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polarized

polarized Sentence Examples

  • This pressed amber yields brilliant interference colours in polarized light.

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  • The convection of a medium thus polarized involves electric disturbance, and therefore must contribute to the true electric current; the determination of this constituent of the current is the most delicate point in the investigation.

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  • (5), of polarized light are executed in a direction perpendicular to the plane of polarization.

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  • Conceive a beam of plane polarized light to move among a number of particles, all small compared with any of the wavelengths.

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  • The crystals are feebly doubly refracting, and in polarized light exhibit a banded structure parallel to the cube faces.

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  • The different behaviour of these two acids to a ray of polarized light was subsequently observed by J.

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  • One possessed the power of turning the plane of the polarized ray to the right; the other possessed no rotary power.

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  • "I do not think, therefore, that decomposing solutions or substances will be found to have (as a consequence of decomposition or arrangement for the time) any effect on the polarized ray.

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  • The 19th series (1845) contains an account of his brilliant discovery of the rotation of the plane of polarized light by transparent dielectrics placed in a magnetic field, a relation which established for the first time a practical connexion between the phenomena of electricity and light.

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  • The 19th series (1845) contains an account of his brilliant discovery of the rotation of the plane of polarized light by transparent dielectrics placed in a magnetic field, a relation which established for the first time a practical connexion between the phenomena of electricity and light.

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  • The proof of this statement rests on the fact that if the hydrogen atoms were not co-planar, then substitution derivatives (the substituting groups not containing asymmetric carbon atoms) should exist in enantiomorphic forms, differing in crystal form and in their action on polarized light; such optical antipodes have, however, not yet been separated.

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  • In polarized light they show a weak grey colour with a black cross, the arms of which are parallel to the cobwebs in the eyepiece of the microscope and remain stationary when the section is rotated.

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  • When heated to above 200 it turns brown and produces caramel, a substance possessing a bitter taste, and used, in its aqueous solution or otherwise, under various trade names, for colouring confectionery, spirits, &c. The specific rotation of the plane of polarized light by glucose solutions is characteristic. The specific rotation of a freshly prepared solution is 105°, but this value gradually diminishes to 52.5°, 24 hours sufficing for the transition in the cold, and a few minutes when the solution is boiled.

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  • The discovery of the magnetic rotation of the plane of polarized light, though it did not lead to such important practical applications as some of Faraday's earlier discoveries, has been of the highest value to science, as furnishing complete dynamical evidence that wherever magnetic force exists there is matter, small portions of which are rotating about axes parallel to the direction of that force.

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  • The Siemens polarized relay, shown in fig.

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  • The function of the " combiner " in each receiving instrument is so to group the received combination of positive and negative currents that they operate polarized relays in such a manner that the position of the tongues corresponds with the operation of the levers on the transmitter.

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  • This has come about as we have left a polarized world behind us and the importance of military alliances has fallen.

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  • Under favourable conditions more than half the light is polarized.

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  • So long as the precipitated particles are very fine, the light dispersed in a perpendicular direction is sky-blue and fully polarized.

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  • At a further stage of their growth the particles disperse in the perpendicular direction a light which is no longer fully polarized.

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  • A part of one surface of the plate may be silvered, so that the polarized ray, after having once traversed the glass, is reflected back again; the rotation is thus doubled, and moreover, the arrangement is, for certain experiments, more convenient than the other.

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  • It then appeared that under certain angles of incidence parts of the resulting spectra were completely polarized.

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  • The existence of internal strains in glass can be readil y recognized by examination in polarized light, any signs of double refraction indicating the existence of strain.

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  • when the dielectric is strained or polarized.

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  • A dielectric substance is electrically polarized by a field of electric force, the atomic poles being made up of the displaced positive and negative intrinsic charges in the atom: the polarization per unit volume (f',g',h') may be defined on the analogy of magnetism, and d/dt(f',g',h') thus constitutes true electric current of polarization, i.e.

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  • For the simplest case of polarized waves travelling parallel to the axis of x, with the magnetic oscillation y along z and the electric oscillation Q along y, all the quantities are functions of x and t alone; the total current is along y and given with respect to our moving axes by __ (d_ d Q+vy d K-1 Q, dt dx) 47rc 2 + dt (4?rc 2) ' also the circuital relations here reduce to _ dydQ _dy _ dx 47rv ' _ dt ' d 2 Q dv dx 2 -417t giving, on substitution for v, d 2 Q d 2 Q d2Q (c2-v2)(7372 = K dt 2 2u dxdt ' For a simple wave-train, Q varies as sin m(x-Vt), leading on substitution to the velocity of propagation V relative to the moving material, by means of the equation KV 2 + 2 uV = c 2 v2; this gives, to the first order of v/c, V = c/K i - v/K, which is in accordance with Fresnel's law.

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  • In 1841 he found that he required rest, and it was not till 1845 that he entered on his second great period of research, in which he discovered the effect of magnetism on polarized light, and the phenomena of diamagnetism.

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  • Faraday had for a long time kept in view the possibility of using a ray of polarized light as a means of investigating the condition of transparent bodies when acted on by electric and magnetic forces.

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  • p. 362) gives the following note from his laboratory book on the 10th of September 1822: "Polarized a ray of lamplight by reflection, and endeavoured to ascertain whether any depolarizing action (was) exerted on it by water placed between the poles of a voltaic battery in a glass cistern; one Wollaston's trough used; the fluids decomposed were pure water, weak solution of sulphate of soda, and strong sulphuric acid; none of them had any effect on the polarized light, either when out of or in the voltaic circuit, so that no particular arrangement of particles could be ascertained in this way."

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  • He began to work on the 30th of August 1845 on polarized light passing through electrolytes.

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  • It gave no effects when the same magnetic poles or the contrary poles were on opposite sides (as respects the course of the polarized ray), nor when the same poles were on the same side either with the constant or intermitting current.

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  • But when contrary magnetic poles were on the same side there was an effect produced on the polarized ray, and thus magnetic force and light were proved to have relations to each other.

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  • On the 3rd of November a new horseshoe magnet came home, and Faraday immediately began to experiment on the action in the polarized ray through gases, but with no effect.

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  • John Kerr (1824-1907) discovered that a similar effect was produced when plane polarized light was reflected from the pole of a powerful magnet (Phil.

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  • Laevo-tartaric acid is identical in its chemical and in most of its physical properties with the dextro-acid, differing chiefly in its action on polarized light, the plane of polarization being rotated to the left.

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  • The optic figure seen in convergent polarized light through a section cut parallel to the plane of symmetry of a borax crystal is symmetrical only with respect to the central point.

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  • Early in 1831 he arranged a small office-bell to be tapped by the polarized armature of an "intensity" magnet, whose coil was in continuation of a mile of insulated copper wire, suspended about one of the rooms of his academy.

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  • of the interference of polarized rays.

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  • Circularly polarized light he obtained by means of a rhomb of glass, known as "Fresnel's rhomb," having obtuse angles of 126°, and acute angles of 54°.

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  • It rotates the plane of polarized light both to right and left in varying degrees according to its sources, the American product being dextrorotatory and the French laevorotatory.

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  • This term has been retained and the ordinary stream is said to be plane polarized in the principal plane of the face of entry into the rhomb, and the extraordinary stream to be plane polarized in the perpendicular plane.

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  • Thus in accordance with the definition, it is polarized in the plane of incidence.

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  • Further, if polarized light fall at the polarizing angle on a reflecting surface, the intensity of the reflected stream depends upon the azimuth of the plane of incidence, being proportional to the square of the cosine of the angle between this plane and the plane of the polarization.

