass the downfall of the Sullan regime; the crisis of the Slave War placed the Senate at the mercy of Pompey and Crassus, who in 70 B.C. swept away the safeguards of senatorial ascendancy, restored the initiative in legislation to the tribunes, and replaced the Equestrian order, i.e.
Caesar, however, overrode all opposition, mustering Pompey's veterans pey to drive his colleague from the forum.
Pompey was satisfied by the ratification of his acts in Asia, and by the assignment of the Campanian state domains to his veterans, the capitalists (with whose interests Crassus was identified) had their bargain for the farming of the Asiatic revenues cancelled, Ptolemy Auletes received the confirmation of his title to the throne of Egypt (for a consideration amounting to i,50o,000), and a fresh act was passed for preventing extortion by provincial governors.
There can be no doubt that Caesar was cognizant of some at least of the threads of conspiracy which were woven during Pompey's absence in the East.
An equally abortive attempt to create a counterpoise to Pompey's power was made by the tribune Rullus at the close of 64 B.C. He proposed to create a land commission with very wide powers, which would in effect have been wielded by Caesar and Crassus.
As praetor (62 B.C.) Caesar supported proposals in Pompey's favour which brought him into violent collision with the senate.
This was a master-stroke of tactics, as Pompey's return was imminent.
Thus when Pompey landed in Italy and disbanded his army he found in Caesar a natural ally.
He returned to Rome in 60 B.C. to find that the senate had sacrificed the support of the capitalists (which Cicero had worked so hard to secure), and had finally alienated Pompey by refusing to ratify his acts and grant lands to his soldiers.
Caesar at once approached both Pompey and Crassus, who alike detested the existing system of government but were personally at variance, and succeeded in persuading them to forget their quarrel and join him in a coalition which should put an end to the rule of the oligarchy.
In 56 B.e., at the conference of Luca (Lucca), Caesar, Pompey and Crassus had renewed their agreement, and Caesar's Break-up command in Gaul, which would have expired on the of thak-up ist of March 54 B.e., was renewed, probably for five Coalition.
But in 54 B.C. Julia, the daughter of Caesar and wife of Pompey, died, and in 53 B.C. Crassus was killed at Carrhae.
Pompey now drifted apart from Caesar and became the champion of the senate.
His representative in So B.C., the tribune C. Scribonius Curio, served him well, and induced the lukewarm majority of the senate to refrain from extreme measures, insisting that Pompey, as well as Caesar, should resign the imperium.
Pompey's available force consisted in two legions stationed in Campania, and eight, commanded by his lieutenants, Afranius and Petreius, in Spain; both sides levied troops in Italy.
Caesar was soon joined by two legions from Gaul and marched rapidly down the Adriatic coast, overtaking Pompey at Brundisium (Brindisi), but failing to prevent him from embarking with his troops for the East, where the prestige of his name was greatest.
He reached Ilerda (Lerida) on the 23rd of June and, after extricating his army from a perilous situation, outmanoeuvred Pompey's lieutenants and received their submission on the 2nd of August.
He attempted to invest Pompey's lines at Dyrrhachium (Durazzo), though his opponent's force was double that of his own, and was defeated with considerable loss.
He now marched eastwards, in order if possible to intercept the reinforcements which Pompey's father-in-law, Scipio, was bringing up; but Pompey tions to Britain.
In November, however, he was obliged to sail for Spain, where the sons of Pompey still held out.
Caesar returned to Rome in September, and six months later (15th of March 44 B.C.) was murdered in the senate house at the foot of Pompey's statue.
Hirtius, is a supplement relating the events of 51-50 B.C.), while the three books De bello civili record the struggle between Caesar and Pompey (49-48 B.C.).
Strabo chiefly employed Greek authorities (the Alexandrian geographers Polybius, Posidonius and Theophanes of Mytilene, the companion of Pompey) and made comparatively little use of Roman authorities.
When the relations of Caesar and Pompey became strained, Bibulus supported Pompey (Plutarch, Cato Minor, 41) and joined in proposing his election as sole consul (52 B.C.).
After the expiration of his term of office, Pompey gave him command of his fleet in the Ionian Sea.
