Tomlinson, The Prayer Book, Articles and Homilies (1897), a polemical work from the Protestant point of view, but scholarly and based on a mass of contemporary authorities to which references are given; the bishop of Exeter, The Ornaments Rubric (London, 1901), a pamphlet.
It is the chief of the dogmatic or polemical works, and rules the accuser out of court at the very opening of the case.
Among contemporaries he passed for one of the most formidable polemical or gladiatorial rhetoricians; and a considerable section of his extant works are invectives.
His works are few and chiefly polemical, e.g.
He also displays in this work a considerable knowledge of the Rabbinical writings and a skilful polemical method which was surpassed by none of the later anti-Jewish writers.
Of the many prophetic and polemical works that were attributed to Joachim in the 13th and following centuries, only those enumerated in his will can be regarded as absolutely authentic. These are the Concordia novi et veteris Testamenti (first printed at Venice in 1519), the Expositio in Apocalypsin (Venice, 1527), the Psalterium decem chordarum (Venice, 1527), together with some "libelli" against the Jews or the adversaries of the Christian faith.
He wrote polemical words directed against the pagans, the Jews and heretics.
The fragment of a polemical treatise against the Neoplatonist Proclus is now assigned to Nicolaus, archbishop of Methone in Peloponnesus (fl.
I, the solemn introduction to the feet-washing: all up to here reports Jesus' signs and apologetic or polemical discourses to the outer world; hence onwards it pictures the manifestation of His glory to the inner circle of His disciples.
The most important of these polemical treatises is the Refutation of all Heresies, which has come to be known by the inappropriate title of the Philosophumena.
With the 4th century both Gnosticism and the polemical literature directed against it die out.'
His most important polemical work is an answer (1528) to twelve questions on the religious question propounded by Gustavus I.
His works include several dogmatic and polemical treatises, but the most important are the historical.
There was no freedom of the press, however, until 1821, when the abolition of the censorship and the constitutional struggle in Portugal gave rise to a politicaldiscussion that marked the opening of a new era in the development of the nation, and aroused an intellectual activity that has been highly productive in journalistic and polemical writings.
His works, mainly expository and polemical, have not been collected.
And while the polemical motive is obvious, and the argument from prophecy against the legitimacy of a non-Davidic dynasty is quite in the manner of the scribes, the spirit of theocratic fervour which inspires the picture of the Messiah is broader and deeper than their narrow legalism.
Their literature, with which alone we are here concerned, is largely polemical and to a great extent deals with grammar and exegesis.
1310), a prolific writer of Talmudic and polemical works (against the Kabbalists and Mahommedans) as well as of responsa.
Venn, prebendary of St Paul's cathedral, London (London, 1862), is polemical, but contains an interesting map of Xavier's journeys.
Laughton's polemical treatise was published in 1780, and those of Milner and Taylor in 1781.
His other works consisted of theological essays, ascetic or exegetic, questions of ecclesiastical discipline and reform, and of various polemical writings called forth for the most part by the schism.
trans., 1877), largely polemical in its scope, and specially directed against those who rest theological dogmas on the fulfilment of prophecy.
The second and third, addressed respectively to a cardinal (Perraud) and a bishop (Le Camus), are polemical or ironical in tone; the others are all written to friends in a warm, expansive mood; the fourth letter especially, appropriated to Mgr Mignot, attains a grand elevation of thought and depth of mystical conviction.
version of the Vulgate was published at Vienna by the Jesuit George Kaldi, 8 and another complete translation of the Scriptures, the so-called Komdromi Biblia (Komorn Bible) was made in 1685 by the Protestant George Csipkes, though it was not published till 1717 at Leiden, twenty-nine years after his death., On behalf of the Catholics the Jesuit Peter Pazman, eventually primate, Nicholas Eszterhazy, Sambas, Balasfi and others were the authors of various works of a polemical nature.
In the department of philosophy, besides several writers of dissertations bearing an imitative, didactic or polemical character, Hungary could boast a few authors of independent and original thought.
Elected deputy in 1860 he became celebrated by the biting wit of his speeches, while, as journalist, the acrimony of his polemical writings made him a redoubtable adversary.
Most judgments:of Voltaire have been unduly coloured by sympathy with or dislike of what may be briefly called his polemical side.
His writings are numerous, alike in exegetical, polemical, dogmatic and practical theology.
In Rome, as at home, Gamaliel often had occasion to defend Judaism in polemical discussions with pagans, and also with professed Christians.
He failed in this, but was made rector of the English college at Rome in 1597, and died there on the 18th of April 1610 Parsons was the author of over 30 polemical writings, mostly tracts.
