He suggested the center change their policy and not tape calls in the future.
To their surprise, Josh had a $150,000 insurance policy Lori didn't know about.
The new teacher was having trouble making her students adhere to her strict homework policy.
The policy of fusing Greeks and Orientals again is diversely judged.
But besides considerations of foreign policy, the attention of Russian society was at that time keenly directed on the internal changes that were being undertaken in all the departments of government.
They are wont to forget that the world is not governed by policy and expediency.
The poytenos on their part were determined to resist this policy to the utmost.
to recognize his election led him to change his policy, and, in 1299, a treaty was made between Albert and Philip IV., king of France, by which Rudolph, the son of the German king, was to marry Blanche, a daughter of the French king.
However, if it were stigmatized, and public opinion dramatically and pervasively changed, that would force policy change.
Though Hastings was thus irremovable, his policy did not escape censure.
Pericles may now have hoped to resume his aggressive policy in Greece Proper, but the events of the following years completely disillusioned him.
He was, too, ever the friend of religious freedom and of an enlightened policy in all trade questions.
"We call it policy," said Alexander.
All this will happen eventually, I believe, even if global hunger policy were not to change one iota.
Pericles' home policy has been much debated since ancient times.
It is not quite easy to see why he abandoned this successful policy in order to hasten on a war with Sparta, and neither the Corcyrean alliance nor the Megarian decree seems justified by the facts as known to us, though commercial motives may have played a part which we cannot now gauge.
During the next twenty years the philo-laconian policy of Cimon secured Aegina, as a member of the Spartan league, from attack.
Later on he attempted to influence the Prussian Northern Union in the direction of the national policy, and he took part in the sessions of the Erfurt parliament; but, soon realizing the hopelessness of any good results from the vacillating policy of Prussia, he retired from the contest, and, as a major in the service of the SchleswigHolstein government, took part in the Danish War of 1850.
In his foreign policy Pericles differs from those statesmen of previous generations who sought above all the welfare of Greece as a whole.
Otherwise his policy remained that of peace.
At first, joining to Cimon's antiPersian ambitions and Themistocles' schemes of Western expansion a new policy of aggression on the mainland, he endeavoured to push forward Athenian power in every direction, and engaged himself alike in Greece Proper, in the Levant and in Sicily.
The naming of seven members of prominent Roman families, however, reversed the wise policy of his predecessor which had kept the dangerous factions of the city out of the curia.
In his initial declaration to the chamber the new premier had declared his intention of continuing the policy of the late cabinet, pledging the new ministry to a policy of conciliation, to the consideration of old age pensions, an income-tax, separation of Church and State.
His policy in encouraging the drama has already been mentioned: among his friends he could count three of the greatest Greek writers - the poet Sophocles and the historians Herodotus and Thucydides.
This policy did not allay the discontent of the Macedonian army, and when Alexander in the summer of 324 moved to the cooler region of Media, an actual mutiny of the Macedonians broke out on the way at Opis on the Tigris.
As long as these states were to share a currency, a military, provide for interstate trade, and have a single foreign policy, they could retain the economic advantages of being a large nation while maximizing individual liberty and self-determination.
In continuance of Cimon's policy, 200 ships were sent to support the Egyptian insurgents against Persia (459),' while detachments operated against Cyprus and Phoenicia.
From that time forth, though he could not always command an absolute majority in council, Hastings was never again subjected to gross insult, and his general policy was able to prevail.
In his adoption of a purely defensive policy at the beginning of the Peloponnesian War, he miscalculated the temper of the Athenians, whose morale would have been better sustained by a greater show of activity.
But for the same reason its policy was always narrow, so that it never exercised any beneficial influence on the world at large.
I have thought that Walden Pond would be a good place for business, not solely on account of the railroad and the ice trade; it offers advantages which it may not be good policy to divulge; it is a good port and a good foundation.
In his home policy Pericles carried out more fully Ephialtes' project of making the Athenian people truly self-governing.
This is how our Founding Fathers intended our nation to behave: To try to achieve our foreign policy aims through negotiation and, if that failed, through economic sanctions.
His policy had aroused German jealousy, which became evident in the asperity with which the question of Morocco was handled in Berlin.
Throughout the revolutionary years he supported his brother's policy, became a member of the Erfurt parliament, and, after the collapse of the national movement, returned to the service of the duchy of Nassau.
The event showed that he judged the situation rightly - the religious scheme announced by him, though not accepted in all its details, became the dominant policy of the later time, and he has been justly called ' The stricter marriage law is formulated in Lev.
But in the main his policy in 431-429 was sound, and the disasters of the war cannot fairly be laid to his charge.
Never in the history of colonization has a mother country pursued so relentlessly a policy more selfish and short-sighted.
At the general elections of 1881 after the fall of the Ferry cabinet he was returned to the chamber on a programme which included the separation of Church and State, a policy of decentralization, and the imposition of an income-tax.
He was ex officio excluded from the Legislative Assembly, and his declarations of policy were thus in writing - that is, in the form in which she could most readily exert her power.
His policy of abandoning the land defence was unpopular with the land-owning section of the people, who from the walls of Athens could see their own property destroyed by the invaders.
In 1665 the relaxation of this system was brought about by the continual remonstrances of the people, but for more than a century afterwards (until 1776) the policy of exclusion was enforced.
The policy of protection was further accentuated by raising the impost on corn from 5 to 7 francs per hectolitre (23/4 bushels).
The motives alike of geographical convenience and of the advantages to be gained by recognizing these movements of Roman subjects combined to urge a forward policy at Rome, and when the vigorous Vespasian had succeeded the fool-criminal Nero, a series of advances began which gradually closed up the acute angle, or at least rendered it obtuse.
On the arrival of the news that Hyder had descended from the highlands of Mysore, cut to pieces the only British army in the field, and swept the Carnatic up to the gates of Madras, he at once adopted a policy of extraordinary boldness.
Warren Hastings, as a deliberate measure of policy, withheld the tribute due to the emperor, and resold Allahabad and Kora to the wazir of Oudh.
His policy was steadily directed towards maintaining the peace of Utrecht, and this made him the main opponent of the schemes of Cardinal Alberoni for the aggrandizement of Spain.
Considering the circumstances in which General Roca assumed office, it must be admitted that he showed great moderation and used the practically absolute power that he possessed to establish a strong central government, and to initiate a national policy, which aimed at furthering the prosperity and development of the whole country.
Amidst this sea of financial troubles the government drifted helplessly on, without showing any inclination or capacity to initiate a strong policy of reform in the methods of administration which had done so much to ruin the country.
Individual ministers are responsible for all acts done in connection with their own dpartments, and the body of ministers collectively is responsible for the general policy of the government.
The agitation had no immediate effect, but the indignation which he aroused against Russian policy had much to do with the strong anti-Russian feeling which made the Crimean War possible.
Kind of an insurance policy.
And a parallel change is found in the practical policy of the state.
This resignation was possibly due to his dislike of Henry's foreign policy.
Hastings himself always regarded them as incidents in his general scheme of foreign policy.
Following the same policy he sent Aristaces in 325 to the council of Nice.
The understanding between Hastings and Francis, originating in this state of affairs, was for a short period extended to general policy.
Public attention, however, was chiefly concentrated on foreign policy.
He was now recognized as one of the chief opponents of Clarendon and the High Anglican policy.
This treachery and the harsh treatment by Patterson created a strong public opinion in favour of the Yankees, and the government was compelled to adopt a milder policy.
When the office increased in importance the mayors of the palace did not, as has been thought, pursue an identical policy.
the time of Pitt's ascendancy he took but little part in politics, but while Lord Bute was in power his influence was very considerable, and seems mostly to have been exerted in favour of a more moderate line of policy.
The change in Athenian foreign policy, which was consequent upon the ostracism of Cimon in 461, led to what is sometimes called the First Peloponnesian War, in which the brunt of the fighting fell upon Corinth and Aegina.
His opposition to President Lincoln's policy was mainly in respect to emancipation, military arrests and conscription.
It was applied to those who advocated a policy of "cowardly moderation," and feuillantisme was associated with aristocratic in the mouths of the sansculottes.
Morton no doubt impressed Lancastrian traditions upon Henry VII., but he cannot be credited with any great originality as a statesman, and Henry's policy was as much Yorkist as Lancastrian.