For his services against Sertorius in Spain, the Roman citizenship was conferred upon him and his family by Pompey.
Cicero, Pompey and Crassus all spoke on his behalf, and he was acquitted.
During the civil war he endeavoured to get Cicero to mediate between Caesar and Pompey, with the object of preventing him from definitely siding with the latter; and Cicero admits that he was dissuaded from doing so, against his better judgment.
He wrote a play of which the subject was his visit to Lentulus in the camp of Pompey at Dyrrhachium, and, according to Macrobius (Saturnalia, iii.
In 63 it suited the policy of Pompey that he should be restored to the high priesthood, with some semblance of supreme command, but of much of this semblance even he was soon again deprived by the arrangement of the pro-consul Gabinius, according to which Palestine was in 57 B.C. divided into five separate circles (auv060c, vvv&3pca).
But both he and his successor Tiberius realized that the greater need was to consolidate the existing empire, and absorb the vast additions recently made to it by Pompey, Caesar and Augustus.
He had been identified with the son or grandson of Theophanes of Mytilene, the intimate friend of Pompey.
The lost territory, however, was recovered by Phraates III., and Mesopotamia was guaranteed to Parthia by the treaties of Lucullus and Pompey (66 B.C.).
His grandfather served in the war against Sertorius with Pompey, through whose influence he obtained the Roman citizenship; hence the name Pompeius, adopted as a token of gratitude to his benefactor.
At last in 64 B.C. Pompey arrived upon the scene and established order out of chaos.
It represents an ancient Roman with an almost completely bald forehead and a double chin; and is almost certainly a portrait, not of Pliny the Elder, but of Pompey the Great.
On the defeat of Mithradates by Pompey, it became a Roman province.
After the death of Pompey, Pharnaces, the son of Mithradates, rose in rebellion against the Roman yoke, subdued Colchis and Armenia, and made head, though but for a short time, against the Roman arms. After this Colchis was incorporated with Pontus, and the Colchians are not again alluded to in ancient history till the 6th century, when, along with the Abasci or Abasgi, under their king Gobazes, whose mother was a Roman, they called in the aid of Chosroes I.
The literature of the ancient Hebrews abounds in allusions to the lion; and the almost incredible numbers stated to have been provided for exhibition and destruction in the Roman amphitheatres (as many as six hundred on a single occasion by Pompey, for example) show how abundant these animals must have been within accessible distance of Rome.
A body of the rebels which had escaped from the field was met and cut to pieces at the foot of the Alps by Pompey (the Great), who was returning from Spain.
The story has to be pieced together from the vague and somewhat discrepant accounts of Plutarch (Crassus, 8 - II; Pompey, 21), Appian (Bell.
Accordingly, when Pompey annexed Syria in 64 B.C. as a Roman province, he found it a chaos of city-states and petty princi palities.
Hence Caesar's crossing of it in 49 B.C. was tantamount to a declaration of war against Rome as represented by Pompey and the Senate.
Similarly Pompey, in the second psalm of Solomon, is obviously represented as the dragon of chaos, and his figure exalted into myth.
Alexander Jannaeus subdued it, and under Pompey it became Roman.
Pompey's lieutenant Scaurus Pompey entered Syria in 65 B.C., after the final defeat of Mithradates, and Pompey soon followed to take command of the situation.
Pompey finally decided in favour of Hyrcanus, and entered Jerusalem by the aid of his party.
In 61 B.C. Pompey celebrated the third of a series of triumphs over Africa, Europe and Asia, and in his train, among the prisoners of war, was Aristobulus, king of Judaea.
In the same year he spoke on behalf of the proposal of Gaius Manilius to transfer the command against Mithradates from Lucullus to Pompey (de Lege Manilia), and delivered his clever but disingenuous defence of Aulus Cluentius (pro Cluentio) .
He was soon encouraged by the growing coolness between Pompey and Caesar to attack the acts of Caesar during his consulship, and after his successful defence of Publius Sestius on the 10th of March he proposed on the 5th of April that the senate should on the 15th of May discuss Caesar's distribution of the Campanian land.
Annius Milo on the Appian Way (on the 18th of January), which brought about the appointment of Pompey as sole consul and the passing of the special laws dealing with rioting and bribery.
