A man of few words, Gabriel hadn't gotten used to the political side of his job yet.
The conversation did not flag all evening and turned chiefly on the political news.
The rise of public opinion as the most powerful political force in the world.
The tone of the conversation was such as indicated that no one approved of what was being done in the political world.
The idea that a person can be a political prisoner, jailed for his beliefs about government, politics, or politicians, is ancient but happily fading.
The troops retired from Vilna for various complicated reasons of state, political and strategic.
Non-violence as a successful political tactic.
Weaponized famine occurs when hunger itself is used to gain a political or military end.
WILLIAM LIVINGSTON (1723-1790), American political leader, was born at Albany, New York, probably on the 30th of November 1723.
But in these great endeavors we are gravely hampered by the political institutions of today.
Is there any collective action which cannot find its justification in political unity, in patriotism, in the balance of power, or in civilization?
Soon afterwards he entered political life.
The historical figures at the head of armies, who formerly reflected the movement of the masses by ordering wars, campaigns, and battles, now reflected the restless movement by political and diplomatic combinations, laws, and treaties.
Count Rostopchin alone kept the conversation going, now relating the latest town news, and now the latest political gossip.
In the past, political alliances were sealed by marriages among monarchs or nobles.
Now, let's move on to the political factors that will cause war to cease.
The Communist system eschewed political liberties in favor of economic ones.
Civility is the second casualty of political debate.
His brother, Peter Van Brugh Livingston (1710-1792), was a prominent merchant and a Whig political leader in New York.
In my opinion perpetual peace is possible but--I do not know how to express it... not by a balance of political power....
I do not say this to advance any political doctrine.
She stared, unaccustomed to the political powerhouse asking for anything.
Your excellency, there are some political prisoners, Meshkov, Vereshchagin...
Meanwhile, his people acted as the eyes on the ground to the regular military, most of which was exiled overseas after the war to prevent the divided political elite from seizing control of it again.
On all disputed points, whether commercial, religious or political, his advice was invariably sought by the foreign ministers and the Chinese alike.
Burke's speech was more instructive than any other book on a political subject that I had ever read.
His accent appeared when he was too stressed to be concerned about emulating the flat, cultured accent of the political elite.
That Leo did not do more to check the tendency toward heresy and schism in Germany and Scandinavia is to be partially explained by the political complications of the time, and by his own preoccupation with schemes of papal and Medicean aggrandizement in Italy.
My purpose in this chapter will not be to persuade the reader of any political doctrine of trade; please apply your own political and social values as you see fit.
The famous political preacher, Henry Sacheverell, held the living early in the 18th century.
On the motion of Cabanis he was named associate of the Institute in the class of the moral and political sciences.
"I can't get used to the political side of the job, either," Gabe said.
Thanks to the burgeoning of technology and social media, public opinion is the most powerful political force in the world today.
Unlike the regular military, the political elite's security private forces were made up of children from the upper class to prevent the elite class from becoming polluted by the poor.
The marriage of this youth to James IV.'s widow on the 6th of August 1514 did much to identify the Douglases with the English party in Scotland, as against the French party led by Albany, and incidentally to determine the political career of his uncle Gavin.
The rugged nature of the country made slavery unprofitable, and time only increased the social, political and economic differences between the two sections of the state.
They went out and walked about till dinnertime, talking of the political news and common acquaintances like people who do not know each other intimately.
As education rises, a thousand other things rise with it: income, health, political engagement, and an overall concern for world affairs.
He listened, refraining from a reply, and involuntarily wondered how this old man, living alone in the country for so many years, could know and discuss so minutely and acutely all the recent European military and political events.
"The execution of the Duc d'Enghien," declared Monsieur Pierre, "was a political necessity, and it seems to me that Napoleon showed greatness of soul by not fearing to take on himself the whole responsibility of that deed."
She was free of service to Tim, of the fourteen-hour days and political games.
Henceforward she strongly urged him on in his political career; and it was the refusal of the Roman priests to bless their union that first prompted Kossuth to take up the defence of mixed marriages.
The attempts of the government to counteract his influence by founding a rival paper, the Vilag, only increased his importance and added to the political excitement.
It was Friday, a week day, and the height of the season, so he had expected most of the town's folk to be too busy for political small talk.
With the present complex forms of political and social life in Europe can any event that is not prescribed, decreed, or ordered by monarchs, ministers, parliaments, or newspapers be imagined?
All historians agree that the external activity of states and nations in their conflicts with one another is expressed in wars, and that as a direct result of greater or less success in war the political strength of states and nations increases or decreases.
Prince Bolkonski sat down in his usual place in the corner of the sofa and, drawing up an armchair for Prince Vasili, pointed to it and began questioning him about political affairs and news.
This reading, as was always the case at Anna Pavlovna's soirees, had a political significance.
And her sympathies go further and shape her opinions on political and national movements.
I also discuss the political situation with my dear father, and we decide the most perplexing questions quite as satisfactorily to ourselves as if I could see and hear.
This irritability is, as you know, chiefly directed to political questions.
Having covered the financial and political factors, let's look at thirteen ways communication and information will help bring about war's demise.
He continued the agitation with the object of attaining both the political and commercial independence of Hungary.
During these two or three years of incessant political intrigue and warfare it was not to be expected that the Lateran council should accomplish much.
But not to speak of the intrinsic quality of histories of this kind (which may possibly even be of use to someone for something) the histories of culture, to which all general histories tend more and more to approximate, are significant from the fact that after seriously and minutely examining various religious, philosophic, and political doctrines as causes of events, as soon as they have to describe an actual historic event such as the campaign of 1812 for instance, they involuntarily describe it as resulting from an exercise of power--and say plainly that that was the result of Napoleon's will.
He greatly increased his political information, and also acquired, from the study of the Bible and Shakespeare, a wonderful knowledge of English.
A world where political action was represented in such guise was ripe for overthrow, or could only be saved by a great mental reformation."
Blaine, the bitterest political enemy of Senator Roscoe Conkling the leader of the New York "stalwarts."
the church, but also their refusal to re-establish that "centre of political unity," the Holy Roman Empire.
A world where political action was represented in such guise was ripe for overthrow, or could only be saved by a great mental reformation."
the church, but also their refusal to re-establish that "centre of political unity," the Holy Roman Empire.
Whatever Tim's intentions, he'd agreed to let her out of his political game.
By his exposition of the political history of the kingdom, based on a study of its laws and institutions and of the legal conflicts between the state and the court of Rome, Pietro Giannone was the initiator of what has been since known as civil history.
Kossuth continued the agitation by reporting in letter form the debates of the county assemblies, to which he thereby gave a political importance which they had not had when each was ignorant of the proceedings of the others.
By his exposition of the political history of the kingdom, based on a study of its laws and institutions and of the legal conflicts between the state and the court of Rome, Pietro Giannone was the initiator of what has been since known as civil history.
Interestingly, political cartoons of the era, both for and against FDR, showed him unaffected by the disease.
When Dean arrived in the hall, he was met by two men in black and his political opponent, Seymour Fitzgerald.
I cannot for an instant recognize that political organization as my government which is the slave's government also.
They view individual liberty as a threat, new political ideas as subversion, and political opposition as treason.
In addition to his lecturing, Leo found time for much literary and political work.
He served in the New York legislature (1759-1760), but his political influence was long exerted chiefly through pamphlets and newspaper articles.
Both of these have political implications, and so it is with some hesitation I bring them up.
Robertson, another political enemy of Conkling's, to the desirable post of Collector of the Port of New York, and thereby destroyed all prospects of party harmony.
Their personal sympathy for each other continued to the end, though at the outset at least their political views differed.
Their personal sympathy for each other continued to the end, though at the outset at least their political views differed.
The second way people choose a nutritional theory is to develop it from their overall social and political understanding of the world.
In 1849 she writes from Berri to a political friend: " You thought that I was drinking blood from the skulls of aristocrats.
Other promotions were for political or family considerations or to secure money for the war against Urbino.
In the midst of a conversation on political matters Anna Pavlovna burst out:
Military, administrative, political, and masonic interests continually absorbed his attention.
It was not likely for the paths of a soldier and a member of the political elite to cross paths, but he was the closest thing she had ever had to a friend since leaving her home at the age of four.
Despite the political power-player setting, the restaurant has a relaxed atmosphere, with an ambiance set by jazz and blues music.
This destination is considered a must-see for any political history buff.
Owing to being suspected of political'.
His widow left a sum of Ioo,000 francs to the Institut de France, to found in his memory scholarships in political economy or law.
