His wife joined him at Thorn in December, but in April 1712 a peremptory ukaz ordered him off to the army in Pomerania, and in the autumn of the same year he was forced to accompany his father on a tour of inspection through Finland.
RUDOLF VIRCHOW (1821-1902), German pathologist and politician, was born on the 13th of October 1821 at Schivelbein, in Pomerania, where his father was a small farmer and shopkeeper.
On the death of this general Descartes quitted the imperial service, and in July 1621 began a peaceful tour through Moravia, the borders of Poland, Pomerania, Brandenburg, Holstein and Friesland, from which he reappeared in February 1622 in Belgium, and betook himself directly to his father's home at Rennes in Brittany.
His father, Georg Karl Benjamin Ritschl (1783-1858), became in 1810 pastor at the church of St Mary in Berlin, and from 1827 to 1854 was general superintendent and evangelical bishop of Pomerania.
STRALSUND, a seaport of Germany, in the Prussian province of Pomerania, on the west side of the Strelasund, an arm of the Baltic, 12 m.
Although under the sway of the dukes of Pomerania, the city was able to maintain a marked degree of independence, which is still apparent in its municipal privileges.
After the peace of Westphalia Stralsund was ceded with the rest of Western Pomerania to Sweden; and for more than a century and a half it was exposed to attack and capture as the tete - de - pont of the Swedes in continental Europe.
It reverted to Hanover after the battle of Leipzig in 1813, and in 1816 was ceded to Prussia, the greater part of it being at once transferred by her to Denmark in exchange for Swedish Pomerania.
In 1528 he arranged the church affairs of Brunswick and Hamburg; in 1530 those of Lubeck and Pomerania.
Among his numerous works is a history of Pomerania, which remained unpublished till 1728.
KAMMIN, or Cammin, a town in the Prussian province of Pomerania, 22 m.
27 a semi-Christian Pomerania to orthodox Pleskow was fiercely and obstinately pagan.
In 1210 Valdemar led a second expedition eastwards, this time directed against heathen Prussia and Samland, the chief result of which was the subjection of Mestwin, duke of Pomerania, the leading chieftain in those parts.
POMERANIA (German, Pommern), a territory of Germany and a maritime province of Prussia, bounded on the N.
The province is officially divided into the three districts of Stralsund, Stettin and Koslin, but more historical interest attaches to the names of Vorpommern and Hinterpommern, or Hither and Farther Pomerania, the former being applied to the territory to the west, and the latter to that to the east of the Oder.
Pomerania is one of the flattest parts of Germany, although east of the Oder it '.s traversed by a range of low hills, and there are also a few isolated eminences to the west.
Off the west coast, which is very irregular, lie the islands of Riigen, Usedom and Wollin; the coast of Farther Pomerania is smooth in outline and is bordered with dunes, or sandbanks.
The soil of Pomerania is for the most part thin and sandy, but patches of good land are found here and there.
Owing to the long line of coast and the numerous lakes, fishing forms an important industry, and large quantities of herrings, eels and lampreys are sent from Pomerania to other parts of Germany.
The commerce of Pomerania is in a flourishing condition, its principal ports being Stettin, Stralsund and Swinemiinde.
The heir to the Prussian crown bears the title of governor of Pomerania.
Afterwards Pomerania extended much farther to the west, while being correspondingly curtailed on the east, and a distinction was made between Slavinia, or modern Pomerania, and Pomerellen.
The history of Pomerania, as distinct from that of Pomerellen, consists mainly of an almost endless succession of divisions of territory among the different lines of the ducal house, and of numerous expansions and contractions of territory through constant hostilities with the elector of Brandenburg, who claimed to be the immediate feudal superior of Pomerania, and with other neighbouring rulers.
The names of Vorpommern and Hinterpommern were at first synonymous with Pomerania proper, or Slavinia and Pomerellen, but towards the close of the 14th century they were transferred to the.
In 1625 the whole of Pomerania became united under the sway of Duke Bogislaus XIV., and on his death without issue, in 1637, Brandenburg claimed the duchy by virtue of a compact made in 1571..
In the meantime, however, Pomerania had been devastated by the Thirty Years' War and occupied by the Swedes, who had taken possession of its towns and fortresses.
