Polity Sentence Examples
In momentary peril of death for fifteen years, he restored in the Vivarais and the Cevennes Presbyterian church polity in all its integrity.
They did not get their ideas of church polity from one another, but drew it directly from the New Testament.
As one of the three principal systems of ecclesiastical polity known to the Christian Church, Presbyterianism occupies an intermediate position between episcopacy and congregationalism.
Yet we do not find that the leaders of the Reformed Church succeeded in establishing at once a fully-developed Presbyterian polity.
They were spoken of as" the way."4 They took with them, into the new communities which they formed, the Jewish polity or rule and oversight by elders.Advertisement
The remarkable feature of French church polity was its aristocratic nature, which it owed to the system of co-optation; and the exclusion of the congregation from direct and frequent interference in spiritual matters prevented many evils which result from too much intermeddling on the part of the laity.
Their ecclesiastical polity came much more from Paris than from Geneva."2 To trace the history of Presbyterianism in France for the next thirty years would be to write the history of France itself during that period.
We will not open to churchmen a door for a new mastership over government and subjects, wife and child."From 1618 a modified Presbyterian polity predominated.
Episcopacy, Erastianism and Independency, though of little account in the assembly, were to bulk largely in England's future; while the church polity which the assembly favoured and recommended was to be almost unknown.
From the beginning of the 18th century the greater number of the Presbyterian congregations became practically independent in polity and Unitarian in doctrine.Advertisement
This, except historically, is a misnomer, for, though descended from the old English Presbyterians, they retain nothing of their distinctive doctrine of polity - nothing of Presbyterianism, indeed, but the name.
His views on church polity were dominated by his implicit belief in the divine right of kings (not of course the divine hereditary right of kings) which the Anglicans felt it necessary to set up against the divine right of popes.
In theology, as in ecclesiastical polity, Hofmann was a Lutheran of an extreme type, although the strongly marked individuality of some of his opinions laid him open to repeated accusations of heterodoxy.
Admission to the gild was not restricted to burgesses; nor did the brethren form an aristocratic body having control over the whole municipal polity.
As has been justly said, if Newton once suffered a cerebral attack without forfeiting our veneration for the Principia, Comte may have suffered in the same way, and still not have forfeited our respect for Positive Philosophy and Positive Polity.Advertisement
The ancient differences between Old and New Side were revived, and once more it was urged that there should be (1) strict subscription, (2) exclusion of the Congregationalized churches, and strict Presbyterian polity and discipline, and (3) the condemnation and exclusion of the new divinity and the maintenance of scholastic orthodoxy.
It was the task of Ezekiel to take up once more the broken threads of Israel's religious traditions, and weave them anew into statelier forms of ritual and national polity.
The government of the church is chiefly according to the congregational principle, and the women have an equal voice with the men; but annual meetings, attended by the bishops, teachers and other delegates from the several congregations are held, and at these sessions the larger questions involving church polity are considered and decided by a committee of five bishops.
He ineffectually resisted the efforts of the Calvinists, led by Caspar Olevianus, to introduce the Presbyterian polity and discipline, which were established at Heidelberg in 1570, on the Genevan model.
Christians being released, in important particulars, from conformity to the Old Testament polity as a whole, a real difficulty attended the settlement of the limits and the immediate authority of the remainder, known vaguely as the moral law.Advertisement
He compiled a Jewish Calendar and wrote Discourses on the Ecclesiastical and Civil Polity of the Jews (1706).
Comte lost no time, after the completion of his Course of Positive Philosophy, in proceeding with the System of Positive Polity, for which the earlier work was designed to be a foundation.
This work is accomplished in the last three volumes of the Positive Philosophy, and the second and third volumes of the Positive Polity.
The third volume of the Positive Polity treats of social dynamics, and takes us again over the ground of historic evolution.
The system for which the Positive Philosophy is alleged to have been the scientific preparation contains a Polity and a Religion; a complete arrangement of life in all its aspects, giving a wider sphere to Intellect, Energy and Feeling than could be found in any of the previous organic types, - Greek, Roman or Catholic-feudal.Advertisement
Not that he would have allowed the state to touch doctrine, to determine polity or discipline; but he would have had it to recognize historical achievement, religious character and capacity, and endow out of its ample resources those societies which had vindicated their right to be regarded as making for religion.
