Polish sentence example

polish
  • What sort of Polish mazuwka is this?
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  • This ill-timed parsimony reacted injuriously upon Polish politics.
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  • As the garage door lifted, sunlight reflected off the polish she and her siblings had applied that last day of their lives.
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  • He was in fact a typical representative of the unscrupulous selfseeking Polish magnates of the 17th century who were always ready to sacrifice everything, their country included, to their own private ambition.
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  • The epoch-making victory of the 12th of September 1683 was ultimately decided by the charge of the Polish cavalry led by Sobieski in person.
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  • I suppose they polish him up as they do the guns.
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  • Boris lodged with another adjutant, the Polish Count Zhilinski.
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  • It was his skill as an artillery officer which won for the Polish general Skrynecki the battle of Igany (March 8, 1831), and he distin guished himself at the indecisive battle of Ostrolenka (May 26).
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  • The League naturally sympathized with Poland, not only because Poland was the enemy of the knights, but also because under Poland it hoped to enjoy the practical liberty which Polish anarchy already seemed to offer.
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  • The ultimate result was that in 1454 an embassy of the League offered Prussia to the Polish king, and that, after many years of war, the Peace of Thorn (1466) gave to Poland West Prussia, with Marienburg, Thorn, Danzig and other towns, in full possession, and, while leaving East Prussia to the Order, made the Order the vassals of Poland for the territory which it retained.
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  • Henceforth the grand master was to sit in the Polish diet on the left of the king, and half of the knights of the Order were to be Polish.
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  • At Manitowoc are the county insane asylum and a Polish orphan asylum.
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  • Firstly we may remark that the Austrian alliance furnished one of the motives which led him to refrain during the campaign of 1812 from reconstituting the Polish realm in its ancient extent.
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  • First, however, Charles cleared Livonia of the invader (July 1701), subsequently occupying the duchy of Courland and converting it into a Swedish governor-generalship. In January 1702 Charles established himself at Bielowice in Lithuania, and, after issuing a proclamation declaring that "the elector of Saxony" had forfeited the Polish crown, set out for Warsaw, which he reached on the 14th of May.
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  • Thus, within four months of the opening of the campaign, the Polish capital and the coronation city were both in the possession of the Swedes.
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  • On the 2nd of July 1704, with the assistance of a bribing fund, Charles's ambassador at Warsaw, Count Arvid Bernard Horn, succeeded in forcing through the election of Charles's candidate to the Polish throne, Stanislaus Leszczynski, who could not be crowned however till the 24th of September 1705, by which time the Saxons had again been defeated at Punitz.
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  • The sarong is of Celebes manufacture and made of cotton, to the surface of which a high polish is imparted by friction with a shell.
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  • Other breeds include the Japanese, with an orange coat, broadly banded on the hind-quarters with black; the pink-eyed and short and thick-furred albino Polish; the Siberian, probably produced by crossing the Himalayan with the Angora; and the black-and-tan and blue-and-tan.
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  • Of the rarer woods particular mention may be made of curly pine, yielding a wood of beautiful figure and polish; magnolia, hard, close-grained, of fine polish and of great lasting qualities; and cypress, light, strong, easily worked and never-rotting.
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  • The sultan, though inclined to take up the cause of the Polish dissidents, was slow to move, and contented himself for a while with protests and threats.
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  • In 1830 he was elected a member of the Polish diet on the Conservative side.
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  • Charles married Elizabeth, the sister of Casimir the Great of Poland, with whom he was connected by ties of close friendship, and Louis, by virtue of a compact made by his father thirty-one years previously, added the Polish crown to that of Hungary in 1370.
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  • Sigismund, more fortunate than the Polish kings, seems to have had little trouble with his diets.
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  • On the 22nd of May the Polish monarch appeared at Buda, was unanimously elected king of Hungary under the title of Wladislaus I.
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  • Compared even with the contemporary Polish diet the Hungarian national assembly was a tumultuous mob.
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  • Against the advice of all his counsellors, and without the knowledge of the estates, Rakoczy, in 1657, plunged into the troubled sea of Polish politics, in the hope of winning the Polish throne, and not only failed miserably but overwhelmed Transylvania in his own ruin.
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  • Kuprili, who had forbidden the Polish enterprise, at once occupied Transylvania, and, in the course of the next five years, no fewer than four princes, three of whom died violent deaths, were forced to accept the kaftan and kalpag of investiture in the camp of the grand vizier.
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  • Meanwhile the Roman congress was deliberately imitated by an imposing congress at Prague (May 16), at which Czech, Polish, Italian, Rumanian, Slovak and Yugoslav delegates attended.
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  • Since 1871 the language of instruction has been Polish, and in 1901 the university had 110 lecturers, and was attended by 2060 students.
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  • In 1412 it became the see of a Roman Catholic archbishopric, and from 1432 until 1772 it was the capital of the Polish province of Reussen (Terra Russia).
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  • During the whole period of Polish supremacy it was a most important city, and after the fall of Constantinople it greatly developed its trade with the East.
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  • In the vicinity are valuable deposits of crinoid limestone, a coarse white building stone which takes a good polish.
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  • He refused in the same year to accept the French influence in favour of his candidature to the Polish throne, on the ground that it would exclude him from the English.
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  • It lies on the navigable Przemsa, across which an iron bridge leads to the Polish town of Modrzejow, 120 m.
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  • After some delay the king assented to it provided that Prussia were held as a Polish fief; and after this arrangement had been confirmed by a treaty made at Cracow, Albert was invested with the duchy by Sigismund for himself and his heirs on the 10th of February 1525.
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  • Pupils flocked to him from all European countries; Germans are especially mentioned; a Polish student reported and published some of his lectures; and the Englishman Kaye was a zealous disciple, who does not, however, seem to have done anything towards transplanting this method of instruction to his own country.
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  • For a few isolated purposes, however, it is desirable to use a glass which has not been touched upon either surface and thus preserves the lustre of its " fire polish " undiminished; this can be attained in crown-glass but not in sheet, since one side of the latter is always more or less marked by the rubber used in the process of flattening.
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  • The name " patent plate " arose from the fact that certain patented devices originated by James Chance of Birmingham first made it possible to polish comparatively thin glass in this way.
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  • The Krajewski crusher was invented some years ago by a Polish engineer resident in Cuba, who took out a patent for it and gave it his name.
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  • For the next few years he was employed by Cardinal Hosius, the learned Polish prelate, in his efforts to check the spread of heresy in Poland, Lithuania and Prussia.
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  • It is defended by nine forts on the right bank of the Vistula and by three on the left bank, and, with Warsaw, Novo-Georgievsk and BrestLitovsk, forms the Polish "quadrilateral."
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  • The largest of them are the Lake of Csorba, in the southern part of the group, which has an area of 50 acres; the Grosser Fischsee in the Bielka Valley; and the Wielki Staw, with an area of 85 acres, the largest of the Five Polish Lakes, which lie in the Rortoka Valley.
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  • From1610-1618he was a prisoner in the hands of the Polish king, Sigismund III., whom he refused to acknowledge as tsar of Muscovy on being sent on an embassy to the Polish camp in 1610.