At the peace of Westphalia they claimed the duchy, in opposition to the elector of Brandenburg, and the result was that the latter was obliged to content himself with eastern Pomerania (Hinterpommern), and to see the western part (Vorpommern) awarded to Sweden.
In 1720, by the peace of Stockholm, Swedish Pomerania was curtailed by extensive concessions to Prussia, but the district to the west of the Peene remained in the possession of Sweden until the general European settlement of 1815.
Then Sweden assigned her German possessions to Denmark in exchange for Norway, whereupon Prussia, partly by purchase and partly by the cession 4 r of the duchy of Lauenburg, finally succeeded in uniting the whole of Pomerania under her rule.
Bugenhagen, Pomerania, edited by O.
GREIFSWALD, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Pomerania, on the navigable Ryk, 3 m.
In 1250 it received a town constitution and Lubeck rights from Duke Wratislaw of Pomerania.
In 1678 it was captured by the elector of Brandenburg, but was restored to the Swedes in the following year; in 1713 it was desolated by the Russians; in 1715 it came into the possession of Denmark; and in 1721 it was again restored to Sweden, under whose protection it remained till 1815, when, along with the whole of Swedish Pomerania, it came into the possession of Prussia.
Delayed during the autumn months in Poland by the tardy arrival of reinforcements from Pomerania, it was not till November 1707 that Charles was able to take the field.
of Asia, and were brought, through Russian caravans, even so far as to Pomerania, Sweden and Norway, where Samanid coins have been found in great number, were in their turn overthrown by a more youthful and vigorous race, that of Sabuktagin, which founded the illustrious Ghaznevid dynasty and the Mussulman empire of India.
This category includes German places located in the Prussian provinces of East Prussia, West Prussia, Posen, Silesia, Brandenburg, and Pomerania, and places in the Grand Duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
KOSLIN, or Coslin, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Pomerania, at the foot of the Gollenberg (450 ft.), 5 m.
GOLLNOW, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Pomerania, on the right bank of the Ihna, 14 m.
Thus, during the last twelve years of his reign, the dominions of Louis the Great included the greater part of central Europe, from Pomerania to the Danube, and from the Adriatic to the steppes of the Dnieper.
Louis the Great left two infant daughters: Maria, who was to share the throne of Poland with her betrothed, Sigismund of Pomerania, and Hedwig, better known by her Polish name of Jadwiga, who was to reign over Hungary with her young bridegroom, William of Austria.
JOHANN FRANZ BUDDEUS (1667-1729), German Lutheran divine, was born at Anklam, a town of Pomerania, where his father was pastor.
Pomerania and Silesia also had their special periodicals in the first quarter of the 18th century.
In the years of peace preceding the Seven Years' War, Moritz was employed by Frederick the Great in the colonizing of the waste lands of Pomerania and the Oder Valley.
KARL LUDWIG FERNOW (1763-1808), German art-critic and archaeologist, was born in Pomerania on the 19th of November 1763.
At this congress the differences between Casimir and John of Bohemia were finally adjusted; peace was made between the king of Poland and the Teutonic Order on the basis of the cession of Pomerania, Kulm, and Michalow to the knights, who retroceded Kujavia and Dobrzyn; and the kings of Hungary and Poland further agreed to assist each other in the acquisition of the south-eastern border province of Halicz, or Red Russia (very nearly corresponding to the modern Galicia), in case the necessity for intervention should arise.
New Pomerania >>
Off its coast-line, on the parallel of 6° S., lies the vast Bismarck Archipelago, of which New Pomerania (Neu Pommern) is the most important member; and, on the parallel of io, the d'Entrecasteaux Islands, with the Marshall Bennett group to their north-east; while stretching out from the south-east promontory of the mainland is the Louisiade Archipelago.
New Pomerania, New Mecklenburg, with New Hanover and the Admiralty Islands and the Solomon Islands (Bougainville and Buka).
On the islands New Pomerania and Mioko only two trading firms had their establishments; and on New Lauenburg the Wesleyans had a mission station.
It is divided into two districts with separate administrations, New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago; over both: presides an imperial governor, the seat of government being Herbertshohe in New Pomerania.
STOLP, or Stolpe, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Pomerania, on the Stolpe, 10 m.