In accordance with their settled policy the Rhodians eagerly supported the Romans when these made war upon Philip V.
The divergence of policy of that state from that pursued by the other states was caused by the inability of the government to construct lines, when the extension of the railway system was urgently needed in the interests of settlement.
This has greatly facilitated the formation of large estates devoted chiefly to grazing purposes, contrary to the policy of the legislature, which has everywhere sought to encourage tillage, or tillage joined to stock-rearing, and to discourage large holdings.
It supports the government as the power alone capable of promoting legislation, but its support is given only so long as the measures of the government are consistent with the Labour policy.
The general administration of the Factories and Shops Acts, to which the special boards owe their being, is vested in a chief inspector of factories, subject to the control of the minister of Labour in matters of policy.
The chief external interest, however, of the new financial policy of the Commonwealth lay in its relation towards the empire as a whole.
It was the general disaster produced by the speculative policy of his former guardians which first called forth his sterling qualities and hardened him into a premature manhood.
But while he was negotiating, the elections in France had caused a change in the foreign policy of the government.
The policy of Charles towards the Netherlands was for many years one of studied moderation.
His external policy and at Nancy (January 5, 1477).
But the king was only temporizing; he had no intention of changing his policy.
In the presence of the rising storm the duchess was bewildered, seeing clearly the folly of the policy she was obliged to carry out no less than its difficulty.
On the 18th of December 1573 Alva, who to the end had persisted in his policy of pitiless severity, left Brussels, carrying with him the curses of the people over whom he had tyrannized for six terrible years of misery and oppression.
Two distinctive nationalities, Belgian and Dutch, were tactful and conciliatory policy of the most consummate statesman of his time could unite those whom the whole trend of events was year by year putting farther asunder.
But the lessons thus learnt were sufficiently striking to mould his .whole character and policy.
Of the three sons of Count Franz, the eldest, Friedrich (1810-1881), entered the diplomatic service; after holding other posts he was in 1850 appointed president of the restored German Diet at Frankfort, where he represented the anti-Prussian policy of Schwarzenberg, and often came into conflict with Bismarck, who was Prussian envoy.
After his retirement from the public service in 1863 he supported in the Bohemian Landtag and the Austrian Reichsrat the federal policy of his brother Leo.
As governor, Seward favoured a continuance of works of internal improvement at public expense, although this policy had already plunged the state into financial embarrassment.
The new president was a man comparatively little known outside the state of Illinois, and many of his supporters, doubtful of his ability to deal with the difficult problems of 1861, looked to Seward as the most experienced man of the administration and the one who should direct its policy.
He believed that the Union could be saved without a war, and that a policy of delay would prevent the secession of the border states, which in turn would gradually coax their more southern neighbours back into their proper relations with the Federal government.
Cromwell, without naming himself an adherent of any denomination, fought vigorously for Independency as a policy.
Cromwell, though greatly disliking the policy of the Presbyterians, yet gave little support at first to the army in resisting parliament.
If that authority falls to nothing,"he said," nothing can follow but confusion."The Presbyterians, however, now engaged in a plan for restoring the king under their own control, and by the means of a Scottish army, forced on their policy, and on the 27th of May ordered the immediate disbandment of the army, without any guarantee for the payment of arrears.
Opinions, no doubt, will always differ as to the wisdom or authority of the policy which brought Charles to the scaffold.
In foreign policy Cromwell's chief aims appear to have been to support and extend the Protestant faith, to promote English trade, and to prevent a Stuart restoration by foreign policy.
The religious element, however, which predominated in Cromwell's foreign policy inclined him to peace, and in April of that year terms were arranged by which England on the whole was decidedly the gainer.
His policy was in principle the policy of Elizabeth, of Gustavus Adolphus, and - in the following generation - of William of Orange.
Cromwell's colonial policy aimed definitely at the recognition and extension of the British empire.
Gregory persuaded Tiridates to destroy the last relics of the old paganism, and carried out in the religious sphere his sovereign's policy of detaching Great Armenia from the Sassanid realm and allying it with the GraecoRoman empire and civilization.
In October 1791 Tone converted these ideas into practical policy by founding, in conjunction with Thomas Russell (1767-1803), Napper Tandy and others, the society of the "United Irishmen."
On the outbreak of the South African War in 1899 Grant was at first disposed to be hostile to the policy of Lord Salisbury and Mr Chamberlain; but his eyes were soon opened to the real nature of President Kruger's government, and he enthusiastically welcomed and supported the national feeling which sent men from the outlying portions of the Empire to assist in upholding British supremacy in South Africa.
In 1243 he was obliged to cede to Venice, Zara, a perpetual apple of discord between the two states; but he kept his hold upon Spalato and his other Dalmatian possessions, and his wise policy of religious tolerance in Bosnia enabled Hungary to rule that province peaceably for many years.
The last years of Bela's life were embittered by the ingratitude of his son Stephen, who rebelled continuously against his father and ultimately compelled him to divide the kingdom with him, the younger prince setting up a capital of his own at Sarospatak, and following a foreign policy directly contrary to that of his father.
From what is known, however, of the policy of Spain at this time, it is by no means unlikely that such a scheme was planned.
By 1868 both political parties in the House of Commons had committed themselves to the policy of state purchase of the telegraphs.
The government policy would, they alleged, create an absolute and objectionable monopoly.
The effect of the unsettled policy of the Post Office until 1905 and of the difficulties created by the local authorities was that the National Telephone Company was never able to do its best to develop the enterprise on the most efficient lines.
At the very moment when Matthias was about to profit by the disappearance of his most capable rival, another dangerous rebellion, headed by the primate and the chief dignitaries of the state, with the object of placing Casimir, son of Casimir IV., on the throne, paralysed Matthias's foreign policy during the critical years 1470-1471.
Though Matthias's policy was so predominantly occidental that he soon abandoned his youthful idea of driving the Turks out of Europe, he at least succeeded in making them respect Hungarian territory.
He settled at Ravenna, which had been the capital of Italy since the days of Honorius, and which still testifies by its monuments to the Gothic chieftains Romanizing policy.
The fruit of his policy, which made of Rome a counterpoise against the effete empire of the Greeks upon the one hand and against the pressure of the feudal kingdom on the other, was seen in the succeeding century.
This pope initiated the dangerous policy of playing one hostile force off against another with a view to securing independence.
Internally Charles left the affairs of the Italian kingdom much as he found them, except that he appears to have pursued the policy of breaking up the larger fiefs of the Lombards, substituting counts for their dukes, and adding to the privileges of the bishops.
The policy thus initiated upon the precedent laid down by Otto the Great was a remedy for pressing evils.
It was Hildebrands policy throughout three papacies, during which he controlled the counsels of the Vatican, and before he himself assumed the tiara, to prepare the mind of Italy and Europe for a mighty change.
Opposed by an anti-pope whom the emperor favored, Alexander found it was his truest policy to rely for support upon the antiimperialist communes.
It was bold policy to confide Frederick to his greatest enemy and rival; but the pope honorably discharged his duty, until his ward outgrew the years of tutelage, and became a fair mark for ecclesiastical hostility.
The formation of a Latin empire in the East increased the popes prestige; while at home it was his policy to organize Countess Matildas heritage by the formation of Guelph leagues, over which he presided.
Gregory initiated the policy of establish ing an equilibrium between the parties, which was carried ou by his successor Nicholas III.
Nor must it be forgotten that this exile was due to the policy which induced the pontiffs, in their detestation of Ghibellinism, to rely successively upon the houses of Anjou and o Valois.
This policy it was which justified Dantes fierce epigramthe puttaneggiar co regi.
A network of party policy embraces and dominates the burghs of Italy, bringing the most distant centres into relation, and by the very division of the country augmenting the sense of nationality.
The captain of the people, acting as head of the ascendant Guelphs or Ghibellines, undertakes the responsibility of proscriptions, decides on questions of policy, forms alliances, declares war.
The tyrants general policy was to favor the multitude at the expense of his own caste.
They rested in large measure on the favor of the multitude, Chan~ and pursued a policy of sacrificifig to their interests In type the nobles.