To this we may add a fantastic and absurd allegorization, the indiscriminate laudation of saints and martyrs, polemical strife, the hardening of the doctrine into dogma, the development of a narrow ecclesiasticism, and the failure of the missionary spirit in the orthodox section of the Eastern Church (as contrasted with the marvellous evangelistic activity of the Nestorians.
(3) The oldest polemical works of the 2nd century, extracts from which have been preserved, especially by Eusebius (Hist.
Maurice was a man of peace, yet his life was spent in a series of conflicts; of deep humility, yet so polemical that he often seemed biased; of large charity, yet bitter in his attack upon the religious press of his time; a loyal churchman who detested the label "Broad," yet poured out criticism upon the leaders of the Church.
Alesius was the author of a large number of exegetical, dogmatic and polemical works, of which over twenty are mentioned by Bale in his List of English Writers.
BL.) The works of Huss are usually classed under four heads: the dogmatical and polemical, the homiletical, the exegetical and the epistolary.
(I) Basil, bishop of Ancyra from 336 to 360, a semiArian, highly favoured by the emperor Constantine, and a great polemical writer; none of his works are extant.
The Pelagians were attacked in a glowing polemical poem of about 1000 lines, Adversus ingratos, written about 430.
The polemical conception which has done much to perpetuate this confusion is that of the historical continuity of Protestantism from the earliest times.
Thus a reforming movement became heresy through disobedience to authority, and after being condemned embarked on a course of polemical investigation how to justify its own position.
The book has an outer protective shell of acutely polemical and exclusive moods and insistences, whilst certain splendid Synoptic breadths and reconciliations are nowhere reached; but this is primarily because it is fighting, more consciously than they, for that inalienable ideal of all deepest religion, unity, even external and corporate, amongst all believers.
On the whole, then, for an exposition of Gnosticism we are thrown back upon the polemical writings of the Fathers in their controversy with heresy.
Du Bellay replied to his various assailants in a preface to the second edition (1550) of his sonnet sequence Olive, with which he also published two polemical poems, the Musagnaeomachie, and an ode addressed to Ronsard, Contre les envieux poetes.
The works of Tertullian, on the chronology of which a great deal has been written, and which for the most part do not admit of being dated with perfect certainty, fall into three classes - the apologetic, defending Christianity against paganism and Judaism; the polemical dogmatic, refuting heresies and heretics; and the ascetic or practical, dealing with points of morality and church discipline.
Calonne soon afterwards passed over to England, and during his residence there kept up a polemical correspondence with Necker on the finances.
The Apologye of Syr Thomas More, written in 1533, is a defence of his own polemical style and of the treatment of heretics by the clergy.
The work is professedly a refutation of Hutcheson, but is rather constructive than polemical.
Shipton, 1699); several polemical works against Arnauld from 1684 to 1688; Entretiens sur la metaphysique et sur la religion (1688); Traite.
together with the impossibility of placing the epistles later than the first ten or twenty years of the 2nd century, render it impracticable to detect anything except incipient phases of syncretistic gnosticism behind the polemical allusions.
c. 400), the presbyter, celebrated as the author of a work, no longer extant, against superstitious practices, which called forth one of the most violent and scurrilous of Jerome's polemical treatises, was born about 370 at Calagurris in Aquitania (the modern Cazeres or perhaps Saint Bertrand de Comminges in the department of Haute-Garonne), where his father kept a "statio" or inn on the great Roman road from Aquitania to Spain.
1 It is probable that the use of the term was often in Rabbinic writings polemical (against Jewish Christians or gnostic sects) .
His annotations on the Psalms are especially interesting for the polemical excursuses directed against the Christian interpretation.
He was the author of a large number of works in devotional and polemical theology, several of which had great influence.
The Catholic agitation was, however, carried on with increased vigour throughout the whole empire; over a hundred newspapers were founded (three years before there had been only about six Catholic papers in the whole of Germany), and great numbers of pamphlets and other polemical works were published.
But apart from these polemical writings, many of which had only an ephemeral value, the Renaissance was the source of another stream of historical literature.
His numerous polemical writings include A Defense of the sincere true Translations of the holie Scriptures into the English tong (London, 1583), and confutations of Thomas Stapleton (1535-1598), Cardinal Allen and other Roman Catholic controversialists.
In the early r6th century the use of the vernacular is extended, chiefly in the treatment of historical and polemical subjects, as in Murdoch Nisbet's version of Purvey (in MS. till 1901), a compromise between northern and southern usage; Gau's (q.v.) Richt Vay, translated from Christiern Pedersen; Bellenden's (q.v.) translation of Livy and Scottish History; the Complaynt of Scotlande, largely a mosaic of translation from the French; Ninian Winzet's (q.v.) Tractates; Lesley's (q.v.) History of Scotland; Knox's (q.v.) History; Buchanan's (q.v.) Chamaeleon; Lindesay of Pitscottie's (q.v.) History; and the tracts of Nicol Burne and other exiled Catholics.
