Poles Sentence Examples
No kind of information is excluded, but the fullest details refer to the bishopric of Merseburg and to the wars against the Wends and the Poles.
Herodotus mentions the temple dedicated to "Perseus" and asserts that Chemmis was remarkable for the celebration of games in honour of that hero, after the manner of the Greeks, at which prizes were given; as a matter of fact some representations are known of Nubians and people of Puoni (Somalic coast) clambering up poles before the god Min.
In suburban and rural districts subscribers are usually served by means of bare wires erected upon wooden or iron poles.
The licences merely condoned the infringement of the Telegraph Act 1869, and did not confer powers to erect poles and wires on, or to place wires under, any highway or private property.
As division proceeds, the filamentous nature of this cytoplasm becomes more prominent and the threads begin either to converge towards the poles of the nucleus, to form a bipolar spindle, or may converge towards, or radiate from, several different points, to form a multipolar spindle.Advertisement
The diurnal rotation of the earth furnishes two fixed points or poles, the axis joining which is fixed or nearly so in its direction in space.
Little and Great Russians, Rumanians, Bulgarians, Germans, Greeks, Frenchmen, Poles, Tatars and Jews are mingled together and scattered about in small colonies, especially in Bessarabia.
Two years later the prince of NovgorodSeversk was accused of intriguing with the Poles and imprisoned for the rest of his life.
At the same time it was displeasing to the Swedes, who had become rivals of the Poles on the Baltic coast, and they started a false Dimitri of their own in Novgorod.
The throne was vacant, the great nobles quarrelling among themselves, the Catholic Poles in the Kremlin of Moscow, the Protestant Swedes in Novgorod, and enormous bands of brigands everywhere.Advertisement
As in all previous insurrections the Poles proved stronger in the field, and Khmelnitski in desperation sought foreign assistance, first in Constantinople and then in Moscow.
F o i Notwithstanding the efforts of the Poles and the Military Orders to exclude Russia from the shores of the Baltic and keep her in a state of isolation, she was coming slowly into closer relations with central and western Europe.
Here was a tempting field for the application of Catherine's aggressive policy, and if she had had to deal merely with the Poles she would have had an easy task.
Then an imperial manifesto reminding the Poles of the treaty of 1768 was issued and a large Russian force entered the Ukraine.
Among the ancients it was in request for poles, rafters, joists, and for the construction of winepresses, tables and musical instruments; and on that account was so valuable that a plantation of cypresses was considered a sufficient dowry for a daughter.Advertisement
In1608-1609it withstood a sixteen months' siege by the Poles; at a later date the monks took a lively part in the organization of the army which crushed the outbreak of the peasants.
Hence the study of the mountain ranges of a continent is, for a proper apprehension of its physical conditions and characteristics, as essential as the examination of its extent and position in relation to the equator and poles, and the configuration of its coasts.
The rebellious elements allied themselves instinctively with the Poles, who thus found the absorption of the greater part of the lands of the Order an easy task.
The younger and smaller trees are remarkably durable, especially when the bark is allowed to remain on them; and most of the poles imported into Britain for scaffolding, ladders, mining-timber and similar uses are furnished by this fir.
Its great value to the English forester is as a "nurse" for other trees, for which its dense leafage and tapering form render it admirably fitted, as it protects, without overshading, the young saplings, and yields saleable stakes and small poles when cut out.Advertisement
The addition of large territories to the grand duchy of Warsaw after the war of 1809 aroused the fears of the tsar respecting the Poles; and he regarded all Napoleon's actions as inspired by hostility to Russia.
Certainly he needed her support during that campaign; but many good judges have inclined to the belief that the whole-hearted support of Poles and Lithuanians would have been of still greater value, and that the organization of their resources might well have occupied him during the winter of 1812-1813, and would have furnished him with a new and advanced base from which to strike at the heart of Russia in the early summer of 1813.
A fortnight later Charles quitted Warsaw, to seek the elector; on the 2nd of July routed the combined Poles and Saxons at Klissow; and three weeks later, captured the fortress of Cracow by an act of almost fabulous audacity.
His character was hardening, and he deliberately adopted the most barbarous expedients for converting the Augustan Poles to his views.
It consists chiefly of Little Russians, Poles (31%), and Jews (1 2%).Advertisement
The Poles retained Podolia until the third division of their country in 1193, when it was taken by Russia.
The shell thus formed is then cut along the line of the intended equator into two hemispheres, they are then again glued together and made to revolve round an axis the ends of which passed through the poles and entered a metal meridian circle.
The arc is produced by leading a current of about 5000 volts equatorially between the poles of an electromagnet; this produces what is practically a disk of flame, 62 ft.
In 1442 Hunyadi drove the Turks from Hermannstadt and, at the head of an army of Hungarians, Poles, Servians, Walachians and German crusaders, succeeded in the ensuing year in expelling them from Semendria, penetrating as far as the Balkans, where he inflicted heavy losses on the Turkish general.
In 1496 the temporary armistice between the Poles and Turks, renewed in 1493, came to an end, and John Albert, king of Poland, seized the occasion to invade Moldavia.
Aware of the growing feeling against war in France, Napoleon had determined to make his allies not only bear the expenses of the coming campaign, but find the men as well, and he was so far master of Europe that of the 363,000 who on the 24th of June crossed the Niemen no Iess than two-thirds were Germans, Austrians, Poles or Italians.
The concentration of these substances is least in the warm equatorial seas and greatest near the poles.
He had shown previously that decomposition of water could be effected although the two poles were placed in separate vessels connected by moistened threads.
Raskolniks or Nonconformists in the second half of the 17th century, rebel stryeltsy under Peter the Great, courtiers of rank during the reigns of the empresses, Polish confederates under Catherine II., the " Decembrists " under Nicholas I., nearly 50,000 Poles after the insurrection of 1863, and later on whole generations of socialists were sent to Siberia; while the number of common-law convicts and exiles transported thither increased steadily from the end of the 18th century.
According to the language in common use, 95% of the population was German, 4.66% was Czech, and the remainder was composed of Poles, Slovaks, Ruthenians, Croatians and Italians.
The regions of greatest attraction have received the name of poles, and the line joining them is called the axis of the magnet; the space around a magnet in which magnetic effects are exhibited is called the field of magnetic force, or the magnetic field.
Upon one of these is based the principle of the mariner's compass, which is said to have been known to the Chinese as early as I ioo B.C., though it was not introduced into Europe until more than 2000 years later; a magnet supported so that its axis is free to turn in a horizontal plane will come to rest with its poles pointing approximately north and south.
Magnetism may be imparted to a bar of hardened steel by stroking it several times from end to end, always in the same direction, with one of the poles of a magnet.
The poles of a piece of magnetized steel may be at once distinguished if the two ends are successively presented to the compass; that end which attracts the south pole of the compass needle (and is therefore north) may be marked for easy identification.
Similar magnetic poles are not merely indifferent to each other, but exhibit actual repulsion.