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  • At angles other than the polarizing angle common light gives a reflected stream .that behaves as a mixture of common light with light polarized in the plane of incidence, and is accordingly said to be partially polarized in that plane.

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  • The refracted light, whatever be the angle of incidence, is found to be partially polarized in a plane perpendicular to the plane of incidence, and D.

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  • Arago showed that at all angles of incidence the reflected and refracted streams contain equal quantities of polarized light.

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  • Hence the total reflected light will be polarized in this plane and will of necessity have a greater intensity than that produced by a single surface.

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  • In order to isolate a polarized pencil of rays with a rhomb of Iceland spar, it is necessary to have a crystal of such a thickness that the emergent streams are separated, so that one may be stopped by a screen.

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  • There are, however, certain crystals that with a moderate thickness give an emergent stream of light that is more or less completely polarized.

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  • The polarizing action of such crystals is due to the unequal absorption that they exert on polarized streams. Thus a plate of tourmaline of from I mm.

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  • in thickness with its faces perpendicular to the optic axis is nearly opaque to light falling normally upon it, and a plate of this thickness parallel to the axis permits of the passage of a single stream polarized in a plane perpendicular to the principal section.

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  • Such a plate acts in the same way on polarized light, stopping it or allowing it to pass, according as the plane of polarization is parallel or perpendicular to the principal section.

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  • Eisenlohr and others, with the view of determining the direction of the vibrations in polarized light (vide infra), but the results have not been consistent, and H.

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  • Arago, 'who summed up the results of a searching series of experiments in the following laws of the interference of polarized light: (r) Under the same conditions in which two streams of common light interfere, two streams polarized at right angles are without mutual influence.

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  • (2) Two streams polarized in parallel planes give the same phenomena of interference as common light.

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  • (3) Two streams polarized at right angles and coming from a stream of common light can be brought to the same plane of polarization without thereby acquiring the faculty of interfering.

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  • (4) Two streams polarized at right angles and coming from a stream of polarized light interfere as common light, when brought to the same plane of polarization.

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  • The lateral characteristics of a polarized stream lead at once to the conclusion that the stream may be represented by a vector, and since this vector must indicate the direction in which the light travels as well as the plane of polarization, it is natural to infer that it is transverse to the direction of propagation.

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  • That this is actually the case is proved by experiments on the interference of polarized light, from which it may be deduced that the polarization-vector of a train of plane waves of plane polarized light executes rectilinear vibrations in the plane of the waves.

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  • In conformity with the form of the path, the light is said to be elliptically polarized, rightor left-handedly as the case may be, and the axes of the elliptic path are determined by the planes of maximum and minimum polarization of the light.

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  • In the particular case in which a= b and a -, (3 = (2n + 1) 7r/2, the vibrations are circular and the light is said to be circularly polarized.

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  • These different types of polarization may be obtained from a plane polarized stream by passing it through a quarter-wave plate, i.e.

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  • If this axis be parallel or perpendicular to the primitive plane of polarization, the emergent beam remains plane polarized; it is circularly polarized if the axis be at 45° to the plane of polarization, and in other cases it is elliptically polarized with the axes of the elliptic path parallel and perpendicular to the axis of the plate.

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  • Conversely a quarter-wave plate may be employed for reducing a circularly or elliptically polarized stream to a state of plane polarization.

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  • Two streams are said to be oppositely polarized when the one is, so far as relates to its polarization, what the other becomes when it is turned through an azimuth of 90° and has its character reversed as regards right and left hand.

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  • An analytical investigation of the conditions of interference of polarized streams of the most general type leads to the result that there will be no interference only when the two streams are oppositely polarized, and that when the polarizations are identical the interference will be perfect, the fluctuations of intensity being the greatest that the difference of intensity of the streams admits (Sir G.

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  • Since a beam of common light can be resolved into plane polarized streams and these on recomposition give a stream with properties indistinguishable from those of common light, whatever their relative retardation may be, it is natural to assume that an analytical representation of common light can be obtained in which no longitudinal vector occurs.

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  • On the other hand a stream of strictly monochromatic light with a polarization-vector that is entirely transversal must be (in general elliptically) polarized.

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  • 281), and it may be shown that two polarized streams of a definite character are analytically equivalent to common light provided that they are of equal intensity and oppositely polarized and that there is no common phase relation between the corresponding monochromatic constituents.

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  • Further a stream of light of the most general character is equivalent to the admixture of common and polarized light, the polarization being elliptical, circular or plane.

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  • We see then that there are seven possible types of light: common light, polarized light and partially polarized light; the polarization in the two latter cases being elliptical, circular or plane.

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  • Common light, circularly polarized and partially circularly polarized light all have the characteristic of giving two streams of equal intensity on passing through a rhomb of Iceland spar, however it may be turned.

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  • They may, however, be distinguished by the fact that on previous transmission through a quarter-wave plate this property is retained in the case of common light, while with the two other types the relative intensity of the streams depends upon the orientation of the rhomb, and with circularly polarized light one stream may be made to vanish.

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  • Plane polarized light gives in general two streams of unequal intensity when examined with a rhomb, and for certain positions of the crystal there isonly one emergent stream.

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  • Elliptically polarized, partially elliptically polarized and partially plane polarized light give with Iceland spar two streams of, in general, unequal intensity, neither of which can be made to vanish.

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  • They may be differentiated by first passing the light through a quarter-wave plate with its axis parallel or perpendicular to the plane of maximum polarization: for elliptically polarized light thereby becomes plane polarized and one of the streams is extinguished on rotating the rhomb; but with the other two kinds of light this is not the case, and the light is partially plane or partially elliptically polarized according as the plane of maximum polarization remains the same or is changed.

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  • On entry into the crystal the original polarized stream is resolved into components represented by a cos(- a) cos T, a sin (1P - a)cos T, T =27rt/r, and on emergence we may take as the expression of the waves cos (p - a) cos T, sin (4, - a) cos (T - p).

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  • In strictness the angle is dependent upon the frequency, but if the dispersion be weak relatively to the double refraction, the product sin 24 - a)sin 2Ni - (3) has sensibly the same value for all terms of the summation, and we may write I=cos 2 (1 3 - a)/a 2 - sin 2 (1 ' - a) sin 2 (t ' - a 2 sin 2 2 This formula contains the whole theory of the colours of crystalline plates in polarized light.

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  • When p = 2nir and also when 4, = a or a-1-7/2 or Ili = 1 3 or 0+7r/2, that is at points for which the streams within the plate are polarized in planes parallel and perpendicular to the planes of primitive and final polarization, the intensity (called the fundamental intensity) is the same as when the plate is removed.

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  • The phenomenon of interference produced by crystalline plates is considerably modified if the light be circularly or elliptically polarized or analysed by the interposition of a quarter-wave between the crystal and the polarizer or analyser.

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  • Thus in the two cases described above the brushes disappear and the rings are continuous when the light is both polarized and analysed circularly.

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  • But the most important case, on account of its practical application to determining the sign of a crystal, is that in which the light is plane polarized and circularly analysed or the reverse.

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  • Again, a system of rings, similar to those of an uniaxal plate perpendicular to the axis, may be produced with a glass cylinder by transmitting heat from its surface to its axes by immersion in heated oil, and glass that has been raised to a red heat and then cooled rapidly at its edges gives in polarized light an interference pattern of a regular form dependent upon the shape of the contour.

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  • Fresnel showed that rotary polarization could be explained kinematically by supposing that a plane-polarized stream is resolved on entering an active medium into two oppositely circularly polarized streams propagated with different speeds, the rotation being rightor left-handed according as the rightor left-handed stream travels at the greater rate: The polarization-vector of the primitive - stream being = a cos nt, the first circularly polarized stream after traversing a distance z in the medium may be represented by = a cos (nt - k i z), ni = a sin (nt - kiz), and the second b z = a cos (nt - k 2 z), n2= - a sin (nt - k2z).