The subjects of the poems are threefold: (I) amatory and personal, mostly regarding Cynthia - seventy-two (sixty Cynthia elegies), of which the last book contains three; (2) political and social, on events of the day - thirteen, including three in the last book; (3) historical and antiquarian - six, of which five are in the last book.
Domestic sorrows were added to his political troubles and he died suddenly at Paris on the 10th of January 1794.
He now tried to keep himself as much out of the political world as possible, but in vain, for the court would suspect him, and his friends would talk about his being king.
This doctrine, rather political than theological, was a survival of the errors which had come into being after the Great Schism, and especially at the council of Constance; its object was to put the Church above its head, as the council of Constance had put the ecumenical council above the pope, as though the council could be ecumenical without its head.
When the storm had blown over he returned to London, and employed his leisure in works which were less political in their tone.
Feudalism was abolished in 1836, and in 1848 complete political union with Piedmont was granted, the viceregal government being suppressed, and the island being divided into three divisions of which Cagliari, Sassari and Nuoro were the capitals.
After the political and territorial upheavals which marked the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th, all these concordats either fell to the ground or had to be recast.
Madame Roland took an active part in the political discussions in these reunions.
It was almost inevitable that she should find herself in the centre of political aspirations and presiding over a company of the most talented men of progress.
What makes him memorable in English history is that he opposed the establishment of a special kind of political organization.
Failing health and the disappointment of his political plans led him into violent courses.
Much of Shaftesbury's career, increasingly so as it came near its close, is incapable of defence; but it has escaped most of his critics that his life up to the Restoration, apparently full of inconsistencies, was evidently guided by one leading principle, the determination to uphold the supremacy of parliament, a principle which, however obscured by self-interest, appears also to have underlain his whole political career.
Political honours did not satisfy him, however.
In the political interests which these contests involved he took no part; his favourite disciple, the princess Elizabeth, was the daughter of the banished king, against whom he had served in Bohemia; and Queen Christina, his second royal follower, was the daughter of Gustavus Adolphus.
His political career had not prevented Martos from rising into note at the bar, where he was successful for forty years.
Having failed to form a rival party against Sagasta, Martos subsided into political insignificance, despite his great talent as an orator and debater, and died in Madrid on the 16th of January 1893.
His work Democratic (1859) led to a political prosecution and imprisonment.
His political foresight was extraordinary.
His dying boast, that "no Athenian had put on mourning through his doing," perhaps refers to his forbearance towards his political rivals, whom he refused to ruin by prosecution.
It is said that the terms Whig and Tory were first applied to English political parties in consequence of this dispute.
Rulers of this name are found at Rhodes as late as the 1st century B.C. The Prytaneum was regarded as the religious and political centre of the community and was thus the nucleus of all government, and the official "home" of the whole people.
It seems to me that it should be organized by 1911 political divisions as much as possible, so there should be Category: Austria-Hungary instead of Category: Central Europe, for instance.
In 1817 a Roman Catholic theological faculty was added, with a seminary called the Konvikt, and there are now also faculties of law, medicine, philosophy, political economy and natural science.
This, then, was Ezekiel's political creed - destruction of Jerusalem and its inhabitants, restoration of the exiles, and meantime submission to Babylon.
He does not discuss the possibility of successful resistance to the Chaldeans; he simply assumes that the attempt is foolish and wicked, and, like other prophets, he identifies his political programme with the will of God.
It may be assumed that the social corruption in Jerusalem was such as is usually found in wealthy communities, made bolder in this case, perhaps, by the political unrest and the weakness of the royal government under Zedekiah.
Several railway lines have been projected, but there is no great probability of their construction under existing political conditions.
The tribes of northern Albania, or Ghegeria, may be classified in seven groups as follows: - (1) The Mirdites, who inhabit the alpine region around Orosh to the south-east of Scutari - the most important of all in respect of numbers (about 17,000) and political independence.
Instruction in the Albanian language is prohibited by the Turkish government for political reasons; a single exception has been made in the case of an American school for girls at Kortcha.
Frequent political changes in Venezuela have led to various modifications in the size and outlines of this state, which comprises large areas of uninhabited territory.
His father had been a coal-dealer, and he himself had thought of becoming a money-changer, but finally decided in favour of a political career.
Napier lived in the very midst of fiercely contending religious factions; there was but little theological teaching of any kind, and the work related to what were then the leading political and religious questions of the day.
The Swiss, owing to their peculiar geographical position and to certain political circumstances, early manifested independence in ecclesiastical matters, and became accustomed to the Statistics.
It was felt to be a political necessity that he should return, and in 1541, somewhat reluctantly, he returned on his own terms. These were the recognition of the Church's spiritual independence, the division of the town into parishes, and the appointment (by the municipal authority) of a consistory or council of elders in each parish for the exercise of discipline.
The new duke, unwilling to yield to the wishes of his people for greater political liberty, was soon compelled to take flight, and the duchy was for a time ruled by a provisional government and by Charles Albert of Sardinia; but in April 1849 Baron d'Aspre with 15,000 Austrians took possession of Parma, and the ducal government was restored under Austrian protection.
In 1760 he renewed his political pamphleteering; and having obtained a pardon from George III., he proceeded to Dublin, where he received a popular welcome and a Doctor's degree from Trinity College.
His contributions to the press, and his Addresses to the Lord Mayor and other political pamphlets made him one of the most popular writers in Ireland of his time, although he was anticatholic in his prejudices, and although, as Lecky observes,.
During the Reconstruction the people of the South were divided thus: nearly all native whites (the most prominent of whom were disfranchised) on one side irrespective of former political faith, and on the other side the ex-slaves organized and led by a few native and Northern whites called respectively scalawags and carpet-baggers, who were supported by the United States government and who controlled the Southern state governments.
He took some part in the political events of the time; in 994 he was a hostage in the hands of the Northmen, and he was not unfamiliar with the actualities of war.
During the first half of the 19th century civil war and despotic government seriously restricted the natural growth of the country, but since the definite organization of the republic in 1860 and the settlement of disturbing political controversies, the population had increased rapidly.
Unfavourable political and economic conditions of a temporary character influence the emigration movement.
Political Divisions and Towns.-The chief political divisions of the republic consist of one federal district, 14 provinces and 10 territories, the last in great part dating from the settlement of the territorial controversies with Chile.
The service is governed by the international telegraph regulations, but is subject to local inspection and interruption in times of political disorder.
The choice fell upon Dr Saenz Pena, a judge of the supreme court, and a man universally respected, who had never taken any part in political life.
He had had no experience of political life, and he refused to create the support he needed by using his presidential prerogative to build up a political majority.
Shchepotev, A.S.Matvyeev as an Educational and Political Reformer (Rus.), (St Petersburg, 1906).
At the head of each department is a prefect, a political official nominated by the minister of the interior and appointed by the president, who acts as general agent of the government and renresentative of the central authority.
Political questions are rigorously excluded from its deliberations.
The advantages of a purely territorial system have tempted various War Ministers to apply it, but the results were not good, owing to the want of uniformity in the military qualities and the political subordination of the different districts.
The most important free institution in this class is the cole des Sciences Politiques, which prepares pupils for the civil services and teaches a great number of political subjects, connected with France and foreign countries, not included in the state programmes.
In all colonies Europeans preserve the political rights they held in France, and these rights have been extended, in whole or in part, to various classes of natives.
The councils general are elected by universal suffrage of all citizens and those who, though not citizens, have been granted the political franchise.
His political career began in 1742 with his appointment as solicitor-general.
during the coalition ministry, and with this his political career may be said to have closed.
The political trials over which he presided, although they gave rise to numerous accusations against him, were conducted with singular fairness and propriety.
Under the regency of his old master, Demetrius Phalereus, Dinarchus exercised much political influence.
(For the political history of Prince Alexander's reign, see Bulgaria.) Without any previous training in the art of government, the young prince from the outset found himself confronted with difficulties which would have tried the sagacity of an experienced ruler.
The prince, after vainly endeavouring to obtain the recall of the generals, restored the constitution with the concurrence of all the Bulgarian political parties (September 18, 1883).
The battle of Lepanto was of immense political importance.
During the draft riots in July he proclaimed the city and county of New York in a state of insurrection, but in a speech to the rioters adopted a tone of conciliation - a political error which injured his career.
Seymour did not re-enter political life, refusing to be considered for the United States senatorship from New York in 1876.
CLUB OF THE FEUILLANTS, a political association which played a prominent part during the French Revolution.
(1889) and Lollardy and the Reformation (1908), and Political History of England, vols.
As his over-sanguine visions of a new order of things to be ushered in by political change disappeared, he began to direct his thoughts to religious subjects.
According to Plutarch he was made an object of attack by the political enemies of Pericles, and died in prison at Athens.