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  • See Aleksander Semkowicz, Critical Considerations of the Polish Works of Dlugosz (Pol.; Cracow, 1874); Michael Bobrzynski and Stanislaw Smolka, Life of Dlugosz and his Position in Literature (Pol.; Cracow, 1893).
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  • His son Jagiello ultimately ascended the Polish throne, and was the founder of the dynasty which ruled Poland for nearly 200 years.
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  • It is almost impossible by mechanical means to detect the separate ingredients in such an alloy; we may cut or file or polish it without discovering any lack of homogeneousness.
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  • But, while the Tsarist regime, unable to denationalize a homogeneous population of a different religion and language, initially conceded a minimum of rights to the Polish nation, in Lithuania proper from the outset an unrelenting system of tyranny was established which was designed to break by force every non-Russian element in the country.
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  • Hostilities had already begun with the occupation of Diinaburg (Dvinsk) in Polish Livonia by the Swedes (July 1, 1655), and the Polish army encamped among the marshes of the Netze concluded a convention (July 25) whereby the palatinates of Posen and Kalisz placed themselves under the protection of the Swedish king.
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  • The Polish king, John Casimir, fled to Silesia.
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  • In the beginning of 1656 John Casimir returned from exile and the Polish army was reorganized and increased.
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  • For weeks he scoured the interminable snow-covered plains of Poland in pursuit of the Polish guerillas, penetrating as far south as Jaroslau in Galicia, by which time he had lost two-thirds of his 15,000 men with no apparent result.
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  • The hostile action of Denmark enabled him honourably to emerge from the inglorious Polish imbroglio, and he was certain of the zealous support of his own people.
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  • He was the son of General Count Nicholas Muraviev (governor of Grodno), and grandson of the Count Michael Muraviev, who became notorious for his drastic measures in stamping out the st Polish insurrection of 1863 in the Lithuanian provinces.
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  • At the beginning of the 15th century it became the personal property of the Polish kings.
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  • Some lignites are, however, quite as brilliant as anthracite; cannel and jet may be turned in the lathe, and are susceptible of taking a brilliant polish.
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  • In Russia, besides the Polish field, there is an important one south of Moscow, and another in the lower valley of the Donetz, north of the Sea of Azov.
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  • It has been translated into Spanish, Danish, Swedish, Welsh, Polish, Gaelic, Russian, Bohemian, Dutch, Catalan, Chinese, modern Greek and phonetic writing.
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  • On the 12th of March 1849 he denounced the armistice and took the field again with an army of 80,000 men, but gave the chief command to the Polish general Chrzanowski.
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  • In reality those Powers were far more occupied with the Polish and Eastern questions than with the affairs of France; and the declaration of Pilnitz, drawn up by the sovereigns of Austria and Prussia, which appeared to threaten France with intervention, was recognized by all well-informed persons to be "a loud-sounding nothing."
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  • Faustus Sozzini, a native of Sienna (1539-1603), much influenced by his uncle Lelio Sozzini, after a wandering, questioning life, found his way to Poland, where he succeeded in uniting the various Anabaptist sects into a species of church, the doctrines of which are set forth in the Confession of Rakow (near Minsk), published in Polish in 1605 and speedily in German and Latin.
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  • Quincy granite takes a very high polish, owing to the absence of mica and to the coarser cleavage of its hornblende and augite.
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  • Both varieties are hard and take a very high polish.
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  • On the 15th of April 1648 he was one of the many noble Polish prisoners who fell into the ' hands of Chmielnicki at the battle of "Yellow Waters," and was sent in chains to the Crimea, whence he was ransomed in 1649.
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  • Lead, copper, sulphur, orpiment, also lignite, have been found within the confines of the province; also a kind of beautiful, variegated, translucent marble, which takes a high polish, is used in the construction of palatial buildings, tanks, baths, &c., and is known as Maragha, or Tabriz marble.
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  • The wars and extravagance of the elector-king, who regained the Polish crown in i 709, are said to have cost Saxony a hundred million thalers.
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  • He remembered how unfortunate for Saxony the former Polish connexion had been, and he mistrusted the attitude of Russia towards the proffered kingdom.
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  • Louis could give little attention to his unruly Polish subjects and was never very happy among them.
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  • After a short period of German government, which was highly beneficial to the country, Galicia received after the Constitution of 1867 an exceptional position which was gradually consolidated; the German officials were removed, and the Polish members in the Reichsrat (who represented 71 votes) held the balance between the parties, which brought Galicia, without any effort, great financial advantages at the cost of the other Crown territories.
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  • The Ruthenians, who were loyal to the empire, drew attention to the small degree of resistance offered to this agitation by the Polish authorities, who were interested in making the whole Ruthenian people suspect of irredentism.
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  • A grand campaign of agitation on the part of the Russian Count Bobrinsky, whose watch-word was that the Russian banner must wave over the Carpathians, though winked at by the Polish governor, led to a great political trial (Dec. 29 1913) for high treason of 180 Ruthenians who had been seduced by this agitator.
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  • The higher educational establishments, which in the middle of the 19th century had had a predominantly German character, underwent in Galicia a conversion into Polish national institutions, in Bohemia and Moravia a separation into German and Czech ones.
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  • The Ruthenians demanded at first, in view of the predominantly Ruthenian character of East Galicia, a national partition of the Polish university existing there.
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  • A representative of Polish interests was generally to be found in every ministry, and usually too a.
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  • After the Tauern railway had been built for the Alpine countries - without, it is true, any particular pecuniary help from the Polish part of the empire, which was known to be only passively interested - the Poles demanded a complete carrying into effect and extension of the waterways law, with a larger State subsidy.
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  • There are 5 Polish weekly publications, 3 Bohemian, 1 Italian and one periodical for the blind.
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  • Czartoryski was appointed adjutant to Alexander, now Cesarevich, and was permitted to revisit his Polish estates for three months.
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  • In return for their acquisitions in Germany, Austria and Prussia were to consent to the erection of an autonomous Polish state extending from Danzig to the sources of the Vistula, under the protection of Russia.
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  • Other principal buildings are the two theatres, the Emperor Frederick museum, founded in 1894, the Polish museum and the various public offices.
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  • Posen, one of the oldest towns in Poland and the residence of some of the early Polish princes, including Boleslaus I., provincial colonization " and to prevent German emigration.
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  • In 1906 the Prussian government was made somewhat ridiculous by the strike of some t00,000 Polish school children, who objected to being whipped for refusing to answer questions in German.
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  • The petition of the archbishop of Posen that the children should be allowed to receive religious instruction in Polish having been rejected by the Prussian minister of education, he issued on the 17th of October a pastoral allowing parents to confine religious instruction became the seat of a Christian bishopric about the middle of the 10th century.
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  • The earliest Polish chroniclers, from Gallus in the early 12th century to Janko of Czarnkow 1 in the 14th, are of little help to us.
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  • Mieszko had been content to be received on almost any terms into the Christian community, Boleslaus aimed at securing the independence of the Polish Church as an additional guarantee of the independence of the Polish nation.
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  • Boleslaus was also the first Polish prince to bear the royal title, which seems to have been conferred upon him by Otto III.
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  • This partitional period, as Polish historians generally call it, lasted from 1138 to 1305, during which Poland lost all political significance, and became an easy prey to her neighbours.