The north pole of the bar-magnet will repel the north pole of the suspended needle, and there will likewise be repulsion between the two south poles.
Such experiments as these demonstrate the fundamental law that like poles repel each other; unlike poles attract.
It follows that between two neighbouring magnets, the poles of which are regarded as centres of force, there must always be four forces in action.
Denoting the two pairs of magnetic poles by N, S and N', S', there is attraction between N and S', and between S and N'; repulsion between N and N', and between S and S'.
Hence it is not very easy to determine experimentally the law of magnetic force between poles.
Coulomb, who by using very long and thin magnets, so arranged that the action of their distant poles was negligible, succeeded in establishing the law, which has since been confirmed by more accurate methods, that the force of attraction or repulsion exerted between two magnetic poles varies inversely as the square of the distance between them.
Since the poles of different magnets differ in strength, it is important to agree upon a definite unit or standard of reference in terms of which the strength of a pole may be numerically specified.
Other conditions remaining unchanged, the force between two poles is proportional to the product of their strengths; it is repulsive or attractive according as the signs of the poles are like or unlike.
At shorter distances the magnetism induced in the weaker magnet will be stronger than its permanent magnetism, and there will be attraction; two magnets with their like poles in actual contact will always cling together unless the like poles are of exactly equal strength.
Magnetic force has not merely the property of acting upon magnetic poles, it has the additional property of producing a phenomenon known as magnetic induction, or magnetic flux, a physical condition which is of the nature of a flow continuously circulating through the magnet and the space outside it.
Where the lines are crowded together, as in the neighbourhood of the poles, the force is greater (or the field is stronger) than where they are more widely separated; hence the strength of a field at any point can be accurately specified by reference to the concentration of the lines.
Gilbert in 1600, that the earth itself is a great magnet, having its poles at the two places where the dipping needle is vertical.
To be consistent with the terminology adopted in Britain, it is necessary to regard the pole which is geographically north as being the south pole of the terrestrial magnet, and that which is geographically south as the north pole; in practice however the names assigned to the terrestrial magnetic poles correspond with their geographical situations.
The magnets hitherto considered have been assumed to have each two poles, the one north and the other south.
By suitably modifying the manipulation a further number of consequent poles, as they are called, may be developed.
It is also possible that a magnet may have no poles at all.
If the operation has been skilfully performed the ring will have no poles and will not attract iron filings.
Again, a steel wire through which an electric current has been passed will be magnetized, but so long as it is free from stress it will give no evidence of magnetization; if, however, the wire is twisted, poles will be developed at the two ends, for reasons which will be explained later.
Let a magnetized knitting needle, having north and south poles at the two ends respectively, be broken in the middle; each half will be found to possess a north and a south pole, the appropriate supplementary poles appearing at the broken ends.
The process of magnetization consists in turning round the molecules by the application of magnetic force, so that their north poles may all point more or less approximately in the direction of the force; thus the body as a whole becomes a magnet which is merely the resultant of an immense number of molecular magnets.
In every magnet the strength of the south pole is exactly equal to that of the north pole, the action of the same magnetic force upon the two poles being equal and oppositely directed.
The action between any two magnetic poles is mutual.
If m, and m 2 are the strengths of two poles, d the distance between them expressed in centimetres, and f the force in dynes, f=ml m2/d2 (I) The force is one of attraction or repulsion, according as the sign of the product m l m 2 is negative or positive.
The poles at the ends of an infinitely thin uniform magnet, or magnetic filament, would act as definite centres of force.
An actual magnet may generally be regarded as a bundle of magnetic filaments, and those portions of the surface of the magnet where the filaments terminate, and socalled " free magnetism " appears, may be conveniently called poles or polar regions.
Similarly, the forces acting in the opposite direction on the negative poles of the filaments have a resultant at another point S, which is called the south or negative pole.
The opposite and parallel forces acting on the poles are always equal, a fact which is sometimes expressed by the statement that the total magnetism of a magnet is zero.
The line joining the two poles is called the axis of the magnet.
A magnetic field is generally due either to a conductor carrying an electric current or to the poles of a magnet.
The moment, M, M or V, of a uniformly and longitudinally magnetized bar-magnet is the product of its length into the strength of one of its poles; it is the moment of the couple acting on the magnet when placed in a field of unit intensity with its axis perpendicular to the direction of the field.
The potential due to a thin magnet at a point whose distance from the two poles respectively is r and r' is V =m(l/r=l/r') (8) When V is constant, this equation represents an equipotential surface.
The equipotential surfaces are two series of ovoids surrounding the two poles respectively, and separated by a plane at zero potential passing perpendicularly through the middle of the axis.
A magnet may be regarded as consisting of an infinite number of elementary magnets, each having a pair of poles and a definite magnetic moment.
If a series of such elements, all equally and longitudinally magnetized, were placed end to end with their unlike poles in contact, the external action of the filament thus formed would be reduced to that of the two extreme poles.
When it is desired to have a uniform magnet with definitely situated poles, it it usual to employ one having the form of an ovoid, or elongated ellipsoid of revolution, instead of a rectangular or cylindrical bar.
If the magnetization is parallel to the major axis, and the lengths of the major and minor axes are 2a and 2C, the poles are situated at a distance equal to 3a from the centre, and the magnet will behave externally like a simple solenoid of length 3a.
The distribution of magnetism and the position of the poles in magnets of other shapes, such as cylindrical or rectangular bars, cannot be specified by any general statement, though approximate determinations may be obtained experimentally in individual cases.'
Kohlrausch 2 the distance between the poles of a cylindrical magnet the length of which is from io to 30 times the diameter, is sensibly equal to five-sixths of the length of the bar.
This statement, however, is only approximately correct, the distance between the poles depending upon the intensity of the magnetization.
For most practical purpose a knowledge of the exact position of the poles is of no importance; the magnetic moment, and therefore the mean magnetization, can always be determined with accuracy.
In the case of a straight uniformly magnetized bar the direction of the magnetic force due to the poles of the magnet is from the north to the south pole outside the magnet, and from the south to the north inside.
These free poles produce a magnetic field which is superposed upon that arising from other sources.
The resultant magnetic field, therefore, is compounded of two fields, the one being due to the poles, and the other to the external causes which would be operative in the absence of the magnetized metal.
In certain cases, as, for instance, in an iron ring wrapped uniformly round with a coil of wire through which a current is passing, the induction is entirely within the metal; there are, consequently, no free poles, and the ring, though magnetized, constitutes a poleless magnet.
Forces acting on a Small Body in the Magnetic Field.-If a small magnet of length ds and pole-strength m is brought into a magnetic field such that the values of the magnetic potential at the negative and positive poles respectively are V 1 and the work done upon the magnet, and therefore its potential energy, will be W =m(V2-Vi) =mdV, which may be written W =m d s- = M d v= - MHo = - vIHo, ds ds where M is the moment of the magnet, v the volume, I the magnetization, and Ho the magnetic force along ds.