And it was through Pheidias that the political enemies of Pericles struck at him.
In home waters the Rhodians exercised political control over Carpathos and other islands.
In the 4th century its political development was arrested by constant struggles between oligarchs and democrats, who in turn brought the city under the control of Sparta (4 12 -395, 39 1 -37 8), of Athens (395-39 1, 37 8 -357), and of 'the Carian dynasty of Maussollus (357-340).
Political And Economic Conditions Population.
the great questions upon which the country was divided, were settled within twenty years of the granting of self-government.1 With the disposal of these important problems, politics in Australia became a struggle for office between men whose political principles were very much alike, and the tenure of power enjoyed by the various governments did not depend upon the principles of administration so much as upon the personal fitness of the head of the ministry, and the acceptability of his ministry to the members of the more popular branch of the legislature.
The two most striking political events in the modern history of Australia, as a whole, apart from the readiness it has shown to remain a part of the British empire, and to in Australia.
As far as the other colonies were concerned, it was evident that the bill was safe, and public attention throughout Australia was fixed on New South Wales, where a fierce political contest was raging, which it was recognized would decide the fate of the measure for the time being.
It was not long, however, before the party itself became divided on the fiscal question; and a Protectionist government coming into power, about half the Labour members gave it consistent support and enabled it to maintain office for about three years, the party as a political unit being thus destroyed.
The strikes of the years 1890 and 1892 are just as important on account of their political consequences as from the direct gains or losses involved.
In 1850 he went back to England, in order to enter political life there.
Political agitators, in order to sap the power of the Opportunist party, did not hesitate to drag in the mud one of the greatest citizens of France.
In the northern Netherlands generally up to the end of the 14th century the towns had no great political weight; their importance depended upon their river commerce and their markets.
He was made commander-in-chief of both the military and naval forces with supreme authority, and in his hands was placed the final appointment to all political and judicial posts and to vacant city magistracies.
By this instrument the deputies of Hainault, Artois and Douay formed themselves into a league for the defence of the Catholic religion, and, subject to his observance of the political stipulations of the Union of Brussels, professed loyal allegiance to the king.
"WALTER RATHENAU (1867-), German industrialist and political economist, president of the Allgemeine ElektricitatsGesellschaf t, was born Sept.
His ability, pure life and political connexions raised him rapidly to power.
On the 24th an irade announced the restoration of the suspended constitution of 1875; next day, further irades abolished espionage and the censorship, and ordered the release of political prisoners.
Singapore is the political, commercial and administrative headquarters of the colony of the Straits Settlements, and the governor for the time being is ex officio high commissioner of the Federated Malay States, British North Borneo, Sarawak, the Cocos-Keeling and Christmas Islands, and governor of Labuan.
The standard authorities for the period before 1791 are: Ira Allen, Natural and Political History of the State of Vermont (London, 1898); B.
In the same year in which this work appeared, he and his wife Dorothea (1763-1839), a daughter of Moses Mendelssohn, joined the Roman Catholic Church, and from this time he became more and more opposed to the principles of political and religious freedom.
He was one of the earliest political opponents of slavery, as distinguished from the radical Abolitionists, or the followers of William Lloyd Garrison, who eschewed politics and devoted themselves to a moral agitation.
Political problems were not to be so resolved, but practically.
Cromwell, who was as a rule especially scrupulous in protecting non-combatants from violence, justified his severity in this case by the cruelties perpetrated by the Irish in the rebellion of 1641, and as being necessary on military and political grounds in that it "would tend to prevent the effusion of blood for the future, which were the satisfactory grounds of such actions which otherwise cannot but work remorse and regret."
These advantages, however, scarcely benefited at all the Irish Roman Catholics, who were excluded from political life and from the corporate towns; and Cromwell's union meant little more than the union of the English colony in Ireland with England.
In an interview in 1654 the sincerity and enthusiasm of George Fox had greatly moved Cromwell and had convinced him of their freedom from dangerous political schemes.
In general the toleration enjoyed under Cromwell was probably far larger than at any period since religion became the contending ground of political parties, and certainly greater than under his immediate successors.
aid - the religious mission of England in the world, her commercial interests, and her political independence being indissolubly connected in his mind.
The treaty of Westminster (24th of October 1655) dealt chiefly with commercial subjects, and contained a clause promising the expulsion from France of political exiles.
In September 1844 Calhoun, then secretary of state, sent Green to Texas ostensibly as consul at Galveston, but actually, it appears, to report to the administration, then considering the question of the annexation of Texas, concerning the political situation in Texas and Mexico.
Grattan's political philosophy was allied to that of Edmund Burke; Tone was a disciple of Danton and Thomas Paine.
See Life of Theobald Wolfe Tone by himself, continued by his son, with his political writings, edited by W.
DEWAS, two native states of India, in the Malwa Political Charge of Central India, founded in the first half of the 18th century by two brothers, Punwar Mahrattas, who came into Malwa with the peshwa, Baji Rao, in 1728.
He at first taught mathematics at Yale; but in 1895 was made assistant professor of political economy, and in 1898 professor.
His conduct, judged not by a modern standard, but by the ideas of his age, will be found compatible with the highest Christian charity, as that of the duke with sound political prudence.
RAJPUTANA, a collection of native states in India, under the political charge of an agent to the governor-general, who resides at Abu in the Aravalli Hills.
For political purposes these are subdivided into eight subordinate groups, consisting of three residencies and five agencies.
Since then the political history of Rajputana has been comparatively uneventful.
By 1868 both political parties in the House of Commons had committed themselves to the policy of state purchase of the telegraphs.
ABRAM STEVENS HEWITT (1822-1903), American manufacturer and political leader, was born in Haverstraw, New York, on the 31st of July 1822.
intervened so as to leave Matthias free to engage in a projected crusade against the Turks, which subsequent political complications, however, rendered impossible.
A political event of the first importance now riveted his attention upon the north.
But Augustus, who was the first to give to Italy a definite political organization, carried the frontier to the river Varus or Var, a few miles west of Nice, and this river continued in modern times to be generally recognized as the boundary between France and Italy.
But in 1860 the annexation Nice and the adjoining territory to France brought the political frontier farther east, to a point between Mentone and Ventimiglia which constitutes no natural limit.
The relations between owners and tillers of the soil are still regulated by the ancient forms of agrarian contract, which have remained almost untouched by social and political changes.
They act also as employment burcaux, and are often centres of political propaganda.
All the members of the suppressed communities received full exercise of all the ordinary political and civil rights of laymen; and annuities were granted to all those who had taken permanent religious vows prior to the 18th of January 1864.
Besides its legislative functions, the senate is the highest court of justice in the case of political offences or the impeachment of ministers.
The penal tribunals have jurisdiction in cases involving imprisonment up to ten years, or a fine exceeding 40, while the assize courts, with a jury, deal with offences involving imprisonment for life or over ten years, and have exclusive jurisdiction (except that the senate is on occasion a high court of justice) over all political offences.
This unification meant for the army the absorption of contingents from all parts of Italy and presenting serious differences in physical and moral aptitudes, political opinions and education.
The extent to which communal independence had been maintained in Italy through all the centuries of its political disintegration was strongly in its favor.
The difficulty of Italian history lies in the fact, that until modern times the Italians have had no political unity, no independence, no organized existence as a nation.
But in Italy, although they were severally identified with the papal and imperial parties, they really served as symbols for jealousies which altered in complexion from time to time and place to place, expressing more than antagonistic political principles, and involving differences vital enough to split the social fabric to its foundation.
Equally contemptible in its political results and void of historical interest was the brief visit of John of Bohemia, son of Henry VII., whom the Ghibellines next invited to assume their leadership. He sold a few privileges, conferred a few titles, and recrossed the Alps in 1333.
Nor were the people only enfeebled for resistance to a real foe; the whole political spirit of the race was demoralized.
It was led by the Medici, who sided with the common people, and increased their political importance by the accumulation and wise employment of vast commercial wealth.
All political institutions tended toward despotism.
Little remained to him of his light acquisitions; but he had convulsed Italy by this invasion, destroyed her equilibrium, exposed her military weakness and political disunion, and revealed her wealth to greedy and more powerful nations.
Thus free thought received a check, by which not only ecclesiastical but political tyrants knew how to profit.
It is impossible to attach political importance to these revolutions; nor did they bring the people any appreciable good.
The European ferment of ideas which preceded the French Revolution expressed itself in men like Alfieri, the fierce denouncer of tyrants, Beccaria, the philosopher of criminal jurisprudence, Volta, the physicist, and numerous political economists of Tuscany.