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  • It was at the beginning of this period too, between 1216 and 1224, that Pomerania, under an energetic native dynasty, freed herself from the Polish suzerainty.
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  • The Polish princes opposed a valiant but ineffectual resistance; the towns of Sandomir and Cracow were reduced to ashes, and all who were able fled to the mountains of Hungary or the forests of Moravia.
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  • Such immigrants could naturally be obtained only from the civilized west, and on their own terms. Thus it came about that the middle class element was introduced into Polish society for the first time.
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  • Most of these German citizens in process of time were absorbed by the Polish population, and became devoted, heart and soul, to their adopted country; but these were not the only Germans with whom the young Polish state depressed the land, and, at this very time, another enemy appeared in the east - the Lithuanians.
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  • In default of male issue, Casimir left the Polish throne to his nephew, Louis of Hungary, who ruled the country (1370-1382) through his mother, Queen Elizabeth, Wladislaus Lokietek's daughter.
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  • Conrad has been loudly blamed by Polish historians for introducing this foreign, and as it ultimately proved, dangerous element into Poland.
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  • He at once made peace with his cousin; restored him his patrimony; and, to secure Lithuania against the future vengeance of the Knights, Jagiello made overtures to Poland for the hand of Jadwiga, and received the Polish crown along with it, as already mentioned Before proceeding to describe the Jagiellonic period of Polish history, it is necessary to cast a rapid glance at the social and political condition of the country in the preceding Piast period.
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  • As early as the 11th century Kruschwitz, Growth the old Polish capital, and Gnesen, the metropolitan of the see, were of considerable importance, and played a Towns.
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  • Towards the end of the 14th century the Polish towns even attained some degree of political influence, and their delegates sat with the nobles and clergy in the king's councils, a right formally conceded to them at Radom in March 1384.
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  • Ziemo Union of vit aimed at the Polish crown, proposing to marry Poland and the infant princess Jadwiga of Hungary, who, as Lithuania.
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  • A few weeks after the victory the towns of Thorn, Elbing, Braunsberg and Danzig submitted to the Polish king; and all the Prussian bishops voluntarily offered to render him homage.
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  • But the excessive caution of Jagiello gave the Knights time to recover from the blow; the Polish levies proved unruly and incompetent; Witowt was suddenly recalled to Lithuania by a Tatar invasion, and thus it came about that, when peace was concluded at Thorn, on the 1st of February 1411, Samogitia (which was to revert to the Order on the death of Jagiello and Witowt), Dobrzyn, and a war indemnity of 10o,000 marks payable in four instalments, were the best terms Poland could obtain from the Knights, whose territory practically remained intact.
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  • This solidarity was still further strengthened by the Union of Horodlo (October 2, 1413) which enacted that henceforth Lithuania was to have the same order of dignitaries' as Poland, as well as a council of state, or senate, similar to the Polish senate.
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  • He was now declared to be the equal of the Polish king, and his successor could be elected only by the senates of Poland and Lithuania in conjunction.
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  • In return Hussite mercenaries fought on the Polish side at Tannenburg, and Czech patriots repeatedly offered the crown of Bohemia to Wladislaus.
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  • The Polish king was always ready enough to support the Czechs against Sigismund; but the necessity of justifying his own orthodoxy (which the Knights were for ever impugning) at Rome and in the face of Europe prevented him from accepting the crown of St Wenceslaus from the hands of heretics.
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  • This was Wladislaus's second son, already grandduke of Lithuania, who ascended the Polish throne as Casimir IV.
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  • Moreover Casimir's difficulties were materially increased by the necessity of paying for Czech mercenaries, the pos polite ruszenie, or Polish militia, proving utterly useless at the very beginning of the war.
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  • Indeed, from first to last, the Polish gentry as a body took good care to pay and fight as little as possible, and Casimir depended for the most part upon the liberality of the Church and the Prussian towns, and the valour of the Hussite infantry, 17c,000 of whom, fighting on both sides, are said to have perished.
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  • For this territory the grand-masters, within nine months of their election, were in future to render homage to the Polish king; but, on the other hand, the king undertook not to make war or engage in any important enterprise without the consent of the Prussian province, and vice versa.
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  • Thus Prussia was now confederated with Poland, but she occupied a subordinate position as compared with Lithuania, inasmuch as the grand-master, though filling the first place in the royal council, was still a subject of the Polish crown.
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  • In 1485, after driving the Turks out of Moldavia, the Polish king, at the head of 20,000 men, proceeded to Kolomea on the Pruth, where Bayezid II., then embarrassed by the Egyptian war, offered peace, but as no agreement concerning the captured fortresses could be arrived at, hostilities were suspended by a truce.
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  • The first symptom of this lawlessness was the separation of Poland and Lithuania, the Lithuanians proceeding to elect Alexander, Casimir's fourth son, as their grand-duke, without even consulting the Polish senate, in flagrant violation of the union of Horodlo.
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  • The sole advantage which John Albert reaped from his championship of the Christian cause was the favour of the Curia, and the ascendancy which that favour gave him over the Teutonic Knights, whose new grand-master, Albert of Saxony, was reluctantly compelled to render due homage to the Polish king.
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  • Fortunately for the integrity of the Polish state the premature death of Alexander in 1506 brought upon the throne his capable brother Sigismund, the fifth son of Casimir IV., whose long reign of gismundl., forty-two years was salutary, and would have been so 6-1548.
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  • The miserable collapse of the Polish chivalry during the Bukovinian campaign of 1497 had convinced every one that the ruszenie pospolite was useless for serious military purposes, and that Poland, in order to hold her own, must in future follow the example of the West, and wage her warfare with trained mercenaries.
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  • Oddly enough the selfish prudence of Sigismund's rapacious consort, Queen Bona, did more for the national defence than the Polish state could do.
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  • In Poland Zapolya's was the popular cause, and he also found powerful support in the influential and highly gifted Laski family, as represented by the Polish chancellor and his nephews John and Hieronymus.
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  • In the reign of Sigismund was effected the incorporation of the duchy of Masovia with the Polish crown, after an independent existence of five hundred years.
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  • The four and twenty years of Sigismund II.'s reign was a critical period of Polish history.
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  • Complications with the Turk were avoided by the adroit diplomacy of the king, while the superior discipline and efficiency of the Polish armies under the great Tarnowski (q.v.) and his pupils overawed the Tatars and extruded the Muscovites, neither of whom were so troublesome as they had been during the last reign.
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  • The Polish government had employed Hussite mercenaries, but rejected Hussite propagandists.
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  • Lutheranism, moreover, was at first regarded with grave suspicion by the intensely patriotic Polish gentry, because of its German origin.
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  • For a time, therefore, the Protestants had to be cautious in Poland proper, but they found a sure refuge in Prussia, where Lutheranism was already the established religion, and where the newly erected university of Konigsberg became a seminary for Polish ministers and preachers.
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  • While Lutheranism was thus threatening the Polish Church from the north, Calvinism had already invaded her from the west.
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  • The Polish gentry's jealousy of the clerical estate, whose privileges even exceeded their own, was at the bottom of the whole matter.
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  • The university of Cracow, the sole source of knowledge in the vast Polish realm, still moved in the vicious circle of scholastic formularies.