In the churches which consciously shaped their polity at or after the Reformation the principle of excommunication is preserved in the practice of church discipline.
These movements issued in the congregational system which is the present polity among Benedictines.
Thus the Benedictine polity may be described as a number of autonomous federations of autonomous monasteries.
Here we have essential Congregationalism, formulated for the first time in England as the original and genuine Christian polity, and as such binding on those loyal to the Head of the Church.
Such were the leading features of Browne's Congregationalism, as a polity distinct from both Episcopacy and Presbyterianism.
Congregationalists, on the other hand, whether Independents or Baptists, remained on the whole Trinitarians, largely perhaps in virtue of their very polity, with its intimate relation between the piety of the people and that of the ministry.
Similarly its ecclesiastical statesmen have been developing the full possibilities of its polity, to suit the demands of the time for coordinated effort.
The motives and circumstances of the emigrants determined their polity; they went out as churches and settled as church states.
The movement in the direction of union has been still further promoted by the International Councils referred to above (section on British Congregationalism ad fin.), in which the American Congregationalists have met the representatives of their brethren in Great Britain and its colonies having the same faith and polity.
The Congregational churches, as distinct from the churches retaining the same polity, but separated by the adoption of Unitarian opinions, have in times past professed to be Calvinists of stricter or more moderate types.
In 1882 he was called to Harvard where he taught as instructor in philosophy, assistant professor (1885-92), professor of the history of philosophy (1892-1914) and Alford professor of religion, moral philosophy, and civil polity (after 1914).
In foreign imperial affairs, and in the adjustment of serious parliamentary difficulties, the queen's dynastic influence abroad and her position as above party at home, together with the respect due to her character, good sense and experience, still remained a powerful element in the British polity, as was shown Austro- on more than one occasion.
Owing to the once prevalent desire of the adherents of one or another polity to find support in primitive precept or practice, the question has assumed a prominence out of proportion to its real importance, and the few and scattered references in early Christian writings have been made the basis for various elaborate theories.
Hooker's Ecclesiastical Polity was accidentally destroyed.
Thus the congress of Vienna failed to institute any new system for securing the stability of the European polity, nor did it recognize those new forces of liberty and nationality which had really caused Napoleon's downfall.
While complying with the terms of the Act of Uniformity, Wallis seems always to have retained moderate and rational notions of ecclesiastical polity.
Hooker, who speaks of Jewel as "the worthiest divine that Christendom bath bred for some hundreds of years," was one of the boys whom Jewel prepared in his house for the university; and his Ecclesiastical Polity owes much to Jewel's training.
As comprehensive in their polity as the Benedictines or Franciscans, they gathered their members from, and soon scattered their possessions over, every country in Europe.
After a period of stress and uncertainty, due very largely to the variety of denominational creed and polity, matters assumed an easier condition, the missionaries recognizing the national characteristics and aiming at guidance rather than control.
Retiring to Shottesbrooke in Berkshire, and living on the produce of a small estate in Ireland, he devoted himself to the study of chronology and ecclesiastical polity.
Dodwell's works on ecclesiastical polity are more numerous and of much less value than those on chronology, his judgment being far inferior to his power of research.
A clean sweep was made of the medieval polity surviving in the somnolent local diets and corporations.
The Covenanters were thus named because in a series of bands or covenants they bound themselves to maintain the Presbyterian doctrine and polity as the sole religion of their country.
In the controversy between Walter Travers and Richard Hooker he interposed by prohibiting the preaching cf the former; and he moreover presented Hooker with the rectory of Boscombe in Wiltshire, in order to afford him more leisure to complete his Ecclesiastical Polity, a work which, however, cannot be said to represent either Whitgift's theological or his ecclesiastical standpoint.
We are therefore to understand, first, that he wrote the earliest draft of his political theory some years before the outbreak of the Civil War, and, secondly, that this earliest draft was not written till, in accordance with his philosophical conception, he had established the grounds of polity in human nature.
It was, of course, not to be expected that an Oxonian Tory should praise the Presbyterian polity and ritual, or that an eye accustomed to the hedgerows and parks of England should not be struck by the bareness of Berwickshire and East Lothian.