Until 16 3 7, when it passed to Brandenburg, the town was generally in the possession of the dukes of Pomerania.
In 1135, Eric II., king of Denmark, acknowledged himself a vassal of Lothair; Boleslaus III., prince of the Poles, promised tribute and received Pomerania and Riigen as German fiefs; while the eastern emperor, John Comnenus, implored Lothair's aid against Roger II.
belong to Prussia, where it traverses the provinces of Silesia, Brandenburg and Pomerania.
NEU-STETTIN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Pomerania, on the small Streitzig lake, 90 m.
Neu-Stettin was founded in 1313 by Wratislaus, duke of Pomerania, on the model of Stettin.
by Brandenburg and Pomerania.
West Prussia, with the exception of southern Pomerania (around Marienwerder) which belonged to Prussia, was a possession of Poland from 1466 till the first partition of Poland in 1772, when it was given to Prussia with the exception of Danzig and Thorn, which Poland retained till 1793.
Similar researches have also established the fact that in prehistoric times nearly all the lakes of Switzerland, and many in the adjoining countries - in Savoy and the north of Italy, in Austria and Hungary and in Mecklenburg and Pomerania - were peopled, so to speak, by lake-dwelling communities, living in villages constructed on platforms supported by piles at varying distances from the shores.
JOHANN GUSTAV DROYSEN (1808-1884), German historian, was born on the 6th of July 1808 at Treptow in Pomerania.
ANKLAM, or Anclam, a town of Germany in the Prussian province of Pomerania, on the Peene, 5 m.
In north German politics he interfered vigorously to protect his brotherin-law the Margrave Louis of Brandenburg against the lords of Mecklenburg and the dukes of Pomerania, with such success that the emperor, Charles IV., at the conference of Bautzen, was reconciled to the Brandenburger and allowed Valdemar an annual charge of 16,000 silver marks on the city of Lubeck (1349) Some years later Valdemar seriously thought of reviving the ancient claims of Denmark upon England, and entered into negotiations with the French king, John, who in his distress looked to this descendant of the ancient Vikings for help. A matrimonial alliance between the two crowns was even discussed, and Valdemar offered, for the huge sum of 600,000 gulden, to transport 12,000 men to England.
Valdemar's skilful diplomacy, reinforced by golden arguments, did indeed induce the dukes of Brunswick, Brandenburg and Pomerania to attack the confederates in the rear; but fortune was persistently unfriendly to the Danish king, 1 Rostock, Greifswald, Wismar and Stralsund.
From St George 's Channel at the south, separating it from New Pomerania, it sweeps north and then north-west, being divided from New Hanover at the other extremity by Byron Strait.
There is a white population of about forty; the natives are Papuans of a less fine type than the natives of New Pomerania, and rather resemble the Solomon islanders.
Jacob Lemaire and Willem Cornelis Schouten sighted New Mecklenburg in 1616, but it was only recognized as part of an island separate from New Guinea by William Dampier in 1700, and as separate from New Pomerania in 1767 by Philip Carteret.
This Book of Concord was accepted by the Lutheran churches of Sweden and of Hungary in 1593 and 1597; but it was rejected by the Lutheran churches of Denmark, of Hesse, of Anhalt, of Pomerania and of several of the imperial cities.
(1102-1139) some of the lost provinces, notably Silesia and Pomerania, were recovered and Poland was at least able to maintain her independence against the Germans.
It was at the beginning of this period too, between 1216 and 1224, that Pomerania, under an energetic native dynasty, freed herself from the Polish suzerainty.
The Teutonic Order, which had just been expelled from Hungary by Andrew II., joyfully accepted this new domicile, and its position in the north was definitely established by the compact of Kruschwitz in 1230, whereby it obtained absolute possession of the maritime district between Pomerania and Courland, and southwards as far as Thorn.
Originally planted on the Baltic shore for the express purpose of christianizing their savage neighbours, these crusading monks had freely exploited the wealth and the valour of the West, ostensibly in the cause of religion, really for the purpose of founding a dominion of their own which, as time went on, lost more and more of its religious character, and was now little more than a German military forepost, extending from Pomerania to the Niemen, which deliberately excluded the Sla y s from the sea and thrived 'Archbishop of Gnesen 1219-1220.