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  • The diet of1558-1559indicates the high-water mark of Polish Protestantism.
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  • Ketteler, who had adopted Lutheranism during a visit to Germany in 1553, now professed the Augsburg Confession, and became the first duke of a new Protestant duchy, which he was to hold as a fief of the Polish crown, with local autonomy and absolute freedom of worship. The southern provinces of the ancient territory of the Order, Courland and Semgallen, had first been ceded on the 24th of June 1559 to Lithuania on similar conditions, the matter being finally adjusted by the compact of March 1562.
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  • But, at the last moment, the dread of another Muscovite invasion made them more pliable and, at a Polish diet held at Warsaw from November 1563 to June 1564, which the Lithuanians attended, the question of an absolute union was hotly debated.
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  • Knowing the sensitiveness of the Lithuanians as regards Volhynia and Podolia, he suddenly, of his own authority, formally incorporated both these provinces with the kingdom of Poland, whereupon, amidst great enthusiasm, the Volhynian and Podolian deputies took their places on the same benches as their Polish brethren.
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  • The origin of the Polish constitution is to be sought in the wiece or councils of the Polish princes, during the partitional period (c. 1279-1370).
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  • The Polish towns, notably Cracow, had obtained their privileges, including freedom from tolls and municipal government, from the Crown in return for important services, such as warding off the Tatars, while the cities of German origin were protected by the Magdeburg law.
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  • The Vasa period of Polish history which began with the election of Sigismund, son of John III., king of Sweden, was the Sigis- epoch of last and lost chances.
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  • There is only one answer; the principal cause of this complete and irretrievable collapse is to be sought for in the folly, egotism and selfishness of the Polish gentry, whose insane dislike of all discipline, including even the salutary discipline of regular government, converted Poland into something very like a primitive tribal community at the very time when every European statesman, including the more enlightened of the Poles themselves, clearly recognized that the political future belonged to the strongly centralized monarchies, which were everywhere rising on the ruins of feudalism.
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  • The adhesion of the same monarch to the League of the Catholic Reaction certainly added to the difficulties of Polish diplomacy, and still further divided the already distracted diet, besides alienating from the court the powerful and popular chancellor Zamoyski.
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  • Finally he was bent upon reforming the Polish constitution by substituting the decision of all matters by a plurality of votes for a unanimity impossible to count upon.
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  • But the limits of even Polish complacency had at last been reached, and Zolkiewski and Chodkiewicz were sent against the rebels, whom they routed at Oransk near Guzow, after a desperate encounter, on the 6th of July 1607.
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  • Wladislaus IV., who succeeded his father in 1632, was the most popular monarch who ever sat on the Polish throne.
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  • The second Polish Vasa was a man of genius, fully conscious of his powers, and determined to use them for the benefit of his country.
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  • First, however, it is necessary to describe briefly the origin and previous history of these romantic freebooters who during the second half of the 17th century were the determining factor of Polish and Muscovite politics.
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  • The union of Lublin, which led to the polonization of Lithuania, was the immediate occasion of a considerable exodus to the lowlands of the Dnieper of those serfs who desired to escape from the taxes of the Polish government and the tyranny of the Polish landlords.
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  • The Cossacks were supposed to be left alone as much as possible by the Polish government so long as they faithfully fulfilled their chief obligation of guarding the frontiers of the Republic from Tatar raids.
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  • The old Calvinist nobility of Lithuania were speedily reconverted; a Uniate Church in connexion with Rome was established; Greek Orthodox congregations, if not generally persecuted, were at least depressed and straitened; and the Cossacks began to hate the Pans, or Polish lords, not merely as tyrants, but as heretics.
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  • Yet all these obstacles to a good understanding might, perhaps, have been surmounted if only the Polish diet had treated the Cossacks with common fairness and common sense.
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  • In 161g the Polish government was obliged to prohibit absolutely the piratical raids of the Cossacks in the Black Sea, where they habitually destroyed Turkish property to the value of millions.
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  • This further act of repression led to two terrible Cossack risings, in 1635 and 1636, put down only with the utmost difficulty, whereupon the diet of 1638 deprived the Cossacks of all their ancient privileges, abolished the elective hetmanship, and substituted for it a commission of Polish noblemen with absolute power, so that the Cossacks might well declare that those who hated them were lords over them.
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  • The prime mover of the great rebellion of 1648, which shook the Polish state to its very foundations, was the Cossack Bohdan Chmielnicki (q.v.), who had been initiated in all the plans of Wladislaus IV.
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  • On the 18th of April 1648, at the general assembly of the Zaporozhians, he openly expressed his intention of proceeding against the Poles and was elected hetman by acclamation; on the Toth of May he annihilated a small detached Polish corps on the banks of the river Zheltndya Vodui, and seven days later overwhelmed the army of the Polish grand-hetman, massacring 850o of his 10,000 men and sending the grand-hetman himself and all his officers in chains to the Crimea.
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  • Meanwhile the Polish army, 40,000 strong, with ioo guns, was assembling on the frontier.
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  • On the 23rd of September the two armies encountered near Pildawa, and after a stubborn three days' contest the gallant Polish pageant was scattered to the winds.
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  • Chmielnicki's conditions of peace were so extravagant that the Polish commissioners durst not accept them, and in 1649 he again invaded Poland with a countless host of Cossacks and Tatars.
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  • Chmielnicki, by suddenly laying bare the nakedness of the Polish republic, had opened the eyes of Muscovy to the fact that her secular enemy was no longer formidable.
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  • King John Casimir, betrayed and abandoned by his own subjects, fled .to Silesia, and profiting by the cataclysm which, for the moment, had swept the Polish state out of existence, the Muscovites, unopposed, quickly appropriated nearly everything which was not already occupied by the Swedes.
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  • The second event, which began with the heroic and successful defence of the monastery of Czenstochowa by Prior Kordecki against the Swedes, resulted in the return of the Polish king from exile, the formation of a national army under Stephen Czarniecki and the recovery of almost all the lost provinces from the Swedes,.
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  • Thus, at the election diet of 1669, one of the deputies, Pieniaszek, moved that a new and hitherto unheard-of clause should be inserted in the agenda of the general confederation, to the effect that every senator .and deputy should solemnly swear not to take bribes, while another szlacic proposed that the ambassadors of foreign Powers should be excluded permanently from the Polish elective assemblies.
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  • But the flighty and ignorant szlachta not only were incapable of any sustained political action, but they themselves unconsciously played into the hands of the enemies of their country by making the so-called liberum veto an integral part of the Polish constitution.
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  • The liberum veto was based on the assumption of the absolute political equality of every Polish gentleman, with the inevitable corollary that every measure introduced into the Polish diet must be adopted unanimously.
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  • The Polish crown first became an object of universal competition in 1573, when Henry of Valois was elected.
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  • The Polish gentry were still the umpires as well as the stake-holders; the best candidates generally won the day; and the defeated competitors were driven out of the country by force of arms if they did not take their discomfiture, after a fair fight, like sportsmen.
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  • This he did as elector of Saxony, but it was War with the unfortunate Polish republic which paid for the hazardous speculation of its newly elected king.