For this reason a thin bar suspended at its centre of gravity between a pair of magnetic poles will, if paramagnetic, set itself along the line joining the poles, where the field is strongest, and if diamagnetic, transversely to the line.
The distance between the poles may with sufficient accuracy for a rough determination be assumed to be equal to five-sixths of the length of the magnet.
The magnetized body which is to be tested should be placed in such a position that the force H P due to its poles may, at the spot occupied by the suspended needle, act in a direction at right angles to that due to the earth - that is, east and west.
Let 21=the length of the rod (or, more accurately, the distance between its poles), v= its volume, m and - m the strength of its poles, and let d= the distance CM.
For experiments with long thin rods or wires it has an advantage over the other arrangements in that the position of the poles need not be known with great accuracy, a small upward or downward displacement having little effect upon the magnetometer deflection.
The sample, arranged as a bundle of rectangular strips, is caused to rotate about a central horizontal axis between the poles of an upright C-shaped magnet, which is supported near 'its middle upon knife-edges in such a manner that it can oscillate about an axis in a line with that about which the specimen rotates; the lower side of the magnet is weighted, to give it some stability.
The sample to be inserted between the magnet poles was prepared in the form of a bobbin resembling an ordinary cotton reel, with a short narrow neck (constituting the " isthmus ") and conical ends.
The difficulties attending the experimental investigation of the forces acting between magnetic poles have already been referred to, and indeed a rigorously exact determination of the mutual action could only be made under conditions which are in practice unattainable.
Coulomb, 2 however, by using long and thin steel rods, symmetrically magnetized, and so arranged that disturbing influences became negligibly small, was enabled to deduce from his experiments with reasonable certainty the law that the force of attraction or repulsion between two poles varies inversely as the square of the distance between them.
When the fluids inside a particle were mixed together, the particle was neutral; when they were more or less completely separated, the particle became magnetized to an intensity depending upon the magnetic force applied; the whole body therefore consisted of a number of little spheres having north and south poles, each of which exerted an elementary action at a distance.
Dvinsk was taken by the Poles, and Rezhitsa (the main town of Latgalia) by the Landeswehr, who advanced to Rozhanova.
He supported the government in its attempts to subdue by legislation the Socialists, Poles and Catholics; and he was one of the few men of eminence who gave the sanction of his name to the attacks on the Jews which began in 1878.
Gauss in particular employed it in the calculation of the magnetic potential of the earth, and it received new light from Clerk Maxwell's interpretation of harmonics with reference to poles on the sphere.
At the opening sitting (May 30) Czechs, Poles and Ruthenes defined their national attitude in formal resolutions, and the Slovene leader, Father Korosec, in the name of the Yugoslays, demanded " the union of all the Yugoslav territories of the Monarchy in an independent state organism, free from the rule of any foreign nation, and resting on a democratic basis, under the sceptre of the Habsburg-Lorraine Dynasty."
The Yugosla y s were represented by Trumbic and his Committee and by 12 deputies of the Serbian Skupstina, the Czechoslovaks by Benes and Stefanik, the Poles by Zamorski, Skirmunt and Seyda, the Rumanians by Draghicescu, Lupu and Mironescu.
On the 16th the Hungarian Government declared in favour of personal union, and next day Hussarek published an imperial proclamation, dividing Austria (not Austria-Hungary) into four federal units (German, Czech, Yugoslav and Ukrainian) and leaving the Poles to make their own decision.
Pop. (1900) 159,618, of whom over 80% were Poles, Io% Germans, and 8% Ruthenians; nearly 30% of the population were Jews.
There are also a polytechnic, gymnasia - for Poles, Ruthenians and Germans respectively - seminaries for priests, training colleges for teachers, and other special and technical schools.
It is generally supposed that man originated in tropical or subtropical latitudes, and spread gradually towards the poles.
Above Ciudad Bolivar transportation is effected by two or three small river steamers and a great number of small craft (lauchas, bungos, balandras, &c.), using sails, oars and punting poles.
When mitosis is about to take place, they separate from one another and pass to the poles of the nucleus, forming the achromatic spindle.
After the division and cleavage of the chromosomes of the original nucleus have taken place they pass from the equator to the poles of the spindle, rearranging themselves close to the separated centrosomes to form daughter nuclei.
In many pathological cells undergoing indirect segmentation, centrosomes appear to be absent, or at any rate do not manifest themselves at the poles of the achromatic spindle.
Of these last Russians and Poles numbered 21,013; Germans, 3386; Austrians and Hungarians, 2197; Dutch, 1902; Norwegians Swedes and Danes, 1341; and Rumanians, 1016.
German residents are found mainly in the western and west central districts; French mainly in the City of Westminster (especially the district of Soho), St Pancras and St Marylebone; Italians in Holborn (Saffron Hill), Soho and Finsbury; and Russians and Poles in Stepney and Bethnal Green.
In the 15th century the Moldavians erected here a fort, which the Poles took in the r7th century.
In some parts of England the trees are thrashed with rods or poles to obtain the nuts, but this is not a commendable mode of collecting them.
Horizontal channels were cut on opposite walls, through which the carbon poles or electrodes were passed into the upper part of the cavity.
In 1900 the population included 1,386,115 persons of German nationality, 102,974 Czechs and Slovaks, 4346 Poles, 805 Ruthenians, 1329 Slovenes, 271 Serbo-Croatians, and 1368 Italians, all Austrian subjects.
Of more importance were the two sieges by the Turks (1529 and 168 3), when the city was saved on the first occasion by the gallant defence of Count Niclas von Salm (1459-1530), and on the second by RÃ¼diger von Starhemberg (1638-1701), who held out until the arrival of the Poles and Germans under John Sobieski of Poland.
Through the fact, however, that from 1501 onwards the Lithuanians and the Poles were ruled over by one sovereign and from 1569 onwards had a common legislature, the former, though ever anxious to break away, gradually sank into a state of dependence.
The Poles, past-masters in the art of political intrigue, never lost an opportunity of imposing their hegemony.
Only Poles were elected to the first Duma in 1906.
This measure, applied by Russian officials, was designed against the Poles and the Lithuanian Nationalists alike, for not even the Progressives who favoured autonomy for Poland contemplated its grant to Lithuania.
In the third Duma the five delegates allotted to the non-Russian population of Vilna government were all Poles who joined the Polish party; in Kovno government three delegates were Lithuanians, one was a Pole and one a Jew.
The initial victories of the Bolsheviks were followed by defeat and the victorious Poles, under the so-calle I" rebel "Gen.
The solutions are well mixed by stirring with wooden poles, and the gold allowed to settle, the time allowed varying from 12 to 72 hours.
At first successful, Kuprili was defeated by the Poles under John Sobieski at Khotin and Lemberg; the Turks, however, continued to hold their own, and finally in October 1676 consented to honourable terms of peace by the treaty of Zurawno (October 16, 1676), retaining Kaminiec, Podolia and the greater part of the Ukraine.
These trees are usually found growing by rivers' banks or in other moist situations, and are generally pollarded for the purpose of securing a crop of straight poles.