In 1859 he became a member of the presidial council (Oberprdsidialrat) at Coblenz, capital of the Prussian Rhine province, and from 1860 to 1866 was Landrat at Demmin in Pomerania.
He was appointed a secular canon (Domherr) of Merseburg, and in 1891 became Oberprdsident of Prussian Pomerania.
He died on his property at Karzin in Pomerania on the 15th of March 1900.
Henceforth Absalon was the chief counsellor of Valdemar, and the promoter of that imperial policy which, for three generations, was to give Denmark the dominion of the Baltic. Briefly, it was Absalon's intention to clear the northern sea of the Wendish pirates, who inhabited that portion of the Baltic littoral which we now call Pomerania, and ravaged the Danish coasts so unmercifully that at the accession of Valdemar one-third of the realm of Denmark lay wasted and depopulated.
There are ancient rocks, however, in New Caledonia, which .has a geological affinity with New Zealand; old sedimentary rocks are known in New Pomerania, besides granite and porphyry, and slates, sandstone and chalk occur in Fiji, as well as young volcanic rocks.
In1615-1617two Dutchmen, Jacob Lemaire and Willem Cornelis Schouten, having in view both the discovery of the southern continent and the possibility of establishing relations with the East Indies from the east, took a course which brought them to the north part of the Paumotu Archipelago, thence to part of the Tonga chain, and ultimately to New Pomerania, after which they reached the East Indies.
In 1767 Samuel Wallis worked through the central part of the Paumotus, and visited Tahiti and the Marianas, while his companion Philip Carteret discovered Pitcairn, and visited Santa Cruz, the Solomons and New Pomerania.
KARL WILHELM SCHEELE (1742-1786), Swedish chemist, was born at Stralsund, the capital of Pomerania, which then belonged to Sweden, on the 19th of December 1742.
The emperor Frederick I.'s claim of overlordship was haughtily rejected at the very outset, and his attempt to stir up Duke Bogislav of Pomerania against Denmark's vassal, Jaromir of Riigen, was defeated by Archbishop Absalon, who destroyed 465 of Bogislav's 500 ships in a naval action off Strela (Stralsund) in 1184.
In the following year Bogislav did homage to Canute on the deck of his long-ship, off Jomsborg in Pomerania, Canute henceforth styling himself king of the Danes and Wends.
In 1197, however, German jealousy of Denmark's ambitions, especially when Canute led a fleet against the pirates of Esthonia, induced Otto, margrave of Brandenburg, to invade Pomerania, while in the following year Otto, in conjunction with Duke Adolf of Holstein, wasted the dominions of the Danophil Abodrites.
This species occurs in England the whole year round, and is presumed to have bred there, though the fact has never been satisfactorily proved, and knowledge of its erratic habits comes from naturalists in Pomerania and Sweden.
From 1805 to 1807 he was commander-in-chief of the Swedish forces in Pomerania, where he displayed great ability and retarded the conquest of the duchy as long as it was humanly possible.
KOLBERG (or Colberg), a town of Germany, and seaport of the Prussian province of Pomerania, on the right bank of the Persante, which falls into the Baltic about a mile below the town, and at the junction of the railway lines to Belgard and Gollnow.
The principal buildings are the huge red-brick church of St Mary, with five aisles, one of the most remarkable churches in Pomerania, dating from the 14th century; the council-house (Rathaus), erected after the plans of Ernst F.
Originally a Slavonic fort, Kolberg is one of the oldest places of Pomerania.
Having in 1264 united the whole of Pomerania under his rule, Barnim devoted his energies to improving its internal condition.
He then attacked Swedish Pomerania.
by Pomerania and Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
The largest island is New Pomerania, and the archipelago also includes New Mecklenburg, New Hanover, with small attendant islands, the Admiralty Islands and a chain of islands off the coast of New Guinea, the whole system lying in the form of a great amphitheatre of oval shape.
- Missions: New Guinea, New Pomerania, Gilbert Islands.
He was soon actively engaged in its administration, and by the treaty of Prenzlau in 1472 he brought Pomerania also under his supremacy.
The first is bounded by Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Pomerania and Brandenburg, the second by Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Lauenburg, and the territory of the free town of Lbeck.
