It is the chief of the dogmatic or polemical works, and rules the accuser out of court at the very opening of the case.
He also displays in this work a considerable knowledge of the Rabbinical writings and a skilful polemical method which was surpassed by none of the later anti-Jewish writers.
Among contemporaries he passed for one of the most formidable polemical or gladiatorial rhetoricians; and a considerable section of his extant works are invectives.
Of the many prophetic and polemical works that were attributed to Joachim in the 13th and following centuries, only those enumerated in his will can be regarded as absolutely authentic. These are the Concordia novi et veteris Testamenti (first printed at Venice in 1519), the Expositio in Apocalypsin (Venice, 1527), the Psalterium decem chordarum (Venice, 1527), together with some "libelli" against the Jews or the adversaries of the Christian faith.
The fragment of a polemical treatise against the Neoplatonist Proclus is now assigned to Nicolaus, archbishop of Methone in Peloponnesus (fl.
Tomlinson, The Prayer Book, Articles and Homilies (1897), a polemical work from the Protestant point of view, but scholarly and based on a mass of contemporary authorities to which references are given; the bishop of Exeter, The Ornaments Rubric (London, 1901), a pamphlet.
His works are few and chiefly polemical, e.g.
I, the solemn introduction to the feet-washing: all up to here reports Jesus' signs and apologetic or polemical discourses to the outer world; hence onwards it pictures the manifestation of His glory to the inner circle of His disciples.
The most important of these polemical treatises is the Refutation of all Heresies, which has come to be known by the inappropriate title of the Philosophumena.
With the 4th century both Gnosticism and the polemical literature directed against it die out.'
His most important polemical work is an answer (1528) to twelve questions on the religious question propounded by Gustavus I.
His works include several dogmatic and polemical treatises, but the most important are the historical.
Their literature, with which alone we are here concerned, is largely polemical and to a great extent deals with grammar and exegesis.
1310), a prolific writer of Talmudic and polemical works (against the Kabbalists and Mahommedans) as well as of responsa.
Venn, prebendary of St Paul's cathedral, London (London, 1862), is polemical, but contains an interesting map of Xavier's journeys.
Laughton's polemical treatise was published in 1780, and those of Milner and Taylor in 1781.
His other works consisted of theological essays, ascetic or exegetic, questions of ecclesiastical discipline and reform, and of various polemical writings called forth for the most part by the schism.
Trans., 1877), largely polemical in its scope, and specially directed against those who rest theological dogmas on the fulfilment of prophecy.
The second and third, addressed respectively to a cardinal (Perraud) and a bishop (Le Camus), are polemical or ironical in tone; the others are all written to friends in a warm, expansive mood; the fourth letter especially, appropriated to Mgr Mignot, attains a grand elevation of thought and depth of mystical conviction.
There was no freedom of the press, however, until 1821, when the abolition of the censorship and the constitutional struggle in Portugal gave rise to a politicaldiscussion that marked the opening of a new era in the development of the nation, and aroused an intellectual activity that has been highly productive in journalistic and polemical writings.
Version of the Vulgate was published at Vienna by the Jesuit George Kaldi, 8 and another complete translation of the Scriptures, the so-called Komdromi Biblia (Komorn Bible) was made in 1685 by the Protestant George Csipkes, though it was not published till 1717 at Leiden, twenty-nine years after his death., On behalf of the Catholics the Jesuit Peter Pazman, eventually primate, Nicholas Eszterhazy, Sambas, Balasfi and others were the authors of various works of a polemical nature.
In the department of philosophy, besides several writers of dissertations bearing an imitative, didactic or polemical character, Hungary could boast a few authors of independent and original thought.
Elected deputy in 1860 he became celebrated by the biting wit of his speeches, while, as journalist, the acrimony of his polemical writings made him a redoubtable adversary.
Most judgments:of Voltaire have been unduly coloured by sympathy with or dislike of what may be briefly called his polemical side.
His writings are numerous, alike in exegetical, polemical, dogmatic and practical theology.
In Rome, as at home, Gamaliel often had occasion to defend Judaism in polemical discussions with pagans, and also with professed Christians.
He failed in this, but was made rector of the English college at Rome in 1597, and died there on the 18th of April 1610 Parsons was the author of over 30 polemical writings, mostly tracts.
To this we may add a fantastic and absurd allegorization, the indiscriminate laudation of saints and martyrs, polemical strife, the hardening of the doctrine into dogma, the development of a narrow ecclesiasticism, and the failure of the missionary spirit in the orthodox section of the Eastern Church (as contrasted with the marvellous evangelistic activity of the Nestorians.
(3) The oldest polemical works of the 2nd century, extracts from which have been preserved, especially by Eusebius (Hist.
Maurice was a man of peace, yet his life was spent in a series of conflicts; of deep humility, yet so polemical that he often seemed biased; of large charity, yet bitter in his attack upon the religious press of his time; a loyal churchman who detested the label "Broad," yet poured out criticism upon the leaders of the Church.
Alesius was the author of a large number of exegetical, dogmatic and polemical works, of which over twenty are mentioned by Bale in his List of English Writers.
BL.) The works of Huss are usually classed under four heads: the dogmatical and polemical, the homiletical, the exegetical and the epistolary.