Where poles are required, it is better to treat the trees as coppice and to cut the trunk level with the soil.
C. giganieus, the largest and most striking species of the genus, is a native of hot, arid, desert regions of New Mexico, growing there in rocky valleys and on mountain sides, where the tall stems with their erect branches have the appearance of telegraph poles.
By this time Charles had discovered that it was easier to defeat the Poles than to conquer Poland.
On the 21st of June Warsaw was retaken by the Poles, and four days later Charles was obliged to purchase the assistance of Frederick William by the treaty of Marienburg.
This deflecting force is directly proportional to the velocity and the mass of the particle and also to the sine of the latitude; hence it is zero at the equator and comes to a maximum at the poles.
Sparse scrub timber, of little value except for posts, poles and rough beams and for fuel, occupies the region westward to approximately the longitude of the Pease river.
With this end King Wenceslaus of Bohemia had requested the co-operation of the archbishop and his clergy, and also the support of the university, in both instances unsuccessfully, although in the case of the latter the Bohemian "nation," with Huss at its head, had only been overborne by the votes of the Bavarians, Saxons and Poles.
In 1600 it fell into the hands of the Swedes, in 1603 reverted to the Poles, and in 1625 was seized by Gustavus.
In 1135, Eric II., king of Denmark, acknowledged himself a vassal of Lothair; Boleslaus III., prince of the Poles, promised tribute and received Pomerania and Riigen as German fiefs; while the eastern emperor, John Comnenus, implored Lothair's aid against Roger II.
Though starting from apparently opposite poles and following widely different courses the two movements led more or less directly to the same results.
It was Anschar, a monk of Corbie, who first preached to the Scandinavians, and other Benedictines were apostles to Poles, Prussians and other Slavonic peoples..
In the 15th century it successfully withstood sieges by the Hussites (1429 and 1432), by the Poles (1450) and by the duke of Sagan (1477).
The place was founded by the Poles in 1642.
Pop. (1900), 25,141, nearly one-half Jews; the remainder are Little Russians, Poles and a few Armenians.
For more than 150 years its possession was disputed between the Cossacks, the Poles and the Turks.
It remained in the hands of the Poles, and was annexed to Russia in 1795.
The population of Livonia, which was 621,600 in 1816, reached 1,000,876 in 1870, and 1,295,231 in 1897, of whom 43.4 were Letts, 39.9% Ehsts, 7.6% Germans, 5.4% Russians, 2% Jews and 1.2% Poles.
Of these 567,318 or 34.5% were Poles, a larger proportion than in any other Prussian province except Posen.
Prussia, chiefly in the west, from Putzig to Konitz, are here reckoned with the Poles.
The Poles proper chiefly inhabit the centre of the province, and the borders of Russian Poland.
The Poles are almost all Roman Catholics.
The extremities of the diameter perpendicular to a small circle are called the "poles" of that circle, and the distance from the pole to the circle, measured by the arc of the great circle through the pole, is the "polar distance" of the small circle.
The Poles were, together with the Ruthenians, the youngest Austrian nation; the repeated partitions of Poland since the 18th century brought them unwillingly under Austrian rule.
Just as the Czechs had a majority in Bohemia, so had the Poles in Galicia; and they used their strength against the Ruthenians.
The Austrian Government being largely dependent upon the parliamentary aid of the Poles, could not stand out against them much on account of the far-reaching autonomy of the Galician Territorial Government.
Thus Germans, Czechs and Poles were provided for.
Since the Poles were at first unyielding, Ruthenian demonstrations and strikes of students arose, and the Ruthenians were no longer content with the reversion of a few separate professorial chairs, and with parallel courses of lectures.
Moreover the three chief nationalities, the Germans, Poles and Czechs, were each represented by a so-called national minister (Landsmann-Minister).
This time the Poles came to the rescue of the Government in its hour of need, by getting a form of standing order approved which rendered obstruction somewhat more difficult, and in this, curiously enough, they were helped by the Czechs; for obstruction had brought even them into an impasse, since their financial requirements had not been met.
Thus the law for strengthening of the standing orders was carried through by an ad hoc combination of Poles, Czechs and Christian Socialists.
After the Tauern railway had been built for the Alpine countries - without, it is true, any particular pecuniary help from the Polish part of the empire, which was known to be only passively interested - the Poles demanded a complete carrying into effect and extension of the waterways law, with a larger State subsidy.
It was over these demands in connexion with the waterways, which the Minister of Finance declared to be impossible of fulfilment to the extent required by the Poles, that Bienerth's mainstay failed to support him; and on Dec. 12 he sent in his resignation, which was, however, followed by a renewed Bienerth Ministry, composed of Germans, Poles and officials.
His programme was to be an honourable mediator in the German-Bohemian quarrel, to extend the railway system, and to satisfy the wishes of the Poles in the waterways question by an expenditure of 73.4 million kronen on canal construction in Galicia, to which Galicia was to contribute only 9.4 million kronen, the State finding the other 64, and by an expenditure of 125 millions on river improvements, 99 of which would be contributed by the State.
Since the Northern and Southern Sla y s had absented themselves and the Poles were in opposition, the Reichsrat was adjourned (May 3), and the Germans now again demanded the grant of a revised constitution, with German as the language of State, a special status for Galicia and Dalmatia, access for the Germans to the Adriatic, and the partition of Bohemia.
Hussarek got through a six months' provisional budget with the help of the Poles against the votes of the Ukrainians, a proof that he had shelved the partition of Galicia.
This programme met with a cool reception; the Poles by now were expecting a new organization from the Peace Congress; the Southern Sla y s desired union with those of their race in Hungary also; the Czechs opposed the division of the administrative commission into two parts; they did not want autonomy for their nation, but incorporation of the German Bohemians in their State, and refused all negotiations.
But since the non-German nationalities were not prepared to accept such a peaceful settlement, the liquidation between the monarchy and the new republic was confined to German-Austria, and Lammasch's friendly offices might certainly be thanked for the fact that in this quarter the settlement was achieved quite bloodlessly, in favourable contrast with the two years of fighting between Czechs, Poles, Ruthenians, Magyars, Rumanians, Southern Slays and Italians.
The Poles took it again in 1611, and kept it till the peace of 1634.
A large extent of woodland consists of ash and chestnut plantations, maintained for the growth of hop poles.
The driving force is balanced against a retarding force produced by the rotation of a copper disk fixed on the armature shaft, which rotates between the poles of a permanent magnet.
It consists of a disk of aluminium, the axis of which is geared to a counting mechanism and which runs between the poles of permanent magnets that create eddy currents in it and therefore exert a retarding force.
During the rebellion of the Cossack chief, Bogdan Chmielnicki (1640), the Poles took it by assault, killing 14,000 persons and burning 5000 houses.
The establishment and convection of a single polar atom constitutes in fact a quasi-magnetization, in addition to the polarization current as above defined, the negative poles completing the current circuits of the positive ones.