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  • Augustus attempted to indemnify himself for his failure to obtain Livonia, his covenanted share of the Swedish plunder, by offering Frederick William of Prussia Courland, Polish Prussia and even part of Great Poland, provided that he were allowed a free hand in the disposal of the rest of the country.
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  • The Czartoryscy, who were to dominate Polish politics for the next half-century, came of an ancient Ruthenian stock which had intermarried with the Jagiellos at an early date, and had always been remarkable for their civic virtues and political sagacity.
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  • Half of these were the Protestants of the towns of Polish Prussia and Great Poland, the other half was composed of the Orthodox population of Lithuania.
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  • Petersburg, petitioning Catherine to guarantee the liberties of the Republic, and allow the form of the Polish constitution to be settled by the Russian ambassador at Warsaw.
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  • The liberum veto and all the other ancient abuses were now declared unalterable parts of the Polish constitution, which was placed under the guarantee of Russia.
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  • In June 1770 Frederick surrounded those of the Polish provinces he coveted with a military cordon, ostensibly to keep out the cattle plague.
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  • The annual budget was fixed at 30,000,000 Polish gulden,' out of which a regular army of 30,000 2 men was to be maintained.
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  • The little Polish army of 46,000 overthrows men, under Prince Joseph Poniatowski and Tadeusz Kosciuszko, did all that was possible under the circumstances.
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  • By this pactur subjectionis, as the Polish patriots called it, Russia got all the eastern provinces of Poland, extending from Livonia to Moldavia, comprising a quarter of a million of square miles, while Prussia got Dobrzyn, Kujavia and the greater part of Great Poland, with Thorn and Danzig.
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  • The focus of Polish nationality was now transferred from Warsaw, where the Targowicians and their Russian patrons reigned supreme, to Leipzig, whither the Polish patriots, Kosciuszko, Kollontaj and Ignaty Potocki among the number, assembled from all quarters.
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  • The next blunder of the Polish refugees was to allow themselves to be drawn into a premature rising by certain Polish officers in Poland who, to prevent the incorporation of their regiments in the Russian army, openly revolted and led their troops from Warsaw to Cracow.
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  • Throughout April the Polish arms were almost universally successful.
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  • They were known as the Polish legions, and were commanded by the best Polish generals, e.g.
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  • The Polish troops had taken a prominent part in the invasion of Russia, and their share in the plundering of Smolensk and of Moscow had intensified the racial hatred felt for them by the Russians.
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  • Alexander, who had a sentimental regard for freedom, so long as it was obedient to himself, had promised the Poles a The New constitution in April 1815 in a letter to Ostrov- Polish Con- skiy, the president of the senate at Warsaw.
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  • Individual liberty, the use of the Polish language in the law courts, and the exclusive employment of Poles in the civil government were secured by the constitution.
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  • On the death of Zajonczek in 1$26, the grand duke Constantine became Imperial lieutenant, and his administration, The Grand though erratic, was not unfavourable to displays nuke Con- of Polish nationality.
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  • The Polish army had no stantine share in the Turkish War of 1829, largely, it is said, at the request of Constantine, who loved parades and thought that war was the ruin of soldiers.
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  • The Polish universities of Warsaw and Vilna were suppressed, and the students compelled to go to St Petersburg and Kiev.
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  • Polish recruits were distributed in Russian regiments, and the use of the Russian language was enforced as far as possible in the civil administration and in the law courts.
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  • Polish national sentiment was not destroyed, but intensified.
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  • He supported Polish students at Russian universities on condition that they then spent a number of years in the public service.
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  • But these Polish officials made use of their positions to aid their countrymen, and were grasping and corrupt with patriotic intentions.
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  • The Polish exiles who filled Europe after 1830 intrigued from abroad, and maintained a constant agitation.
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  • The stern government of Nicholas was, however, so far effective that Poland remained quiescent during the Crimean War, in which many Polish soldiers fought in the Russian army.
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  • The Polish nobles, gentry and Church - the educated classes generally - were crushed.
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  • Scholars desiring to explore for themselves the sources of Polish history from the nth century to the 18th have immense fields of research lying open before them in the Acta historica res gestas Poloniae illustrantia (1878, &c.), the Scriptores rerum polonicarum (1872, &c.), and the Historical Dissertations (Pol., 1874, &c.), all three collections published, under the most careful editorship, by the University of Cracow.
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  • Proceeding to the earlier history of Poland, Lelewel's Poland in the Middle Ages (4 vols., Posen, 1846-1851) is still a standard work, though the greatest authority on Polish antiquities is now Tadeusz Wojciechowski, who unites astounding learning with a perfect style.
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  • The best Polish work on the subject is Wincenty Zakrzewski's The Reign of Stephen Bathory (Pol., Cracow, 1887).
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  • Of the books relating to the Polish Vasas the most notable is Szajnocha's Two Years of our History, 1646-1648 (Lemberg, 1865), which deals exhaustively with the little-known but remarkable attempt (the last practical attempt of its kind) of Ladislaus IV.
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  • For works relating to the Sobieskian, Saxon and Partitional periods of Polish history, the reader is referred to the bibliographical notes appended to the biographies of John III., king of Poland, Michal Czartoryski, Stanislaus II., Tadeusz Andrzej Kosciuszko, Jozef Poniatowski, and the other chief actors of these periods.
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  • For more complete bibliography see Jozef Korzeniowski's Catalogus actorum et documentarum res gestas Poloniae illusirantium (Cracow, 1889), and Ludwik Finkel's Bibliography of Polish History (Pol., Lemberg, 1891).
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  • Polish Literature The Polish language belongs to the western branch of the Slavonic tongues, and exhibits the closest affinities with the Czech or Bohemian and Lusatian Wendish.
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  • Unlike the people of other Slavonic countries, the Poles are comparatively poor in popular and legendary poetry, but such compositions undoubtedly existed in early times, as may be seen by the writings of their chroniclers; thus Gallus translated into Latin a poem written on Boleslaus the Brave, and a few old Polish songs are included in Wojcicki's Library of Ancient Writers.
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  • The earliest specimen of the Polish language is the so-called Psalter of Queen Margaret, discovered in 1826 at the convent of St Florian.
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  • The ancient Polish hymn or war song, Piesn Boga Rodzica, was an address to the Virgin, sung by the Poles when about to fight.
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  • The next monument of Polish literature to which we come is the Bible of Queen Sophia or Bible of Szaroszpatak.
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  • Five religious songs in Polish dating from the 15th century have been preserved; they are ascribed to Andrew Slopuchowski, prior of the monastery of the Holy Cross on Lysa G6ra.
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  • To these fragments may be added the prayerbook of a certain Waclaw, a sermon on marriage, and some Polish glosses.
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  • These are all the existing memorials of the Polish language before the 16th century.
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  • Lelewel, the Polish historian, considers that it is merely a translation into Latin of some such name as Kura, signifying "a fowl."
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  • The first press from which books in the Polish language appeared was that of Hieronymus Wietor, a Silesian, who commenced publishing in 1515.
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  • A few fragments printed in Polish had appeared before this, as the Lord's Prayer in the statutes of the bishops of Breslau in 1475, the story of Pope Urban in Latin, German and Polish in 1505, &c.; but the first complete work in the Polish language appeared from the press of this printer at Cracow in 1521, under the title, Speeches of the Wise King Solomon.