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  • The resultant of these is = 2a cos 2 (k 2 - k i)z cos {nt - 1(k2 -Fk2)z}, = 2a sin 2 (k 2 - ki)z cos {nt - z (k i + k2)z}, which shows that for any fixed value of z the light is plane polarized in a plane making an angle 1(k 2 - ki)z = ir(X i - X7 1)z, with the initial plane of polarization, X 1 and being the wave-lengths of the circular components of the same frequency.

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  • Since the two circular streams have different speeds, Fresnel argued that it would be possible to separate them by oblique refraction, and though the divergence is small, since the difference of their refractive indices in the case of quartz is only about o 00007, he succeeded by a suitable arrangement of alternately rightand left-handed prisms of quartz in resolving a plane-polarized stream into two distinct circularly polarized streams. A similar arrangement was used by Ernst v.

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  • According to Fresnel's explanation the light in each of the interfering streams consists of two trains of waves that are circularly polarized in opposite direction and have a relative retardation of phase, introduced by the passage through the quartz: the central fringes are then due to the similarly polarized waves; the lateral systems are produced by the oppositely polarized streams, these on analysation being capable of interfering.

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  • Airy extended Fresnel's hypothesis to directions inclined to the axis of uniaxal crystals by assuming that in any such direction the two waves, that can be propagated without alteration of their state of polarization, are oppositely elliptically polarized with their planes of maximum polarization parallel and perpendicular to the principal plane of the wave, these becoming practically plane polarized at a small inclination to the optic axis.

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  • When the light is circularly polarized or circularly analysed, a single plate gives two mutually enwrapping spirals, and similar spirals in circularly polarized light are obtained with plates of an active biaxal crystal perpendicular to one of the optic axes.

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  • This was supplied by Fresnel, who, starting from a mechanical hypothesis, showed by ingenious but not strictly dynamical reasoning that if the incident stream have unit amplitude, that of the reflected stream will be - sin (i - r) /sin (i -{- r) or tan (i - r) /tan (i -{- r), according as the incident light is polarized in or perpendicularly to the plane of incidence i, r, being the angles of incidence and refraction connected by the formula sin i =,u sin r.

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  • If the incident light be polarized in a plane, making an angle a with the plane of incidence, the stream may be resolved into two that are polarized in the principal azimuths, and these will be reflected in accordance with the above laws.

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  • Hence if 1 3 be the angle between the plane of incidence and that in which the reflected light is polarized tan (3= - tan a cos (i+r)/cos (i - r).

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  • Franz Neumann and James MacCullagh, starting from the opposite assumption of constant density and different elasticities, arrived at the same formulae for the intensities of the reflected light polarized in the principal azimuths, but in this case the vibrations must be regarded as parallel to the plane of polarization.

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  • Applying this interpretation to the formulae given above, it follows that when the incident light is polarized at an azimuth a to the plane of incidence and the second medium is the less refracting, the reflected light at angles of incidence exceeding the critical angle is elliptically polarized with a difference of phase A between the components polarized in the principal azimuths that is given by tan (A/2) =cot i l l (1 - µ 2 cosec 2 i).

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  • Thus if A = 42, p. must exceed 7r/8 or 2.414, that is, the substance must be at least as highly refracting as a diamond: if A =7 /4, µ must be greater than 37r/16 or 1.4966, and when this is the case, it is possible by two reflections to convert into a circularly polarized stream a beam of light polarized at 45° to the plane of incidence.

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  • This is the principle of Fresnel's rhomb, that is sometimes employed instead of a quarter-wave plate for obtaining a stream of circularly polarized light.

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  • It consists of a parallelopiped glass so constructed that light falling normally on one end emerges at the other after two internal reflections at such an angle as to introduce a relative retardation of phase of 4r/4 between the components polarized in the principal azimuths.

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  • Wernicke and others have established that in general light polarized in any but the principal azimuths becomes elliptically polarized by reflection, the relative retardation of phase of the components polarized in these azimuths becoming 42 at a certain angle of incidence, called the principal incidence.

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  • In some cases it is the component polarized in the plane of incidence that is most retarded and the reflection is then said to be positive: in the case of negative reflection the reverse takes place.

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  • The best method of obtaining a strong beam of polarized light is to isolate one of the streams into which a beam of common light is resolved by double refraction.

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  • Elliptically polarized light is investigated by the reduction of the pencil to a state of plane polarization, and a determination of the resulting plane of polarization.

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  • It is clear that direct transmission through the plate at a point where the thicknesses of the prisms are d 1 and d 2 will introduce a relative retardation of (µ,; -, u o) (d l - d2) between streams polarized in planes parallel and perpendicular to the edges of the prisms,, u o, and being the ordinary and the extraordinary refractive indices; and it is hence possible by an adjustment of the thickness to reduce elliptically polarized to plane polarization at an assigned point marked off by two parallel lines.

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  • Of polarimeters for the study of rotary polarization there are three principal forms. In Wild's polaristrobometer, light from a soda flame, rendered parallel by a lens, is polarized by a Nicol's prism, and after traversing the space into which the active substance is to be inserted, falls on a Savart's plate placed in front of an astronomical telescope of low power, that contains in its eyepiece a Nicol's prism, which with the plate forms a Savart's analyser.

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  • If then a stream of polarized white light traverse the biquartz, it is possible by an analyser to cut off the mean yellow light from each half of the field, and the whole will then have the sensitive tint; but a small change in the plane of analysation will give the one half a red and the other half a blue tone.

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  • For examining preparations in polarized light a polarizer D is introduced n the illuminating apparatus below the diaphragm and an analyser E ai.

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  • There is nearly always an arrangement to observe the preparation first in convergent light and then in parallel polarized light.

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  • The essential oils possess a high refractive power, and most of them rotate the plane of the polarized light.

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  • Even so nearly related oils as the oils of turpentine, if obtained from different sources, rotate the plane of the polarized light in opposite directions.

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  • Some of these are recognizable as pale yellowish and white mica; others seem to be chlorite, the remainder is perhaps kaolin, but, owing to the minute size of the flakes, they yield very indistinct reactions to polarized light.

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  • The polarized signal is recovered from the first harmonic at 40 kHz using lock-in amplifiers.

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  • antenna radiation (normal to the plane of the loop) will be polarized parallel to the short sides of the loop.

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  • It is only really defined for linearly polarized antennas.

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  • Figure 4. Synovial fluid CPPD crystals (compensated polarized light microscopy x400 ); scant numbers of rhomboid crystals showing weak positive birefringence.

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  • Bromine as an electrophile Again, the bromine as an electrophile Again, the bromine is polarized by the approaching pi bond in the cyclohexene.

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  • Polarized organic electroluminescence: Ordering from the top, Appl.

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  • Even through Christopher's polarized interpretation, we can appreciate the love his parents have for him but also their deep exasperation and exhaustion.

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  • With SXUC Polarized Sunglasses we have a complete range of quality eyewear that are perfect for removing the glare.

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  • ferromagnetic phases of the manganites can be used as a source of highly spin polarized electrons, e.g. for spin electronics and quantum computing.

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  • A portable, battery-operated meter for determining the Brewster angles of faceted gemstones using polarized laser light is described.

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  • The polarized signal is recovered from the first harmonic at 40 kHz using lock-in amplifiers.

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  • It's a dead city now, polarized between those poor enough to qualify for the remains of subsidized housing and the very rich.

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  • The high spin polarization of the mixed valence manganites make them attractive for devices based on spin polarized tunneling and spin injection.