Here we can attempt only a general survey of the events, political, civic and social, which heralded the Risorgimento in its first phase.
It is desirable in the first place to realize the condition of Italy at the time when the irruption of the French and the expulsion of the Austrians opened up a new political vista for that oppressed and divided people.
Equally extensive, but less important in the political sphere, were the Papal States and Veneti, the former torpid under the obscurantist rule of pope and cardinals, the latter enervated by luxury and the policy of unmanly complaisance long pursued by doge and council.
The surrender of the last Habsburg stronghold, Mantua, on the 2nd of February 1797 left the field clear for the erection of new political institutions.
In the same month it was joined by the Cispadane Republic; and the terms of the treaty of Campo Formio (October 17, 1797), while fatal to the political life of Venice, awarded to this now considerable state the Venetian territories west of the river Adige.
Alike in political and commercial affairs they were for all practical purposes dependencies of France.
The Austrians, under General Bellegarde, entered Milan without resistance; and this event precluded the restoration of the old political order.
The masses were still more or less indifferent, but among the nobility and the educated middle Secret classes, cut off from all part in free political life, there societies, was developed either the spirit of despair at Italys The Car..
and his minister Cardinal Consalvi oppression had not been very severe, and Metternichs proposal to establish a central inquisitorial tribunal for political offences throughout Italy had been rejected by the papal government.
His political ideal was a federation of all the Italian states under the presidency of the pope, on a basis of Catholicism, but without a constitution.
The new pope, who while bishop of Imole had evinced a certain interest in Liberalism, was a kindly man, of inferior intelligence, who thought that all difficulties could be settled with a little good-will, some reforms and a political amnesty.
But he did not move so fast in the path of reform as was expected, and agitation continued throughout the papal states.i In 1847 some administrative reforms were enacted, the laity were admitted to certain offices, railways were talked about, and political newspapers permitted.
There were now three main political tendencies, viz, the union of north Italy under Charles Albert and an alliance with the pope and Naples, a federation of the different states under their present rulers, and a united republic of all Italy.
Taxation was somewhat reduced, the censorship was made less severe, political amnesties were granted, humaner officials were appointed and the Congregations (a sort of shadowy consultative assembly) were revived.
a drunken libertine and a cruel tyrant ~ (May 1849); the latter was assassinated in 1854, and a regency under his widow, Marie Louise, was insti tuted during which the government became somewhat more tolerable, although by no means free from political persecution; in 1857 the Austrian troops evacuated the duchy.
It was fortunate for Italy that during the whole period 1869 1876 the direction of her foreign policy remained in the experienced hands of Visconti-Venosta, a statesman whose Foreign trustworthiness, dignity and moderation even political policy opponents have been compelled to recognize.
His shrewd sense of political expediency and his loyalty to constitutional principles saved .him from the error of obstructing the advent and driving into an aati-dynastic attitude politicians who had succeeded in winning popular favor.
As an opposition party the Left had lived upon the, facile credit of political promises, but had no well-considered programme nor other discipline nor unity of purpose than that born of the common eagerness of its leaders for office and their common hostility to the Right.
than in Italy; both at home and abroad she is hemmed in ~ / by political and economic conditions which leave un/s a.
The political conditions of Europe favored the realization of Italian desires.
The Austrian government, for its part, desired that the king should be accompanied by Depretis, though not by Mancini, lest the presence of the Italian foreign minister should lend to the occasion too marked a political character.
The period between May 1881 and July 1887 occupied, in the region of foreign affairs, by the negotiation, conclusion and renewal of the triple alliance, by the Bulgarian crisis and by the dawn of an Italian colonial policy, was marked at home by urgent political and economic problems, and by the parliamentary phenomena known as trasformismo.
The immediate result of the reform was to increase the political influence of large cities where the proportion of illiterate workmen was lower than.
Minghetti, in a trenchant exposure of the parliamentary condition of Italy during this period, cites a case in which a credit for certain public works was, during a debate in the Chamber, increased by the government from 6,600,000 to 9,000,000 in order to conciliate local political interests.
Though Depretis, at the end of his life in 1887, showed signs of repenting of the confusion thus created, he had established a parliamentary system destined largely to sterilize and vitiate the political life of Italy.
The period1887-1890was marked in Italy by great political activity.
At Faenza, Piacenza, Cremona, Pavia and Milan, where subversive associa tions were stronger, it assumed the complexion of a political revolt.
Com posed mainly of elements drawn from the Left, and dependent for a majority upon the support of the subversive groups of the Extreme Left, the formation of this cabinet gave the signal for a vast working-class movement, during which the Socialist party sought to extend its political influence by means of strikes and the organization of labor leagues among agricultural laborers and artisans.
Whereas in the past the strikes had been purely local and due to local conditions, they now appeared of more general and political character, and the sympathy strike came to be a frequent and undesirable addition to the ordinary economic agitation.
The year 1903, although not free from strikes and minor disturbances, was quieter, but in September 1904 a very serious situation was brought about by a general economic ~ and political agitation.
At the general parliamentary elections of 1904 a few Catholics had been elected as such, and the encyclical of the 11th of June 1905 On the political organization of the Catholics, practically abolished the non erpedit.
Italian public opinion could not view without serious misgivings the active political propaganda which Austria was conducting in Albania.
His principal aim was no doubt the maintenance and increase of his own influence and party, but his ambition corresponded with definite political views.
His Political Memoranda were edited by Oscar Browning for the Camden Society in 1884, and there are eight volumes of his official correspondence in the British Museum.
Its most important feature on the theological as distinct from the political side was the endeavour to promote the circulation of the Bible in the vernacular, by encouraging translation and procuring an order in 1538 that a copy of the Bible in English should be set up in every church in a convenient place for reading.
mythical, natural, and civil or political (City of God, iv.
But once again in his political writings he breaks away from empiricism in appealing to natural law - an intuitionalist or conceivably an idealist tradition.
Statesmen and commentators alike professed to find in Magna Carta a number of political ideas which belonged to a later age, and which had no place in the minds of its framers.
They get neither political nor civil rights under Magna Carta.
Baldwin raised them to great prosperity by his energy and foresight, and chiefly as a result of the active political and military support he rendered to the emperors Henry VII., Louis the Bavarian and Charles IV.
The loss of their political independence has been followed by that of the greater part of their territory, which has been divided up into the Chilean provinces of Arauco, Bio-bio, Malleco and Cautin, and the Indians, much reduced in number, now live in the wooded recesses of the three provinces last named.
This moral development is regarded as a gradual approach to that rational, social and political state in which will be realized the greatest possible quantity of liberty.
Now that the duke of Gandia was dead, the pope needed Cesare to carry out his political schemes, and tried to arrange a wealthy marriage for him.
Risings broke out at Urbino and in Romagna, and the papal troops were defeated; Cesare could find no allies, and it seemed as though all Italy was about to turn against the hated family, when the French king promised help, and this was enough to frighten the confederates into coming to terms. Most of them had shown very little political or military skill, and several were ready to betray each other.
Kings began to insist upon trying ecclesiastics for treason or other political crimes in secular courts.
In the practical questions which arose, and in the great debate which was political, economical and moral, she took a very active part.
Two factors combined to give Pali its importance as one of the few great literary languages of the world: the one political, the other religious.
The political factor was the rise during the 7th century B.C. of the Kosala power.
1880), the Christians were particularly dangerous, inasmuch as they taught a unity which transcended that of the Roman Empire, and must, therefore, have been regarded as antagonistic to the existing political and social organism.
In these, however, the religious was avowedly subordinate to a political motive, viz.
In 1854 he produced Rioja, perhaps the most admired and the most admirable of all his works, and from 18J4 to 1856 he took an active part in the political campaign carried on in the journal El Padre Cobos.
At about this date Ayala passed over from the Moderates to the Progressives, and this political manoeuvre had its effect upon the fate of his plays.
His political changes are difficult to follow, or to explain, and they have been unsparingly censured.
So far as can be judged, Ayala had no strong political views, and drifted with the current of the moment.
Meanwhile, however divided in opinion as to his political conduct, his countrymen were practically unanimous in admiring his dramatic work; and his reputation, if it gained little by El Nuevo Don Juan, was greatly increased by El Tanto por Ciento and El Tejado de Vidrio.
The unknown author, as may be inferred from the treatise itself, did not write to make money, but to oblige his relative and friend Herennius, for whose instruction he promises to supply other works on grammar, military matters and political administration.
Both inculcated a peculiar kind of ascetic life; both had a mystical speculative theory of religion, with purificatory rites, abstinence from beans, &c.; but Orphism was more especially religious, while Pythagoreanism, at least originally, inclined more to be a political and philosophical creed.
rose against the Parthian king, Artabanus, his aim was religious as well as political.
