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pollination

pollination

pollination Sentence Examples

  • The flowers contain honey, and attract flies, short-lipped bees or other small insects by the agency of which pollination is effected.

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  • But the common agents for pollination are insects.

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  • Effective pollination may also occur between flowers of different species, or occasionally, as in the case of several orchids, of different genera - this is known as hybridization.

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  • Pollination is effected by aid of insects.

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  • Systems of classification of flowers according to the agency by which pollination is effected have been proposed by Delpino, H.

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  • POLLINATION, in botany, the transference of the pollen from the stamen to the receptive surface, or stigma, of the pistil of a flower.

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  • It is also probable that the various forms of the angiospermous flower, with its many specialized mechanisms for pollination, may be the result of insect-visits, the flowers becoming adapted to certain kinds of insects, and the insects having undergone corresponding modification.

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  • Pollination of Salvia Pratensis.

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  • Pollination in cycads has always been described as anemophilous, but according to recent observations by Pearson on South African species it seems probable that, at least in some cases, the pollen is conveyed to the ovules by animal agency.

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  • The pollination, of flowers and the dispersal of seeds by various animals are biological factors; but pollination and dispersal by the wind cannot be so regarded.

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  • The pollination, of flowers and the dispersal of seeds by various animals are biological factors; but pollination and dispersal by the wind cannot be so regarded.

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  • The flowers are hermaphrodite and regular, with the same number and arrangement of parts as in the order Liliaceae, from which they differ in the inconspicuous membranous character of the perianth, the absence of honey or smell, and the brushlike stigmas with long papillae-adaptations to wind-pollination as contrasted with the methods of pollination by insect agency, which characterize the Liliaceae.

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  • The flowers are hermaphrodite and regular, with the same number and arrangement of parts as in the order Liliaceae, from which they differ in the inconspicuous membranous character of the perianth, the absence of honey or smell, and the brushlike stigmas with long papillae-adaptations to wind-pollination as contrasted with the methods of pollination by insect agency, which characterize the Liliaceae.

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  • Many are highly specialized so that pollination can be effected by a few species only.

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  • Many are highly specialized so that pollination can be effected by a few species only.

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  • The method of pollination is to some extent governed by the distribution of the stamens and pistil.

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  • The ovule is usually surrounded by one integument, which projects beyond the tip of the nucellus as a wide-open lobed funnel, which at the time of pollination folds inwards, and so assists in bringing the pollen-grains on to the nucellus.

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  • There is a close relation between the pollination of many yuccas and the life of a moth (Pronuba yuccasella); the flowers are open and scented at night when the female moth becomes active, first collecting a load of pollen and then depositing her eggs, generally in a different flower from that which has supplied the pollen.

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  • Stratiotes has similar flowers which come above the surface only for pollination, becoming submerged again during ripening of the fruit.

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  • Pollination having been effected, and the pollen-grain having reached the stigma in angio sperms or the summit of the nucellus in mnos erms P gY P it is detained there, and the viscid secretion from the glands of the stigma in the former case, or from the nucellus in the latter, induce the protrusion of the intine as a pollen-tube through the pores of the grain.

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  • In function the perianth may be compared with a unilocular ovary containing a single ovule; the projecting integument, which at the time of pollination secretes a drop of liquid, serves the same purpose as the style and stigma of an angiosperm.

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  • In the second case the outer series (calyx of sepals) is generally green and leaf-like, its function being to protect the rest of the flower, especially in the bud; while the inner series (corolla of petals) is generally white or brightly coloured, and more delicate in structure, its function being to attract the particular insect or bird by agency of which pollination is effected.

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  • Pollination on the surface, a more frequent occurrence than (a).

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  • - Pollination I, Flower visited by a humblebee, showing the projection of the curved connective bearing the anther from the helmetshaped upper lip and the deposition of the pollen on the back of the humble-bee.

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  • 1806) was the first to study the pollination of flowers and to draw attention to the necessity of insect visits in many cases; he gave a clear account of cross-pollination by insect aid.

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  • The study of the fertilization, or as it is now generally called "pollination," of flowers, was continued by Darwin and taken up by other workers, notably Friedrich Hildebrand, Federico Delpino and the brothers Fritz and Hermann Muller.

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  • An increasing number of workers in this field of plant biology in England, on the Continent and in America has produced a great mass of observations, which have recently been brought together in Dr Paul Knuth's classic work, Handbook of Flower Pollination, an English translation of which has been published (1908) by the Clarendon Press.

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  • After pollination the female flower becomes drawn below the surface by the spiral contraction of the long stalk, and the fruit ripens near the bottom.

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  • 83), the mere elasticity of the filaments is sufficient to effect this; in other plants pollination is effected by the wind, as in most of our forest trees, grasses, &c., and in such cases enormous quantities of pollen are produced.

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  • - C. Animal-pollinated plants, Zoidiophilae, are subdivided according to the kind of animal by agency of which pollination is effected, thus: a.

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  • Before following the growth of the pollen-grain after pollination, we will briefly describe the structure of a cycadean ovule.

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  • Pollination is effected by aid of insects.