But no sooner was he dead than the essential weakness of an artificial state, built up by cunning and perfidious policy, with the aid of bought troops, dignified by no dynastic title, and consolidated by no sense of loyalty, became apparent.
Cosimo abandoned the policy of his predecessors.
Meanwhile, throughout the middle ages, it had been the policy of Venice to refrain from conquests on the Italian mainland, and to confine her energies to commerce in the East.
Their career of conquest, and their new policy of forming Italian alliances and entering into the management of Italian affairs were confirmed by the long dogeship of Francesco Foscari (1423-1457), who must rank with Alfonso, Cosimo de Medici, Francesco Sforza and Nicholas V., as a joint-founder of confederated Italy.
No policy could have been less far-sighted; for Charles V., joint heir to Austria, Burgundy, Castile and Aragon, the future overwhelming rival of France, was already born.
A Spanish viceroy in Milan and another in Naples, supported by Rome and by the minor princes who followed the policy dictated to them from Madfid, were sufficient to preserve the whole peninsula in a state of somnolent inglorious servitude.
Gian Pietro Caraffa, who was made pope in 1555 with the name of Paul IV., endeavoured to revive the ancient papal policy of leaning upon France.
He seized the first opportunity of annexing Saluzzo, which had been lost to Savoy in the last two reigns, and renewed the disastrous policy of his grandfather Charles III.
Meanwhile Spanish fanaticism, the suppression of the Huguenots in France and the Catholic policy of Austria combined to strengthen their authority as pontiffs.
At the same time he wisely followed his fathers policy with regard to education and the church.
Equally extensive, but less important in the political sphere, were the Papal States and Veneti, the former torpid under the obscurantist rule of pope and cardinals, the latter enervated by luxury and the policy of unmanly complaisance long pursued by doge and council.
Already the men of Reggio, Modena and Bologna had declared for a democratic policy, in which feudalism and clerical rule should have no place, and in which manhood suffrage, TahdeaCnIes~ together with other rights promised by Bonaparte Republin to the men of Milan in May 1796, should form the basis of a new order of things.
A British fleet under Nelson, sent into the Mediterranean in May 1798 primarily for their defence, checkmated the designs of Bonaparte in Egypt, and then, returning to Naples, encouraged that court to adopt a spirited policy.
More questionable was Josephs policy in closing and confiscating the property of 213 of the richer monasteries of the land.
The peace of Tilsit (July 7, 1807) enabled Napoleon to press on his projects for securing the command of the Mediterranean, thenceforth a fundamental axiom of his policy.
A fortnight later his consort Caroline arrived, and soon showed a vigour and restlessness of spirit which frequently clashed with the dictates of her brother, the emperor and the showy, unsteady policy of her consort.
Charles Albert, although mahftaining his reactionary policy, had introduced administrative reforms, built railways, reorganized the army and developed the resources of the country.
Austria at last began to see that a policy of coercion was useless and dangerous, and made tentative efforts at conciliation.
In May 1859 Ferdinand of Naples was succeeded by his son Francis II., who gave no signs of any intention to change his fathers policy, and, in spite of Napoleons advice, refused to grant a constitution or to enter into an alliance with Sardinia.
The latter introduced a sounder financial policy, which was maintained until the fall of the Right in 1876.
In relation to the Church in Italy, Minghettis policy was less perspicacious.
It was fortunate for Italy that during the whole period 1869 1876 the direction of her foreign policy remained in the experienced hands of Visconti-Venosta, a statesman whose Foreign trustworthiness, dignity and moderation even political policy opponents have been compelled to recognize.
The irritation displayed by Bismarck at the Francophil attitude of Italy towards the end of the Franco-German War gave place to a certain show of goodwill when the great chancellor found himself in his turn involved in a struggle against the Vatican and when the policy of Thiers began to strain Franco-Italian relations.
Thiers had consistently opposed the emperor Napoleons pro-Italian policy.
The foreign policy of ViscontiVenosta may be said to have reinforced the international position of Italy without sacrifice of dignity, and without the vacillation and short-sightedness which was to characterize the ensuing administrations of the Left.
In regard to foreign affairs, the debut of the Left as a governing party was scarcely more satisfactory than its home policy.
Yet at that moment the adoption of a clear line of policy, in accord with the central powers, might have saved Italy from the loss of prestige entailed by her bearing in regard to the Russo-Turkish War and the Austrian acquisition of Bosnia, and might have prevented the disappointment subsequently occasioned by the outcome of the Congress of Berlin.
Depretis, anxious only to avoid a policy of adventure, let slip whatever opportunity may have presented itself, and neglected even to deal energetically with the impotent but mischievous Italian agitation for a rectification of the Italo-Austrian frontier.
The policy of Italy in the congress, he added, would be to support the interests of the young Balkan nations.
In Bonghis mordant phrase, the foreign policy of Italy during this period may be said to have been characterized by enormous intellectual impotence counterbalanced by equal moral feebleness.
This pertinacity engendered a belief in France that Italy was about to undertake in Tunisia a more aggressive policy than necessary for the protection of her commercial interests.
Documents subsequently published have somewhat attenuated the responsibility of Ferry and Saint Hilaire for this breach of faith, and have shown that the French forces in Tunisia acted upon secret instructions from General Farre, minister of war in the Ferry cabinet, who pursued a policy diametrically opposed to the official declarations made by the premier and the foreign minister.
Again Sella was called upon, but again the dog-in-the-manger policy of Depretis, Cairoli, Nicotera and Baccarini, in conjunction with the intolerant attitude of some extreme Conservatives, proved fatal to his endeavours.
The scandal and the pressure of foreign Catholic opinion compelled Depretis to pursue a more energetic policy, and to publish a formal declaration of the intangibility of the Law of Guarantees.
In the long and important debate upon foreign policy in the Italian Chamber of Deputies (6th to 9th December) the fear was repeatedly expressed lest Bismarck should seek to purchase the support of German Catholics by raising the Roman question.
Robilant, for whom the Skiernie~vice pact was no secret, followed a firmly independent policy throughout the Bulgarian crisis of 1885-1886, declining to be drawn into any action beyond that required by the treaty of Berlin and the protection.
Italian army and navy, but, in virtue of the AngloItalian understanding, assured the practical adhesion of Great Britain to the European policy of the central powers, a triumph probably greater than any registered by Italian diplomacy since the completion.
The period between May 1881 and July 1887 occupied, in the region of foreign affairs, by the negotiation, conclusion and renewal of the triple alliance, by the Bulgarian crisis and by the dawn of an Italian colonial policy, was marked at home by urgent political and economic problems, and by the parliamentary phenomena known as trasformismo.
The policy of fiscal transformation inaugurated by the Left increased revenue from indirect taxation from 17,000,000 in 1876 to more than 24,000,000 in 1887, by substituting heavy corn duties for the grist tax, and by raising the sugar and petroleum duties to unprecedented levels.
Numerically insufficient to reject such measures, and lacking the fibre and the cohesion necessary for the pursuance of a far-sighted policy, the Right thought prudent not to employ its strength in uncompromising opposition, but rather, by supporting the government, to endeavour to modify Radical legislation in a Conservative sense.
Contemporaneously with the vicissitudes of home and foreign policy under the Left there grew up in Italy a marked tendency towards colonial enterprise.
The chief advantage derived by Italy from Crispis foreign policy was the increase of confidence in her government on the part of her allies and of Great Britain.
How great had been Crispis power was seen by contrast with the policy of the Rudini cabinet which succeeded him in February 1891.
None of Rudinis public utterances justify the supposition that he assumed office with the intention of allowing the alliance to lapse on its expiry in May 1892; indeed, he frankly declared it to form the basis of his foreign policy.
Instead of maintaining a firm policy, Giolitti allowed the movement to spread until, towards the autumn of 1893, he became alarmed and drafted troops into the island, though in numbers insufficient to restore order.
The foreign policy of the second Crispi Administration, in which the portfolio of foreign affairs was held by Baron Blanc, was, as before, marked by a cordial interpretation of CompI!ca- the triple alliance, and by close accord with Great ~ Britain.
The later course of Italian foreign policy was marked by many vicissitudes.