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  • The colors appear under the polarized light microscope that earth scientists use to identify rock crystals.

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  • Image taken using polarized light microscopy with a sensitive tint plate.

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  • In the history of polarized light microscopy, one of the most popular chemical compounds studied was hippuric acid.

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  • monocular head and single eyepiece for simple polarized light studies.

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  • Cellular invasion can be duplicated in vitro with polarized epithelial cell monolayers, and parasites ' activated ' to acquire infectivity.

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  • I discovered and documented locations for apparent underground transmitters of polarized magnetic photon beams out into space.

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  • On beamline 5D circularly polarized photons are selected by means of a defining aperture, or chopper.

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  • Epithelial planar cell polarity refers to situations in which cells become polarized within the plane of an epithelium.

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  • These zero percentage polarization values then result in zero polarized intensity values.

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  • polarized sunglasses better than normal dark sunglasses?

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  • Furthermore, polarized electrons have been used to make polarized photons in the dilute magnet materials.

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  • polarized light microscopy, one of the most popular chemical compounds studied was hippuric acid.

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  • polarized filters in the microscope.

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  • polarized lenses on snow-covered surfaces.

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  • polarized into positions of varying consistency with one of two diametrically opposed systems.

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  • PPL = plain polarized light XPL = crossed polarized light 5.2.

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  • For circularly polarized light, the fields in the slice will, at a certain moment, also be oriented in the same way.

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  • For oblique propagation waves become linearly polarized at the crossover frequency.

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  • Indeed, the glare can be almost completely horizontally polarized, depending on the height of the sun.

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  • They tend to be horizontally polarized, thus perfect for vertically polarized sunglasses.

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  • There is no question that politics in the U.S. have become increasingly polarized.

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  • polarized in different directions.

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  • Finally, light coming from under water is slightly polarized in the vertical plane (polarized in the vertical plane (polarized on transmission ).

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  • The game helps new york the neither refracted nor polarized.

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  • regenerate declining neighborhoods, a larger problem is that the economic geography of the UK has become more polarized.

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  • Polymer orientation in solid materials can be detected by polarized vibrational spectroscopy.

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  • Glass has highly specular surface characteristics at high glancing angles and polarized luminaires adjacent to extensive glazing should be avoided.

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  • umpteen websites with very polarized viewpoints that restrict contrary views.

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  • Thus, Pasteur showed that Penicillium glaucum, when grown in an aqueous solution of ammonium racemate, decomposed the dextro-tartrate, leaving the laevotartrate, and the solution which was originally inactive to polarized light became dextro-rotatory.

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  • Under favourable conditions more than half the light is polarized.

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  • Whenever the particles are sufficiently fine, the light emitted laterally is blue in colour and, in a direction perpendicular to the incident beam, is completely polarized.

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  • Conceive a beam of plane polarized light to move among a number of particles, all small compared with any of the wavelengths.

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  • If the primary ray is unpolarized, the light scattered north and south is entirely due to that component which vibrates east and west, and is therefore perfectly polarized, the direction of its vibration being also east and west.

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  • Similarly any other ray scattered horizontally is perfectly polarized, and the vibration is performed in the horizontal plane.

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  • We have 62=W12+W22+032=P2 (N) 2 Y 2+P2 (A I - 3) 2 If AN, AD be both finite, we learn from (7) that there is no direction perpendicular to the primary (polarized) ray in which the secondary light vanishes.

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  • So long as the precipitated particles are very fine, the light dispersed in a perpendicular direction is sky-blue and fully polarized.

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  • At a further stage of their growth the particles disperse in the perpendicular direction a light which is no longer fully polarized.

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  • The crystals are feebly doubly refracting, and in polarized light exhibit a banded structure parallel to the cube faces.

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  • In the latter country, when such working is resorted to, current a " polarized relay " (fig.

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  • The Siemens polarized relay, shown in fig.

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  • - Post Office Polarized Relay.

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  • Although the relay is a polarized " one, so that it can be used for " double-current " working, it is equally suitable for " single-current " purposes, as the tongue can be given a bias over to the " spacing " side, i.e.

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  • currents; the former is polarized and responds to reversals of current, while the latter is non-polarized and responds only to the increased current from K2 irrespective of the direction of that current.

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  • The function of the " combiner " in each receiving instrument is so to group the received combination of positive and negative currents that they operate polarized relays in such a manner that the position of the tongues corresponds with the operation of the levers on the transmitter.

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  • If in a vessel of nitric acid are placed a large platinum plate and a platinum electrode of very small surface such as that produced when an extremely fine platinum wire is slightly immersed in the liquid, and if a current from a single voltaic cell is passed through the electrolytic cell so that the fine wire is the anode or positive pole, then the small surface will be polarized or covered with a film of gas due to electrolysis (fig.

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  • This pressed amber yields brilliant interference colours in polarized light.

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  • The different behaviour of these two acids to a ray of polarized light was subsequently observed by J.

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  • One possessed the power of turning the plane of the polarized ray to the right; the other possessed no rotary power.

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  • The proof of this statement rests on the fact that if the hydrogen atoms were not co-planar, then substitution derivatives (the substituting groups not containing asymmetric carbon atoms) should exist in enantiomorphic forms, differing in crystal form and in their action on polarized light; such optical antipodes have, however, not yet been separated.

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  • If, however, two compounds only differ with regard to the spatial arrangement of the atoms, the physical properties may be (I) for the most part identical, differences, however, being apparent with regard to the action of the molecules on polarized light, as is the case when the configuration is due to the presence of an asymmetric atom (optical isomerism); or (2) both chemical and physical properties may be different when the configuration is determined by the disposition of the atoms or groups attached to a pair of doubly-linked atoms, or to two members of a ring system (geometrical isomerism or allo-isomerism).

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  • In polarized light they show a weak grey colour with a black cross, the arms of which are parallel to the cobwebs in the eyepiece of the microscope and remain stationary when the section is rotated.

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  • Porphyritic crystals often contract less than the surrounding glass, which accordingly becomes strained, and in polarized light may show a weak double refraction in a limited area surrounding the crystal.

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  • When heated to above 200 it turns brown and produces caramel, a substance possessing a bitter taste, and used, in its aqueous solution or otherwise, under various trade names, for colouring confectionery, spirits, &c. The specific rotation of the plane of polarized light by glucose solutions is characteristic. The specific rotation of a freshly prepared solution is 105°, but this value gradually diminishes to 52.5°, 24 hours sufficing for the transition in the cold, and a few minutes when the solution is boiled.

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  • A part of one surface of the plate may be silvered, so that the polarized ray, after having once traversed the glass, is reflected back again; the rotation is thus doubled, and moreover, the arrangement is, for certain experiments, more convenient than the other.

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  • The method employed did not admit of the production of such high magnetizing forces, but was of special interest in that both B and I were measured optically-B by means of the rotation of a polarized ray inside a glass plate, as before described, and I by the rotation of a polarized ray reflected from the polished surface of the magnet ized metal (see " Ker.r's constant," Magneto-Optics).

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  • It then appeared that under certain angles of incidence parts of the resulting spectra were completely polarized.

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  • (5), of polarized light are executed in a direction perpendicular to the plane of polarization.

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  • In accordance with a general consequence of reflection and refraction, it is readily seen that the light of the rainbow is partially polarized, a fact first observed in 1811 by Jean Baptiste Biot (see Polarization).

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  • The existence of internal strains in glass can be readil y recognized by examination in polarized light, any signs of double refraction indicating the existence of strain.

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  • they rotate the plane of polarized light; the amount of the rotation being dependent upon the concentration, temperature, and, in some cases, on the age of the solution (cf.

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  • when the dielectric is strained or polarized.