The applications of anthropogeography to human uses give rise to political and commercial geography, in the elucidation of which all the earlier departments or stages have to be considered, together with historical and other purely human conditions.
He speculated on the differences in the character of races of mankind living in different climates, and correlated the political forms of communities with their situation on a seashore, or in the neighbourhood of natural strongholds.
He may be said to have set the pattern which was followed in succeeding ages by the compilers of " political geographies " Geschichte der wissenschaftlichen Erdkunde der Griechen (Leipzig, 1891), Abt.
geography, but, following the model of Strabo, described the world according to its different political divisions, and entered with great zest into the question of the productions ' Bunbury's History of Ancient Geography (2 vols., London, 1879), Muller's Geographi Graeci minores (2 vols., Paris, 1855, 1861) and Berger's Geschichte der wissenschaftlichen Erdkunde der Griechen (4 vols., Leipzig, 1887-1893) are standard authorities on the Greek geographers.
Thus early commenced the separation between what were long called mathematical and political geography, the one subject appealing mainly to mathematicians, the other to historians.
(1) Mathematical geography, which deals with the form, size and movements of the earth and its place in the solar system; (2) Moral geography, or an account of the different customs and characters of mankind according to the region they inhabit; (3) Political geography, the divisions according to their organized governments; (4) Mercantile geography, dealing with the trade in the surplus products of countries; (5) Theological geography, or the distribution of religions.
Political geography has been too often looked on from both sides as a mere summary of guide-book knowledge, useful in the schoolroom, a poor relation of physical geography that it was rarely necessary to recognize.
They follow the most primitive forms of religion (mainly fetishism), live on products of the woods or of the chase, with the minimum of work, and have only a loose political organization.
Amongst nomads the tribe is the unit of government, the political bond is personal, and there is no definite territorial association of the people, who may be loyal but cannot be patriotic. The idea of a country arises only when a nation, either homogeneous or composed of several races, establishes itself in a region the boundaries of which may be defined and defended against aggression from without.
Political geography takes account of the partition of the earth amongst organized communities, dealing with the relation of races to regions, and of nations to countries, and considering the conditions of territorial equilibrium and instability.
The definition of boundaries and their delimitation is one of the most important parts of political geography.
The line of fortresses protecting Austria from Italy lies in some places well back from the political boundary, but just inside the linguistic frontier, so as to separate the German and Italian races occupying Austrian territory.
The territorial divisions and subdivisions often survive the conditions which led to their origin; hence the study of political geography is allied to history as closely as the study of physical geography is allied to geology, and for the same reason.
logical, political and commercial development of the subject runs the determining control exercised by crust forms acting directly or indirectly on mobile distributions; and this is the essential principle of geography.
32), they lived in villages without any political organization, and therefore the whole country was in a state of anarchy.
In the year 91, which brought with it the imminent prospect of sweeping political change, with the enfranchisement of the Italian peoples, Sulla returned to Rome, and it was generally felt that he was the man to lead the conservative and aristocratic party.
In February 1679, when the country was agitated by real or fancied dangers to the Protestant religion, the earl entered political life as secretary of state for the northern department and became at once a member of the small clique responsible for the government of the country.
It was his advice which led the king to choose all his ministers from one political party, to adopt the modern system, and he managed to effect a reconciliation between William and his sister-in-law, the princess Anne.
He then began to teach her the political advantages of religion and to prepare the way for that tremendous engine in the hands of the state, the Inquisition.
He saw Jews, Saracens, heretics and apostates roaming through Spain unmolested; and in this lax toleration of religious differences he thought he saw the main obstacle to the political union of the Spains, which was the necessity of the hour.
His father, Edward Wakefield (1774-1854), author of Ireland, Statistical and Political (1812), was a surveyor and land agent in extensive practice; his grandmother, Priscilla Wakefield (1751-1832), was a popular author for the young, and one of the introducers of savings banks.
12), prevented its being made effective until after the mover's retirement from political life.
On the other hand, the more conservative section of the Poles regarded Kollontaj as "a second Robespierre," and he is even suspected of complicity in the outrages of the 17th and, 8th of June 1794, when the Warsaw mob massacred the political prisoners.
RUFUS KING (1755-1827), American political leader, was born on the 2 4 th of March 1755 at Scarborough, Maine, then a part of Massachusetts.
After Csánad, he issued proclamations which can only be described as nihilistic. His suppression had become a political necessity.
Like many of the Spanish Jews he united scholarly tastes with political ability.
Lecky, Historical and Political Essays (1908).
In 1892 he was elected to the Dominion Parliament, but in 1899 he interrupted his political career to serve in the South African War, where he commanded a mixed force of English and colonial scouts in western Cape Colony.
After the declaration of independence the history of Uruguay becomes a record of intrigues, financial ruin, and political folly and crime.
The two great political factors for generations have been the Colorados and the Blancos.
So far as political principles are concerned, there is small difference between them.
Men are Colorados or Blancos largely by tradition and not from political conviction.
In the following year Latorre caused himself to be elected president, but political unrest caused him to resign in March 1880.
The defence was that the murder was a political offence, and therefore not punishable as an ordinary case of assassination for personal motives.
The tension thus produced between the two statesmen was increased by the political complications of 18 751878 in south-eastern Europe, which began with the Herzegovinian insurrection and culminated at the Berlin congress.
Owing probably to political difficulties and to the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War, the building was never completed according to the original plans; but the portion that was built was among the chief glories of Athens, and afforded a model to many subsequent imitators.
This last is a word which is often greatly abused; but, whenever it is used with any regard to its true meaning, it is a word strictly political, implying a particular form of government.
But nobility is not necessarily a political term; the distinction which it implies may be accompanied by political privileges or it may not.
The pre-eminence so handed on may be of any kind, from substantial political power to mere social respect and precedence.
When this relief has been gained by a series of enactments, a second struggle follows, in which the plebeians win political equality with the patricians.
They were a social caste, which strove to keep, and which largely succeeded in keeping, all high offices and political power in its own hands.
The Venetian nobility is an example of a nobility which gradually arose out of the mass of the people as certain families step by step drew all political power into their own hands.
Political power was gradually confined to those whose forefathers had held political power.
These families and branches of families, however noble they might be in descent, were thus shut out from all the n political privileges of nobility.
In a monarchy, despotic or constitutional, there cannot in strictness be an aristocracy, because the whole political power cannot be vested in the noble Venice class.
All political power was vested in the noble class; the prince sank to a magistrate, keeping only some of the outward forms of sovereignty; the mass of the people were shut out altogether.
For a certain class of citizens to be condemned, by virtue of their birth, to political disfranchisement is as flatly against every principle of democracy as for a certain class of citizens to enjoy exclusive rights by reason of birth.
In the 18th century the nobility of France and the nobility of Poland alike answered to the very strictest definition of nobility; but the political positions of the two were as broadly contrasted as the positions of any two classes of men could be.
The nobility of France, keeping the most oppressive social and personal privileges, had been shorn of all political and even administrative power; the tyrants of the people were the slaves of the king.
political view monarchy and nobility are strongly opposed.
Even the modified form of absolute monarchy which has existed in some Western countries, while it preserves, perhaps even strengthens, the social position of a nobility, destroys its political power.
When we leave the New Testament, apologetics becomes conspicuous until the political triumph of Christianity, and even somewhat later.
the frontier has changed frequently according to the expansion and contraction of the empire under the pressure of political exigency and expedience.
2 Finally, in the towns every house is provided with a detective policeman in the person of the porter (dvornik), who is charged with the duty of reporting to the police the presence of any suspicious characters or anything else that may interest them .3 In addition to the above there is also a police organization, in direct subordination to the ministry of the interior, of which the principal function is the discovery, pre vention and extirpation of political sedition.
Actually, however, its activity, directed mainly to the discovery of political offences, degenerated into a hideous reign of terror.
It is this political rather than religious spirit which also underlies the repressive attitude of the government, and of the Orthodox Church as the organ of the government, towards the various dissident sects (Raskolniki, from raskol, schism), which for more than two centuries past have played an important part in the popular life of Russia, and, since the political developments of the end of the 19th and early years of the zoth century, have tended to do so more and more.
To the conservatives, known subsequently as Old Ritualists or Old Believers, this marked the beginning of the reign of Antichrist (was not 666 the number of the Beast?); but they continued the struggle, conservative opposition to the Westernizing policy of the tsars, which was held responsible for the introduction of Polish luxury and Latin heresy, giving it a political as well as a religious character.