Shortly afterwards his term of office was brought to a close by the failure of an attempt to secure for Italy a coaling station at Sanmen and a sphere of influence in China; but his policy of active participation in Chinese affairs was continued in a modified form by his successor, the Marquis Visconti Venosta, who, entering the reconstructed Pelloux cabinet in May 1899, retained the portfolio of foreign affairs in the ensuing Saracco administration, and secured the despatch of an Italian expedition, 2000 strong, to aid in repressing the Chinese outbreak and in protecting Italian interests in the Far East (July 1900).
The new minister continued in most respects the policy of his predecessor.
Austria had persistently adopted a policy of pin-pricks and aggravating police provocation towards the Italians of the Adriatic Littoral and of the Trentino, while encouraging the Slavonic element in the former and the Germans in the latter.
The king himself as a Roman Catholic secretly opposed and also doubted the wisdom and practicability of this "thorough" policy of repression.
This national policy, however, could only be pursued, and the minister could only maintain himself in power, by acquiescence in the king's personal relations with the king of France settled by the disgraceful Treaty of Dover in 1670, which included Charles's acceptance of a pension, and bound him to a policy exactly opposite to Danby's, one furthering French and Roman ascendancy.
In any case, in 1676, together with Lauderdale alone, he consented to a treaty between Charles and Louis according to which the foreign policy of both kings was to be conducted in union, and Charles received an annual subsidy of £10o,000.
Although both abroad and at home his policy had generally embodied the wishes of the ascendant party in the state, Danby had never obtained the confidence of the nation.
Temple, a strong adherent of the anti-French policy, to Montagu.
Meanwhile Cranmer was actively carrying out the policy which has associated his name more closely, perhaps, than that of any other ecclesiastic with the Reformation in England.
On grounds of policy and morality alike the act was quite indefensible; but it is perhaps some palliation of his perjury that it was committed to satisfy the last urgent wish of a dying man, and that he alone remained true to the nine days' queen when the others who had with him signed Edward's device deserted her.
or Akhenaton, one of the sovereigns to whose govern ment the celebrated Tell el-Amarna letters from Palestine were addressed, was a zealous champion of the exclusive claims of the sun-disk God, Ra; but his policy died with him.
With regard to the land and the services due therefrom a beginning was made of the policy which culminated in the statutes of Mortmain and of Quia Emptores.
Of their massacres of shipwrecked crews, even in quite modern times, there is no doubt, but the policy of conciliation unremittingly pursued for the last forty years has now secured a friendly reception for shipwrecked crews at any port of the islands except the south and west of Little Andaman and North Sentinel Island.
The policy of the government is to leave the Andamanese alone, while doing what is possible to ameliorate their condition.
Naturally he felt that the prevalence of Christianity was incompatible with his ideal of Roman prosperity, and therefore that the policy of the Flavian emperors was the only logical solution of an important problem.
Consistency of conduct was not among the objects which he aimed at, nor did he shrink from thwarting in secret a policy which he supported in public. A large share of the discredit attaching to the measures of James II.
This and some of the other clauses amount practically to censures on the policy of William III.
Tudor policy did its work well, and noblemen, however illustrious their pedigrees, could no longer be counted as menaces by the Crown, which was, indeed, finding another rival to its power.
His policy of living at peace with England and of arranging marriages between the members of the royal families of the two countries did not commend itself to the turbulent section of his nobles; his artistic tastes and lavish expenditure added to the discontent, and a rebellion broke out.
From this time forward it was against Assyria instead of Babylonia that Elam found itself compelled to exert its strength, and Elamite policy was directed towards fomenting revolt in Babylonia and assisting the Babylonians in their struggle with Assyria.
In accordance with the consistent policy of inclusion and toleration by which the whole of his official life was characterized, he induced the council to call the assembly of notables, which met at Fontainebleau in August 1560 and agreed that the States General should be summoned, all proceedings against heretics being meanwhile suppressed, pending the reformation of the church by a general or national council.
Shaw, Mickel de l'Hospital and his Policy (London, 1905); and Eugene and Emile Haag, La France protestante (2nd ed., 1877 seq.).
But the policy succeeded.
In 1837-1839, as a Union Democrat, he was a member of the national House of Representatives, and there ably opposed Van Buren's financial policy in spite of the enthusiasm in South Carolina for the sub-treasury project.
He was, moreover, an Imperialist and a Colonial Federationist at a time when Liberalism was tied and bound to the Manchester traditions; and, to the consternation of, the official wire-pullers, he vigorously supported Disraeli's foreign policy, and in 1881 opposed the Gladstonian settlement with the Boers.
It is customary to ascribe to Offa a policy of limited scope, namely the establishment of Mercia in a position equal to that of Wessex and of Northumbria.
Generally regarded as the partisan of a pro-English policy, he rendered most valuable service to his country by his able management of the foreign relations of Turkey, and not least by his efficacious settlement of affairs in Syria after the massacres of 1860.
It is a consistent policy of harbouring inconsistencies in the same mind.
For a few years they took an active share in the Evangelical Revival (173817S5); but Zinzendorf's "ecclesiola" policy prevented their growth, and not till 1853 did the English Moravians resolve to aim at "the extension of the Brethren's Church."
Hitherto it had been a part of colonial policy.
Finally, he did not allow his friendliness with Argos to involve him in war with Sparta, towards whom he pursued a policy of moderation.
Shortly, his services to Greece and to the world may be summed up under three heads: In foreign policy, he sketched out the plan on which Athens was to act in her external relations.
(2) His importance in the sphere of domestic policy has been frequently underrated.
They may be interpellated, but only on the legality, not the policy, of their acts.
Those under the latter body are of recent growth, the policy of the last twenty years of the 19th century having been to hand over the budget allowances for primary instruction to the Holy Synod, which opened parish schools under the local priests.
To the conservatives, known subsequently as Old Ritualists or Old Believers, this marked the beginning of the reign of Antichrist (was not 666 the number of the Beast?); but they continued the struggle, conservative opposition to the Westernizing policy of the tsars, which was held responsible for the introduction of Polish luxury and Latin heresy, giving it a political as well as a religious character.
became a maxim of state policy.
Having thus freed themselves from Tatar control, the Moscow princes continued to carry out energetically their traditional policy of extending and consolidating their dominions at the expense of their less powerful relations.
- What may be called the home policy of these three remarkable rulers consisted in absorbing the few principalities which still remained indepen- Ivan III.
It was not till he was about seventeen that he took an active part in the administration, and one of his first acts foreshadowed his future policy: he insisted on the metropolitan crowning him, not as grand-prince of Muscovy, but as tsar of all Russia (1547).
The policy of expansion westwards, inaugurated by Ivan III., was modified and enlarged by Ivan the Terrible.
y i strong enough to pursue at once an aggressive foreign policy, and the tsar prudently determined to make peace with Sweden and conclude an armistice of fourteen years with Poland.
In the reign of Michael's successor, Alexius (1645-76), the country recovered its strength so rapidly that the tsar was tempted to revive the energetic aggressive policy and put forward claims to Livonia, Lithuania and Little Russia, but he was obliged to moderate his pretensions.
The political and the commercial proposals were alike received with coldness, because the native diplomatists had aims which could not be reconciled completely with the policy of any other country, and the native merchants were afraid of foreign competition.
In foreign affairs Catherine devoted her attention mainly to pushing forward the Russian frontier westwards and south- Foreign wards, and as France was the traditional ally of policy of Sweden, Poland and Turkey, she adopted at first Cath- the so-called systeme du Nord, that is to say, a close erine.
Here was a tempting field for the application of Catherine's aggressive policy, and if she had had to deal merely with the Poles she would have had an easy task.
were childishly wayward and capriciously autocratic; both were recklessly indifferent to the feelings, convictions and wishes of those around them; both took a passionate interest in the minutiae of military affairs; as Peter had conceived a boundless admiration for Frederick the Great, so Paul conceived a similar admiration for Napoleon, and both suddenly reversed the national policy to suit this feeling; both were singularly blind to the consequences of their foolish conduct; and both fell victims to court conspiracies which could be in some measure justified, or at least excused, on patriotic grounds.
In the affairs of his own country he refrained from developing and extending the liberal institutions which he had created immediately after his accession, and he finally adopted in all departments of administration a strongly reactionary policy.
Unfortunately for the peace of the world his habitual policy of maintaining the existing state of things was frequently obscured and disturbed by his desire to maintain and increase his own and his country's prestige, influence and territory.