German priests and bishops carried the Christian faith to the Czechs and the Moravians, laboured among the Hungarians and the Poles, and won the wide district between the Elbe and the Oder at once for Christianity and for the German nation.
When in Egypt he measured the pyramids, and, finding that the angles formed by the sides of the largest were in the direction of the four cardinal points, he concluded that this position must have been intended, and also that the poles of the earth and meridians had not deviated since the erection of those structures.
The Czechs and the Slovaks, or, to give them their united name, the Czechoslovaks, are a branch of the great Slav family of which the Russians are the most numerous and the most important member and to which the Serbo-Croats with the Slovenes, the Poles, the Bulgarians and the Wends of Germany also belong.
Other nationalities occupying portions of the Czechoslovak Republic are Ruthenians 600,000 and Poles 250,000.
The Paris Conference in July 1920 decided for the partition of the disputed area; and the decision, though it signified no small sacrifice for the Czechoslovaks and caused deep disappointment throughout the country, was accepted loyally in the hope that by this sacrifice the friendship of the Poles would be secured.
In the words of Dr. Benes, " the Czechoslovak Government regards the conflict with the Poles as definitively ended and is desirous of systematically pursuing a policy of rapprochement."
On the right bank lie Wallischei (a district inhabited by Poles) and some other suburbs.
It was intended as an effort to conciliate the Poles, and was opened by the emperor William IL, with imposing ceremonies, on the 10th of August 1910.
It would seem, from a somewhat obscure passage in the chronicle compiled from older the progenitors of the Poles, originally established on the Danube, were driven from thence by the Romans to the still wilder wilderness of central Europe, settling finally among the virgin forests and impenetrable morasses of the basin of the upper waters of the Oder and the Vistula.
So far were the Poles from anticipating any danger from the Teutonic Order, that, from 1243 to 1255, they actually assisted it to overthrow the independent Pomeranian princes, the most formidable opponents of the Knights in the earlier years of their existence.
By an agreement with the queen mother of Hungary at Kassa in 1383, the Poles finally accepted Jadwiga as their queen, and, on the 18th of February 1386, greatly against her will, the young princess, already betrothed to William of Austria, was wedded to Jagiello, grand duke of Lithuania, who had been crowned king of Poland at Cracow, three days previously, under the title of Wladislaus II.
The mere instinct of self-preservation had, at last, drawn the Poles and Lithuanians together against these ruthless and masterful intruders, and the coronation of Jagiello at Cracow on the 15th of February 1386, was both a warning and a challenge to the Knights.
Sigismund, in 1422, even went so far as to propose a partition of Poland between Hungary, the empire and the Silesian princes, a scheme which foundered upon Sigismund's impecuniosity and the reluctance of the Magyars to injure the Poles.
Not till the victory of Puck (September 17, 1462), one of the very few pitched battles in a war of raids, skirmishes and sieges, did fortune incline decisively to the side of the Poles, who maintained and improved their advantage till absolute exhaustion compelled the Knights to accept the mediation of a papal legate, and the second peace of Thorn (October 14, 1466) concluded a struggle which had reduced the Prussian provinces to a wilderness.'
The final settlement with the Poles was of the nature of a compromise.
Calvinism, indeed, rather recommended itself to the Poles as being of non-German origin, and Calvin actually dedicated his Commentary on the Mass to the young krolewicz (or crown prince) Sigismund Augustus, from whom protestantism, erroneously enough, expected much in the future.
There is only one answer; the principal cause of this complete and irretrievable collapse is to be sought for in the folly, egotism and selfishness of the Polish gentry, whose insane dislike of all discipline, including even the salutary discipline of regular government, converted Poland into something very like a primitive tribal community at the very time when every European statesman, including the more enlightened of the Poles themselves, clearly recognized that the political future belonged to the strongly centralized monarchies, which were everywhere rising on the ruins of feudalism.
The events of the last reign had demonstrated the incompetence of the Poles to govern themselves.
The Cossacks, mostly of Lithuanian origin, belonged to the Orthodox religion, so far as they belonged to any religion at all, and the Jagiellos had been very careful to safeguard the religious liberties of their Lithuanian subjects, especially as the Poles themselves were indifferent on the subject.
Parsimony prevailed, as usual, over prudence, and when the Cossacks showed unmistakable signs of restiveness, the Poles irritated them still further by ordering the construction of the strong fortress of Kudak at the confluence of the Dnieper and the Samara, to overawe the Zaporozhian community.
On the 18th of April 1648, at the general assembly of the Zaporozhians, he openly expressed his intention of proceeding against the Poles and was elected hetman by acclamation; on the Toth of May he annihilated a small detached Polish corps on the banks of the river Zheltndya Vodui, and seven days later overwhelmed the army of the Polish grand-hetman, massacring 850o of his 10,000 men and sending the grand-hetman himself and all his officers in chains to the Crimea.
Three years after his defeat at Beresteczko, Chmielnicki, finding himself unable to cope with the Poles single-handed, very reluctantly transferred his allegiance to the tsar, and the same year the tsar's armies invaded Poland, still bleeding from the all but mortal wounds inflicted on her by the Cossacks.
The diet was the humble servant of the conqueror of the moment, and the leading magnates chose their own sides without the slightest regard for the interests of their country, the Lithuanians for the most part supporting Charles XII., while the Poles divided their allegiance between Augustus and Stanislaus Leszczynski, whom Charles Leszczyn- placed upon the throne in 1704 and kept there till 1709.
At the very next diet, 1776, the Poles themselves reduced the army to 18,000 men.
Yet all the glory of the bitter struggle was with the vanquished, and if the Poles, to the last, had shown themselves children in the science of government, they had at least died on the field of battle like men.
Some of the Poles continued to hope Alexander!.
As early as the 13th of January 1813 he wrote to assure his former favourite and confidant, Prince Adam Czartoryski, that, "Whatever the Poles do now to aid in my success, will.
It had been stipulated by the Final Act that the Poles under foreign rule should be endowed with institutions to preserve their national existence according to such forms of political existence as the governments to which they belong shall think fit to allow them.
Alexander, who had a sentimental regard for freedom, so long as it was obedient to himself, had promised the Poles a The New constitution in April 1815 in a letter to Ostrov- Polish Con- skiy, the president of the senate at Warsaw.
The kingdom was the Congress Kingdom, for the vague promises of an extension to the east which Alexander had made to the Poles were never fulfilled.
Individual liberty, the use of the Polish language in the law courts, and the exclusive employment of Poles in the civil government were secured by the constitution.
It is highly doubtful whether, with the best efforts on both sides, a constitutional government could have been worked by a Russian autocrat, and an assembly of men who inherited the memories and characters of the Poles.
On the other hand, the Poles were also to blame for the failure of constitutional government.
A plot to murder Nicholas at his coronation on the 24th of May 1829 was not carried out, and when he held the fourth diet on the 30th of May 1830, the Poles made an ostentatious show of their nationality which Nicholas was provoked to describe as possibly patriotic but certainly not civil.