MARCUS KALISCH (or MAURICE) (1828-1885), Jewish scholar, was born in Pomerania in 1828, and died in England 1885.
The coast of the Baltic, on the other hand, possesses few islands, the chief being Alsen and Fehmarn off the coast of Schleswig-Holstein, and Rtigen off Pomerania.
Long narrow alluvial strips called Nehrungen, lie between the last two haffs and the Baltic. The Baltic coast is further marked by large indentations, the Gulf of LUbeck, that of Pomerania, east of Rugen, and the semicircular Bay of Danzig between the promontories of Rixhoft and Brusterort.
In Pomerania and West Prussia it is only 44 to 45, and in East Prussia 42 to 44.
In the remaining parts of western Germany, on the shores of farther Pomerania, and in East Prussia, it amounts to upwards of 24 in.
The greater number of the more recent emigrants was from the agricultural provinces of northern GermanyWest Prussia, Posen, Pomerania, Mecklenburg, Schleswiz-Holstein and Hanover, and sometimes the emigration reached 1, ~ of the total population of these provinces.
The largest estates are found in the Prussian provinces of Pomerania, Posen and Saxony, and in East and West Prussia, while in the Prussian Rhine province, in Baden and Wurttemberg small farms are the rule.
There are two centres of the beet sugar production: Magdeburg for the districts Prussian Saxony, Hanover, Brunswick, Anhalt and Thuringia, and Frankfort-on-Oder at the centre of the group Silesia, Brandenburg and Pomerania.
In the north the plant is cultivated principally in Pomerania, Brandenburg and East and West Prussia.
The provinces of Schleswig-Holstein, Pomerania, Hanover Li stock (especially the marsh-lands near the sea) and the grand- ye duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin are particularly remarkable in this respect.
Poultry farming is a considerable industry, thegeeseof Pomerania and thefowls of Thuringia and Lorraine being in especial favor.
The system which obtains in all the old Prussian provinces (with the exception of Rugen and Vorpommern or Hither Pomerania) and in Westphalia is that of Stein, modified by subsequent laws notably those of 1853 and 1856which gave the state a greater influence, while extending the powers of the Magistrat.
Stettin (Pomerania); III.
The lake-dwellings in Mecklenburg, Pomerania and East Prussia are of a different type, and it is not certain that they date back to the Stone age.
The eastern part of Germany was much less known to the Romans, information being particularly deficient as to the populations of the coast districts, though it seems probable that the Rugii inhabited the eastern part of Pomerania, where a trace of them is preserved in the name Rugenwalde.
During this reign under the lead of Otto, bishop of Bamberg (c. 1063-1139), Pomerania began to come under the influence of Germany and of Christianity.
dissenters from the Roman religion to obedience, Protestantism was making substantial progress in the,states, notably in Anbalt and in Pomerania, and in the cities, and in January 1534 the Protestant princes were bold enough to declare that they did not regard the decisions of the Reichskammergeric/zt as binding upon them.
All the states and cities which subscribed to the confession of Augsburg were admitted to it, and thus a large number of Protestants, including the duchies of Wurttemberg and Pomerania and the cities of Augsburg and Frankfort, secured a needful protection against the decrees of the Reichskammergeric/it, which the league again repudiated.
now duke of Friedland, was authorized to govern the conquered duchies of Mecklenburg and Pomerania; but his ambitious scheme of securing the whole of the south coast of the Baltic was thwarted by the resistance of the city of Stralsund, which for five months he vainly tried to take.
To the Swedes were granted Western Pomerania, with Stettin, and the archbishopric of Bremen and the bishopric of Verden.
She received, however, the northern part of Saxony, Swedish Pomerania, Posen and those territories formerly part of the kingdom of Westphaliawhich constitute her Rhine provinces.
In Prussia therefore the older provinces came under the Prussian Code, the Rhine provinces had French law, the newly annexed provinces had endless variety, and in part of Pomerania considerable elements of Swedish law still remained, a relic of the long Swedish occupation.
Two days later the Peasants League, or Deutsche Bauernbund, which had been founded in 1885 and included some 44,000 members, chiefly from the smaller proprietors in Pomerania, Posen, Saxony and Thuringia, merged itself in the new league.