With regard also to the Ottoman empire his policy cannot be said to have been strictly conservative.
In this way the development of Russian policy with regard to Turkey was checked for some years, but the project of confirming and extending the Russian protectorate over the Orthodox Christians was revived in 1852, when Napoleon III.
For the first time in the history of Russia public opinion in the modern sense became a power in the state and influenced strongly the policy of the government.
(For details of this revolutionary movement, see Nihilism.) In respect of foreign policy the reign of Alexander II.
in any form, entered frankly on a reactionary policy, which was pursued consistently during the whole of his reign.
In the foreign policy of the empire Alexander III.
During his father's reign its main objects were: in the west, the maintenance of the alliance with Germany; in south-eastern Europe, policy.
Stamboloff, pursued systematically an anti-Russian policy, but the cabinet of St Petersburg confined itself officially to breaking off diplomatic relations and making diplomatic protests, and unofficially to giving tacit encouragement to revolutionary agitation.
died, and was succeeded by his son, Nicholas II., who, partly from similarity of character and partly from veneration for his father's memory, continued the existing lines of policy in home and foreign affairs.
showed, however, that his father's policy of Russification was neither to be reversed nor to be abandoned.
In accordance with this declaration, the policy of Russification in Finland was steadily maintained, and caused much disappointment, not only to the Finlanders, but also to the other nationalities who desired the preservation of their ancient rights.
likewise continued the policy of his predecessor, with certain modifications suggested by the change of circumstances.
As another means of opposing Western influence in south-eastern Europe, Prince Lobanov inclined to the policy of protecting rather than weakening the Ottoman empire.
After Prince Lobanov's death and the appointment of Count Muraviev as his successor in January 1897, this tendency of Russian policy became less marked.
It was clear that the system with which the murdered minister's name had been associated stood all but universally condemned, and in the appointment of the conciliatory Prince Sviatopolk-Mirski as his successor the tsar himself seemed to concede the necessity for a change of policy.
The result of this policy of repression, associated as it was with gross incompetence and corruption in the organs of the administration, was the rapid spread of the revolutionary movement, which gradually permeated the intelligent classes and ultimately " Tolstoi - observed that that was argument and reason, and that he paid no attention to them; he only guided himself (he said) by sentiment, which he felt sure told him what was good and right!
From 1916 to 1917 he was chairman of the committee on commercial and industrial policy after the war.
In Mexico the national government is carrying out a consistent policy of developing its railway lines.
Operation by private companies, under specific provisions of the government authorities with regard to the method of its exercise, has been the policy consistently carried out in France, and less systematically and consistently in other countries under the domination of the Latin race.
Since 1860 it has been the policy of Australia..
There the policy of subsidies for railway building had been carried to a reckless extreme.
This preferential and discriminating policy, combined with other causes which cannot here be discussed, resulted in 'the Granger legislation of.
The state is interested in the commercial railway venture as a matter of public policy, and because it can confer or withold the right of eminent domain, without which the railway builder would be subjected to endless annoyance and expense.
He inaugurated new missionary enterprises from Hormuz to Japan and the Malay Archipelago, leaving an organized Christian community wherever he preached; he directed by correspondence the ecclesiastical policy of John III.
After the SpanishAmerican War he strongly disapproved of the colonial policy of his party, which, however, he continued to support.
It is not likely that he would write in support of Cardinal Beaton's policy, and the dialect is an exaggerated form of Latinized Middle Scots, differing materially from the language of the Compendious Book.
He compressed into a single chapter the domestic history and policy of the emperors from the son of Heraclius to Isaac Angelus; and did no justice to the remarkable ability and the indefatigable industry shown in the service of the state by most of the sovereigns from Leo III.
Both parties in the state in 1888 declared in favour of free coinage, and in 1892 instructed their delegates to the national conventions to oppose any candidate who did not favour this policy.
In the presidential election of 1900 the Nevada Republicans pursued a non-committal policy with regard to the silver question, declaring in favour of " the largest use of silver as a money metal in all matters compatible with the best interests of our government."
He gives an account of the barons' war from a royalist standpoint, and is a severe critic of Montfort's policy.
The Federalist Party, which may be regarded as definitely organized practically from 1791, was led, leaving Washington aside, by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. A nationalization of the new central government to the full extent warranted by a broad construction of the powers granted to it by the constitution, and a correspondingly strict construction of the powers reserved to the states and the citizens, were the basic principles of Hamilton's policy.
he made a strong speech against the policy of "direct action," pointing out that Labour could capture the political machine if working men were sufficiently united and sufficiently active, but that threats would only throw back their cause and set all other classes against them.
Lord Auckland had the double mortification of seeing his policy a complete failure and of being superseded before his errors could be rectified.
The National Verein, its work being done, was now dissolved; but Bennigsen was chiefly instrumental in founding a new political party - the National Liberals, - who, while they supported Bismarck's national policy, hoped to secure the constitutional development of the country.
The first pope of the house of the Orsini, his policy was marked by mildness and indecision.
It has been pointed out that this accords well with the Jesuit policy of depreciating the royal while exalting the papal prerogative.
Elizabeth was less concerned with the respective claims of Brian and Shane, the one resting on an English patent and the other on the Celtic custom, than with the question of policy involved in supporting or rejecting the demands of her proud suppliant.
O'Donnell went to Spain, where he died soon afterwards, and Tyrone with a shattered force made his way once more to the north, where he renewed his policy of ostensibly seeking pardon while warily evading his enemies.
Yet the idea of the "Northern Accord," though never quite realized, had important political consequences and influenced the policy of Russia for many years.
upset Panin's plans in Sweden, Panin, whose policy hitherto had been at least original and independent, became more and more subservient to Frederick II.
In Constantinople he seems to have early won the notice of Justinian, one of the main objects of whose policy was the consolidation of Eastern Christianity as a bulwark against the heathen power of Persia.
Generally it may be said that throughout his long reign Francis Joseph remained the real ruler of his dominions; he not only kept in his hands the appointment and dismissal of his ministers, but himself directed their policy, and owing to the great knowledge of affairs, the unremitting diligence and clearness of apprehension, to which all who transacted business with him have borne testimony, lie was able to keep a very real control even of the details of government.
The most noticeable features in his reign were the repeated and sudden changes of policy, which, while they arose from the extreme difficulty of finding any system by which the Habsburg monarchy could be governed, were due also to the personal idiosyncrasies of the emperor.
The foreign policy of this period brought about the complete isolation of Austria, and the ingratitude towards Russia, as shown during the period of the Crimean War, which has become proverbial, caused a permanent estrangement between the two great Eastern empires and the imperial families.
The next six years, both in home and foreign policy, were marked by great vacillation.
But the Magyars refused to send representatives to the central parliament; the Slays, resenting the Germanizing policy of the government, withdrew; and the emperor had really withdrawn his confidence from Schmerling long before the constitution was suspended in 1865 as a first step to a reconciliation with Hungary.
Whatever his natural prejudices or natural resentments, he never allowed these to influence his policy.
His reputation as a consistent moderating influence in European policy and one of the chief guarantors of European peace was indeed rudely shaken in October 1908, the year in which he celebrated his ixty years jubilee as emperor, by the issue of the imperial Iscript annexing Bosnia and Herzegovina to the Habsburg ominions, in violation of the terms of the treaty of Berlin.
After the Armistice the unsatisfactory consequences of the peace negotiations, the heavy burden of suffering and loss caused by the war, and, above all, the intolerable internal policy of the Nitti Cabinet, brought about the return of Giolitti to the sphere of practical politics once more.
His policy during the occupation of the factories by the workmen organized by Bolshevist leaders in Sept.
In view of the annexation of new provinces under the peace treaties and of the altered state of public opinion on internal policy, he dissolved the Chamber on April 7 1921, and was confirmed in power by the elections on May 15.
The Judaean narratives do not allow us to fill the gap or to determine whether Judaean policy under the regent Jehoiada would be friendly or hostile to Israel, or whether Judaean nobles may have severed the earlier bond of union.
Assyria and Damascus would realize the recuperative power of the latter, and would perceive the danger of the short-sighted policy of Joash.