The latter were very busy and were supported by the Roman Catholic Church, which did little for the Prussian Poles and nothing for the Austrian Poles, but was active in harassing the schismatical government of Russia.
The fact that the Poles possessed a well-drilled army of 23,800 foot, 6800 horFe and 108 guns, which they were able to recruit to a total strength of 80,821 men with 158 guns, gave solidity to the rising.
The Russians, who had endeavoured to overawe Europe by the report of their immense military power, had the utmost difficulty in putting 114,000 men into the field, yet in less than a year, under the leadership of Diebitsch, and then of Paskevich, they mastered the Poles.
On the political and administrative side the struggle of the Poles was weakened by the faults which had been the ruin of their kingdom - f action pushed to the point of anarchy, want.
The Poles had begun by protesting that they only wished to defend their rights against the tsar, but they soon proceeded to proclaim his deposition.
But though these measures cowed the Poles, they failed to achieve their main purpose.
It was not till 1863, eight years after the death of the tsar in 1855, that the last attempt of the Poles to achieve independence by arms was made.
His warning, "No nonsense, gentlemen" (Point de reveries, Messieurs), was taken in very ill part, and it was perhaps naturally, but beyond question most unhappily, the truth that the tsar's concessions only served to encourage the Poles to revolt, and to produce a strong Russian reaction against his liberal policy.
As the Poles could no longer dispose of an army, they were unable to assail Russia as openly as in 1830.
He allowed the Poles who organized the demonstration of the 27th of February to form a kind of provisional government.
The Poles, encouraged by the one and exasperated by the other, finally broke into the partial revolt of 1863-1864.
Unlike the people of other Slavonic countries, the Poles are comparatively poor in popular and legendary poetry, but such compositions undoubtedly existed in early times, as may be seen by the writings of their chroniclers; thus Gallus translated into Latin a poem written on Boleslaus the Brave, and a few old Polish songs are included in Wojcicki's Library of Ancient Writers.
The ancient Polish hymn or war song, Piesn Boga Rodzica, was an address to the Virgin, sung by the Poles when about to fight.
Such a system would be sure to stifle all national outgrowth, and accordingly we have among the Poles none of those early monuments of the language which other countries boast.
About this time also flourished Nicholas Copernicus, a native of Thorn, one of the few Poles who have made themselves known beyond the limits of their country.
The Poles call the period between 1548 and 1606 their golden The Latin have been a Frenchman or Walloon, and we must Chronicles.
Among his numerous writings may be mentioned Lives of the Saints, Discourses on the Seven Sacraments, and especially his sermons preached before the diet, in which he lashed the Poles for their want of patriotism and prophesied the downfall of the country.
The Poles, like many of the other nations of Europe, had religious plays at an early period.
The wife of John Casimir, a Frenchwoman, Marie Louise, hired a troop of French actors and first familiarized the Poles with something which resembled the modern stage.
Perhaps, however, with the exception of the works of Fredro, the Poles have not produced anything of much merit in this line.
In the year 1851 Romuald Ziefikiewicz published Songs of the People of Pinsk, and collections have even appeared of those of the Kashoubes, a remnant of the Poles living near Danzig.
In Kaczkowski the Poles found a novelist who treated many periods of their history with great success.
In 1882 the Poles lost, in the prime of life, a very promising historian Szujski (born in 1835), and also Schmitt, who died in his sixty-sixth year.
In philosophy the Poles (as the Sla y s generally) have produced but few remarkable names.
Not only are the professors of Cracow University some of the most eminent living Poles, but it has been chosen as a place of residence by many Polish literary men.
The Poles are busy in reviving their great past.
This includes 20,000 Poles and 12,000 Jews.
Be that as it may, the Poles entered Moldavia not as friends, but as foes, and, after the abortive siege of Suczawa, were compelled to retreat through the Bukowina to Sniatyn, harassed all the way by the forces of the hospodar.
There is a unity in the divine purpose, of which judgment and mercy are the two poles, but there is as yet no conception of an historical continuity in the execution of that purpose, and therefore no foundation laid for the maintenance of a continuous community of faith in the impending fall of the nation.
The eggs are elliptical in shape, both poles being equal, and are covered with a shell which may be thin and leathery or hard and calcareous.
The decisive engagement was fought (probably) in the Gulf of Morbihan and the Romans gained the victory by cutting down the enemy's rigging with sickles attached to poles.
They elected three Poles successively as generals, taking, however, only the title of vicars, till on the 7th of March 1801 Pius VII.
This board, which is composed of five members appointed by the supreme court for a term of two years, also assesses the taxes on the railways, and on telegraph and telephone lines; for railways the average rate of taxation is assessed on the estimated actual value of the road beds, rolling stock and equipment, and for the telegraph and telephone lines this rate is assessed on the estimated actual value of the poles, wires, instruments, apparatus, office furniture and fixtures.
In recent years there has been a great influx of Poles into these parts, attracted by the higher wages.
In the treaty of demarcation between the Lithuanians and the Poles in 1546 Berdichev was assigned to the former.
Pop. (1900) 91,310, of which 21,000 were Jews, 5000 Germans and the remainder Poles.
Here also are conserved the remains of St Stanislaus, the patron saint of the Poles, who, as bishop of Cracow, was slain before the altar by King Boleslaus in 1079.
Since 1880 Italians, Russians, Poles, Austrians, Bohemians and Hungarians have enormously increased in the immigrant population.
In astronomy, the "celestial equator" is the name given to the great circle in which the plane of the terrestrial equator intersects the celestial sphere; it is consequently equidistant from the celestial poles.
The Poles would not assist, and at the head of the Saxons Augustus invaded Livonia, but for various causes the campaign was not a success, and in July 1702 he was defeated by Charles at Klissow.
He was handicapped by the mutual jealousy of the Saxons and the Poles, and a struggle broke out in Poland which was only ended when the king promised to limit the number of his army in that country to 18,000 men.
In the south of England, the larch is much planted for the supply of hop-poles, though in parts of Kent and Sussex poles formed of Spanish chestnut are regarded as still more lasting.
The best month for larch planting, whether for poles or timber, is November; larches are sometimes planted in the spring, but the practice cannot be commended, as the sap flows early, and, if a dry period follows, the growth is sure to be checked.
The thinnings of the larch woods in the Highlands are in demand for railway sleepers, scaffold poles, and mining timber, and are applied to a variety of agricultural purposes.
An expedition against the Poles was followed by peace with France, when Lothair renounced his claim on Lorraine.
The metals may be introduced into the arc in various ways, and in some cases where they can be obtained in sufficient quantity the metallic electrodes may be used in the place of carbon poles.
When the spark gap is small, the sudden evaporation of the metal has a better chance of filling the interval between the poles, even without the introduction of a self-induction.
These lines in the case of the spark cannot be due entirely to the increased mass of vapour near the poles, but indicate a real change of spectrum probably connected with a higher temperature.