(I) Basil, bishop of Ancyra from 336 to 360, a semiArian, highly favoured by the emperor Constantine, and a great polemical writer; none of his works are extant.
The Pelagians were attacked in a glowing polemical poem of about 1000 lines, Adversus ingratos, written about 430.
His works, mainly expository and polemical, have not been collected.
The polemical conception which has done much to perpetuate this confusion is that of the historical continuity of Protestantism from the earliest times.
Thus a reforming movement became heresy through disobedience to authority, and after being condemned embarked on a course of polemical investigation how to justify its own position.
The book has an outer protective shell of acutely polemical and exclusive moods and insistences, whilst certain splendid Synoptic breadths and reconciliations are nowhere reached; but this is primarily because it is fighting, more consciously than they, for that inalienable ideal of all deepest religion, unity, even external and corporate, amongst all believers.
He wrote polemical words directed against the pagans, the Jews and heretics.
On the whole, then, for an exposition of Gnosticism we are thrown back upon the polemical writings of the Fathers in their controversy with heresy.
Du Bellay replied to his various assailants in a preface to the second edition (1550) of his sonnet sequence Olive, with which he also published two polemical poems, the Musagnaeomachie, and an ode addressed to Ronsard, Contre les envieux poetes.
The works of Tertullian, on the chronology of which a great deal has been written, and which for the most part do not admit of being dated with perfect certainty, fall into three classes - the apologetic, defending Christianity against paganism and Judaism; the polemical dogmatic, refuting heresies and heretics; and the ascetic or practical, dealing with points of morality and church discipline.
And while the polemical motive is obvious, and the argument from prophecy against the legitimacy of a non-Davidic dynasty is quite in the manner of the scribes, the spirit of theocratic fervour which inspires the picture of the Messiah is broader and deeper than their narrow legalism.
Calonne soon afterwards passed over to England, and during his residence there kept up a polemical correspondence with Necker on the finances.
The Apologye of Syr Thomas More, written in 1533, is a defence of his own polemical style and of the treatment of heretics by the clergy.
Shipton, 1699); several polemical works against Arnauld from 1684 to 1688; Entretiens sur la metaphysique et sur la religion (1688); Traite.
Together with the impossibility of placing the epistles later than the first ten or twenty years of the 2nd century, render it impracticable to detect anything except incipient phases of syncretistic gnosticism behind the polemical allusions.
C. 400), the presbyter, celebrated as the author of a work, no longer extant, against superstitious practices, which called forth one of the most violent and scurrilous of Jerome's polemical treatises, was born about 370 at Calagurris in Aquitania (the modern Cazeres or perhaps Saint Bertrand de Comminges in the department of Haute-Garonne), where his father kept a "statio" or inn on the great Roman road from Aquitania to Spain.
1 It is probable that the use of the term was often in Rabbinic writings polemical (against Jewish Christians or gnostic sects) .
His annotations on the Psalms are especially interesting for the polemical excursuses directed against the Christian interpretation.
He was the author of a large number of works in devotional and polemical theology, several of which had great influence.
The Catholic agitation was, however, carried on with increased vigour throughout the whole empire; over a hundred newspapers were founded (three years before there had been only about six Catholic papers in the whole of Germany), and great numbers of pamphlets and other polemical works were published.
But apart from these polemical writings, many of which had only an ephemeral value, the Renaissance was the source of another stream of historical literature.
His numerous polemical writings include A Defense of the sincere true Translations of the holie Scriptures into the English tong (London, 1583), and confutations of Thomas Stapleton (1535-1598), Cardinal Allen and other Roman Catholic controversialists.
In the early r6th century the use of the vernacular is extended, chiefly in the treatment of historical and polemical subjects, as in Murdoch Nisbet's version of Purvey (in MS. till 1901), a compromise between northern and southern usage; Gau's (q.v.) Richt Vay, translated from Christiern Pedersen; Bellenden's (q.v.) translation of Livy and Scottish History; the Complaynt of Scotlande, largely a mosaic of translation from the French; Ninian Winzet's (q.v.) Tractates; Lesley's (q.v.) History of Scotland; Knox's (q.v.) History; Buchanan's (q.v.) Chamaeleon; Lindesay of Pitscottie's (q.v.) History; and the tracts of Nicol Burne and other exiled Catholics.
Most scholars regard as genuine the polemical treatises Contra Nestorianos et Eutychianos, Contra Nestorianos, Contra Monophysitas, Contra Severum (patriarch of Antioch); and the Exam, generally called De Sectis.
Of less importance are his very numerous polemical works, though his famous book On the Unity of the Church of God (1st edition, Wilna, 1577) directed against the dissenters, especially the Greek Orthodox schismatics, will always have an historical interest.
Moreover, the temper of these more enlightened men was itself opposed to Italian indifference and immorality; it was pugnacious and polemical, eager to beat down the arrogance of monks and theologians rather than to pursue an ideal of aesthetical self-culture.
A second group, known as the "Greek Apologists," embraces Aristides, Justin, Tatian, Athenagoras and Theophilus; and a third consists of the early polemical writers, Irenaeus and 4 In his book De viris illustribus.