He collaborated in the translation of Comte's system of Positive Polity (4 vols., 1875 - 1879), translated his Discourse on the Positive Spirit (1903),, and wrote a biography of Comte for a translation of the first two chapters of his Cours de philosophie positive, entitled Fundamental Principles of Positive Philosophy (1905).
From the time of the formation of this league, Luther retired gradually from the forefront of a reformation movement which had become largely political, and busied himself with reforms in public worship and suggestions for an organization of the polity of the Evangelical church.
He disclaimed the right of suggesting a common order of worship or a uniform ecclesiastical polity; and Lutheran ritual and polity, while presenting common features, did not follow one common use.
The variations in the details of the polity of the Lutheran churches were very numerous, but they all preserved the same distinctive principles.
The workers, who control the polity of the hive (the "queen" being exceedingly "limited" in her monarchy), arrange if possible that young queens shall develop only when the population of the hive has become so congested that it is desirable to send off a swarm.
He called the new kingdom Ch'ao- Hsien, pacified and policed its borders, and introduced laws and Chinese etiquette and polity.
He revived the name Ch'ao-Hsien, changed the capital from Song-do to Seoul, organized an administrative system, which with some modifications continued till 1895, and exists partially still, carried out vigorous reforms, disestablished Buddhism, made merit in Chinese literary examinations the basis of appointment to office, made Confucianism the state religion, abolished human sacrifices and the burying of old men alive, and introduced that Confucian system of education, polity, and social order which has dominated Korea for five centuries.
Later the familiar polity of the synagogue was loosely followed.
The polity of the Church was more than a formal organization; it touched the life of each believer.
It began as separate from the world and proscribed by it; next it adapted itself to the learning, the customs and the polity of the world.
Thoroughgoing reconstruction in every item of theology and in every detail of polity there may be, yet shall the Christian life go on - the life which finds its deepest utterance in the words of Christ, " Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart and thy neighbour as thyself "; the life which expresses its profoundest faith in the words Christ taught it to pray, "Our Father"; the life which finds its highest rule of conduct in the words of its first and greatest interpreter, " Let this mind be in you which was also in Christ Jesus our Lord."
The polity of the new community, often founded in defiance of the home authorities, might either be a copy of that just left behind or be its direct political antithesis.
A nearer parallel to Greek colonization may be found in Iceland, whither the adherents of the old Norse polity fled from the usurpation of Harold Haarfager; and the early history of the English pale in Ireland shows, though not in orderliness and prosperity, several points of resemblance to the Roman colonial system.
The Rescissory Act of 1661 swept away the legislation of the preceding twenty years, and so disposed of the Presbyterian polity of the church.
Like his father he was deeply grieved by the liberal theology and Church polity of the new Brattle Street Congregation, and conscientiously opposed its pastor Benjamin Colman, who had been irregularly ordained in England and by a Presbyterian body; but with his father he took part in 1700 in services in Colman's church.
Assam was the province of Bengal which remained most stubbornly outside the limits of the Mogul empire and of the Mahommedan polity in India.
Coleridge died in the communion of the Church of England, of whose polity and teaching he had been for many years a loving admirer.
But by regarding benevolence less as a definite desire for the general good as such than as kind affection for particular individuals, he practically eliminates it as a regulative principle and reduces the authorities in the polity of the soul to two - conscience and self-love.
The Liberal party, which now came into control in the college repeatedly disappointed the hopes of Cotton Mather that he might be chosen president, and by its ecclesiastical laxness and its broader views of Church polity forced the Mathers to turn from Harvard to Yale as a truer school of the prophets.
This makes the Eastern Church quite distinct in government and traditions of polity from the Western.
All the forms of the Roman administration went on, and the Roman polity and Roman culture had great influence on the Goths themselves.
The family, the tribe, the city, the simpler and more complex organisms of the Hellenic polity, were specially under his care and direction.
His more important essays were republished under the titles Essays and Reviews (1857), Princeton Theological Essays, and Discussions in Church Polity (1878).
To understand this and other anomalies it is necessary to bear in mind that the church is not, like the established Protestant churches of Germany, an elaborately organized state department, nor is it a single corporation with power to regulate its internal polity.
The Delta or southern part of Bengal lay beyond the ancient Sanskrit polity, and was governed by a number of local kings belonging to a pre-Aryan stock.
It remains to speak of the most important change which Williams rearrangements made in the polity of England.