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  • A dielectric substance is electrically polarized by a field of electric force, the atomic poles being made up of the displaced positive and negative intrinsic charges in the atom: the polarization per unit volume (f',g',h') may be defined on the analogy of magnetism, and d/dt(f',g',h') thus constitutes true electric current of polarization, i.e.

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  • The convection of a medium thus polarized involves electric disturbance, and therefore must contribute to the true electric current; the determination of this constituent of the current is the most delicate point in the investigation.

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  • For the simplest case of polarized waves travelling parallel to the axis of x, with the magnetic oscillation y along z and the electric oscillation Q along y, all the quantities are functions of x and t alone; the total current is along y and given with respect to our moving axes by __ (d_ d Q+vy d K-1 Q, dt dx) 47rc 2 + dt (4?rc 2) ' also the circuital relations here reduce to _ dydQ _dy _ dx 47rv ' _ dt ' d 2 Q dv dx 2 -417t giving, on substitution for v, d 2 Q d 2 Q d2Q (c2-v2)(7372 = K dt 2 2u dxdt ' For a simple wave-train, Q varies as sin m(x-Vt), leading on substitution to the velocity of propagation V relative to the moving material, by means of the equation KV 2 + 2 uV = c 2 v2; this gives, to the first order of v/c, V = c/K i - v/K, which is in accordance with Fresnel's law.

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  • In 1841 he found that he required rest, and it was not till 1845 that he entered on his second great period of research, in which he discovered the effect of magnetism on polarized light, and the phenomena of diamagnetism.

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  • Faraday had for a long time kept in view the possibility of using a ray of polarized light as a means of investigating the condition of transparent bodies when acted on by electric and magnetic forces.

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  • p. 362) gives the following note from his laboratory book on the 10th of September 1822: "Polarized a ray of lamplight by reflection, and endeavoured to ascertain whether any depolarizing action (was) exerted on it by water placed between the poles of a voltaic battery in a glass cistern; one Wollaston's trough used; the fluids decomposed were pure water, weak solution of sulphate of soda, and strong sulphuric acid; none of them had any effect on the polarized light, either when out of or in the voltaic circuit, so that no particular arrangement of particles could be ascertained in this way."

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  • "I do not think, therefore, that decomposing solutions or substances will be found to have (as a consequence of decomposition or arrangement for the time) any effect on the polarized ray.

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  • He began to work on the 30th of August 1845 on polarized light passing through electrolytes.

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  • It gave no effects when the same magnetic poles or the contrary poles were on opposite sides (as respects the course of the polarized ray), nor when the same poles were on the same side either with the constant or intermitting current.

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  • But when contrary magnetic poles were on the same side there was an effect produced on the polarized ray, and thus magnetic force and light were proved to have relations to each other.

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  • On the 3rd of November a new horseshoe magnet came home, and Faraday immediately began to experiment on the action in the polarized ray through gases, but with no effect.

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  • The discovery of the magnetic rotation of the plane of polarized light, though it did not lead to such important practical applications as some of Faraday's earlier discoveries, has been of the highest value to science, as furnishing complete dynamical evidence that wherever magnetic force exists there is matter, small portions of which are rotating about axes parallel to the direction of that force.

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  • For a long time Faraday's observation on the rotation of the plane of polarized light by heavy glass in a 1 H.

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  • John Kerr (1824-1907) discovered that a similar effect was produced when plane polarized light was reflected from the pole of a powerful magnet (Phil.

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  • Laevo-tartaric acid is identical in its chemical and in most of its physical properties with the dextro-acid, differing chiefly in its action on polarized light, the plane of polarization being rotated to the left.

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  • The optic figure seen in convergent polarized light through a section cut parallel to the plane of symmetry of a borax crystal is symmetrical only with respect to the central point.

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  • Early in 1831 he arranged a small office-bell to be tapped by the polarized armature of an "intensity" magnet, whose coil was in continuation of a mile of insulated copper wire, suspended about one of the rooms of his academy.

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  • The fourth isomer, formed by the action of Bacillus laevo-lacti on cane-sugar, resembles sarcolactic acid in every respect, except in its action on polarized light (see Stereoisomerism).

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  • of the interference of polarized rays.

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  • Circularly polarized light he obtained by means of a rhomb of glass, known as "Fresnel's rhomb," having obtuse angles of 126°, and acute angles of 54°.

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  • It rotates the plane of polarized light both to right and left in varying degrees according to its sources, the American product being dextrorotatory and the French laevorotatory.

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  • This term has been retained and the ordinary stream is said to be plane polarized in the principal plane of the face of entry into the rhomb, and the extraordinary stream to be plane polarized in the perpendicular plane.

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  • Thus in accordance with the definition, it is polarized in the plane of incidence.

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  • Further, if polarized light fall at the polarizing angle on a reflecting surface, the intensity of the reflected stream depends upon the azimuth of the plane of incidence, being proportional to the square of the cosine of the angle between this plane and the plane of the polarization.

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  • At angles other than the polarizing angle common light gives a reflected stream .that behaves as a mixture of common light with light polarized in the plane of incidence, and is accordingly said to be partially polarized in that plane.

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  • The refracted light, whatever be the angle of incidence, is found to be partially polarized in a plane perpendicular to the plane of incidence, and D.

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  • Arago showed that at all angles of incidence the reflected and refracted streams contain equal quantities of polarized light.

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  • Hence the total reflected light will be polarized in this plane and will of necessity have a greater intensity than that produced by a single surface.

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  • In order to isolate a polarized pencil of rays with a rhomb of Iceland spar, it is necessary to have a crystal of such a thickness that the emergent streams are separated, so that one may be stopped by a screen.

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  • There are, however, certain crystals that with a moderate thickness give an emergent stream of light that is more or less completely polarized.

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  • The polarizing action of such crystals is due to the unequal absorption that they exert on polarized streams. Thus a plate of tourmaline of from I mm.

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  • in thickness with its faces perpendicular to the optic axis is nearly opaque to light falling normally upon it, and a plate of this thickness parallel to the axis permits of the passage of a single stream polarized in a plane perpendicular to the principal section.

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  • Such a plate acts in the same way on polarized light, stopping it or allowing it to pass, according as the plane of polarization is parallel or perpendicular to the principal section.

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  • Eisenlohr and others, with the view of determining the direction of the vibrations in polarized light (vide infra), but the results have not been consistent, and H.

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  • Arago, 'who summed up the results of a searching series of experiments in the following laws of the interference of polarized light: (r) Under the same conditions in which two streams of common light interfere, two streams polarized at right angles are without mutual influence.

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  • (2) Two streams polarized in parallel planes give the same phenomena of interference as common light.

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  • (3) Two streams polarized at right angles and coming from a stream of common light can be brought to the same plane of polarization without thereby acquiring the faculty of interfering.

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  • (4) Two streams polarized at right angles and coming from a stream of polarized light interfere as common light, when brought to the same plane of polarization.

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  • The lateral characteristics of a polarized stream lead at once to the conclusion that the stream may be represented by a vector, and since this vector must indicate the direction in which the light travels as well as the plane of polarization, it is natural to infer that it is transverse to the direction of propagation.

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  • That this is actually the case is proved by experiments on the interference of polarized light, from which it may be deduced that the polarization-vector of a train of plane waves of plane polarized light executes rectilinear vibrations in the plane of the waves.

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  • In conformity with the form of the path, the light is said to be elliptically polarized, rightor left-handedly as the case may be, and the axes of the elliptic path are determined by the planes of maximum and minimum polarization of the light.

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  • In the particular case in which a= b and a -, (3 = (2n + 1) 7r/2, the vibrations are circular and the light is said to be circularly polarized.