' A fter the outbreak of war he was placed by Pompey in charge of the Campanian coast.
After much irresolution he refused Caesar's invitations and resolved to join Pompey's forces in Greece.
to Caesar, to Pompey, to Octavian and to his son Marcus.
Pompey is at Brundisium.
In the de Bello civili, on the other hand, Caesar, who wishes to show that he did his best to make peace, after stating that he sent his captive Magius to negotiate, expresses mild surprise at the fact that Pompey did not send him back (Bell.
On the outbreak of the civil war between Pompey and Caesar, Quintus, like Marcus, supported Pompey, but after Pharsalus he deserted and made peace with Caesar, largely owing to the intercession of Marcus.
Marcus Tullius Cicero, only son of the orator and his wife Terentia, was born in 65 B.C. At the age of seventeen he served with Pompey in Greece, and commanded a squadron of cavalry at the battle of Pharsalus.
In the civil war he took the side of Pompey; but, having been pardoned by Caesar, returned to Rome, where he lived in retirement until his death.
In the Punic Wars it sided with the Carthaginians and suffered much from the Roman arms. In its immediate neighbourhood Hanno was defeated by Scipio in 216 B.C., and it afterwards became famous as the scene of Caesar's arduous struggle with Pompey's generals Afranius and Petreius in the first year of the civil war (49 B.C.).
Soon afterwards he was elected consul with Pompey, and (70) displayed his wealth by entertaining the populace at Io,000 tables, and distributing sufficient corn to last each family three months.
In 65 he was censor, and in 60 he joined Pompey and Caesar in the coalition known as the first triumvirate.
In 55 he was again consul with Pompey, and a law was passed, assigning the provinces of the two Spains and Syria to the two consuls for five years.
See Plutarch's Life; also CAESAR, GAIUS JULIUS; POMPEY; ROME: History, II.
Further, as the serpent-" father " of Alexander the Great came with a healing-root to cure his general Pompey (Cicero, De div.
Errors in policy and in government facilitated the rise of Pontus into a formidable power under Mithradates, who was finally driven out of the country by Pompey, and died 63 B.C. Under the settlement of Asia Minor by Pompey, Bithynia-Pontus and Cilicia became provinces, whilst Galatia and Cappadocia were allowed to retain nominal independence for over half a century more under native kings, and Lycia continued an autonomous League.
Pompey was its patron, and intended that Caesar should find resistance here in 49 B.C. It appears to have been a place of some importance in imperial times, as inscriptions and the monuments of its forum (the present piazza) show.
He was praetor in 74 B.C., and received an extraordinary command (similar to that bestowed upon Pompey by the Gabinian law) to clear the sea of pirates, and thereby assist the operations against Mithradates VI.
In 46 he seems to have taken offence because Caesar insisted on payment for the property of Pompey which Antony professedly had purchased, but had in fact simply appropriated.
Asiaticus, made peace on advantageous terms with Pompey in 64 B.C. Subsequently he fought on Pompey's side in the Civil War, and later still repelled an attack on Samosata by Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony.) He died before 31 B.C. and was succeeded by one Mithradates I.
Rome, nevertheless concluded a treaty with Lucullus (69 B.C.) and with Pompey, aBd even supported the latter in his campaign against Tigranes in 66.
When Tigranes had submitted, Pompey received him into favor and extended the Roman supremacy over the vassal states of Gordyene and Osroene; though he had allured the Parthian king with the prospect of the recovery of his old possessions as far as the Euphrates.
But when Pompey refused reparation Phraates recognized that he was too weak to begin the struggle with Rome, and contented himself with forming an alliance with Tigranes, in hopes that the future would bring an opportunity for his revenge (Dio Cass.
had not succeeded in regaining the full power of his predecessors, he felt justified.in again assuming the title king of kingswbich Pompey declined to acknowledge and even in proclaiming himself as god (Phlegon, Jr. 12 ap. Phot.
After the victories of Pompey, however, the Romans claimed the suzerainty, so that, during the next decades and the expeditions of Crassus and Antony, they oscillated between Rome and Parthia, though their inclination was generally to the latter.
upon the inheritance of Alexander the Great; and, since the time of Pompey, had definitely subjected to hes dominion the Hellenistic countries as far as the Euphrates.