As a consequence this central Russian industry, even when supported by very high protective duties, is only able to produce for the home market and the markets of the adjacent territories in Asia which are under Russian political control.
Kovalevsky, Russian Political Institutions (Chicago, 1902), Modern Customs and Ancient Laws of Russia (London, 1891), Le Regime economique de la Russie (Paris, 1898), and Die produktiven Krcifte Russlands (Paris, 1896); A.
Unfortunately for the political future of this new state, its internal consolidation did not keep pace with its territorial expansion.
Thereupon Russian colonization and political influence retreated northwards, and from that time the continuous stream of Russian history is to be sought in the land where the Vikings first settled and in the adjoining basin of the upper Volga.
It always had a prince, no doubt, but he was engaged by formal contract without much attention being paid to hereditary rights, and he was merely leader of the troops, while all the political power remained in the hands of the civil officials and the Vetche, a popular assembly which was called together in the market-place, as occasion required, by the tolling of the great bell.
For some time longer the Tatars remained troublesome neighbours, capable of invading and devastating large tracts of Russian territory and of threatening even the city of Moscow, but the Horde was now broken up into independent and mutually hostile khanates, and the Moscow diplomatists could generally play off one khanate against the other, so that there was no danger of the old political domination being re-established.
As late as 1571 Moscow was pillaged by a Tatar horde; but there was no longer any question of permanent political subjection to the Asiatics, and the Russian frontier was being gradually pushed forward at the expense of the nomads of the steppe by the constant advance of the agricultural population in quest of virgin soil.
A further source of weakness was the political organization.
While the Muscovites of the upper classes were thus beginning to abandon their old oriental habits, their government was preparing to make a political evolution of a similar kind.
The political and the commercial proposals were alike received with coldness, because the native diplomatists had aims which could not be reconciled completely with the policy of any other country, and the native merchants were afraid of foreign competition.
The importance of these incidents, which are very characteristic of political life in the tsardom of Muscovy, will appear in the sequel.
- On the death of Peter (1725) the internal tranquillity and progress of the empire were again seriously threatened by the uncertainty of the order of succession, and the autocratic power which he had wielded so vigorously passed into the hands of a series of weak, indolent sovereigns who were habitually guided by personal caprice and the advice of intriguing favourites rather than by serious political considerations.
All political authority was in the hands of turbulent nobles who quarrelled among themselves, who were always inclined to submit the questions at issue to the arbitrament of arms, and who did not scruple to invite foreign powers to intervene on their behalf.
Thus, in spite of his academic sympathy with liberal ideas, he became, together with Metternich, a champion of political stagnation, and co-operated willingly in the reactionary measures against the revolutionary movements in Germany, Italy and Spain.
Some of these officers had been in touch with the revolutionary movements, and had adopted the idea then prevalent in France, Germany and Italy that the best instrument for assuring political progress was to be found in secret societies.
The tsar, though he came to know of their existence, refrained from taking repressive measures against them, and when he died suddenly at Taganrog on the 1st of December 1825, two of them made an attempt to realize their political aspirations.
General Mezentsov, the head of the political police, was assassinated in broad daylight in one of the principal streets of St Petersburg, and in the provinces a good many officials of various grades shared the same fate.
The reformers of the previous reign had sought to make the new local administration (zemstvo) a system of genuine rural self-government and a basis for future parliamentary institutions; these later conservatives transformed it into a mere branch of the ordinary state administration, and took precautions against its ever assuming a political character.
He suspected Bismarck of harbouring hostile designs against Russia, and he came to recognize that the permanent weakening of France was not in accordance with Russian political interests.
How far the recommendation was due to personal feeling, as opposed to political considerations, it is impossible to say.
From Manchuria, it was assumed, the political influence and spontaneous infiltration would naturally spread to Korea, and on the deeply indented coast of the Hermit Kingdom might be constructed new ports and arsenals more spacious and strategically more important than Port Arthur.
The supreme peril to the autocracy in Russia lay in the genuine grievances of the peasants, less political than economic, which had opened their minds to revolutionary propaganda.
THE] were practically powerless, the more so as their political activity consisted mainly in " building theories for an imaginary world."
In 1909 the number of exiles for political reasons from Russia was reckoned at 180,000; but the third Duma, purged and packed by an ingenious franchise system, was in its third year passing measures of beneficent legislation, in complete harmony with the government.
The promulgation of this truncated constitution was greeted by a furious agitation, culminating in September in a general strike, rightly described as the most remarkable political phenomenon of modern times.
The meeting confined its attention to economic questions, and had no political character whatever.
Meanwhile the political parties which were to divide the new Duma had taken shape.
Apart from the extremists on Develop- one side or the other, frank reactionaries on the De ment of Right and Socialists on the Left, two main divisions political of opinion revealed themselves in the congresses of parties.
In the former there had been a fusion between the Radicals, supporters of the autonomy of Poland and a federal constitution for the empire, and the Independence party (Osvobozhdenya) formed by political exiles at Paris in 1903, the fusion taking the name of Constitutional Democrats, known (from a word-play on the initials K.D.) as " Cadets."
The address in reply to the speech from the throne, voted after a debate in which abstract theories had triumphed over common sense, demanded universal suffrage, the establishment of pure parliamentary government, the abolition of capital punishment, the expropriation of the landlords, a political amnesty, and the suppression of the Imperial Council.
Documents relating to the political and social movements in Russia (London, 1897).
Flerovski, Three Political Systems: Nicholas I., Alexander IL, Alexander III.
With this Henry's own political sympathies well accorded.
But that political Lollardry was strong is shown by the proposal in the parliament of 1410 for a wholesale confiscation of ecclesiastical property.
Mo.) Economics And Legislation It was at one time an axiom of law and of political economy that prices should be determined by free competition.
If, however, they are not published, and are given to certain persons as individual favours, they become a prolific source of abuse, and are quite indefensible from the standpoint of political economy.
Dixon, " Recent Railroad Commission Legislation," Political Science Quarterly, xx.
As queen-mother she played the part of a mediator between her sons and political parties.
He was somewhat reserved in manner, and this led to the charge in political circles that he was cold and unsympathetic; but no one gathered around him more devoted and loyal friends, and his dignified bearing in and out of office commanded the hearty respect of his countrymen.
Meanwhile a series of petty civil wars greatly interfered with the prosperity of the native population, who grouped themselves into two opposing political parties.
Great Britain followed suit, but under a political arrangement between the powers no single power was to appropriate the islands.
Eli, the head priest at Shiloh in the early youth of Samuel, held an important position in what was then the chief religious and political centre of Ephraim; and the office passed by inheritance to the sons in ordinary cases.
Ezekiel's system constituted an ecclesiastical in place of a political organization, a church-state in place of a nation.
ANTOINE PERRENOT GRANVELLA, CARDINAL DE (1517-1586), one of the ablest and most influential of the princes of the church during the great political and ecclesiastical movements which immediately followed the appearance of Protestantism in Europe, was born on the 20th of August 1517 at Besancon, where his father, Nicolas Perrenot de Granvella (1484-1550), who afterwards became chancellor of the empire under Charles V., was practising as a lawyer.
His political duties did not suspend his prosecution of his history, except on one occasion, and for a little while, in 1779, when he undertook, on behalf of the ministry, a task which, if well performed, was also, it must be added, well rewarded.
His acceptance displeased some of his former political associates, and he was accused of "deserting his party."
Nor had he much political sagacity.
He was a son of the 18th century; he had studied with sympathy Locke and Montesquieu; no one appreciated more keenly than he did political liberty and the freedom of an Englishman.
He enlarges, as it was his business to do, on the tranquillity and prosperity of the empire in that period, but he does not fail to place his finger on the want of political liberty as a fatal defect.
Not until the silver currency question became a political issue did Nevada take a prominent part in national politics.
Some of his political speeches have been published under the titles Present Day Problems (1908), and Polticial Issues and Outlooks (1909).
They brought to the support of that instrument "the areas of intercourse and wealth" (Libby), the influence of the commercial towns, the greater planters, the army officers, creditors and property-holders generally, - in short, of interests that had felt the evils of the weak government of the Confederation, - and alsc of some few true nationalists (few, because there was as yet no general national feeling), actuated by political principles of centralization independently of motives of expediency and self-interest.
In short, the country was already thoroughly democratic in spirit, while Federalism stood for obsolescent social ideas and was infected with political "Toryism" fatally against the times.
He was undoubtedly an extremely able soldier and a skilful statesman, and much of his legislation shows a real political sense; but his inordinate ambition, his oppressive methods of government and taxation, and his cruelty created enemies on all sides, and led to the collapse of the edifice of dominion which he had raised.