Neither now nor ever had Burke any other real conception of a polity for England than government by the territorial aristocracy in the interests of the nation at large, and especially in the interests of commerce, to the vital importance of which in our economy he was always keenly and wisely alive.
Between 1835 and 1861 Whewell was the author of various works on the philosophy of morals and politics, the chief of which, Elements of Morality, including Polity, was published in 1845.
The conference recognizes the fact that its constituency is Congregational in tradition and polity.
The two following years, during which he lived at Dorset Court in London, were memorable for the publication of his two chief works on social polity, and of the epoch-making book on modern philosophy which revels the main principles of his life.
This appears in his works on social polity, written at a time when the principles of democracy and toleration were struggling with divine right of kings, and when " the popular assertors of public liberty were the greatest engrossers of it too."
They are classics in the library of English constitutional law and polity.
Locke's philosophical defence of religious liberty in the four Letters of Toleration is the most far-reaching of his contributions to social polity.
The principles that governed Locke's social polity largely determined his attitude to Christianity.
The successive constitutions, and the other legal changes which resulted from it, are also discussed in their general relation to the growth of the modern French polity in the article France (Law and Institutions).
In a rightly ordered polity social and individual well-being alike would depend on that harmonious action of diverse elements, each performing its proper function, which in its social application is more naturally termed SLKawwVGv7.
Still, its influence has been great and long-enduring, - in the Catholic Church primarily, but indirectly among Protestants, especially in England, since the famous first book of Hooker's Ecclesiastical Polity is to a great extent taken from the Summa theologiae.
Butler's ordered polity of impulses turns out to be a polity with two independent governments.
He entered upon his work with a firm determination to carry out those reforms which he had originally purposed, and to set up in all its integrity that form of church polity which he had carefully matured during his residence at Strassburg.
His system of church polity was essentially theocratic; it assumed that every member of the state was also under the discipline of the church; and he asserted that the right of exercising this discipline was vested exclusively in the consistory or body of preachers and elders.
His work embraced everything; he was consulted on every affair, great and small, that came before the council, - on questions of law, police, economy, trade, and manufactures, no less than on questions of doctrine and church polity.
Martineau (1902); The Development of European Polity (1903); Miscellaneous Essays and Addresses (1904); Lectures on the Philosophy of Kant (1905).
But both Celt and Northman acknowledged the polity of Eugenius, and it was chiefly in the matters of tithe, Peter's pence, canonical degrees and the observance of festivals that Rome had still victories to gain.
Owing to her the City of God gradually replaced the Roman imperial polity and preserved its civilization; while the Church allied herself more closely with the new kingdoms than she had ever done with the Empire.
In church polity he was Lutheran rather than Reformed.
Morality with religion for its sanction has hitherto been the basis of social polity, except under military despotisms.
It would be better if P S Khabra dissociated himself from all attempts to divide the polity and set nationality against nationality.
It has helped to build a distinctive Welsh polity and civil society.
The rapid pace of globalization has meant that the emerging polity that is the EU has experienced a highly accelerated rate of development.
Instead of creating left-right polity, the laboring classes became small landowners, which resulted in the creation of a large rural conservative society.
Some consider him the ' father of Anglicanism ' for his ecclesiastical polity, a radical book on religion.
The guarantee of minority rights is the mark of a genuinely democratic polity.
The fabric of the Islamic polity itself seemed to be crumbling.
He merely notes that the European polity is likely to be characterized by multi- levels of power.
The problem in the British polity is that the two-party hegemony can't adapt easily.
Where were the Nonconformist organs, and the anxious seekers after divine light in creed and rationality in church polity?
But does the melting together of national economies require a world polity?
It is this arcane, pre-modern polity that is being challenged by the demand for Scottish independence.
The leaders of the The Reformation searched the New Testament not only for f o doctrinal truth but also to ascertain the polity of the primitive Church.
Luther gave little attention to New Testament polity, though he believed in and clung passionately to the universal priesthood of all true Christians, and rejected the idea of a sacerdotal caste.
While Luther studied the Scriptures in search of true doctrine and Christian life and was indifferent to forms of church polity, they studied the New Testament not only in search of primitive church doctrine but also of primitive of the church polity.
The work of Zwingli as a Reformer, important and thorough though it was, did not concern itself mainly with church polity.