Now the penalty had been paid, and the Babylonians, whose policy was less destructive than that of Assyria, contented themselves with appointing as governor a certain Gedaliah.
2 In addition to this, the Egyptian story of the priest Uza-hor at the court of Cambyses and Darius reflects a policy of religious tolerance which illustrates the biblical account of Ezra and Nehemiah (Brugsch, Gesch.
Jason sent money for a sacrifice to Heracles at Tyre; and the only recorded opposition to his policy came from his envoys, who pleaded that the money might be applied to naval expenditure.
The policy which Antiochus thus inaugurated he carried on rigorously and systematically.
If his influence or theirs dictated her policy, there is no evidence of any objection to the union of the secular power with the highpriesthood.
On his deathbed it is said that Alexander advised his wife to reverse this policy and rely upon the Pharisees.
According to the Talmud, he warned her " to fear neither the Pharisees nor their opponents but the hypocrites who do the deed of Zimri and claim the reward of Phinehas: " the warning indicates his justification of his policy in the matter of the crucifixions.
When all the Jewish people swore to be loyal to Caesar and the king's policy, the Pharisees - above 6000 - refused to swear.
His marriage with the daughter of the Arabian king Aretas (which was at any rate in accordance with the general policy of Augustus) seems to have preserved his territory from the incursions of her people, so long as he remained faithful to her.
He conciliated his subjects by his deference to the observances of Judaism, and - the case is probably typical of his policy - he joined in protesting, when Pilate set up a votive shield in the palace of Herod within the sacred city.
But the fact that he summoned five vassal-kings of the empire to a conference at Tiberias suggests rather a policy of self-aggrandisement.
The general release of prisoners, with which he celebrated his impending recall, is typical of his policy.
Hadrian's policy in this respect was matched later on by the edict of the caliph Omar (c. 638), who, like his Roman prototype, prevented the Jews from settling in the capital of their ancient country.
The popes themselves, within their own immediate jurisdiction, were often far more tolerant than their bulls issued for foreign communities, and Torquemada was less an expression than a distortion of the papal policy.
This enlightened policy was not continued by the successors of Joseph II.
As time went on, a more progressive policy intervened, the special form of Jewish oath was abolished in 1846, and in 1848, as a result of the revolutionary movement in which Jews played an active part, legislation took a more liberal turn.
Denmark has for long been distinguished for its liberal policy towards the Jews.
New to the Sacred College and free from traditional preconceptions, he was admirably fitted to carry out the papal policy under Leo XIII.
During his retirement he published various apologies for his policy in 1870, notably La France et la Prusse avant la guerre (Paris, 1872).
Since the outbreak in May 1896 the Greek government had loyally co-operated with the powers in their efforts for the pacification of the island, but towards the close of the year a secret society known as the Ethnike Hetaeria began to arrogate to itself the direction of Greek foreign policy.
In 1642 Henderson, whose policy was to keep Scotland neutral in the war which had now broken out between the king and the parliament, was engaged in corresponding with England on ecclesiastical topics; and, shortly afterwards, he was sent to Oxford to mediate between the king and his parliament; but his mission proved a failure.
The attitude of Labour internationalism was maintained by Mr. Henderson out of office, and he warmly espoused the Labour policy of the latter part of 1918, to take the Labour men out of the Government and appeal for support on a Labour platform, in conjunction with the pacifist wing of the party.
This policy cost Mr. Henderson his seat in Parliament at the General Election of Dec. 1918.
It was not till after the cardinals of the two colleges had led to the convocation of the general council of Pisa that Pierre d'Ailly renounced the support of Benedict XIII., and, for want of a better policy, again allied himself with the cause which he had championed in his youth.
The "correctness" of his attitude on all public questions won for him the commendation of Catholic writers; he is not included in Nicol Burne's list of "periurit apostatis"; but his policy and influence were misliked by James VI., who, when the Assembly had elected Arbuthnot to the charge of the church of St Andrews, ordered him to return to his duties at King's College.
A considerable amount of personal property, including furniture, a small library, provisions, tools, agricultural implements, livestock and the proceeds of a life insurance policy, is also exempt from seizure for the satisfaction of debts.
Most of Riley's work is in the Publications of the Mississippi Historical Society (Oxford, 1898 seq.), which he edited; see his Spanish Policy in Mississippi-after the Treaty of San Lorenzo, i.
His plans were interrupted by his death, and his successor, Ieyasu, who shaped the social and political life of Japan for nearly 300 years (1603-1868), definitely decided on a policy of seclusion and isolation.
1 His step forward to Hebron is in every way intelligible and is the natural outcome of his policy.
What remains to be said of his internal policy may be briefly detailed.
8 This policy of leniency towards Israel is characteristic of David, and may well have become a popular theme in the tales of succeeding generations.
He was now convinced that the true policy of Lithuania was the closest possible alliance with Poland..
Witowt was to reign over Lithuania as an independent grand-duke, but the two states were to be indissolubly united by a common policy.
When in July of that year Rockingham gave place to Chatham, Conway retained his office; and when Chatham became incapacitated by illness he tamely acquiesced in Townshend's reversal of the American policy which he himself had so actively furthered in the previous administration.
In 1780 and 1781 he took an active part in opposition to Lord North's American policy, and it was largely as the result of his motion on the 22nd of February in the latter year, demanding the cessation of the war against the colonies, when the ministerial majority was reduced to one, that Lord North resigned office.
He was subsequently a delegate to the Peace Congress in 1861, and was a loyal supporter of President Lincoln's war policy.
Although united on free trade and in general on questions of domestic reform, a cabinet which contained Lord Palmerston and Lord John Russell, in addition to Aberdeen, was certain to differ on questions of foreign policy.
Palmerston, supported by Russell and well served by Lord Stratford de Redcliffe, British ambassador at Constantinople, favoured a more aggressive policy, and Aberdeen, unable to control Palmerston, and unwilling to let Russell go, cannot be exonerated from blame.
His foreign policy was essentially one of peace and non-intervention, and in pursuing it he was accused of favouring the despotisms of Europe.
He soon acquired great influence among the peasants, and from the first took up an attitude of fearless opposition to King Ferdinand's policy.
Before Mirabeau's influence on foreign policy is discussed, his behaviour on several important points must be noticed.
To prevent this interference, or rather to give no pretext for it, was his guiding thought as to foreign policy.
He had long known Armand Marc, comte de Montmorin, the foreign secretary, and, as matters became more strained from the complications with the princes and counts of the empire, he entered into daily communication with the minister, advised him on every point, and, while dictating his policy, defended it in the Assembly.
He led the opposition in his state to the policy of Madison's administration, was elected by the Federalists a member of the National House of Representatives, and took his seat in May 1813.
He stated that his people, after giving warning in 5824 that they would consider protection the policy of the Government, had gone into protected manufactures, and he now asked that that policy be not reversed to the injury of his constituents.
In later speeches, too, he defended protection rather as a policy under which industries had been called into being than as advisable if the stage had been clear for the adoption of a new policy.
His influence then made itself felt on English policy.
England's commercial relations with Charles V.'s subjects in the Netherlands put war with the emperor almost out of the question; and cool observers thought that England's obvious policy was to stand by while the two rivals enfeebled each other, and then make her own profit out of their weakness.
Wolsey had vested interests in such a policy.
This ambition distinguishes his foreign policy from that of Henry VII., to which it has been likened.
His domestic was sounder than his foreign policy: by his development of the star chamber, by his firm administration of justice and maintenance of order, and by his repression of feudal.
But the inevitable opposition of the nobility to this policy was not mitigated by the fact that it was carried out by a churchman; the result was to embitter the antagonism of the secular party to the church and to concentrate it upon Wolsey's head.
During the first half of his government he materially strengthened the Tudor monarchy by the vigorous administration of justice at home and by the brilliance of his foreign policy abroad.
But the prestige he secured by 1521 was delusive; its decline was as rapid as its growth, and the expense of the policy involved taxation which seriously weakened the loyalty of the people.
It is therefore curious that the Chronica majora should give so unfavourable an account of the king's policy.
His redeeming feature is his generous admiration for strength of character, even when it goes along with a policy of which he disapproves.
In foreign affairs he preserved the policy of St Ladislaus by endeavouring to provide Hungary with her greatest need, a suitable seaboard.