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  • flesh-eating beetles, flies and sweat bees for pollination.

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  • In the case of aquatic plants with aerial flowers, the latter obey the ordinary laws of pollination.

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  • pratense, each whorl of stamens ripens in turn, becoming erect and shedding their pollen; as the anthers wither the filaments bend outwards, and when all the anthers have diverged the stigmas become mature and ready for pollination.

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  • They serve various purposes in the economy of the flower, often closing the way to the honey-secreting part of the flower to small insects, whose visits would be useless for purposes of pollination.

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  • The long tentacles of the integument may have served to facilitate pollination.

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  • Think of the possibilities if we could reduce pollination of weeds and intrusive vegetation.

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  • The South American Brazil nut tree is dependant on carpenter bees for its pollination.

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  • The plant emits a stench to attract decaying flesh-eating beetles, flies and sweat bees for pollination.

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  • However, there are things that can be done to help the bumblebee to continue its age-old task of pollination.

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  • It combines the perspectives of molecular genetics, evolutionary biology and pollination ecology.

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  • humming bird to cactus Many flowers rely on insects for pollination, which fly from flower to flower, covered in pollen.

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  • humming bird to cactus Many flowers rely on insects for pollination, which fly from flower to flower, covered in pollen.

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  • insects for pollination, which fly from flower to flower, covered in pollen.

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  • Some have the stigma, to which the pollen adheres during pollination, like a little pinhead protruding from the flower.

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  • protoplast fusion, embryo rescue and assisted pollination, double haploid breeding, genomics, proteomics and genetic modification.

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  • The use of certain creatures for pollination can be highly specific.

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  • The seed is set free from the parent plant and serves as the means of dissemination (see FLOWER; POLLINATION; FRUIT, and SEED).

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  • The sporophylls (stamens and carpels) are generally associated with other leaves, known as the perianth, to form a flower; these subsidiary leaves are protective and attractive in function and their development is correlated with the transport of pollen by insect agency (see ANGI0sPERM5; POLLINATION, and FLOWER).

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  • In the case of aquatic plants with aerial flowers, the latter obey the ordinary laws of pollination.

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  • It is also probable that the various forms of the angiospermous flower, with its many specialized mechanisms for pollination, may be the result of insect-visits, the flowers becoming adapted to certain kinds of insects, and the insects having undergone corresponding modification.

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  • 3), the third being sterile and forming the rostellum which plays an important part in the process of pollination, often forming a peculiar pouch-like process (fig.

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  • There is a close relation between the pollination of many yuccas and the life of a moth (Pronuba yuccasella); the flowers are open and scented at night when the female moth becomes active, first collecting a load of pollen and then depositing her eggs, generally in a different flower from that which has supplied the pollen.

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  • POLLINATION, in botany, the transference of the pollen from the stamen to the receptive surface, or stigma, of the pistil of a flower.

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  • The great variety in the form, colour and scent of flowers (see Flower) is intimately associated with pollination which is effected by aid of wind, insects and other agencies.

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  • Effective pollination may also occur between flowers of different species, or occasionally, as in the case of several orchids, of different genera - this is known as hybridization.

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  • The method of pollination is to some extent governed by the distribution of the stamens and pistil.

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  • In the case of unisexual flowers, whether monoecious, that is, with staminate and pistillate flowers on one and the same plant, such as many of our native trees - oak, beech, birch, alder, &c., or dioecious with staminate and pistillate flowers on different plants, as in willows and poplars, cross pollination only is possible.

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  • This is associated with the fact, so ably demonstrated by Darwin, that, at any rate in a large number of cases, cross-pollination yields better results, as measured by the number of seeds produced and the strength of the offspring, than self-pollination; the latter is, however, preferable to absence of pollination.

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  • In the case of a dimorphic flower, such as Primula, four modes of pollination are possible, two distinguished by Darwin as legitimate, between anthers and stigmas on corresponding levels, and two so-called illegitimate unions, between anthers and stigmas at different levels (cf.

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  • Systems of classification of flowers according to the agency by which pollination is effected have been proposed by Delpino, H.

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  • Pollination on the surface, a more frequent occurrence than (a).

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  • - C. Animal-pollinated plants, Zoidiophilae, are subdivided according to the kind of animal by agency of which pollination is effected, thus: a.

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  • Humming-birds and honeysuckers are agents of pollination in certain tropical plants; they visit the generally large and brightly-coloured flowers either for the honey which is secreted in considerable quantity or for the insects which have been attracted by the honey (fig.

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  • - Pollination I, Flower visited by a humblebee, showing the projection of the curved connective bearing the anther from the helmetshaped upper lip and the deposition of the pollen on the back of the humble-bee.

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  • Pitfall flowers such as Asarum, Aristolochia and Arum maculatum, when the insect is caught and detained until pollination is effected (fig.

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  • 1806) was the first to study the pollination of flowers and to draw attention to the necessity of insect visits in many cases; he gave a clear account of cross-pollination by insect aid.

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  • The study of the fertilization, or as it is now generally called "pollination," of flowers, was continued by Darwin and taken up by other workers, notably Friedrich Hildebrand, Federico Delpino and the brothers Fritz and Hermann Muller.