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  • In 1522, a Polish translation of Ecclesiastes appeared from that press, and before the conclusion of that year The Life of Christ, with woodcuts, translated into Polish by Balthasar Opec. Many other presses were soon established.
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  • Little as yet had been produced in Polish, as the chroniclers still adhered to Latin; and here mention must be made of Jan Dlugosz, who called himself Longinus.
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  • About 1500 was written an interesting little work entitled "'Memoirs of a Polish Janissary" (Pamietniki ianczara polaka).
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  • Although written in the Polish language, it was probably the production of a Serb, Michael Constantinovich of Ostrovitza.
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  • Latin poetry was cultivated with great success by Clement Janicki (1516-1543), but the earliest poet of repute who wrote in Polish is Rej of Naglowice (1505-1569).
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  • Jan Kochanowski 1 (1530-1584), called the prince of Polish poets, came of a poetical family, having a brother, a cousin and a nephew who all enriched the literature of their country with some productions.
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  • Besides poems in Polish, he also wrote some in Latin.
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  • It will be observed that we get this double-sided authorship in many Polish writers.
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  • It may be said with truth of Kochanowski that, although the form of his poetry is classical and imitated from classical writers, the matter is Polish, and there is much national feeling in what he has left us.
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  • The condition, however, of the Polish peasants was too miserable to admit of their being easily made subjects for bucolic poetry.
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  • A poet of some importance was Sebastian Fabian Klonowicz (1545-1602), who latinized his name into Acernus, Klon being the Polish for maple, and wrote in both Latin and Polish, and through his inclination to reform drew down on himself the anger of the clergy.
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  • Sometimes he is descriptive, as in his Polish poem entitled Flis (" The Boatman"), in which he gives a detailed account of the scenery on the banks of the Vistula.
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  • Besides the Latin histories of Wapowski and Gwagnin (Guagnini, of Italian origin), we have the first historical work in Polish by Martin Bielski, a Protestant, viz.
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  • The doctrines of Hus had entered the country in very early times, and we find Polish recensions of Bohemian hymns; even the hymn to the Virgin previously mentioned is supposed to have a Czech basis.
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  • As early as 1530 Lutheran hymns were sung in the Polish language at Thorn.
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  • Four years afterwards appeared a complete Polish Bible published by Scharffenberg at Cracow.
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  • In 1553 appeared at Brzesc the Protestant translation of the whole Bible made by a committee of learned men and divines, and published at the expense of Nicholas Radziwill, a very rich Polish magnate who had embraced the Protestant doctrines.
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  • Up to this time Polish literature, although frequently rhetorical and too much tinctured with classical influences, had still exhibited signs of genius.
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  • The epic, which remained in manuscript till 1850, is a genuine representation of Polish life; no picture so faithful appeared till the Pan Tadeusz of Mickiewicz.
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  • He does not hesitate to introduce occasionally satirical remarks on the luxury of the times, which he compares, to its disadvantage, with the simplicity of the old Polish life.
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  • His most important poem is Wladystaus IV., King of Poland, in which he sings in a very bombastic strain the various expeditions of the Polish monarch.
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  • Hieronymus Vespasian Kohcowski (1633-1699) was a soldier-poet, who went through the campaigns against the Swedes and Cossacks; he has left several books of lyrics full of vivacity, a Christian epic and a Polish psalmody.
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  • Some of the most characteristic stories illustrating Polish history are drawn from this book.
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  • A curious insight into the course of education which a young Polish nobleman underwent is furnished by the instructions which James Sobieski, the father of the celebrated John, gave to Orchowski, the tutor of his sons.
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  • He collected a splendid library of about 300,000 volumes and 15,000 manuscripts, which he bequeathed to the Polish nation; but it was afterwards carried off to St Petersburg, where it formed the foundation of the imperial public library.
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  • It was especially rich in works relating to Polish history.
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  • Konarski edited in six volumes a valuable work entitled Volumina legum, containing a complete collection of Polish laws from the time of the statute of Wislica.
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  • About the close of this period we have some valuable writers on Polish history, which now began to be studied critically, such as Hartknoch in his Altand Neues Preussen (1684), a work in which are preserved interesting specimens of the old Prussian language, and Lengnich (1689-1774), author of the valuable Jus publicum regni Poloniae, which appeared in 1742.
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  • We now come to the reign of the last Polish king, Stanislaus Poniatowski, and the few quiet years before the final division of the country, during which the French taste was allpowerful.
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  • This is the second great period of the development of Polish literature, which has known nothing of medieval romanticism.
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  • Here may be mentioned, although living a little time before the reign of Stanislaus, a Polish poetess, Elizabeth Druzbacka (1695-1760), whose writings show a feeling for nature at a time when verse-making of the most artificial type was prevalent throughout the country.
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  • Unfortunately she introduces latinisms, so that her Polish is by no means pure.
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  • He was a kind of Polish Churchill, and like his English parallel died young.
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  • One of his most celebrated pieces was Zofjowka, written on the country seat of Felix Potocki, a Polish magnate, for this was the age of descriptive as well as didactic poetry.
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  • The existence of so many ecclesiastical writers was a natural feature in Polish literature; they formed the only really cultured class in the community, which consisted besides of a haughty ignorant nobility living among their serfs, and (at a vast distance) those serfs themselves, in a brutalized condition.
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  • He is at best but a mediocre poet; but he has succeeded better as a historian, and especially to be praised is his "History of the Polish Nation" (Historya narodu polskiego), which, however, he was not able to carry further than the year 1386.
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  • He also wrote an account of the Polish general Chodkiewicz, and translated Tacitus and Horace.
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  • Julian Ursin Niemcewicz (1758-1841) was one of the most popular of Polish poets at the commencement of the present century (see NiEMcEwIcz).
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  • His most popular work is the "Collection of Historical Songs" (Spiewy historyczne), where he treats of the chief heroes of Polish history.
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  • A valuable worker in the field of Slavonic philology was Linde, the author of an excellent Polish dictionary in six volumes.
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  • For a long time the cultivation of Polish philology was in a low state, owing to the prevalence of Latin in the 17th century and French in the 18th.
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  • No Polish grammar worthy of the name appeared till that of Kopczynski at the close of the 18th century, but the reproach has been taken away in modern times by the excellent works by Malecki and Malinowski.
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  • At a later period (in 1856) appeared the work of Helcel, Starodawne prawa polskiego pomniki (" Ancient Memorials of Polish Law").
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  • The influence of Moliere can be very clearly seen in his pieces; his youth was spent chiefly in France, where he formed one of the soldiers of the Polish legion of Napoleon and joined in the expedition to Russia.
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  • There is a good deal of local colouring in the pieces of Fredro; although the style is French, the characters are taken from Polish life.
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  • From him may be said to date the formation of anything like a national Polish theatre, so that his name marks an epoch.
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  • A great statesman and writer of the later days of Polish nationality was Kollataj, born at Sandomir in 1750.
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  • He served under Napoleon in the Polish legion, and has left a small collection of poems, the most important being the idyl Wieslaw, in which the manners of the peasants of the district of Cracow are faithfully portrayed.