Hemsalech 1 have measured the velocity with which the luminous molecules are projected from metallic poles when a strong spark is passed through the air interval which separates the poles.
It was found that during the successive electrical oscillations the metallic lines can be observed to stretch farther and farther away from the poles, thus giving a measure of the gradual diffusion of the metal.
The immediate result of the congress was a combined attack by the Magyars and Poles upon the emperor Louis and his ally Albert of Austria, which resulted in favour of Charles in 1337.
Pop. (1863), 20,699; (1900) 39,113, of whom 50% were Jews and 30% Poles.
Restored to Poland by the peace of Karlowitz (1699), it passed with Podolia to Russia in 1795 Here the Turks were defeated by the Poles in 1633, and here twenty years later peace was concluded between the same antagonists.
As the terms Zoron and Aphron, used there to signify the south and north poles, are neither Latin nor Greek, Tiraboschi suggests that they may be of Arabian origin, and that the whole passage concerning the lodestone may have been added to the original treatise by the Arabian translators.
Roger Bacon (Opus majus and Opus minus, 1266-1267) was acquainted with the properties of the lodestone, and wrote that if set so that it can turn freely (swimming on water) it points toward the poles; but he stated that this was not due to the pole-star, but to the influence of the northern region of the heavens.
The first part of the epistle deals generally with magnetic attractions and repulsions, with the polarity of the stone, and with the supposed influence of the poles of the heavens upon the poles of the stone.
Gyraldus, writing in 1540 (Libellus de re nautica), misunderstanding this reference, declared that this observation of the direction of the magnet to the poles had been handed down as discovered "by a certain Flavius."
The Ruthenians had united with Rome at Brest in 1596, forming a group of Uniates distinct from the Poles, who belonged to the Latin rite.
In spite of the assurances of Catherine, Russia has repeatedly persecuted the Ruthenian Uniates, in order to incorporate them into the Holy Orthodox Church; and she has occasionally taken drastic measures against the Poles, particularly after the revolts of 1830 and 1863.
In the case of Germany he made many concessions which appeared to the Zelanti to be excessive, and made even still greater ones to France and Russia, to the great distress of the Poles.
A specimen of one of these heavy glasses afterwards became historically important as the substance in which Faraday detected the rotation of the plane of polarization of light when the glass was placed in the magnetic field, and also as the substance which was first repelled by the poles of the magnet.
For on the one hand the electric current always forms a closed circuit, and on the other the two poles of the magnet have equal but opposite properties, and are inseparably connected, so that whatever tendency there is for one pole to circulate round the current in one direction is opposed by the equal tendency of the other pole to go round the other way, and thus the one pole can neither drag the other round and round the wire nor yet leave it behind.
It gave no effects when the same magnetic poles or the contrary poles were on opposite sides (as respects the course of the polarized ray), nor when the same poles were on the same side either with the constant or intermitting current.
But when contrary magnetic poles were on the same side there was an effect produced on the polarized ray, and thus magnetic force and light were proved to have relations to each other.
A bar of heavy glass was suspended by silk between the poles of the new magnet.
This represents about two-thirds of the total variation of Galileo's acceleration between the equator and the poles, the balance being due to the ellipticity of the figure of the earth.
Three-fourths of the inhabitants and territory are German, but to the east of the Oder the Poles, more than 1,000,000 in number, form the bulk of the population, while there are about 15,500 Czechs in the south part of the province and 25,000 Wends near Liegnitz.
The Germans formed 44.69% of the population, 33.21% were Poles and 22.05% Czechs and Sla y s.
But at least she did not enter into a solemn engagement to defend the Poles who were engaged in reforming their constitution, and then throw them over in order to share in the plunder of their country.
It was repeatedly plundered by Tatars, Lithuanians and Poles in the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries.
The Poles proved even more difficult to satisfy than was anticipated; but finally a compromise was come to whereby the territorial settlement was postponed till after the death of John III.; and Sigismund was duly crowned at Cracow on the 27th of December 1587.
Czernowitz has a mixed population, which consists of Germans, Ruthenians, Rumanians, Poles, Jews, Armenians and Gypsies.
After passing some time at the court of the emperor Sigismund, he took part in the war against the Hussites, and afterwards distinguished himself whilst assisting the German king, Albert II., against the Poles.
In 1604 the Poles founded there a Jesuit college.
For many centuries, however, the Poles have been driven back from the mouths of their rivers by the German race, maintaining only the middle parts of their basins.
It is the most popular tree with the Poles, as the birch with the Russians; judgment of old was pronounced under its shade, and all the folksongs repeat its name.
During prehistoric times the basin of the Vistula seems to have been inhabited by a dolichocephalic race, different from the brachycephalic Poles of the present day; but from the dawn of history Slays (Poles), intermingled to some extent with Lithuanians, have to be found on the plains of the Vistula and the Warta.
The Poles extend but little beyond the limits of Russian Poland.
According to the localities which they inhabit, the Poles take different names.
The Mazurs are distinguished from the Poles by their lower stature, broad shoulders and massive frame, and still more by their national dress, which has nothing of the smartness of that of the southern Poles, and by their ancient customs; they have also a dialect of their own, containing many words now obsolete in Poland, and several grammatical forms bearing witness to Lithuanian influence.
Their relations with Poles and Ruthenians are anything but cordial, and " Jew-baiting " is of frequent occurrence.
In all official communications the Russian language is obligatory, and a gradual elimination of Poles from the administration has been effected.
A companion piece, La Varsovienne, was written for the Poles, by whom it was sung on the march to battle.
Their eastern neighbors there are first the Magyars, then the northern Slays and the Poles.
In the Prussian provinces of Silesia and Posen the eastern parts ate mixed territories, the German language progressing very slowly among the Poles.
In West Prussia some parts of th interior, and in East Prussia a small region along the Russian frontier, are occupied by Poles (Cassubians in West Prussia, Masurians is East Prussia).
The Poles are in the majority in upper Silesia (Government district of Oppeln; 55%) and the province of Posen (60%).
Poles i6 20
But these hopes were disappointed; on the contrary, Otto seems to have released Boleslaus, duke of the Poles, from his vigue allegiance to the German kings, and he founded an archbishopric at Gnesen, thus freeing the Polish sees from the authority of the archbishop of Magdeburg.
During nearly the whole of this reign the Germans were fighting the Poles.
After the death of Boleslaus in 1025 the Poles plunged into a civil war, and Conrad was able to turn this to his own advantage, in 1031 he recovered Lusatia and other districts, and in 1033 the Polish duke of Mesislaus did homage to him at Merseburg.
The German king treated his foe generousli and was rewarded by receiving to the end of his reign the servic of a loyal vassal; he also gained the goodwill of the Poles by helping to bring about the return of their duke, Casimir I., who willingly did homage for his land.
Torn by dissensions the Teutonic Order was unsuccessful in checking the encroachments of the Poles, and in 1466 the land which it had won in the north-east of Germany passed under the suzerainty of Poland, care being taken to root out all traces of German influence therein.