But, apart from the ravaging of Syria (51 B.C.) by Pacorus the son of Orodes, the threatened attack on the Roman Empire was carried into effect neither then nor during the civil wars of Caesar and Pompey.
The Parthians formed a league with Brutus and Cassius, as previously with Pompey, but gave them no support, until in 40 B.C. a Parthian army, led by Pacorus and the republican general Labienus, harried Syria and Asia Minor.
Perperna (or Perpenna) Vento from Rome, with a following of Roman nobles, and in the same year the great Pompey was sent to conquer him.
Pompey wrote to Rome for reinforcements, without which, he said, he and Metellus would be driven out of Spain.
See Plutarch's lives of Sertorius and Pompey; Appian, Bell.
Aemilius Scaurus, who in 65 came into Syria as the legate of Pompey, led to the interference of the Romans, the siege of Jerusalem by Pompey, and the vassalage of the Jews (q.v.).
In politics and war he followed Pompey's lead; but it is probable that he was discontented with the course on which his leader entered when the first triumvirate was formed, and he may thus have lost his chance of rising to the consulate.
We next find him, as legate, in command of a fleet which kept the seas between Delos and Sicily, while Pompey was suppressing the pirates, and he even won the " naval crown," a coveted reward of personal prowess.
Caesar curiously intimates that, though Varro did his best for Pompey from a sense of duty, his heart was really with the other leader.
Lucullus in the government of Cilicia and the command of the war against Mithradates, but as he did absolutely nothing and was unable to control the soldiery, he was in turn superseded by Pompey according to the provisions of the Manilian law.
In the Civil War his personal sympathies were with Pompey and the republican party (Tac. Ann.
But even when driven out of his own kingdom by Pompey, Mithradates was strong enough to regain the Bosporus Cimmerius, and Machares slew himself.
After the death of Mithradates (B.C. 63), this Pharnaces (63-47) made his submission to Pompey, but tried to regain his dominion during the civil war.
It must have become a municipium by the lex Julia of 90 B.e., and it was here that Julius Caesar in 56 B.C. held his famous conference with Pompey and Crassus, Luca then being still in Liguria, not in Etruria.
In 66 Lucullus was superseded by Pompey.
His park and pleasure grounds near Rome, and the costly and laborious works in his parks and villas at Tusculum, near Naples, earned for him from Pompey (it is said) the title of the "Roman Xerxes."
So Cicero and Pompey paled before Joshua and Paul.
She married Seleucus Cybiosactes, but soon caused him to be slain, and married Archelaus, who had been made king of Comana in Pontus (or in Cappadocia) by Pompey.
He did not, however, definitely declare for Pompey, but remained neutral, without forfeiting the respect of Caesar.
A few years afterwards, deprived of all royal authority, she withdrew into Syria, and made preparation to recover her rights by force of arms. At this juncture Julius Caesar followed Pompey into Egypt.
POMPEY, the common English form of Pompeius, the name of a Roman plebeian family.
On the return of Sulla from the Mithradatic War Pompey joined him with an army of three legions, which he had raised in Picenum.
Pompey was fighting in Spain from 76 to 71, and though at first he met with serious reverses he was ultimately successful.
After Sertorius had fallen a victim to assassination, Pompey easily defeated his successor Perperna and put an end to the war.
the provincials could never get justice from a court composed of senators, and it was carried into effect by Pompey with Caesar's aid.
Pompey rose still higher in popularity, and on the motion of the tribune Aulus Gabinius in 67 he was entrusted with an extraordinary command over the greater part of the empire, specially for the extermination of piracy in the Mediterranean, by which the corn supplies of Rome were seriously endangered, while the high prices of provisions caused great distress.
Both Caesar and Cicero supported the tribune's proposal, which was easily carried in spite of the interested opposition of the senate and the aristocracy, several of whom held provinces which would now be practically under Pompey's.
The result of Pompey's operations was eminently satisfactory.
After the capture of Jerusalem Pompey is said to have entered the Temple, and even the Holy of Holies.