Most scholars regard as genuine the polemical treatises Contra Nestorianos et Eutychianos, Contra Nestorianos, Contra Monophysitas, Contra Severum (patriarch of Antioch); and the Exam, generally called De Sectis.
Of less importance are his very numerous polemical works, though his famous book On the Unity of the Church of God (1st edition, Wilna, 1577) directed against the dissenters, especially the Greek Orthodox schismatics, will always have an historical interest.
Moreover, the temper of these more enlightened men was itself opposed to Italian indifference and immorality; it was pugnacious and polemical, eager to beat down the arrogance of monks and theologians rather than to pursue an ideal of aesthetical self-culture.
In this controversy, conducted on both sides in the fiercest polemical spirit, Horsley showed the superior learning and ability.
He was a polemical writer of prominence on the side of the Reformers.
A polemical writer of great talent was Magnus Jakob Crusenstople (1795-1865), of whose work it has been said that " it is not history and it is not fiction, but something brilliant between the one and the other."
The political organization of the country has not been favourable to the development of artistic or scientific tastes, though Chile has produced political leaders, statesmen and polemical writers in abundance.
The first ten homilies, which form one division completed in 337, are without polemical reference; Horn.
Viennet (1777-1868) were not easy and mundane like their predecessors, but violently polemical.
The representative of this tendency, Chrysippus, addressed himself to the congenial task of assimilating, developing, systematizing the doctrines bequeathed to him, and, above all, securing them in their stereotyped and final form, not simply from the assaults of the past, but, as after a long and successful career of controversy and polemical authorship he fondly hoped, from all possible attack in the future.
It deserves to be noted here that the former, the theology of the Aufklarung, was, like that of the deists, destined to a short-lived notoriety; whereas the solid, accurate and scholarly researches of the rationalist critics of Germany, undertaken with no merely polemical spirit, not only form an epoch in the history of theology, but have taken a permanent place in the body of theological science.
Among his other works his Postilla and polemical writings in the form of letters to Archbishop John of Rokycan and Bishop Nicolas of Pelhfimov deserve mention.
From 1864 to 1877 he was professor of didactic and polemical theology in the Allegheny Theological seminary at Allegheny, Pennsylvania, where he was also from 1866 to 1877 pastor of the North Church (Presbyterian).
A similar tone of exaggerated depreciation of the Massoretic Hebrew text, coloured by polemical bias against Protestantism, mars his greatest work, the posthumous Exercitationes biblicae de hebraeici graecique textus sinceritate (1660), in which, following in the footsteps of Cappellus, but with incomparably greater learning, he brings irrefragable arguments against the then current theory of the absolute integrity of the Hebrew text and the antiquity of the vowel points.
Among his other works are his Annotationes in Biblia (1607), of which an English translation (Pious and Learned Annotations upon the Holy Bible) was published in London in 1648, and various polemical treatises, such as De fictitio Pontificiorum Purgatorio (1619); De justa secessione Reformatorum ab Ecclesia Romana (1628); De Antichristo, &c. He also published French translations of Sarpi's History of the Council of Trent, and of Edwin Sandys's Account of the State of Religion in the West.
Of a more decided polemical character is the Lumina of Maxim of Peloponnesus, translated from the Greek (Bucharest, 1699).
The great polemical work of Simeon of Thessalonica, the Greek original of which was published by Dositheiu (Jassy, 1683), had been translated into Rumanian long before it was printed (Bucharest, 1756).
The cause which Bunyan had defended with rude logic and rhetoric against Kiffin and Danvers has since been pleaded by Robert Hall with an ingenuity and eloquence such as no polemical writer has ever surpassed.
The interest in abstract exposition of clearly formulated theological ideas is everywhere subordinate to the polemical purpose.
Although a Quaker, he had a polemical spirit; men seeing Whittier only in his saintly age knew little of the fire wherewith, setting aside ambition and even love, he maintained his warfare against the " national crime," employing action, argument and lyric scorn.
His numerous works may be classified under five heads: (I) Treatises in doctrinal and polemical theology.
Arthur Young, with whom he had corresponded years before on the mysteries of deep ploughing and fattening hogs, added a cogent polemical chapter to that ever admirable work, in which he showed that he knew as much more than Burke about the old system of France as he knew more than Burke about soils and roots.
This new quasi-monophysitism disinclined the Lutherans to make much of Christ's humanity, while the Reformed, partly from the scholarly tradition of Calvin, partly from a polemical motive, laid great emphasis on the manhood.