Nevertheless during her lifetime the system worked fairly well; but her pupil and successor, Eric of Pomerania, was unequal to the burden of empire and embroiled himself both with his neighbours and his subjects.
When, in December 1674, a Swedish army invaded Prussian Pomerania, Denmark was bound to intervene as a belligerent, but Griffenfeldt endeavoured to postpone this intervention as long as possible; and Sweden's anxiety to avoid hostilities with her southern neighbour materially assisted him to postpone the evil day.
The bishoprics of Bremen and Verden, the province of Farther Pomerania and the isle of Riigen which her armies had actually conquered, and which had been guaranteed to her by a whole catena of treaties, went partly to the upstart electorate of Hanover and partly to the upstart kingdom of Prussia, both of which states had been of no political importance whatever at the beginning of the war of spoliation by which they were, ultimately, to profit so largely and so cheaply.
She was punished for her obstinacy by being deprived of Norway, which she was compelled to surrender to Sweden by the terms of the treaty of Kiel (1814), on the 14th of January, receiving by way of compensation a sum of money and Swedish Pomerania, with Riigen, which were subsequently transferred to Prussia in exchange for the duchy of Lauenburg and 2,000,000 rix-dollars.
The swallow who heralded the summer was a German by birth, Adolph Wilhelm Schack von Staffeldt l (1769-1826), who came over to Copenhagen from Pomerania, and prepared the way for the new movement.
Pomerania and Neumark were freed from taxation for two years, Silesia for six months.
Prussia was then for the first time made continuous with Brandenburg and Pomerania.
If the designation of this or that personage as mikill vikingr or rauba vikingr (red viking) be not reckoned an instance of such use; we have it at all events in the name of a small quasi-nationality, the Jomsvikingar, settled at J6msborg on the Baltic (in modern Pomerania), to whom a saga is dedicated: who possessed rather peculiar institutions evidently the relic of what is now called the Viking Age, that preceded the Saga Age by a century.
(1501-1573), son of Bogislaus X., duke of Pomerania, became duke on his father's death in 1523.
The earlier years of his rule were troubled by a quarrel with the margrave of Brandenburg, who wished to annex Pomerania.
In 1529, however, a treaty was made which freed Pomerania from the supremacy of Brandenburg on condition that if the ducal family became extinct the duchy should revert to Brandenburg.
BELGARD, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Pomerania, at the junction of the rivers Leitznitz and Persante, 22 m.
Treaties to enforce the public peace were concluded in 1291 and 1338 with the dukes of Brunswick, Mecklenburg and Pomerania, and the count of Holstein.
While preaching in Pomerania (997) he was assassinated by a heathen priest.
von Kleist of Kammin in Pomerania in 1745,' and it was repeated in another form in 1746 by Cunaeus and P. van Musschenbroek, of the university of Leyden (Leiden), whence the term Leyden jar.
GREIFENHAGEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Pomerania, on the Reglitz, 12 m.
off the north-west coast of Pomerania in Prussia, from which it is separated by the narrow Strelasund, or Bodden.
After being for a century and a half in the possession of a branch of the ruling family in Pomerania, it was finally united with that duchy in 1478, and passed with it into the possession of Sweden in 1648.
With the rest of Western Pomerania Rugen has, belonged to Prussia since 1815.
At different times it was held by Pomerania, Poland, Brandenburg and Denmark, and in 1308 it fell into the hands of the Teutonic knights, under whose rule it long prospered.
As the capital of the old Uckermark it was a frequent object of dispute between Pomerania and Brandenburg until incorporated with the latter about 1480.
USEDOM, an island of Germany, in the Prussian province of Pomerania, lying off the Baltic coast, and separated by the Swine from the island of Wollin, which together with it divides the Stettiner Haff from the open sea.
Barnim Of Pomerania >>
PYRITZ, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Pomerania, r6 m.
Styrbiorn Starki, the son of Olaf, being refused his share of the government by Eric after his father's death, made himself a stronghold at Jomsborg in Pomerania and spent some years in piratical expeditions.