He has little to say of the inner history and policy of the kingdom of Theodoric: his interests lie, as Mommsen says, within a triangle of which the three points are Sirmium, Larissa and Constantinople.
This policy appears really to have been carried out, and it was not long in bearing fruit.
This commercial policy had indeed a deeper and more fatal effect than the alienation of the towns; it secularized still further the brethren of the Order, and made them financiers instead of soldiers.
The brethren of East Prussia, however, still sighed for independence; and they pursued the policy of choosing German princes to be grand masters of the Order, in the hope of regaining liberty by their aid.
At first the Russians were able to continue their policy of conquest and annexation without serious check.
As pope, he concluded a treaty with his rival at Marseilles, by which a general council was to be held at Savona in September, 1408, but King Ladislaus of Naples, who opposed the plan from policy, seized Rome and brought the negotiations to nought.
In the latter course they were encouraged by the high prices of wool during the, 4th century, and by Edward III.'s policy of fostering both the export of wool and the home manufacture of woollen goods.
was compelled by financial necessities, created in part by the heavy war-indemnity exacted by Rome, to pursue an unambitious policy, and was assassinated by his minister Heliodorus.
Every manor composing these great fiefs was likely to be affected by the policy or the character of the administration of the feudal lord, and he, again, by the policy or the difficulties, the strength or the weakness, of the central government.
Meanwhile we can illustrate the economic life of the middle ages, describe its main features, indicate the more important measures of public policy and draw attention to some of the main lines of development.
While it is impossible to give a strictly economic interpretation of the earlier history of nations, economic interests so govern the life and determine the policy of modern states that other forces, like those of religion and politics, seem to play only a subsidiary part, modifying here and there the view which is taken of particular questions, but not changing in any important degree the general course of their development.
Public policy therefore requires the closest possible study of the economic forces which are moulding the destinies of the great nations of the world.
It should form part of the training of educated men of all classes, on grounds of public policy and administrative and business efficiency.
of practical policy, were devised with a special view to what was then a new means of transport.
We cannot suppose that the policy of the Merchant Adventurers' Company had nothing to do with the woollen industry; that the export trade in woollen cloth was quite independent of the foreign exchanges and international trade relations in those times; that the effect on wages of the state of the currency, the influx of new silver, the character of the harvests, and many other influences can be conveniently ignored.
That they must be studied by the economic historian is equally clear, owing to their practical influence and the fact that they furnished the theoretical bases of much of the economic policy of the 10th century.
In the case of many subjects this would matter very little, but in that of economics, which touches the ordinary life of the community at so many points, it is of great importance, especially at a time like the present, when economic questions determine the policy of great nations.
This would matter very little, perhaps, if Englishmen had a firm belief, established by actual experience, in the soundness of their policy, the present security of their position, and the sufficiency of their methods to strengthen or maintain it.
If we take, for example, the corner-stone of the British commercial system in the 19th century, namely, the policy of "free trade ", the public do not now read the economic works which supplied the theoretical basis of that policy, and, indeed, would not be convinced by them.
It thus became the work of economic science ruthlessly to analyse the existing situation, explain the issues involved in the commercial policy of different countries, and point out the alternative methods of dealing with present difficulties, with their probable results.
The absence of conviction in regard to British commercial policy naturally had its counterpart in the attitude of many men to the financial system of the country.
In spite of the vast increase in national wealth, it was found a matter of increasing difficulty to meet a comparatively slight strain without recourse to measures of a highly controversial character; and the search for new sources of revenue (as in 1909) at once raised, in an acute form, questions of national commercial policy and the relations between the United Kingdom and the colonies.
These questions of commercial policy and local government are closely bound up with the scientific study of the transport system.
It is obvious that no inquiry into commercial policy, or into such social questions as the housing of the poor, can be effective unless this deficiency is remedied.
Edward hoped still to conciliate the nobles and gain Scotland by a policy of clemency to all who did not dispute his authority.
The successful course of the campaign and the large sums which he sent from Italy to the French exchequer served to strengthen his hold over the Directors, and his constructive policy grew more decided.
The Fructidorian Directors contemptuously rejected the overtures for peace which Pitt had recently made through the medium of Lord Malmesbury at Lille; and they further illustrated their desire for war and plunder by initiating a forward policy in central Italy and Switzerland which opened up a new cycle of war.
The policy of the French revolutionists had been to surround France with free and allied republics.
The policy of the First Consul was to transform them into tributaries which copied with chameleonic fidelity the political fashions he himself set at Paris.
As the summer of 1806 wore on, his policy perceptibly hardened.
But before referring to its terms we must note an event which indicated the lines on which Napoleon's policy would advance.
As usually happened in this strife of the land power and the sea power, Napoleon's continental policy attained an almost complete success, while the naval and oriental schemes which he had more nearly at heart utterly miscarried.
Indeed, along with other serious checks in Spain, which involved the conquest of that land, it cut through the wide meshes of his policy both in Levantine, Central European and commercial affairs.
The military events of the years1812-1814are described under Napoleonic Campaigns; and we need therefore note here only a few details personal to Napoleon or some considerations which influenced his policy.
(d) Diplomacy and General Policy: Besides the works named under A, the following may be named as more especially applicable to this section: A.
Carteret's interests were however in foreign, and not in domestic policy.
A few years later Pitt adopted an identical policy, and professed that whatever he knew he had learnt from Carteret.
He developed this line of argument when moving the second reading of the Home Rule bill in April, and at Dundee in the autumn outlined a general policy under which England would be cut up into self-governing areas.
He was transferred to the sinecure office of the Duchy of Lancaster, but held it only till Nov., when, on the appointment of a small war committee of the Cabinet from which he was excluded, he resigned, being unwilling to accept a position of general responsibility for war policy if he had no effective control.
His policy was to preserve constitutional government in the South and strengthen the anti-war party in the North by convincing it that the Lincoln administration had abandoned such government; to the same end he urged, in 1864, the unconditional discharge of Federal prisoners in the South.
From this point of view Charles's whole Polish policy, which has been blamed so long and so loudly - the policy of placing a nominee of his own on the Polish throne - takes quite another complexion: it was a policy not of overvaulting ambition, but of prudential self-defence.
He continued the latter's policy of profiting by the rivalry of France and Spain in order to round off and extend his dominions.
In 1198, on the election of Enrico Dandolo, the aristocracy carried their policy one step farther, and by the promissione ducale, or coronation oath, which every doge was required to swear, they acquired a powerful weapon for the suppression of all that remained of ancient ducal authority.
This policy took definite shape in 1297, when the Doge Pietro Gradenigo proposed and carried the following measure: the supreme court, the Quarantia, was called upon to ballot, one by one, the names of all who for the last four years had held a seat in the great council created in 1171.
The geographical position of Venice and her commercial policy alike compelled her to attempt to secure the command of the rivers and roads of the mainland, at least up to the mountains, that is to say, of the north-western outlet, just as she had obtained command of the south-eastern inlet.
Both these pressing necessities, for a free outlet for merchandise and for a food-supplying area, drove Venice on to the mainland, and compelled her to initiate a policy which eventually landed her in the disastrous wars of Cambrai.
At the same time questions of trade, of local politics, finally of colonial autonomy, of imperial policy, had gradually, but already long since, replaced theology in leading interest.
It was Boston commerce that was most sorely hurt by the embargo and non-importation policy of President Jefferson.
It was the losses entailed upon her commerce by the commercial policy of Jefferson's administration that embittered Boston against the Democratic-Republican party and put her public men in the forefront of the opposition to its policies that culminated in lukewarmness toward the War of 1812, and in the Hartford Convention of 1814.
The fortunes of Palmyra now passed into the vigorous hands of Zenobia, who had been actively supporting her husband in his policy.
In accordance with the judicious policy which he had observed in Asia Minor and at Antioch, he granted full pardon to the citizens; only the chief officials and advisers were put to death; Zenobia and her son were captured and reserved for his triumph when he returned to Rome.
Where there is an unqualified covenant to repair, and the premises during the tenancy are burnt down, or destroyed by some other inevitable calamity, the tenant is bound to rebuild and restore them at his own expense, even although the landlord has taken out a policy on his own account and been paid by the insurance company in respect of it.