Pompey, now in his forty-fifth year, returned to Italy in 61 to 1 Their history and political character is obscure; they were at any rate connected with the knights (see Aerarium).
On more than one occasion Caesar had supported Pompey's policy, which of late had been in a decidedly democratic direction.
Pompey was now in fact ruler of the greater part of the empire, while Caesar had only the two provinces of Gaul.
The control of the capital, the supreme command of the army in Italy and of the Mediterranean fleet, the governorship of the two Spains, the superintendence of the corn supplies, which were mainly drawn from Sicily and Africa, and on which the vast population ' of Rome was wholly dependent, were entirely in the hands of Pompey, who was gradually losing the confidence of all political parties in Rome.
Hence the joint rule of Pompey and Caesar was not unwillingly .accepted, and anything like a rupture between the two was greatly dreaded as the sure beginning of anarchy throughout the Roman world.
With the deaths of Pompey's wife Julia (54) and 'of Crassus (J3) the relations between him and Caesar became strained, and soon afterwards he drew closer to what we may call the old conservative party in the senate and aristocracy.
The end was now near, and Pompey blundered into a false political position and an open quarrel with Caesar.
In 50 the senate by a very large majority revoked the extraordinary powers conceded to Pompey and Caesar in Spain and Gaul respectively, and called upon them to disband their armies.
Pompey's refusal to submit gave Caesar a good pretext for declaring war and marching at the head of his army into Italy.
At the beginning of the contest the advantages were decidedly on the side of Pompey, but the superior political tact of his rival, combined with extraordinary promptitude and decision in following up his blows, soon turned the scale against him.
Pompey's cause, with that of the senate and aristocracy, was finally ruined by his defeat in 48 in the neighbourhood of the Thessalian city Pharsalus.
Pompey, though he had some great and good qualities, hardly deserved his surname of "the Great."
- A ncient: Plutarch, Pompey; Dio Cassius; Appian; Velleius Paterculus; Caesar, De bello civili; Strabo xii., 555-560; Cicero, passim; Lucan, Pharsalia.
See Plutarch, Pompey, 1; Appian, Bell.
had laboured so long; but in place of this he painted with astonishing vigour the great political struggle that accompanied the fall of the republic. It was, above all, his new reading of old characters which demanded attention, if not always approval: Cicero, the favourite of men of letters, was for him "a journalist in the worst sense of the word"; Pompey, the hero of Plutarch and the Moralists, was brushed aside as a mere drill-sergeant; and the book culminated in the picture of Caesar, who established absolute rule in the name of democracy, "the complete and perfect man."
Under Tigranes of Armenia they became his vassals, and after the victories of Lucullus and Pompey, vassals of the Romans.
In 48 B.C. they took the side of Caesar in the civil war against Pompey.
At first strongly opposed to Pompey, he afterwards sided with him against Caesar.
After its surrender, he joined Pompey in Greece and was slain in the flight after the battle of Pharsalus, in which he commanded the right wing against Antony (Caesar, Bellum Civile, i., ii., iii.; Dio Cassius xxxix., xli.; Appian, B.C. ii.
When Rome intervened in Asia in the person of Pompey, the younger Antipater realized her inevitable predominance and secured the friendship of her representative.
After the capture of Jerusalem in 63 B.C. Pompey installed Hyrcanus, who was little better than a figurehead, in the high-priesthood; and when in 55 B.C. the son of Aristobulus renewed the civil war in Palestine, the Roman governor of Syria in the exercise of his jurisdiction arranged a settlement "in accordance with the wishes of Antipater" (Jos.
From this time he kept aloof from political strife, attaching himself to no particular party, and continuing on intimate terms with men so opposed as Caesar and Pompey, Antony and Octavian.
They are heard of in the time of Alexander the Great, when their queen Thalestris visited him and became a mother by him, and Pompey is said to have found them in the army of Mithradates.
In 55, 53 and 52 interreges are again found, the last-mentioned being on the occasion when Pompey was elected sole consul.
It was an important military post in the wars against Philip and during the civil wars of Pompey and Caesar, and towards the close of the Roman republic acquired fame as a seat of literature and philosophy.