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  • These different types of polarization may be obtained from a plane polarized stream by passing it through a quarter-wave plate, i.e.

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  • If this axis be parallel or perpendicular to the primitive plane of polarization, the emergent beam remains plane polarized; it is circularly polarized if the axis be at 45° to the plane of polarization, and in other cases it is elliptically polarized with the axes of the elliptic path parallel and perpendicular to the axis of the plate.

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  • Conversely a quarter-wave plate may be employed for reducing a circularly or elliptically polarized stream to a state of plane polarization.

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  • Two streams are said to be oppositely polarized when the one is, so far as relates to its polarization, what the other becomes when it is turned through an azimuth of 90° and has its character reversed as regards right and left hand.

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  • An analytical investigation of the conditions of interference of polarized streams of the most general type leads to the result that there will be no interference only when the two streams are oppositely polarized, and that when the polarizations are identical the interference will be perfect, the fluctuations of intensity being the greatest that the difference of intensity of the streams admits (Sir G.

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  • Since a beam of common light can be resolved into plane polarized streams and these on recomposition give a stream with properties indistinguishable from those of common light, whatever their relative retardation may be, it is natural to assume that an analytical representation of common light can be obtained in which no longitudinal vector occurs.

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  • On the other hand a stream of strictly monochromatic light with a polarization-vector that is entirely transversal must be (in general elliptically) polarized.

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  • 281), and it may be shown that two polarized streams of a definite character are analytically equivalent to common light provided that they are of equal intensity and oppositely polarized and that there is no common phase relation between the corresponding monochromatic constituents.

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  • Further a stream of light of the most general character is equivalent to the admixture of common and polarized light, the polarization being elliptical, circular or plane.

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  • We see then that there are seven possible types of light: common light, polarized light and partially polarized light; the polarization in the two latter cases being elliptical, circular or plane.

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  • Common light, circularly polarized and partially circularly polarized light all have the characteristic of giving two streams of equal intensity on passing through a rhomb of Iceland spar, however it may be turned.

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  • They may, however, be distinguished by the fact that on previous transmission through a quarter-wave plate this property is retained in the case of common light, while with the two other types the relative intensity of the streams depends upon the orientation of the rhomb, and with circularly polarized light one stream may be made to vanish.

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  • Plane polarized light gives in general two streams of unequal intensity when examined with a rhomb, and for certain positions of the crystal there isonly one emergent stream.

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  • Elliptically polarized, partially elliptically polarized and partially plane polarized light give with Iceland spar two streams of, in general, unequal intensity, neither of which can be made to vanish.

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  • They may be differentiated by first passing the light through a quarter-wave plate with its axis parallel or perpendicular to the plane of maximum polarization: for elliptically polarized light thereby becomes plane polarized and one of the streams is extinguished on rotating the rhomb; but with the other two kinds of light this is not the case, and the light is partially plane or partially elliptically polarized according as the plane of maximum polarization remains the same or is changed.

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  • On entry into the crystal the original polarized stream is resolved into components represented by a cos(- a) cos T, a sin (1P - a)cos T, T =27rt/r, and on emergence we may take as the expression of the waves cos (p - a) cos T, sin (4, - a) cos (T - p).

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  • In strictness the angle is dependent upon the frequency, but if the dispersion be weak relatively to the double refraction, the product sin 24 - a)sin 2Ni - (3) has sensibly the same value for all terms of the summation, and we may write I=cos 2 (1 3 - a)/a 2 - sin 2 (1 ' - a) sin 2 (t ' - a 2 sin 2 2 This formula contains the whole theory of the colours of crystalline plates in polarized light.

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  • When p = 2nir and also when 4, = a or a-1-7/2 or Ili = 1 3 or 0+7r/2, that is at points for which the streams within the plate are polarized in planes parallel and perpendicular to the planes of primitive and final polarization, the intensity (called the fundamental intensity) is the same as when the plate is removed.

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  • The phenomenon of interference produced by crystalline plates is considerably modified if the light be circularly or elliptically polarized or analysed by the interposition of a quarter-wave between the crystal and the polarizer or analyser.

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  • Thus in the two cases described above the brushes disappear and the rings are continuous when the light is both polarized and analysed circularly.

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  • But the most important case, on account of its practical application to determining the sign of a crystal, is that in which the light is plane polarized and circularly analysed or the reverse.

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  • Again, a system of rings, similar to those of an uniaxal plate perpendicular to the axis, may be produced with a glass cylinder by transmitting heat from its surface to its axes by immersion in heated oil, and glass that has been raised to a red heat and then cooled rapidly at its edges gives in polarized light an interference pattern of a regular form dependent upon the shape of the contour.

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  • Fresnel showed that rotary polarization could be explained kinematically by supposing that a plane-polarized stream is resolved on entering an active medium into two oppositely circularly polarized streams propagated with different speeds, the rotation being rightor left-handed according as the rightor left-handed stream travels at the greater rate: The polarization-vector of the primitive - stream being = a cos nt, the first circularly polarized stream after traversing a distance z in the medium may be represented by = a cos (nt - k i z), ni = a sin (nt - kiz), and the second b z = a cos (nt - k 2 z), n2= - a sin (nt - k2z).

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  • The resultant of these is = 2a cos 2 (k 2 - k i)z cos {nt - 1(k2 -Fk2)z}, = 2a sin 2 (k 2 - ki)z cos {nt - z (k i + k2)z}, which shows that for any fixed value of z the light is plane polarized in a plane making an angle 1(k 2 - ki)z = ir(X i - X7 1)z, with the initial plane of polarization, X 1 and being the wave-lengths of the circular components of the same frequency.

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  • Since the two circular streams have different speeds, Fresnel argued that it would be possible to separate them by oblique refraction, and though the divergence is small, since the difference of their refractive indices in the case of quartz is only about o 00007, he succeeded by a suitable arrangement of alternately rightand left-handed prisms of quartz in resolving a plane-polarized stream into two distinct circularly polarized streams. A similar arrangement was used by Ernst v.

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  • According to Fresnel's explanation the light in each of the interfering streams consists of two trains of waves that are circularly polarized in opposite direction and have a relative retardation of phase, introduced by the passage through the quartz: the central fringes are then due to the similarly polarized waves; the lateral systems are produced by the oppositely polarized streams, these on analysation being capable of interfering.

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  • Airy extended Fresnel's hypothesis to directions inclined to the axis of uniaxal crystals by assuming that in any such direction the two waves, that can be propagated without alteration of their state of polarization, are oppositely elliptically polarized with their planes of maximum polarization parallel and perpendicular to the principal plane of the wave, these becoming practically plane polarized at a small inclination to the optic axis.

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  • When the light is circularly polarized or circularly analysed, a single plate gives two mutually enwrapping spirals, and similar spirals in circularly polarized light are obtained with plates of an active biaxal crystal perpendicular to one of the optic axes.

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  • This was supplied by Fresnel, who, starting from a mechanical hypothesis, showed by ingenious but not strictly dynamical reasoning that if the incident stream have unit amplitude, that of the reflected stream will be - sin (i - r) /sin (i -{- r) or tan (i - r) /tan (i -{- r), according as the incident light is polarized in or perpendicularly to the plane of incidence i, r, being the angles of incidence and refraction connected by the formula sin i =,u sin r.

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  • If the incident light be polarized in a plane, making an angle a with the plane of incidence, the stream may be resolved into two that are polarized in the principal azimuths, and these will be reflected in accordance with the above laws.

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  • Hence if 1 3 be the angle between the plane of incidence and that in which the reflected light is polarized tan (3= - tan a cos (i+r)/cos (i - r).