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  • An increasing number of workers in this field of plant biology in England, on the Continent and in America has produced a great mass of observations, which have recently been brought together in Dr Paul Knuth's classic work, Handbook of Flower Pollination, an English translation of which has been published (1908) by the Clarendon Press.

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  • pratense, each whorl of stamens ripens in turn, becoming erect and shedding their pollen; as the anthers wither the filaments bend outwards, and when all the anthers have diverged the stigmas become mature and ready for pollination.

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  • In the second case the outer series (calyx of sepals) is generally green and leaf-like, its function being to protect the rest of the flower, especially in the bud; while the inner series (corolla of petals) is generally white or brightly coloured, and more delicate in structure, its function being to attract the particular insect or bird by agency of which pollination is effected.

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  • Cross pollination is often favoured by dimorphism of the flower, as shown in species of Primula (fig.

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  • Before following the growth of the pollen-grain after pollination, we will briefly describe the structure of a cycadean ovule.

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  • Pollination in cycads has always been described as anemophilous, but according to recent observations by Pearson on South African species it seems probable that, at least in some cases, the pollen is conveyed to the ovules by animal agency.

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  • The pollen-grains find their way between the carpophylls, which at the time of pollination are slightly apart owing to the elongation of the internodes of the flower-axis, and pass into the pollen-chamber; the large cell of the pollen-grain grows out into a tube (Pt), which penetrates the nucellar tissue and often branches repeatedly; the pollen-grain itself, with the prothallus-cells, projects freely into the pollen-chamber (fig.

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  • The megaspore (embryo-sac) continues to grow after pollination until the greater part of the nucellus is gradually destroyed; it also gives rise to a vertical outgrowth, which projects from the apex of the megaspore as a short, thick column (fig.

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  • After pollination the pollentube grows into the nucellar tissue, as in cycads, and the pollen-grain itself (fig.

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  • The ovule is usually surrounded by one integument, which projects beyond the tip of the nucellus as a wide-open lobed funnel, which at the time of pollination folds inwards, and so assists in bringing the pollen-grains on to the nucellus.

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  • In function the perianth may be compared with a unilocular ovary containing a single ovule; the projecting integument, which at the time of pollination secretes a drop of liquid, serves the same purpose as the style and stigma of an angiosperm.

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  • Gazette, xlvi., 1908, regards this tissue as belonging to the nucellus.) At the time of pollination the long tubular integument secretes a drop of fluid at its apex, which holds the pollen-grains, brought by the wind, or possibly to some extent by insect agency, and by evaporation these are drawn on to the top of the nucellus, where partial disorganization of the cells has given rise to an irregular pollen-chamber (fig.

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  • The flowers contain honey, and attract flies, short-lipped bees or other small insects by the agency of which pollination is effected.

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  • Pollination of Salvia Pratensis.

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  • Stratiotes has similar flowers which come above the surface only for pollination, becoming submerged again during ripening of the fruit.

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  • After pollination the female flower becomes drawn below the surface by the spiral contraction of the long stalk, and the fruit ripens near the bottom.

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  • They serve various purposes in the economy of the flower, often closing the way to the honey-secreting part of the flower to small insects, whose visits would be useless for purposes of pollination.

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  • Polling- Thisrocess termed pollination (see Pollination.

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  • 83), the mere elasticity of the filaments is sufficient to effect this; in other plants pollination is effected by the wind, as in most of our forest trees, grasses, &c., and in such cases enormous quantities of pollen are produced.

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  • But the common agents for pollination are insects.

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  • Pollination having been effected, and the pollen-grain having reached the stigma in angio sperms or the summit of the nucellus in mnos erms P gY P it is detained there, and the viscid secretion from the glands of the stigma in the former case, or from the nucellus in the latter, induce the protrusion of the intine as a pollen-tube through the pores of the grain.

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  • The long tentacles of the integument may have served to facilitate pollination.

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  • The use of certain creatures for pollination can be highly specific.

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  • More recently, researchers at the botanical garden of Heidekberg attempted for several years to achieve fruit-set in jasminum mesnyi by artificial pollination, but had no success.

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  • Pollination of apple and other fruit trees is accomplished mostly by bees, so be sure not to kill them with insecticides when the flowers come into bloom.

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  • If pollination does not occur, then you won't have any fruit.

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  • For pollination purposes, they must not be over 50 feet apart.

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  • This will let you know what varieties to plant together to aid fertilization and pollination, along with specific growing conditions.

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  • Pollination is crucial to a plant's ability to produce fruit.

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  • The purpose of this style of planting is to help with pest control, pollination, and to increase the harvest.

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  • The scientific agricultural community believes that modifying seeds, controlling pollination, and creating hybrids produces a more durable food supply and provides higher yields.

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  • Not only do insects aid in the pollination of plants, they also help to break down organic matter in the soil.

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  • Seeds of Change also develops original varieties of plants using traditional methods of cross pollination and choosing only the most vigorous plants from which to collect seed.

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  • Today scientists and biologists are working together to perfect robobees for cross pollination and to help find survivors after disasters.

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