In the year 1 000, when the Norwegian king was in Pomerania, a coalition was formed between the king of Sweden, Sweyn Forkbeard, king of Denmark, and earl Eric of Lade, and the allies waylaid their enemy off the coast near Riigen and overthrew him in Reign of the great sea-battle of Svolder.
at Kalmar (1397), Margaret's great-nephew, Eric of Pomerania, was elected the common king, but the liberties of each of the three realms were expressly reserved and confirmed.
Her original demands were Silesia (she held most of the fortresses there), Pomerania (which had been in her possession for nearly twenty years), and a war indemnity of 20,000,000 rixdollars.
What she actually got was (1) Upper Pomerania, with the islands of Riigen and Usedom, and a strip of Lower Pomerania on the right side of the Oder, including the towns of Stettin, Garz, Damm and Gollnow, and the isle of Wollin, with the right of succession to the rest of Lower Pomerania in the case of the extinction of the Brandenburg Hohenzollerns; (2) the town of Wismar with the districts of Poel and Neukloster; (3) the secularized bishoprics of Bremen and Verden; and (4) 5,000,000 rix-dollars.
In 1675 Pomerania and the bishopric of Bremen were overrun by the Brandenburgers, Austrians and Danes.
(July 3, 1720) peace was also signed between Denmark and Sweden, Denmark retroceding Riigen, Further Pomerania as far as the Peene, and Wismar to Sweden, in exchange for an indemnity of 600,000 rix-dollars, while Sweden relinquished her exemption from the Sound tolls and her protectorate over Holstein-Gottorp. The prospect of coercing Russia by means of the British fleet had alone induced Sweden to consent to such sacrifices; but when the last demands of England and her allies had been complied with, Sweden of was left to come to terms as best she could with Peace Nystad, the tsar.
of Prussia detained him in Pomerania; and when at last (December 1805) he led his 6000 men towards the Elbe district the third coalition had already been dissipated by the victories of Ulm and Austerlitz.
The result was the total loss of Pomerania, and the Swedish army itself was only saved from destruction by the ingenuity of J.
But the pressure of Napoleon became more and more intolerable, culminating in the occupation of Pomerania by French troops in 1812.
Too late Napoleon endeavoured to outbid Alexander by offering to Sweden Finland, all Pomerania and Mecklenburg, in return for Sweden's active co-operation against Russia.
GREIFENBERG, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Pomerania, on the Rega, 45 m.
STETTIN, a seaport of Germany, capital of the Prussian province of Pomerania, on the Oder, 17 m.
Among its nine Evangelical churches that of St Peter, founded in 1124 and restored in 1816-1817, has the distinction of being the oldest Christian church in Pomerania.
From the beginning of the 12th century to 1637 it was the residence of the dukes of Pomerania, one of whom, Duke Barnim gave it municipal rights in 1243.
Thence they invaded the territories of the Ulmerugi (the Holmryge of Anglo-Saxon tradition), probably in the neighbourhood of Riigenwalde in eastern Pomerania, and conquered both them and the neighbouring Vandals.
PASEWALK, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Pomerania, on the Ucker, 26 m.
In'1359 it passed to the duke of Pomerania.
A victory gained by him in August 13 3 2 was mainly instrumental in freeing Pomerania for a time from the vexatious claim of Brandenburg to supremacy over the duchy, which moreover he extended by conquest.
It was during this respite that Boleslaus devoted himself to the main business of his life - the subjugation of Pomerania (i.e.
Pomerania, protected on the south by virgin forests and almost impenetrable morasses, was in those days inhabited by a valiant and savage Slavonic race akin to the Wends, who clung to paganism with unconquerable obstinacy.
The obstinacy of the resistance convinced Boleslaus that Pomerania must be christianized before it could be completely subdued; and this important work was partially accomplished by St Otto, bishop of Bamberg, an old friend of Boleslaus's father, who knew the Slavonic languages.
In his later years Boleslaus waged an unsuccessful war with Hungary and Bohemia, and was forced to claim the mediation of the emperor Lothair, to whom he did homage for Pomerania and Riigen at the diet of Merseburg in 1135.
East of Lubeck, as far as the mouth of the Oder, these give place to Bodden, ramified openings studded with islands: the structure here resembles that of Scania in southern Sweden, a region once joined to both Denmark and Pomerania by an isthmus which was severed by tectonic movements.
NEW POMERANIA (Ger.