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  • Franz Neumann and James MacCullagh, starting from the opposite assumption of constant density and different elasticities, arrived at the same formulae for the intensities of the reflected light polarized in the principal azimuths, but in this case the vibrations must be regarded as parallel to the plane of polarization.

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  • Applying this interpretation to the formulae given above, it follows that when the incident light is polarized at an azimuth a to the plane of incidence and the second medium is the less refracting, the reflected light at angles of incidence exceeding the critical angle is elliptically polarized with a difference of phase A between the components polarized in the principal azimuths that is given by tan (A/2) =cot i l l (1 - µ 2 cosec 2 i).

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  • Thus if A = 42, p. must exceed 7r/8 or 2.414, that is, the substance must be at least as highly refracting as a diamond: if A =7 /4, µ must be greater than 37r/16 or 1.4966, and when this is the case, it is possible by two reflections to convert into a circularly polarized stream a beam of light polarized at 45° to the plane of incidence.

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  • This is the principle of Fresnel's rhomb, that is sometimes employed instead of a quarter-wave plate for obtaining a stream of circularly polarized light.

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  • It consists of a parallelopiped glass so constructed that light falling normally on one end emerges at the other after two internal reflections at such an angle as to introduce a relative retardation of phase of 4r/4 between the components polarized in the principal azimuths.

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  • Wernicke and others have established that in general light polarized in any but the principal azimuths becomes elliptically polarized by reflection, the relative retardation of phase of the components polarized in these azimuths becoming 42 at a certain angle of incidence, called the principal incidence.

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  • In some cases it is the component polarized in the plane of incidence that is most retarded and the reflection is then said to be positive: in the case of negative reflection the reverse takes place.

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  • The best method of obtaining a strong beam of polarized light is to isolate one of the streams into which a beam of common light is resolved by double refraction.

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  • Elliptically polarized light is investigated by the reduction of the pencil to a state of plane polarization, and a determination of the resulting plane of polarization.

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  • It is clear that direct transmission through the plate at a point where the thicknesses of the prisms are d 1 and d 2 will introduce a relative retardation of (µ,; -, u o) (d l - d2) between streams polarized in planes parallel and perpendicular to the edges of the prisms,, u o, and being the ordinary and the extraordinary refractive indices; and it is hence possible by an adjustment of the thickness to reduce elliptically polarized to plane polarization at an assigned point marked off by two parallel lines.

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  • Of polarimeters for the study of rotary polarization there are three principal forms. In Wild's polaristrobometer, light from a soda flame, rendered parallel by a lens, is polarized by a Nicol's prism, and after traversing the space into which the active substance is to be inserted, falls on a Savart's plate placed in front of an astronomical telescope of low power, that contains in its eyepiece a Nicol's prism, which with the plate forms a Savart's analyser.

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  • If then a stream of polarized white light traverse the biquartz, it is possible by an analyser to cut off the mean yellow light from each half of the field, and the whole will then have the sensitive tint; but a small change in the plane of analysation will give the one half a red and the other half a blue tone.

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  • For examining preparations in polarized light a polarizer D is introduced n the illuminating apparatus below the diaphragm and an analyser E ai.

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  • There is nearly always an arrangement to observe the preparation first in convergent light and then in parallel polarized light.

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  • The essential oils possess a high refractive power, and most of them rotate the plane of the polarized light.

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  • Even so nearly related oils as the oils of turpentine, if obtained from different sources, rotate the plane of the polarized light in opposite directions.

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  • Some of these are recognizable as pale yellowish and white mica; others seem to be chlorite, the remainder is perhaps kaolin, but, owing to the minute size of the flakes, they yield very indistinct reactions to polarized light.

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  • The game helps new york the neither refracted nor polarized.

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  • Despite all the efforts to regenerate declining neighborhoods, a larger problem is that the economic geography of the UK has become more polarized.

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  • Polymer orientation in solid materials can be detected by polarized vibrational spectroscopy.

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  • Glass has highly specular surface characteristics at high glancing angles and polarized luminaires adjacent to extensive glazing should be avoided.

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  • This technique uses the properties of synchrotron radiation, i.e. linearly polarized and tunable radiation.

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  • There are umpteen websites with very polarized viewpoints that restrict contrary views.

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  • Polarized sunglasses are high-performance, specialized eyewear that serve to reduce glare and increase contrast sensitivity.

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  • However, once the general public discovered their glare-reducing benefits, polarized shades became very popular among people simply seeking quality sun protection for their eyes.

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  • When light strikes a surface, it becomes polarized.

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  • Polarized lenses filter the waves of light by absorbing some of the reflected glare while allowing other light waves to pass through them.

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  • The most common illustration of how a polarized lens works to reduce glare is to think of the lens as a Venetian blind.

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  • Polarized sunglasses, which are designed to filter horizontal light, are mounted vertically in the frame, and must be carefully aligned so that they will properly filter the light-waves.

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  • The first polarized lenses were made of a polarizing film that was sandwiched between two flat sheets of glass.

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  • One of the problems with early polarized sunglasses was delamination, when the polarizing film separated from the pieces of glass or plastic.

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  • This process means that polarized polycarbonate lenses are the thinnest and lightest polarized lenses available.

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  • All polarized lenses have some color, as it is possible to polarize light only when the film is colored.

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  • Depending on the material used, polarized lenses are available in a variety of colors.

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  • Select your polarized lenses carefully, as lens color does have an impact on what you see.

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  • Most opticians recommend an anti-reflective coating on the inside of the polarized lens.

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  • The time of day matters when you are using polarized sun glasses.

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  • Polarized lenses can hinder your ability to read an LCD screen.

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  • If you find that an instrument display appears black when you look at it through your polarized sunglasses, tilt your head at a 45 degree angle to the screen and the screen should become readable.

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  • Some polarized sunglasses, especially 3-D polarized glasses, can cause severe vertigo because the filters for these glasses are oriented somewhat differently than those for regular polarized glasses.

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  • Polarized lenses can create an effect called cross-hatching that makes car windows (made of tempered glass) appear to have a pattern of lines, splotches, or large dots in the glass.

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  • These stresses are revealed when the light filters through the polarized lens.

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  • You can also watch a slideshow of polarized sunglasses at Arnette Polarized Sun Glasses and get even more ideas!

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  • Sunglass Rage Flip-ups: Sunglass Rage offers several styles of polarized flip-up style clip-ons.

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  • You can find rectangular styles with polarized and non-polarized lens.

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  • Sunglasses from Flying Fisherman are polarized and provide glare-resistance and maximum UV protection.

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  • All clip-ons are polarized and fit perfectly to the matching eyeglasses.

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  • The clip-ons are polarized and match the frame precisely.

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  • Amber lenses tend to work best for driving, but polarized sunglasses take the cake.

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  • Polarized lenses cut down on glare and create contrast so that you're able to react more quickly.

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  • Optical shops often have some you can try on to really compare polarized and non-polarized lenses.

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  • Even better, take it up a notch by choosing polarized lenses.

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  • For driving, you may want to consider polarized lenses that are dark gray or amber.

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  • Both types of diaper have their advantages and disadvantages and opinion over which is best to use is often very polarized.

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  • Most Anarchy glasses have polarized lenses, which are designed to reduce glare.

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  • Because sunglasses aren't all about looks, you'll be glad to know that Angel sunglasses will protect your eyes from the sun's rays, thanks to polarized lenses with UV protection.

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  • These oversized frames in Tortoise/Brown, Black Ruby/Smoke, or Ebony/Smoke Polarized are what you need to hide the fact that you didn't get enough sleep last night and advertise the fact that you know what's hot.

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  • It's sure to please girly-girls and tomboys alike thanks to the black on pink design with smoke colored polarized lenses.

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  • Other color schemes include Midnight Black/Navy Gradient and Shiny Black/Smoke Gray Polarized.