The Jaccetani ('Ieucto -ravoi) are mentioned as one of the most celebrated of the numerous small tribes inhabiting the basin of the Ebro by Strabo, who adds that their territory was the theatre of the wars which took place in the 1st century B.C. between Sertorius and Pompey.
Bonaparte thus gained the good opinion of peace-loving Frenchmen; he partitioned Venetian territory with Austria, contrary to French interests but conformably with his own in Italy, and henceforward was the decisive factor in French and European policy, like Caesar or Pompey of old.
show that it must have been written before the siege of Jerusalem by Pompey in 63 B.C.
During the civil wars at Rome he sided with Pompey, partly from gratitude because he had reinstated his father on his throne (Appian, B.C., i.
Defeated, 69 B.C., by Lucullus beneath the walls of his capital, he surrendered his conquests to Pompey, 66 B.C., who had driven Mithradates across the Phasis, and was permitted to hold Armenia as a vassal state of Rome.
The campaigns of Lucullus and Pompey brought Rome into delicate relations with Parthia.
Soon afterwards Pompey was sent to Africa by Sulla to reinstate Hiempsal, whose territory was subsequently increased by the addition of some land on the coast in accordance with a treaty concluded with L.
Plutarch, Marius, 40, Pompey, 12; Appian, Bell.
Then, at the time of the expeditions of Lucullus, Pompey and Crassus, Edessa was an ally of Rome, though Abgar II.
Then again robbed by a dubious penalty at Highbury Pompey played out a 1-1 draw with the mighty Arsenal.
Mandaric is due to sell his remaining stake in Pompey to joint-owner Alexandre Gaydamak for £ 32m.
If they make Fratton Park too swanky there's going to be something of the passion of Pompey that's lost in the Premier.
His chief opponent was Posidonius of Rhodes, who is said to have contended with him in argument in the presence of Pompey (Plutarch, Pompey, 42).
His daughter Aemilia was the wife of Manius Acilius Glabrio, and subsequently of Pompey, the triumvir.
Marcus Aemilius Scaurus, his son, served during the third Mithradatic War (74-61 B.C.) as quaestor to Pompey, by whom he was sent to Judaea to settle the quarrel between Hyrcanus and Aristobulus.
On the charge of majestas (high treason) incurred by having left his province for Egypt without the consent of the senate and in defiance of the Sibylline books, he was acquitted; it is said that the judges were bribed, and even Cicero, who had recently attacked Gabinius with the utmost virulence, was persuaded by Pompey to say as little as he could in his evidence to damage his former enemy.
On the second charge, that of repetundae (extortion during the administration of his province), with especial reference to the io,000 talents paid by Ptolemy for his restoration, he was found guilty, in spite of evidence offered on his behalf by Pompey and witnesses from Alexandria and the eloquence of Cicero, who had been induced to plead his cause.
Pompey finally took the stronghold by choosing the day of the fast, when the Jews abstain from all work, that is the sabbath (Strabo).
Both parties in the state were offended by the law, and Manilius endeavoured to secure the support of Pompey by proposing to confer upon him the command of the war against Mithradates with unlimited power (see Pompey).
The revenues of the provinces which were Ã‚° now being organized by Pompey, and the booty and money taken or received by generals during war were also to be applied to this purpose.
Strabo tells us that this stood in the west of the city; and recent discoveries go far to place it near "Pompey's Pillar" (see above), which, however, was an independent monument erected to commemorate Diocletian's siege of the city.
His son Ariobarzanes, called "Eusebes" and "Philo-Romaeus," earned the gratitude of Cicero during his proconsulate in Cilicia, and fought for Pompey in the civil 492 wars, but was afterwards received with honour by Julius Caesar, who subsequently reinstated him when expelled by Pharnaces of Pontus.
The rest of the interior was partitioned by Pompey amongst the inland cities, almost all of which were founded by him, and, according to one view, was included together with the seaboard west of Amisus and the corner of northeast Paphlagonia possessed by Mithradates in his new province Pontus-Bithynia.
The generosity with which he was treated by Caesar after the capitulation of Corfinium made him hesitate, but he finally decided in favour of Pompey.
Antonius, since his paternal inheritance, even allowing for some curtailment by Pompey, must have been of far greater extent.