His historical writings, with the exception of a small volume on American Political Ideas (1885), an account of the system of Civil Government in the United States (1890), The Mississippi Valley in the Civil War (1900), a school history of the United States, and an elementary story of the revolutionary war, are devoted to studies, in a unified general manner, of separate yet related episodes in American history.
JOHN YOUNG MASON (1799-1859), American political leader and diplomatist, was born in Greenesville county, Virginia, on the r 8th of April 1799.
He and they were frequently condemned by Protestant ecclesiastical and political authorities, especially by the government of Wurttemberg.
It was at Strassburg that he published his remarkable volume La Cite antique (1864), in which he showed forcibly the part played by religion in the political and social evolution of Greece and Rome.
Appointed to a lectureship at the Ecole Normale Superieure in February 1870, to a professorship at the Paris faculty of letters in 1875, and to the chair of medieval history created for him at the Sorbonne in 1878, he applied himself to the study of the political institutions of ancient France.
Dubos, but singularly transforming it, he maintained that those invasions were not marked by the violent and destructive character usually attributed to them; that the penetration of the German barbarians into Gaul was a slow process; that the Germans submitted to the imperial administration; that the political institutions of theMerovingians had their origins in the Roman laws at least as much as, if not more than, in German usages; and, consequently, that there was no conquest of Gaul by the Germans.
But these were dreams which did not hold him long, and he would have been scandalized had he known that his name was subsequently used as the emblem of a political and religious party.
he made a strong speech against the policy of "direct action," pointing out that Labour could capture the political machine if working men were sufficiently united and sufficiently active, but that threats would only throw back their cause and set all other classes against them.
This temple was cared for, and the cult attended, by women only, and the same was the case at a second celebration at the beginning of December in the house of a magistrate with imperium, which became famous owing to the profanation of these mysteries by P. Clodius in 62 B.C., and the political consequences of his act.
It united the moderate Liberals throughout Germany, and at once became a great political power, notwithstanding all the efforts of the governments, and especially of the king of Hanover to suppress it.
The National Verein, its work being done, was now dissolved; but Bennigsen was chiefly instrumental in founding a new political party - the National Liberals, - who, while they supported Bismarck's national policy, hoped to secure the constitutional development of the country.
They put themselves forward as the champions of the Catholic religion, claiming liberty of conscience as well as political liberty for the native inhabitants of Ireland.
Although acting as minister of foreign affairs he was never made chancellor; but he was the political mentor of Catherine during the first eighteen years of her reign.
Yet the idea of the "Northern Accord," though never quite realized, had important political consequences and influenced the policy of Russia for many years.
Panin (Rus.; St Petersburg, 1787); Political correspondence (Rus.
Entering the diplomatic service at an early age, he was appointed successively to the legations of Madrid, Vienna, Berlin and Versailles, but in 1871 returned to Italy, to devote himself to political and social studies.
In 5878 he founded a weekly economic review, La Rassegna Settimanale, which four years later he converted into a political daily journal.
Paul's want of political wisdom, and his ignorance of human nature aroused antagonisms fatal.
Bazard, after remaining for some time in obscurity in Paris, came to the conclusion that the ends of those who wished well to the people would be most easily attained, not through political agitation, but by effecting a radical change in their social condition.
The bill presented by his Cabinet on this subject, vas open to much criticism, having been designed to conciliate conflicting political interests rather than to solve the actual problem.
Personally he was not enthusiastic over the African enterprise, as it introduced new and, to him, unaccustomed and unwelcome values into Italian political life; but he realized that public opinion demanded it and he did not care to run counter to the current.
The political changes involved in the Babylonian, Assyrian, Egyptian or Persian conquests surely affected it as little as the subsequent waves of Greek, Roman and other European invasions.
For the relation between the geographical characteristics and the political history, see G.
Throughout these vicissitudes there were important political and religious changes which render the study of the composite sources a work of unique difficulty.
The northern kingdom cherished the institution of a monarchy, and in this, as in all great political events, the prophets took part.
The Rival Kingdoms. - The Palestine of the Hebrews was but part of a great area breathing the same atmosphere, and there was little to distinguish Judah from Israel except when they were distinct political entities.
But the history of (north) Israel had naturally its own independent political backgrounds and the literary sources contain the same internal features as the annals and prophetic narratives which are already met with in 1 Samuel.
The scantiness of political information and the distinctive arrangement of material preclude the attempt to trace the relative position of the two rivals.
In the absence of its native records its relations with Palestine are not always clear, but it may be supposed that amid varying political changes it was able to play a double game.
The discovery of the inscription of a later king of Moab (q.v.) has proved that the east-Jordanic tribes were no uncivilized or barbaric folk; material wealth, a considerable religious and political organization, and the cultivation of letters (as exemplified in the style of the inscription) portray conditions which allow us to form some conception of life in Israel itself.
This, the natural result of matrimonial and political alliance, already met with under Solomon, receives the usual denunciation.
The alliances, counter-alliances and far-reaching political combinations which spring up at every advance of the greater powers are often perplexing in the absence of records of the states concerned.
sqq.); the border-line between the rival kingdoms oscillated, and consequently the political position of the smaller and half-desert Judaean state depended upon the attitude of its neighbours.
The Hebrews of Israel and Judah were, political history apart, men of the same general stamp, with the same cult and custom; for the study of religion and social usages, therefore, they can be treated as a single people.
They took a keen interest in all the political vicissitudes of the Oriental world.
Israel was once more in league with Damascus and Phoenicia, and the biblical records must be read in the light of political history.
Much is related of his wickedness and enmity to the followers of Yahweh, but few political details have come down.
In Israel as in Judah the political disasters not only meant a shifting of population, they also brought into prominence the old popular and non-official religion, the character of which is not to be condemned because of the attitude of lofty prophets in advance of their age.
Throughout the Persian supremacy Palestine was necessarily influenced by the course of events in Phoenicia and Egypt (with which intercourse was continual), and some light may thus be indirectly thrown on its otherwise obscure political history.
Unfortunately the internal conditions in the 6th century B.C. can be only indirectly estimated (§ 18), and the political position must remain for the present quite uncertain.
What political aspirations were revived, what other writers were inspired by these momentous events are questions of inference.
Dreams of political freedom gave place to hopes of religious independence, and " Israel " became a church, the foundation of which it sought in the desert of Sinai a thousand years before.
They treat with almost unique fullness a few years in the middle of the 9th century B.C., but ignore Assyria; yet only the Assyrian inscriptions explain the political situation (§ 10 seq.), and were it not for them the true significance of the 8th-7th centuries could scarcely be realized (§ 15 seq.).
But his first act was to seize and slay sixty of them: so it was clear to Judas at any rate, if not also to the Assideans who survived, that political independence was necessary if the religion was to be secure.
1 Maccabees credits them with ioo,000 victims. Trypho, the regent of Antiochus VI., put even greater political power into the hands of Jonathan and his brother Simon, but finally seized Jonathan on the pretext of a conference.
But Hyrcanus was well content to forgo the title to political power, which he could not exercise in practice, and Antony had been a friend of Antipater.
If some from time to tune dared to hope for political independence their futility was demonstrated.
Under Vespasian and Titus the Jews enjoyed freedom of conscience and equal political rights with non-Jewish subjects of Rome.
The direct consequence of the failure was the annihilation of political nationality.
Their functions were political rather than religious, though their influence was by no means purely secular.
Kossuth succeeded in granting them temporary emancipation, but the suppression of the War of Independence led to an era of royal autocracy which, while it advanced Jewish culture by enforcing the establishment of modern schools, retarded the obtaining of civic and political rights.
50 3): " Since their emancipation the Jews have taken an active part in the political, industrial, scientific and artistic life of Hungary.
In Holland the Jews were admitted to political liberty in 1796.
The missionaries, finding their position secure, presently began to take action in political affairs, and persuaded the king to grant a constitution to the Tongans, who welcomed it with a kind of childish enthusiasm, but were far from fitted to receive it.
In addition to his political activity, he was president of the literary section of the Hungarian Academy, and director of the National.
He convokes, prorogues and dissolves the chamber, sanctions laws, exercises the right of pardon in case of political offences, represents the island in its foreign relations and is chief of its military forces.
The judges are chosen without regard to religious belief, and precautions have been taken to render them independent of political parties.
The prosperity of the island depends on the development of agriculture, the acquirement of industrious habits by the people, and the abandonment of political agitation.
But in every case these artistic efforts were followed at short intervals by gross relapses into barbarism which reflect the anarchy of the political conditions.
A parliamentary regime was thus inaugurated, and party warfare for a time took the place of the old religious antagonism, the Moslems attaching themselves to one or other of the political factions which now made their appearance among the Christians.