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  • Maurice Goslawski also won fame by his Poems of a Polish Outlaw in the struggle of 1830-1831.
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  • Wasilewski (1814-1846), the author of many popular songs; and Holowinski, archbishop of Mogilev (1807-1855), author of religious poems. The style of poetry in vogue in the Polish parts of Europe at the present time is chiefly lyrical.
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  • Szujski commenced his literary career in 1859 with poems and dramas; in 1860 appeared his first historical production, Rzut oka na Historye Polski (" A Glance at Polish History ."), which attracted universal attention; and in 1862 he commenced the publication in parts of his work Dzieje Polski (" The History of Poland"), the printing of which ceased in 1866.
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  • In 1863 he.took part in the Polish rebellion, and was compelled to fly to Paris, where he only returned in 1871.
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  • His chief works are History of the Polish People from the Earliest Times to the year 1763 (1854), History of Poland in the 18th and igth Centuries (1866), and History of Poland from the time of the Partition (1868), which he carried down to the year 1832.
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  • Xavier Liske, born in 1838, professor of universal history at Lemberg, has published many historical essays of considerable value, and separate works by him have appeared in the German, Polish, Swedish, Danish and Spanish languages.
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  • The "Sketch of the History of Poland" (Dzieje Polskie w zarysie) by Michael Bobrzynski, born in 1849 in Cracow (professor of Polish and German law), is a very spirited work, and has given rise to a great deal of controversy on account of the opposition of many of its views to those of the school of Lelewel.
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  • The history of Polish literature has not been neglected.
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  • An elaborate history of Polish literature has been written by Anton Malecki, who is the author of the best Polish grammar (Gramatyka historyczno-porownawcza jezyka polskiego, 2 vols., Lemberg, 1879).
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  • The Polish bibliography of Karl Estreicher, director of the Jagiellon library at Cracow, is a work of the highest importance.
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  • One of the most active writers on Polish philology and literature is Wladyslaw Nehring, whose numerous contributions to the Archiv fiir slavische Philologie of Professor Jagic entitle him to the gratitude of all who have devoted themselves to Slavonic studies.
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  • Perhaps the most celebrated Polish authoress was Klementina Hoffmann, whose maiden name was Tanska, born at Warsaw in 1798.
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  • The four centres of Polish literature, which, in spite of the attempts which have been made to denationalize the country, is fairly active, are Cracow, Posen, Lemberg and Warsaw.
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  • Not only are the professors of Cracow University some of the most eminent living Poles, but it has been chosen as a place of residence by many Polish literary men.
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  • Some good Polish works have been issued at Posen.
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  • At Lemberg, the capital of Austrian Galicia, there is an active Polish press.
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  • Here appeared the Monumenta Poloniae historica of Bielowski, previously mentioned; but Polish in this province has to struggle with the Red-Russian or Ruthenian, a language or dialect which for all practical purposes is the same as the Southern or Little Russian.
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  • At Warsaw, since the last insurrection, the university has become entirly Russianized, and its Transactions are published in Russian; but Polish works of merit still issue from the press - among others the leading Polish literary journal, Biblioteka warszawska.
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  • Among the latest poets we may mention Wyspianski, Kisiliewski, Reymont, Mme Zapolska; the latter is the author of some powerful realistic novels and plays, and she has been called the Polish Zola.
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  • It is this kind of poetry and traces of the decadent school which we find in the later Polish poets.
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  • Bruckner (Leipzig, 1901; also written in Polish); Chmielowski, History of Polish Literature (in Polish, 3 vols.); Stanislaus Tarnowski, History of Polish Literature (in Polish); Grabowski, Poezya Polska po roku 1863 (Cracow, 1903); Heinrich Nitschmann, Geschichte der polnischen Literatur (Leipzig; sine anno).
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  • Capo d'Istria, Nesselrode, Stein, Pozzo di Borgo were perhaps the best men in Europe to manage the Russian policy, while Czartoriski represented at the imperial court the hope of Polish nationality.
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  • Eventually Austria and Prussia retained most of their Polish dominions, and the latter power only received about two-fifths of Saxony.
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  • He was compelled by public opinion to support the claims of Louis XV.'s father-inlaw Stanislaus Leszczynski, ex-king of Poland, to the Polish crown on the death of Frederick Augustus I., against the RussoAustrian candidate; but the despatch of a French expedition of 150o men to Danzig only served to humiliate France.
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  • Graphite is used for the manufacture of pencils, dry lubricants, grate polish, paints, crucibles and for foundry facings.
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  • The loss of revenue consequent upon the secession of Lithuania placed John Albert at the mercy of the Polish Sejmiki or local diets, where the szlachta, or country gentry, made their subsidies dependent upon the king's subservience.
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  • When the new grand master of the Teutonic order, Frederic of Saxony, refused to render homage to the Polish crown, John Albert compelled him to do so.
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  • An army of 160,000 Turkish veterans led by Sultan Osman in person advanced from Adrianople towards the Polish frontier, but Chodkiewicz crossed the Dnieper in September 1621 and entrenched himself in the fortress of Khotin right in the path of the Ottoman advance.
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  • Here for a whole month the Polish hero held the sultan at bay, till the first fall of autumn snow compelled Osman to withdraw his diminished forces..
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  • The beginning of this shameful "subsidy policy" was the treaty of Fontainebleau, 1661, by a secret paragraph of which Sweden, in exchange for a considerable sum of money, undertook to support the French candidate on the first vacancy of the Polish throne.
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  • In 1722 editions of the Scriptures were also issued in Bohemian and Polish.
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  • In 1816-1817 came the Norwegian Bible Society, the Polish Bible Society and ten minor German Bible Societies.
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  • It was ceded to Russia about 1500, but again became a Polish possession after the treaty of Deulina (1619) between Poland and Russia.
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  • In 1649, after the revolt of Little Russia and its liberation from the Polish rule, Nyezhin was the chief town of one of the most important Cossack regiments.
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  • The Concord granite is a medium bluish-grey coloured muscovitebiotite granite, with mica plates so abundant as to effect the durability of the polish of the stone; it is used for building-the outer walls of the Library of Congress at Washington, D.C., are made of this stone-to a less degree for monuments, for which the output of one quarry is used exclusively, and for paving blocks.
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  • His family came from Prussia in the early part of the 18th century; his grandfather was appointed physician to the reigning king of Poland, and his father caused himself to be naturalized as a Polish citizen.
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  • His works on Polish history are based on minute and critical study of the documents; they were collected under the title Polska, dzieje i rzeczy jej rozpatrzywane (Poland, her History and Affairs surveyed), in 20 vols.
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  • His method is shown in the little history of Poland, first published at Warsaw in Polish in 1823, under the title Dzieje Polski, and afterwards almost rewritten in the Histoire de Pologne (2 vols., Paris, 1844).
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  • Other works on Polish history which may be especially mentioned are La Pologne au moyen age (3 vols., Posen, 1846-1851), an edition of the Chronicle of Matthew Cholewa 1 (1811) and Ancient Memorials of Polish Legislation (Ksiegi ustaw polskich i mazowieckich).
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  • He left valuable materials for a just comprehension of his career in the autobiography (Adventures while Prosecuting Researches and Inquiries on Polish Matters) printed in his Polska.