After the withdrawal of Dalwigk from public life at this time a more liberal policy was adopted in Hesse.
He pursued his policy of playing into the hands of the sovereign whilst keeping up the appearances of a Liberal, almost democratic, leader, skilful in debate, a trimmer par excellence, and abler in opposition than in office.
He urged the need of adopting a permanent tariff policy, and on Dec. 5 1921 suggested a " flexible tariff " which might provide for the adjustment of rates to meet unusual and changing conditions.
Foreign policy was largely determined by Hughes, financial by Mellon, and the problem of unemployment was thrown upon Hoover.
But he expressed himself warmly in favour of active cooperation with other nations of the world, and by accepting the invitation to participate in interAllied councils indicated that he would avoid a policy of isolation.
This policy was adopted by Congress, which agreed upon a joint peace resolution, signed by him on July 2.
The policy drafted by the President and Mr. Hughes was direct and vigorous.
Maurice was opposed to the truce, but the advocate's policy triumphed and henceforward there was enmity between them.
As such a novum salutis genus, the Crusades connect themselves with the history of the penitentiary system; as the foreign policy of the Church they belong to that clerical purification and direction of feudal society and its instincts, which appears in the institution of "God's Truce" and in chivalry itself.
On the Western side, and among the crusaders themselves, there were two factors of importance, already mentioned above - the aims of the adventurer prince, and the interests of the Italian merchant; while on the Eastern side there are again two - the policy of the Greeks, and the condition of the Mahommedan East.
Bohemund's policy seems to have inspired Baldwin, the brother of Godfrey of Bouillon to emulation; on the one hand he strove to thwart the endeavours of Tancred, the nephew of Bohemund, to begin the foundation of the Eastern principality for his uncle by conquering Cilicia, and, on the other, he founded a principality for himself in Edessa.
The policy of Alexius was destined to produce evil results, both for the Eastern empire and for the crusading movement.
The old dissension of the Eastern and Western Churches had blazed out afresh in 1054; and the policy of Alexius only added new rancours to an old grudge, which culminated in the Latin conquest of Constantinople in 1204.
During the greater part of the period between 1130 and 11 54 the policy of Damascus was guided by the vizier Muin eddin Anar, who ruled on behalf of the descendants of the atabeg Tughtigin.
There was, in a word, co-ordination rather than subordination; nor did the kings ever attempt to embark on a policy of centralization.
But this is the only attempt at that policy of immediatisation which in contemporary England was carried to far greater lengths; and even this attempt was unsuccessful.
in lieu of personal participation in crusades, might help; the fatal policy of razzias against the neighbouring Mahommedan powers might procure temporary resources; but what was really necessary was a wide measure of native taxation, such as was once, and once only, attempted in 1183.
Her policy failed; and Constance successively married Raymund of Antioch and Raynald of Chatillon.
But the greatest success was attained when St Bernard - no great believer in pilgrimages, and naturally disposed to doubt the policy of a second Crusade - was induced by the pope to become the preacher of the new movement.
Nureddin pursued in his policy the tactics which the Mahommedans used against the Franks in battle: he sought to envelop their territories on every side.
From this point of vantage he began depredations on the Red Sea (1182), building a fleet, and seeking to attack Medina and Mecca - a policy which may be interpreted either as mere buccaneering, or as a calculated attempt to deal a blow at Mahommedanism in its very centre.
Richard soon followed; but while Philip sailed straight for Acre, Richard occupied himself by the way in conquering Cyprus - partly out of knight-errantry, and in order to avenge an insult offered to his betrothed wife Berengaria by the despot of the island, partly perhaps out of policy, and in order to provide a basis of supplies and of operations for the armies attempting to recover Palestine.
It is this Hohenstaufen policy which becomes the primary occasion of the diversion of the Fourth Crusade.
To such a policy of transmutation he was urged by two things.
had directed the Third Crusade, and the policy of the Hohenstaufen and the Venetians had directed the Fourth, it was a papal legate who had steered the Fifth to its ultimate fate.
Again and again he had excused himself to the pope, and been excused by the pope, because the exigencies of his policy in Germany or Sicily tied his hands.
he also took over their policy - the "forward" policy in the East which had also been followed by the old Norman kings.
But the policy of Charles, which thus prepared the way for a Crusade similar to those of 1197 and 1202, was crossed by that of his brother Louis IX.
A fourth cause, on which many writers dwelt, particularly at the time when the suppression of the Templars was in question, was the dissensions between the two orders of Templars and Hospitallers, and the selfish policy of merely pursuing their own interest which was followed by both in common.
It became a convention of diplomacy, designed to cover any particularly sharp piece of policy which needed some excuse; and the treaty of Granada, formed between Louis XII.
Through them the popes had deposed the emperors of the West from their headship of the world, partly because through the Crusades the popes were able to direct the common Christianity of Europe in a foreign policy of their own without consultation with the emperor, partly because in the 13th century they were ultimately able to direct the Crusade itself against the empire.
The Crusades had sprung from the policy of a theocratic government counting on the motive of otherworldliness; they had helped in their course to overthrow that motive, and with it the government which it had made possible.
In pursuance of the policy of encouraging the self-governing powers of the Basuto, a national council was instituted and held its first sitting in July 1903.
To his influence especially was attributed the humaner policy of Octavian after his first alliance with Antony and Lepidus.
Hadrian's first important act was to abandon as untenable the conquests of Trajan beyond the Euphrates (Assyria, Mesopotamia and Armenia), a recurrence to the traditional policy of Augustus.
And he was far the ablest and most dangerous critic of Bismarck's policy.
The change of policy in 1879 led to a great alteration in his position: he was reconciled to Bismarck, and even sometimes attended receptions at his house.
Thus Hull district inaugurated a bold policy of chapel-buildings; Norwich that of a foreign mission; Sunderland and Manchester the ideal of a bettereducated ministry, Sunderland institute being opened in 1868; Nottingham district founded a middle-class school; Leeds promoted a union of Sunday-schools, and the placing of chapel property on a better financial footing.
Henceforward Lanfranc exercised a perceptible influence on his master's policy.
The new archbishop at once began a policy of reorganization and reform.
On the other hand, when following a purely party policy he generally erred.
He resisted the navy, the mainspring of Washington's foreign policy; he opposed commercial treaties and diplomatic intercourse in a similar fashion.
The sworn foe of strong government, he was compelled, in pursuance of Jefferson's policy, to put into execution the Embargo and other radical and stringent measures.
The peace policy had failed, and nothing else replaced it.
Their vigorous foreign policy first made Athens an Aegean power and secured connexions with numerous mainland powers.
After a second political reaction, the prospect of a second Persian war, and the naval superiority of Aegina led to the assumption of a bolder policy.
Similarly the internal policy of Athens continued to be shaped by the conservatives.
The year 461 marks the reversal of Athenian policy at home and abroad.
The issue of this conflict was determined less by any intrinsic superiority on the part of her enemies than by the blunders committed by a people unable to carry out a consistent foreign policy on its own initiative, and served since Pericles by none but selfish or short-sighted advisers.
The island suffered from the reactionary policy of Ferdinand VII., but the few sporadic attempts at revolution between 1815 and 1820 were readily suppressed.
This policy, coupled with certain administrative and revenue reforms, and some private attempts in behalf of public education, made the last seven years of his rule, from 1827 to 1834, the most prosperous in the Spanish regime.
General Miles's policy in affording employment for the natives likewise served to make the new American regime acceptable.
Briihl must therefore be held wholly responsible for the ruinous policy which destroyed the position of Saxony in Germany between 1733 and 1763; for the mistaken ambition which led Frederick Augustus II.
The Confederates were once more unsuccessful, and the losses were so heavy that the "fighting" policy ordered by the Confederate government was countermanded.
The bishop also influenced the king's policy with regard to France, Scotland and Wales; was frequently employed on business of the highest moment; and was the royal mouthpiece on several important occasions.
In July 1774 he wrote for a convention in Fairfax county a series of resolutions known as the Fairfax Resolves, in which he advocated a congress of the colonies and suggested non-intercourse with Great Britain, a policy subsequently adopted by Virginia and later by the Continental Congress.
He attempted, though vainly, to use his influence to moderate Napoleon's policy, especially in the matter of Spain and the treatment of the pope.