In 996 he gained a seaboard by seizing Pomerania, and subsequently took advantage of the troubles in Bohemia to occupy Cracow, previously a Czech city.
It had been understood that Margaret should, at the first convenient opportunity, provide the three kingdoms with a king who was to be her nearest kinsman, and in 1389 she proclaimed her infant cousin, Eric of Pomerania, king of Norway.
SWINEMUNDE, a port and seaside resort of Germany, in the Prussian province of Pomerania, situated at the east extremity of the island of Usedom, and on the left bank of the river Swine which connects the Stettiner Haff with the Baltic. Pop. (1905), 13,272.
In 1839, after his mother's death, he undertook, with his brother, the management of the family estates in Pomerania; at this time most of the estate attached to Schonhausen had to be sold.
With this he purchased the estate of Varzin in Pomerania, which henceforth he used as a country residence in preference to Schonhausen.
His father was a native of Custrin in Pomerania, and had, after the publication of some works on international law, been elected as professor of public law at Geneva, of which he became a citizen.
(c. 1130-1184), who compelled the duke of Pomerania to own his supremacy, and slightly increased by conquest the area of the mark.
His next difficulty was with Pomerania, which had been nominally under the suzerainty of Brandenburg since 1181.
Albert appeared in Brandenburg early in the same year, and after receiving the homage of his people took up the struggle with the Pomeranians, which he soon brought to a satisfactory conclusion; for in May 1472 he not only obtained the cession of several districts, but was recognized as the suzerain of Pomerania and as its future ruler.
He added the county of Zossen to his possessions in 1490, and in 1493 made a fresh treaty with the duke of Pomerania.
He did not largely increase the area of Brandenburg, but in 1524 he acquired the county of Ruppin, and in 1529 he made a treaty at Grimnitz with George and Barnim XI., dukes of Pomerania, by which he surrendered the vexatious claim to suzerainty in return for a fresh promise of the succession in case the ducal family should become extinct.
This was the principal reason why the elector was unable to annex Pomerania when its last duke, Bogislaus XIV., died in 1637.
Although he was obliged to give up his claim to the western part of Pomerania in favour of Sweden, he secured the eastern part of that duchy, together with the secularized bishoprics of Halberstadt, Minden and Kammin, and other lands, the whole forming a welcome addition to the area of Brandenburg.
Fresh difficulties arose with Sweden, and it was not until 1653 that eastern Pomerania was freed from her soldiers.
Aided by the imperialists and the Danes, he followed up this success, and cleared Brandenburg and Pomerania of the Swedes, capturing Stettin in 1677 and Stralsund in 1678, while an attack made by Sweden on Prussia was successfully repelled.
and the indifference, or weakness, of the emperor Leopold I., the elector was forced to restore western Pomerania to Sweden, in return for the payment of 300,000 crowns by France.
Stettin, the capital of Pomerania, and the key of the Oder line, was occupied and converted into a.
He then proceeded to clear Pomerania of the piebald imperial host composed of every nationality under heaven, and officered by Italians, Irishmen, Czechs, Croats, Danes, Spaniards and Walloons.
1811), was before the Revolution of 1789 a colonel in the French service, and afterwards general inspector of roads in Brandenburg and Pomerania.
Off its coast-line, on the parallel of 6Ã‚° S., lies the vast Bismarck Archipelago, of which New Pomerania (Neu Pommern) is the most important member; and, on the parallel of io, the d'Entrecasteaux Islands, with the Marshall Bennett group to their north-east; while stretching out from the south-east promontory of the mainland is the Louisiade Archipelago.
When Germany acquired the Bismarck Archipelago in Melanesia the introduction of German names (New Pomerania, Neu Pommern, for New Britain; Neu Mecklenburg for New Ireland; Neu Langenburg for the Duke of York Group, &c.) met with no little protest as contrary to precedent and international etiquette.
(See ADMIRALTY ISLANDS, NEW MECKLENBURG, NEW POMERANIA, NEW GUINEA.)
KARL GUSTAV HOMEYER (1795-1874), German jurist, was born on the 13th of August 1795 at Wolgast in Pomerania.
How will they cross Pomerania?
Instead of the demand of four months earlier to withdraw from Pomerania, only a withdrawal beyond the Niemen was now demanded.
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