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  • The Rime of di Costanzo are remarkable for finical taste, for polish and frequent beauty of expression, and for strict obedience to the poetical canons of his time.
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  • No other Polish town possesses so many old and historic buildings, none of them contains so many national relics, or has been so closely associated with the development and destinies of Poland as Cracow.
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  • And the ancient capital is still the intellectual centre of the Polish nation.
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  • Here the kings of Poland were crowned, and this church is also the Pantheon of the Polish nation, the burial place of its kings and its great men.
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  • The cathedral is adorned with many valuable objects of art, paintings and sculptures, by such artists as Veit Stoss, Guido Reni, Peter Vischer, Thorwaldsen, &c. Part of the ancient Polish regalia is also kept here.
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  • Jagiello (1510-1533), is situated on the Wawel, and was until 16 to the residence of the Polish kings.
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  • The language of instruction is Polish.
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  • The Polish Academy of Science, founded in 1872, is housed in the new university buildings.
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  • Tradition assigns the foundation of Cracow to the mythical Krak, a Polish prince who is said to have built a stronghold here about A.D.
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  • Ladislaus made it his capital, and from this time until 1764 it remained the coronation and burial place of the Polish kings, even after the royal residence had been removed by Siegmund III.
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  • He was educated at the school of the Basilians at Szarogrod, from which in 1787 he ran away in order to enlist as a volunteer in the Polish army.
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  • In 1812 he accompanied the Grande Armee to Russia, was seriously wounded at Smolensk, and on the reconstruction of the Polish army in 1813 was made a general of division.
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  • See Jozef Maczynski, Life and Death of Joseph Chlopicki (Pol.) (Cracow, 1858); Ignacy Pradzynski, The Four Last Polish Commanders (Pol.) (Posen, 1865).
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  • In 1734, however, the opposition was bold enough to denounce his neutrality on the occasion of the war of the Polish Succession, when Stanislaus I.
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  • The population is composed mainly of Englishor French-speaking people, but there are German settlements of some extent in Ontario, and of late years there has been a large immigration into the western provinces and territories from other parts of Europe, including Russians, Galicians, Polish and Russian Jews, and Scandinavians.
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  • They are all such rudiments as Aristotle might well polish into the more developed expositions in the first four books of the Nicomachean Ethics.
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  • It is a wood most extensively used for furniture and for carriagebuilding, being tough in texture and bearing shocks well, while much of it has a handsome grain and it is susceptible of a fine polish.
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  • From the wood, platters, axe-handles, snow-shoe frames, and dog sledges are made, and it is worked into articles of furniture which are susceptible of a good polish.
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  • When John Sobieski died in 1696, Augustus was a candidate for the Polish throne, and in order to further his chances became a Roman Catholic, a step which was strongly resented in Saxony.
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  • Declaring the treaty of Altranstadt void and renewing his alliance with Russia and Denmark, he quickly recovered the Polish crown.
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  • Thus Sainte Claire Deville prepared it as a very hard substance of steel-grey colour, capable of taking a high polish, by strong ignition of chromic oxide and sugar charcoal in a lime crucible.
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  • The metal as obtained in this process is lustrous and takes a polish, does not melt in the oxyhydrogen flame, but liquefies in the electric arc, and is not affected by air at ordinary temperatures.
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  • Taking advantage of a petition presented by the Polish landed proprietors of the Lithuanian provinces, praying that their relations with the serfs might be regulated in a more satisfactory way - meaning in a way more satisfactory for the proprietors - he authorized the formation of committees "for ameliorating the condition of the peasants," and laid down the principles on which the amelioration was to be effected.
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  • The first occasion was in 1863, when the Western powers seemed inclined to interfere in the Polish question, and the Russian chancery declared categorically that no interference would be tolerated.
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  • The Polish Protestants hoped that he would take this course and thus bring about a breach with Rome at the very crisis of the confessional struggle in Poland, while the Habsburgs, who coveted the Polish throne, raised every obstacle to the childless king's remarriage.
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  • Certainly no other Polish king so thoroughly understood the nature of the ingredients of that witch's caldron, the Polish diet, as he did.
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  • Like his father, a pro-Austrian by conviction, he contrived even in this respect to carry the Polish nation, always so distrustful of the Germans, entirely along with him, thereby avoiding all serious complications with the ever dangerous Turk.
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  • Shortly afterwards Kelly and Dee were introduced by the earl of Leicester to a Polish nobleman, Albert Laski, palatine of Siradz, devoted to the same pursuits, who persuaded them to accompany him to his native country.
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  • There were in 1908 eleven daily papers published, three of which were in German and two in Polish.
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  • The weekly papers include several in German, three in Polish, and one in Italian.
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  • Of the foreignborn population 36,720 were German, the other large elements in their order of importance being Polish, Canadian, Irish, the British (other than Irish).
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  • He was, however, more than compensated for this disappointment by his compact (1339) with his ally and brother-in-law, Casimir of Poland, whereby it was agreed that Louis should succeed to the Polish throne on the death of the childless Casimir.
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  • Charles's "immersion in the Polish bog" (1702-1707), as Peter phrased it, enabled the tsar, not without considerable expense and trouble, to conquer Ingria and lay the foundations of St Petersburg.
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  • Round the town lies a cluster of suburban villages, Polish Folwark, Russian Folwark, Zinkovtsui, Karvasarui, &c.; and on the opposite side of the river, accessible by a wooden bridge, stands the castle which long frowned defiance across the Dniester to Khotin in Bessarabia.
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  • When the Polish insurrection of 1863 broke out, and he pleaded the insurgents' cause, his reputation in Russia received its death-blow.
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  • The nobility is very numerous in Silesia, chiefly in the Polish districts.
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  • The decisive factor in the separation of Silesia from Poland was furnished by a partition of the Polish crown's territories in 1138.
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  • In 1466 Ermeland, together with West Prussia, was by the peace of Thorn attached to the crown of Poland, and the bishop had a seat in the Polish senate.
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  • On the 19th of August 1704 he succeeded, at last, in bringing about a treaty of alliance between Russia and the Polish republic to strengthen the hands of Augustus, but he failed to bring Prussia also into the antiSwedish league because of Frederick I.'s fear of Charles and jealousy of Peter.
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  • Her opposition to the reform of the Polish government was plainly due to a wish to preserve an excuse for further spoliation, but her conduct was less cruel and base than that of Prussia.
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  • In the modern pronunciation the principal differences are between the Ashkenazim (German and Polish Jews) and the Sephardim (Spanish and Portuguese Jews), and concern not only the vowels but also certain consonants, and in some cases probably go back to early times.
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  • Other orders are those of St Vladimir, founded by Catherine II., 1782, four classes, and of St Stanislaus, founded originally as a Polish order by Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski in 1765, and adopted as a Russian order in 1831.
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  • Educated as a Catholic by his mother, he was on the death of Stephen Bathory elected king of Poland (August 19, 1587) chiefly through the efforts of the Polish chancellor, Jan Zamoyski, and of his own aunt, Anne, queen-dowager of Poland, who lent the chancellor 10o,000 gulden to raise troops in defence of her nephew's cause.
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