At Bauli, Pompey and Hortensius possessed villas, the former on the hills, while that of the latter, on the shores of the Lacus Lucrinus, was remarkable for its tame lampreys and as the scene of the dialogue in the second book of Cicero's Academica Priora; it afterwards became imperial property and was the scene of Agrippina's murder by Nero.
The so-called Psalter of Solomon, on the other hand, a collection of Pharisee psalms written in Hebrew soon after the taking of Jerusalem by Pompey, and preserved to us only in a Greek version, has nothing to do with Solomon or the traditional conception of his person, and seems to owe its name to a transcriber who thus distinguished these newer pieces from the older "Psalms of David" (see SOLOMON, PSALMS OF).
Having been appointed by Pompey to the command in Greece, in obedience to an ambiguous oracle he crossed over to Euboea, where he died about 48, before the battle of Pharsalus.
Caesar was now best known as a man of pleasure, celebrated for his debts and his intrigues; in politics he had no force behind him save that of the discredited party of the populaces, reduced to lending a passive support to Pompey and Crassus.
But as soon as the proved incompetence of the senatorial government had brought about the mission of Pompey to the East with the almost unlimited powers conferred on him by the Gabinian and Manilian laws of 67 and 66 B.C. (see Pompey), Caesar plunged into a network of political intrigues which it is no longer possible to unravel.
Ampius Balbus, a supporter of Pompey, but afterwards pardoned by Julius Caesar (cf.
But Thou, 0 Lord, will cast them down and root out their seed from the land, when a man not of our race (Pompey) rises up against them Behold, 0 Lord, and raise up their king the Son of David at the time that Thou hast appointed, to reign over Israel Thy servant; and gird him with strength to crush unjust rulers; to cleanse Jerusalem from the heathen that tread it under foot, to cast out sinners from Thy 1 In Sibyll.
Thus for the author of the Psalms of Solomon (c. 60 B.C.), Pompey, who destroyed the independent rule of the Maccabees and stormed Jerusalem, was the Adversary of God (cf.
At the close of the year, greatly to his annoyance, he was sent to govern Cilicia under the provisions of Pompey's law (see Pompey and Rome: History).
Pompey united the coast districts of Paphlagonia with the province of Bithynia, but left the interior of the country under the native princes, until the dynasty became extinct and the whole country was incorporated in the Roman empire.
Under Pompey Varro saw much active service: he was attached to Pompey as pro-quaestor, probably during the war against Sertorius in Spain.
To Varro's researches are mainly due the traditional dates assigned to the era of the kings and to that of the early republic. Minor writings of the same class were the De Vita Populi Romani, apparently a kind of history of Roman civilization; the De Familiis Trojanis, an account of the families who "came over" with Aeneas; the Aetia (Ai:TCa), an explanation of the origin of Roman customs, on which Plutarch drew largely in his Quaestiones Romanae; a Tribuum Liber, used by Festus; and the constitutional handbook written for the instruction of Pompey when he became consul.
After the death of Jugurtha as a captive at Rome in 106, the western part of his dominions was added to those of Bocchus, king of Mauretania, while the remainder (excluding perhaps the territory towards Cyrene) continued to be governed by native princes until the civil war between Caesar and Pompey, in which Juba I., then king of Numidia, who had espoused the cause of the Pompeians, was defeated by Caesar, and put an end to his own life (46 B.C.).
If they make Fratton Park too swanky there 's going to be something of the passion of Pompey that 's lost in the Premier.
On his arrival in Syria, Pompey reversed the decision, but, ignoring the charge of bribery brought against Scaurus, left him in command of the district.
Nothing but Cicero's wish to do a favour to Pompey could have induced him to take up what must have been a distasteful task; indeed, it is hinted that the half-heartedness of the defence materially contributed to Gabinius's condemnation.
Caesar pardoned him for having sided with Pompey, ordered him to resume his royal attire, and hastened against Pharnaces, whom he defeated at Zela.
After the defeat and death of Pompey (48 B.C.) Antipater transferred his allegiance to Caesar and demonstrated its value during Caesar's Egyptian campaign.
His body was sent to Pompey, who buried it in the royal sepulchre at Sinope.
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