In later times the town frequently served as a place of refuge for political exiles.
The political history during the royal period is, like that of the other colonies, the story of a constant struggle between the representatives of the people and the representatives of the crown.
The " Mecklenburg Declaration," which it is alleged was passed on the 10th of the same month by the same committee, " dissolves the political bonds " which have connected the county with the mother country, " absolves " the citizens of that county " from all allegiance to the British Crown," declares them " a free and independent people," and abounds in other phrases which closely resemble phrases in the great Declaration of the 4th of July 1776.
Since that time the most interesting feature in the political history has been the rise and fall of the People's party.
In the 6th century an attempt was made to secure by force political autonomy for the Jews, but the exilarch who led the movement (Mar Zutra) was executed.
From the middle of the 7th till the 11th centuries the exilarchs were all descendants of Bostanai, through whom "the splendour of the office was renewed and its political position made secure" (Bacher).
Though he was unable to reach Khiva the results of the journey afforded a great deal of political, geographical and military information, especially as to the advance of Russia in central Asia.
Whereas Plato's main problem had been the organization of the perfect state, and Aristotle's intellect had ranged with fresh interest over all departments of the knowable, political speculation had become a mockery with the extinction of free political life, and knowledge as such had lost its freshness for the Greeks of the Roman Empire.
The political circumstances of Germany in the first half of the 14th century were in the last degree disastrous.
He studied history and humanities at the university of Moscow, and, after having gone through his military training in a grenadier regiment, left for Germany where he read political economy in Berlin under Prof. Schmoller.
He was not content with laying the blame at the door of the effete War Office, but deplored the apathetic way in which the Tsar passed the time at headquarters, without any clear political plan, holding on supinely to formalism and routine, yielding to the spasmodic interference of the Empress.
MATTHEW STANLEY QUAY (1833-1904), American political "boss," was born in Dillsburg, York county, Pennsylvania, on the 30th of September 1833.
In 1904-1905, in consequence of the general political anarchy, serious conflicts took place here between the Tatars and the Armenians, and two-thirds of the Balakhani and Bibi-Eybat oil-works were burned.
His political views were determined by the ultra-democratic influence of Andrew Jackson and the state-sovereignty philosophy of John C. Calhoun.
The residence of the political agent and the headquarters of the Bhopal battalion are at Sehore, 20 m.
Although for the purposes of geographical nomenclature, boundaries formed by a coast-line - that is, by depressions of the earth's solid crust below the ocean level - are most easily recog- Political nized and are of special convenience; and although such divisions.
boundaries, from following lines on which the continuity of the land is interrupted, often necessarily indicate important differences in the conditions of adjoining countries, and of their political and physical relations, yet variations of the elevation of the surface above the sea-level frequently produce effects not less marked.
On the west the table-land is prolonged beyond the political limits of Tibet, though with much the same physical features, to about 70°east, beyond which it terminates; and the ranges which are covered with perpetual snow as far west as Samarkand, thence rapidly diminish in height, and terminate in low hills north of Bokhara.
The Laccadives and Maldives are groups of small coral islands, situated along the 73rd meridian, at no great distance from the Indian peninsula, on which they have a political dependency.
On the western edge of the Kashgar plains, the political boundary between Russia and China is defined by the meridional range of Sarikol.
Every pass of importance is known and recorded; every route of significance has been explored and mapped; Afghanistan has assumed a new political entity by the demarcation of a boundary; the value of Herat and of the Pamirs as bases of aggression has been assessed, and the whole intervening space of mountain and plain thoroughly examined.
Russia, Persia, Afghanistan, Baluchistan, India and China have all revised their borders, and with the revision the political relations between these countries have acquired a new and more assured basis.
The possession of Port Arthur, and direct political control over Korea, place Japan in the dominant position as regards Manchuria.
From the Hari Rud on the Afghan west to the Sarikol mountains on the east her northern limits were set by the Boundary Commissions of 1884 political 1886 and of 1895 respectively.
Within this agency there are districts as independent as any in Afghanistan, but the political status of the province as a whole is almost precisely that of the native states of the Indian peninsula.
The agent to the governor-general of India, with a staff of political assistants, practically exercises supreme control.
H.*) Area and political division.
Of these the first three represent different types of civilization: the fourth has little originality, but has been of great importance in affecting the distribution of races and political power.
These ancient states began to decline in the 7th century B.e., and on their ruins rose the Persian empire, which with various political metamorphoses continued to be an important power till the 7th century A.D., after which all western Asia was overwhelmed by the Moslem wave, and old landmarks and kingdoms were obliterated.
His plans were interrupted by his death, and his successor, Ieyasu, who shaped the social and political life of Japan for nearly 300 years (1603-1868), definitely decided on a policy of seclusion and isolation.
Indian history until Mahommedan times is marked by the unusual prominence of religious ideas, and is a record of intellectual development rather than of political events.
- The Israelites appear to have been originally a nomadic tribe akin to the Arabs, whom they resemble in their want of political instinct and in their extraordinary religious genius.
With the rise of Mahommedanism occurred a sudden effervescence of the Arabs, who during some centuries threatened to impose not only their political authority but their civilization and new religion on the whole known world.
The collapse of the political power of the Arabs was singularly complete.
It is still one of the least known parts of the globe, and has hardly any political link with the outside, for the Arabs of northern Africa form separate states.
But in spite of this total political collapse, Arabic religion and literature are still one of the greatest forces working in the western half of Asia, in northern Africa and to some extent in eastern Europe.
This widely-scattered race has no political union and its distribution is a puzzle for ethnography.
The companies gradually undertook the financial control of the districts where they traded and were recognized by the natives as political powers.
The main problem is whether the account of David's rule has been exaggerated, or whether the attempt has been made to throw back to the time of the first king of all Israel later political conditions.
" Political circumstances naturally led to an ever-increasing appreciation of his person and his work as the unifier of Israel.
As the last capital of the ancient Hindu dynasty of the Cholas, and in all ages one of the chief political, literary and religious centres of the south, the city is full of interesting associations.
The name of Pomore, or Pommern, meaning "on the sea," was given to the district by the latter of the tribes about the time of Charlemagne, and it has often changed its political and geographical significance.
On the 21st of August 1858 the first of the series of political debates between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A.
The monarchical principle was shaken to its foundations by the English revolution of 1688; it was shattered by the French revolution of 1789; and though it survives as a political force, more or less strongly, in most European countries, "monarchists," in the strict sense of the word, are everywhere a small and dwindling minority.
He served in the Franco-German War, was involved in the Commune, and spent eleven years in England as a political exile.
About this time began his connexion with Mme de Nehra, the daughter of Zwier van Haren, a Dutch statesman and political writer, and a woman of a far higher type than Sophie, more educated, more refined, and more capable of appreciating Mirabeau's good points.
After a period of work in Holland he betook himself to England, where his treatise on lettres de cachet had been much admired, being translated into English in 1787, and where he was soon admitted into the best Whig literary and political society of London, through his old schoolfellow Gilbert Elliot, who had now inherited his father's baronetcy and estates, and become a leading Whig member of parliament.
One of the functions of this official was to subsidize political pamphleteers, and Mirabeau had hoped to be so employed, but he ruined his chances by a series of writings on financial questions.
But, though his De la monarchie prussienne sous Frederic le Grand (London, 1788) gave him a general reputation for historical learning, he had in the same year lost a chance of political employment.
Hitherto weight has been laid on the practical side of Mirabeau's political genius; his ideas with regard to the Revolution after the 5th and 6th of October must now be examined, and this can be done at length, thanks to the publication of Mirabeau's correspondence with the Comte de la Marck, a study of which is indispensable for any correct knowledge of the history of the Revolution between 1789 and 1791.
However, in April 1790 he was suddenly recalled by the comte de Mercy-Argenteau, the Austrian ambassador at Paris, and the queen's most trusted political adviser, and from this time to Mirabeau's death he became the medium of almost daily communications between the latter and the queen.
TITUS ANNIUS MILO, Roman political agitator, was the son of C. Papius Celsus, but was adopted by his mother's father, T.
He was chosen Fourth of July orator in Hanover, the college town, in 1800, and in his speech appears the substance of the political principles for the develop - ment of which he is chiefly famous.
His political career began in earnest at the opening of the War of 1812.
In its earlier history the sect opposed voting or taking any active part in political affairs, but these restrictions have quite generally disappeared.
Fisher's volume (v.) in Longmans' Political History (1906) and in A.
This second marriage, with a youth some years her junior, was purely political.
Under the rule of Richard and John the queen became a political personage of the highest importance.
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