Cudworth; the Cambridge Platonists), or else polemical learning--Bishop Bull (against Petavius's innovating views of history), D.
The works of Giraldus are partly polemical and partly historical.
Not less important is the interval that separates Bentham's polemical attitude towards the moral sense from Mill's conciliatory position, that " the mind is not in a state conformable to utility unless it loves virtue as a thing desirable in itself."
The closing chapters of the work are more polemical than the earlier ones.
Of his shorter religious and polemical works a catalogue is given in vol.
At the end of that time he appeared in public with his Saggiatore, a polemical treatise written in reply to the Libra astronomica of Padre Grassi (under the pseudonym of Lotario Sarsi), the Jesuit astronomer of the Collegio Romano.
With the sure instinct of genius, he seized the characteristic features of the phenomena presented to his attention, and his inferences, except when distorted by polemical exigencies, have been strikingly confirmed by modern investigations.
exigencyigencies of the times however determined that these were mostly still introductory and polemical works.
Such a one-sided -- even paranoid -- polemical history invites skepticism.
The misinterpretations which he had suffered induced Lotze to publish a small pamphlet of a polemical character (Streitschriften, Leipzig, 1857), in which he corrected two mistakes.
It was not till 1838 that Leo's polemical work Die Hegelingen proclaimed his breach with the radical developments of the philosopher's later disciples; a breach which developed into opposition to the philosopher himself.
The combative energy, the sense of superiority, the spirit of satire, characteristic of him as a Roman, unite with his loyalty to Epicurus to render him not only polemical but intolerant and contemptuous in his tone toward the great antagonists of his system, the Stoics, whom, while constantly referring to them, he does not condescend even to name.
His first appearance in the field of literature was in a polemical tract against John Toland, Vindiciae antiquae christianorum disciplinae (1720), which was soon followed by a volume of Observationes sacrae (1721).
He lived, however, in great seclusion, leaving the direction of affairs almost entirely in the hands of his elder halfbrother (born 12th November 1817), Mirth Husayn `Ali, entitled Baha' u'llah (" the Splendour of God "), who thus gradually became the most conspicuous and most influential member of the sect, though in the Igan, one of the most important polemical works of the Babis, composed in 1858-1859, he still implicitly recognized the supremacy of Subh-i-Ezel.
Soon, however, the great influence of Jerome in the Western Church caused its leaders to espouse all his quarrels, and Vigilantius gradually came to be ranked in popular opinion among heretics, though his influence long remained potent both in France and Spain, as is proved by the polemical tract of Faustus of Rhegium (d.
The romanticists found their philosopher in a most remarkable man, Soren Aaby Kierkegaard (1813-1855), one of the most subtle thinkers of Scandinavia, and the author of some brilliant philosophical and polemical works.
The distinguishing characteristics of French humanism are vivid intelligence, critical audacity and polemical acumen, perspicuity of exposition, learning directed in its applications by logical sense rather than by artistic ideals of taste.
A polemical essayist of elaborate delicacy of style is Hjalmar Soderberg (b.
St Bernard accused him of sharing the doctrines of Abelard (see Ep. 189, 195), and procured his condemnation by the council of Sens (I 140) at the same time as that of the great scholastic. This was perhaps no more than the outcome of the fierce polemical spirit of the abbot of Clairvaux, which led him to include all his adversaries under a single anathema.
And when he heaps suspicion, not on Christian dogmas, but on beliefs of which the resemblance to Christian tenets is sufficiently patent, the real aim is so transparent that his method seems to partake rather of the nature of literary eccentricity than of polemical artifice; yet by this disingenuous indirectness he gave his argument that savour of duplicity which ever after clung to the popular conception of deism.
Three polemical works require mention: Contra cujusdam anonymi Galli calumnies apologia, Contra medicum quendam invectivarum libri, and De sui ipsius et multorum ignorantia - controversial and sarcastic compositions, which grew out of Petrarch's quarrels with the physicians of Avignon and the Averroists of Padua.
So, too, his great work on penance gave equal offence to the Jesuits and to Port-Royal, and even after his death, in 1659, the polemical vehemence of his Exercitationes biblicae, and the exaggeration of his assertion "apud neotericos Haereticos verba Scripturarum non esse integra, non superficiem, non folia, nedum sensum, medullam et radicem rationis" long led Protestants to treat his valuable contributions to the history of the Hebrew text as a mere utterance of Popish prejudice.
A second group, known as the "Greek Apologists," embraces Aristides, Justin, Tatian, Athenagoras and Theophilus; and a third consists of the early polemical writers, Irenaeus and 4 In his book De viris illustribus.
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