The close connection with the Poles, the principle of federalism which they maintained,the support given to them by the Bavarian patriots, their protest against the revolution from above as represented equally by the annexation of Hanover and the abolition of the papal temporal power, threw them into strong opposition to the prevailing opinion, an opposition which received its expression When Hermann von Mallincrodt (182 I 1874), the most respected of their parliamentary leaders, declared that justice was not present at the birth of the empire.
The government has also not succeeded in reconciling to the empire the alien races which have been incorporated in the Poles, kingdom of Prussia.
Thus in 1885 and 1886 large numbers of Austrian and Russian Poles who had settled in these provinces were expelled.
This policy has not, however, produced the intended effect; for the Poles founded a society to protect their own interests, and have often managed to profit by the artificial value given to their property.
In the general change of policy that followed after the retirement of Bismarck an attempt was made by the emperor to conciliate the Poles.
A moderate party arose among the Poles which accepted their position as Prussian subjects, gave up all hopes of an immediate restoration.
On the 26th of February 1908 the discussion on this bill was continued, Count Arnim defending it on the ground that conciliation had failed and other measures must now be triedl The Poles were aiming at raising their standard of civilization and learning and thus gradually expelling the Germans, and this, together with the rapid growth of the Polish population, constituted a grave danger.
This law gave increased freedom in the matter of the right of association and public meeting; but in the case of the Poles it was applied with such rigidity that, in order to evade it they held mute public meetings, resolutions being written up in Polish on a blackboard and passed by show of hands, without a word being said.1
The Polish sympathies of the Church in Germany made him regard it as an anti-German power, and the formation of the Catholic faction in parliament, supported by Poles and Hanoverians, appeared to justify his apprehensions.
Alsatians and Poles, Guelphs, Clericals and Radicals were joined in a common hostility to the government.
Stringent measures were taken to stamp out German nationality in the Baltic provinces, similar to those used by the Germans against the Poles.
Notwithstanding this the bill was only carried by sixteen votes, and it would have been thrown out again had not the Poles for the first time voted for the government, since the whole of the Centre voted in opposition.
The Military Bill had offended the prejudices of conservative military critics; the British treaty had alienated the colonial party; the commercial treaties had only been carried by the help of Poles, Radicals and Socialists; but it was just these parties who were the most easily oflended by the general tendencies of the internal legislation, as shown in.
The persecution of the Poles in Prussia naturally iroused indignation in Austria, where the Poles had for long been among the strongest elements on which the government depended; and it was not always easy to prevent the agitation on behalf of the Germans in Bohemia from assuming a dangerous aspect.
After numerous vicissitudes it fell into the hands of the Poles in 1520, and in 1626 it was captured by Gustavus Adolphus.
The disintegrating force of the ever-simmering racial rivalries could be kept in check by the army; Hungarian regiments garrisoned Italy, Italian regiments guarded Galicia, Poles occupied Austria, and Austrians Hungary.
For a moment, indeed, Metternich had meditated taking advantage of the popular feeling to throw the weight of Austria into the scale in favour of the Poles, and thus, by re-establishing a Polish kingdom under Austrian influence, to restore the barrier between the two empires which the partition of Poland had destroyed.
As such it had little importance; though, owing to the incompetence of the Austrian commander, the Poles gained some initial successes.
The Poles had sought, by lavish promises, to draw them into their ranks; their reply was to rise in support of the Austrian government.
This was, however, met by vigorous protests from Czechs and Poles, while its provisions for a partly nominated senate, and the indirect election of deputies, excited the wrath of radical Vienna.
Politically, the principle underlying the agreement was that the empire should be divided into two portions; in one of these the Magyars were to rule, in the other the Germans; in either section the Slav races - the Serbs and Croatians, the Czechs, Poles and Slovenes - were to be placed in a position of political inferiority.
Had he done so, the strong anti-German passions of the Czechs and Poles, always inclined to an alliance with France, would have been aroused, and no government could have maintained the alliance.
Parliamentary life in Austria was paralysed by the feud between Germans and Czechs that resulted directly from the Badeni language ordinances of 1897 and indirectly from the development of Slav influence, particularly that of Czechs and Poles during the Taaffe era (1879-1893).
The Poles of Galicia stood apart from the other Slav races.
The Poles wished to gain as much autonomy as they could for their own province, but they had no interest in opposing the centralization of other parts; they were satisfied if Austria would surrender the Ruthenes to them.
The southern Sla y s had neither the unity, nor the organization, nor the historical traditions of the Czechs and Poles; but the Slovenes, who formed a large majority of the population in Carniola, and a considerable minority in the adjoining territory of Carinthia and the south of Styria, demanded that their language should be used for purposes of government and education.
It was, however, easier to deal with the Poles of Galicia, for they had no historical rights to defend; and by sending delegates to Vienna they would not sacrifice any principle or prejudice any legal claim; they had only to consider how they could make the best bargain.
This having been done, it was budget, which Hungary had accepted and Austria rejected, the Poles and Tirolese voted in favour of the Hungarian proposal.
These laws were carried through both Houses in May amid almost unparalleled excitement, and at once received the imperial sanction, notwithstanding the protest of all the bishops, led by Joseph Othmar Beust's compact with the Poles.
The influence of the Poles was still sufficient to secure considerable concessions to the wishes of the Federalists, since if they did not get what they wished they would leave the House, and the Slovenes, Dalmatians and Tirolese would certainly follow them.
In Galicia the extreme party, ism in Oa- headed by Smolka, had always desired to imitate the licia and Czechs and not attend at Vienna; they were outvoted, Bohemia, but all parties agreed on a declaration in which the final demands of the Poles were drawn up;' they asked that the powers of the Galician diet should be much increased, and that the members from Galicia should cease to attend the Reichsrath on the discussion of those matters with which the Galician diet should be qualified to deal.
In Bohemia the Czechs were very active; while the Poles were parading their hostility to Russia in such a manner as to cause the emperor to avoid visiting Galicia, some of the Czech leaders attended a Slav demonstration at Moscow, and in 1868 they drew up and presented to the diet at Prague a " declaration " which has since been regarded as the official statement of their claims. They asked for the full restoration of the Bohemian kingdom; they contended that no foreign assembly was qualified to impose taxes in Bohemia; that the diet was not qualified to elect representatives to go to Vienna, and that a separate settlement must be made with Bohemia similar to that with Hungary.
A petition with 250,000 names was presented from Bohemia; and the Poles withdrew from the Reichsrath when the law was introduced.
They doubtless were acting in accordance with their principles, but the situation was such that it would have been impossible to carry out their wishes; the only result was that the Austrian ministers and Andrassy had to turn for help to the Poles, who began to acquire the position of a government party, which they have kept since then.
The Liberals had also lost many seats, so that the House now had a completely different aspect; the constitutionalists were reduced to 91 Liberals and 54 Radicals; but the Right, under Hohenwart, had increased to 57, and there were 57 Poles and 54 Czechs.