Even the archbishop of Canterbury favoured a modification of episcopacy, and an approach to Presbyterian polity and dicipline; but attention was mainly directed to the settlement of doctrine and worship. Cranmer wrote that bishops and priests were not different but the same in the beginning of Christ's religion.
Between 1580 and 1581, when Browne formed in Norwich the first known church of this order on definite scriptural theory, and October 1585, when, being convinced that the times were not yet ripe for the realization of the perfect polity, and taking a more charitable view of the established Church, he yielded to the pressure brought to bear on him by his kinsman Lord Burghley, so far as partially to conform to parochial public worship as defined by law (see Browne, Robert), the history of Congregationalism is mainly that of Browne and of his writings.
Conjoint repression of civil and religious liberty had made thoughtful men ponder matters of church polity.
They included Thomas Goodwin and Philip Nye, who had practised this polity during exile abroad and now strove to avert the substitution of Presbyterian uniformity for the Episcopacy which, as the ally of absolutism, had alienated its own children (see Presbyterianism).
In philosophy and science he was an amateur, seeking to found a new sociology and a Utopian polity out of his own inner consciousness and study of nature, of poetry and the Bible.
His dauntless courage, his perseverance, and his earnestness at length prevailed, and he had the satisfaction, before he died, of seeing his favourite system of church polity firmly established, not only at Geneva, but in other parts of Switzerland, and of knowing that it had been adopted substantially by the Reformers in France and Scotland.
There 's the lack of any supranational democratic framework in the west or in the world polity.
Though the jus divinum of presbytery is not now insisted upon as in some former times, Presbyterians claim that it is the church polity set forth in the New Testament.
It may be convenient at this point to consider Calvin's ideal church polity, as set forth in his famous Christianae religionis institutio, the first edition of which was published in 1536.
In 1558 a further stage in the development of Presbyterian church polity was reached.
Her attitude is one of sturdy adherence to the old paths of evangelical doctrine and Presbyterian polity.
Its polity has been of gradual growth, and still retains some features peculiar to itself.
Differences in doctrine as well as polity and discipline became more and more prominent.
This interval was diligently devoted to the pursuit of classical and historical studies, to preparing himself for ordination, and to searching investigations, under the stimulus of continual discussion with a band of talented and congenial associates, of the profoundest questions in theology, ecclesiastical polity and social philosophy.
The spirit of the Chinese polity is self-contained, anti-military and anti-sacerdotal.
In Germany, France and the Netherlands it occupies a less prominent place in the town charters and in the municipal polity, and often corresponds to the later fraternities of English dealers established either to carry on foreign commerce or to regulate a particular part of the local trade monopoly.
Whatever power they did secure, whether as potent subsidiary organs of the municipal polity for the regulation of trade, or as the chief or sole medium for the acquisition of citizenship, or as integral parts of the common council, was, generally speaking, the logical sequence of a gradual economic development, and not the outgrowth of a revolutionary movement by which oppressed craftsmen endeavoured to throw off the yoke of an arrogant patrician gild merchant.
Even the readaptation of the Catholic system to a scientific doctrine was plainly in his mind thirty years before the final execution of the Positive Polity, though it is difficult to believe that he foresaw the religious mysticism in which the task was to land him.
With the aid of its philosophy she created her new Christian theology; its polity furnished her with the most exact constitutional forms; its jurisprudence, its trade and commerce, its art and industry, were all taken into her service; and she contrived to borrow some hints even from its religious worship. With this equipment she undertook, and carried through, a world-mission on a grand scale.
The English Benedictines never advanced farther along the path of centralization; up to their destruction this polity remained in operation among them, and proved itself by its results to be well adapted to the conditions of the Benedictine Rule and life.
Such a polity, surrounded as it was by territory dependent on European sovereigns, could not be without a profound influence on its neighbours.
Varied as are the forms which this idea has assumed under varying conditions of time and place, it remains distinctive enough to constitute one of the three main types of ecclesiastical polity, the others being Episcopacy and Presbyterianism.
It advocated " the polity that our Saviour Jesus Christ hath established," with " pastors, superintendes, deacons "; so that " all true pastors have equal power and authority.
But in the year 1215, at the fourth Lateran council, were made regulations destined profoundly to modify Benedictine polity and history.