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  • Surfer Bruce Irons, for example, wears a pair of metal grey polarized sunglasses with wrap-around effect, while skateboarder Danny Supa prefers a more classically styled, aviator frame with brown faded lenses.

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  • In order to accomplish this, each clip is made of a polarized lens that ensures relaxed vision and enhanced clarity during the brightest of sunny days!

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  • Coupled with this eye toward sophistication is the technology of polarized magnetic sun clips.

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  • The lenses are normally polarized, although mirrored styles are also popular.

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  • Ray-Ban's aviator glasses, for example, are available with different colored lenses, while Sunglass Shack stocks aviators with a polarized, mirrored lens.

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  • Choose from lens colors in gray, polarized amber, or polarized VR28.

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  • Oakley's Women's Classic Grapevine Sunglasses: These grey polarized sunglasses are available for just $70.00 and features Oakley's "high definition optics," a feature that allows the wearer greater clarity with their peripheral vision.

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  • The company has been improving its technology for decades and has come to and rank as the top polarized sunglasses maker in the world.

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  • The next, and final, step is to choose whether or not you want your lenses polarized (and additional $45.95).

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  • Polarized lenses are available, as are sunglass accessories.

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  • Half Jacket XLJ Polarized Sunglasses: These are $160.

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  • Polarized: Polarized lenses also reduce glare, but do so by an alignment which filters light waves.

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  • What makes these clip-ons stand out is the fact that they match several styles of eyewear, are easy to slip on and off, and are both polarized and scratch resistant.

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  • Polarized Optics has a Protective Hard Carrying Case (PHC #1) for $7.50 that measures 5.30 by 2.50 by .80 inches.

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  • When the clouds are low in the sky and the sky is gray, that's when polarized lenses may not be your best bet.

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  • This will be a good time to break out the polarized lenses as mentioned above.

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  • Though prescription polarized lenses are on the expensive side, they are available and they're perfect if you like to look great and protect your eyes while you golf, fish or drive.

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  • If you spend a lot of time outdoors and you're looking for more clarity than the average pair of sunglasses can provide, perhaps Costa Del Mar polarized sunglasses can come to the rescue.

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  • Costa Del Mar really took off when, in 1983, the NOAA asked the company to be its official supplier of polarized sunglasses.

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  • Costa Del Mar eventually became the number one polarized sunglasses brand in the country.

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  • The polarized lenses cut the glare from the water, allowing you to see more efficiently and more comfortably.

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  • Costa Del Mar polarized sunglasses are also useful when you're not enjoying your water sport of choice.

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  • Costa Del Mar sunglasses are available with two types of polarized lens materials: 100 percent polarized glass (available in tinted or mirrored glass) and 100 percent polarized CR-39 hard resin.

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  • Costa C-Mates: If you need a little extra help seeing a map or a book and you need a pair of polarized reading sunglasses, the C-Mates could be exactly what you're looking for.

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  • There are several styles of Costa Del Mar sunglasses, and all of the lenses are polarized and offer UV protection.

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  • Options: If you're looking for polarized lenses, this is a good pair to check out.

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  • If you don't want polarized lenses and prefer the non-polarized version, you can get that, as well.

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  • In other circumstances, you may need to search outside the line to find the polarized sunglasses in the shape and size you'd like.

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  • What makes them so unique is their polarized lenses that eliminate all glare.

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  • Consider that a typical pair of polarized Romeo sunglasses can go for as much as $435.00 and this is information you need to know!

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  • This sporty look is flying off the shelves with a tagline of "polarized meets the modern age".

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  • With its 100 percent UV protection against both UVA and UVB rays, this polarized look is one that is most wanted.

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  • Second, this sporty look includes high contrast driving lenses that are perfectly polarized to reduce glare.

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  • They strive to offer the most advanced polarized sunglasses on the planet.

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  • If you're looking for a pair of sunglasses with sporty, yet sophisticated style and high tech polarized lenses, Revo sunglasses may be worth a look.

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  • If you like the Revo look, don't need the special polarized lenses, and would prefer to pay less than the discounted price, shop around for a pair of shades that look like Revo sunglasses.

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  • Lenses are available in multiple colors, as well as polarized form, for all of your outdoor activities, and frames are available in a variety of colors as well for your fashion concerns.

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  • Polarized Lenses have become very popular recently.

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  • Oversize glasses are available with polarized lenses as well as mirrored and colored lenses.

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  • Another feature you can get to counteract the glare from the sun bouncing off of the snow is a pair of polarized lenses.

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  • Some goggles and sunglasses have interchangeable lenses so you can play with colors and polarized amber or gray depending on your riding circumstances.

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  • Polarized lenses filter out scattered light, leaving only the focused, beneficial light for you to see by as you cycle.

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  • If you'd like to spend the extra cash, you can even opt for polarized lenses.

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  • For example, the Men's Polarized Flax Jacket Sunglass looks so much like the real deal that no one may be able to tell the difference.

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  • Try searching polarized sunglasses for many Oakley inspired choices.

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  • They may claim to be polarized when they are not.

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  • Fashionable polarized reading sunglasses combine the best of most worlds.

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  • Why might you want polarized reading glasses at all?

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  • So you know the scenarios where they'll be exactly what you want, but what do they do? polarized lenses really help your vision when you're driving.

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  • Similarly, fashionable polarized reading sunglasses can allow you to see the words in a book or on a map more clearly than traditional sunglass lenses-and look good at the same time.

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  • If you're interested in polarized sunglasses for driving as well as reading, check with your optician for your options.

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  • Once you have your prescription needs under your belt, you can branch out into the world of fashionable polarized reading glasses, which will understandably be harder to find than the simpler styles with clear lenses.

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  • Having a pair custom made will make finding your prescription, polarized lenses, and a frame combination you love much easier.

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  • You get to choose whether you want amber or smoke polarized lenses, the style of your frame, and, of course, you'll have your perfect prescription.

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  • Fashionable polarized sunglasses are available out there; you just have to know where to look!

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  • To understand the need for polarized sunglasses, it's helpful to understand how light works.

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  • Polarized sunglasses, because of their vertical orientation, reduce this annoying, and potentially dangerous, glare.

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  • For many years, boaters and fishermen were the only ones to use polarized sunglasses.

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  • Today, however, many people who spend a lot of time outdoors are looking for that perfect pair of fashionable polarized sunglasses.

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  • If you are wondering if fashionable polarized sunglasses are for you, consider this.

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  • Hobie Polarized is a great place for us to begin our search.

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  • Hobie Polarized uses state of the art technology, without dialing back on their fashion.

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  • There's no doubt that this is a fashionable polarized look!

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  • The Premier series gives us Riptide, a handsomely framed polarized sunglass that features Megol enhanced temples, Megol nose pads and a curve friendly design.

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  • Another great site for a fashionable polarized look is Frames Direct.

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  • Not only does Frames Direct offer hot looks from the very chicest of companies (think Versace, Valentino, Prada, etc.), but they also serve up some pretty cool polarized looks.

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  • The Kala is a unisex look done in a glossy black frame with neutral grey polarized lenses.

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  • This Maui Jim features a blue frame with grey polarized lenses and attractive black streaks along its frame.

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  • The bronze polarized lens only adds to its elegance.

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  • One perk to wearing fishing prescription sun glasses instead of your regular glasses or sunglasses is the fact that they are usually polarized.

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  • Some people do not enjoy the feel of wearing polarized wraparound sunglasses over their regular glasses for extended periods of time.

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  • Polarized lenses (generally amber or gray, and often in polycarbonate for extra durability).

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  • They come in a variety of sizes and shapes, feature a wrap style, and usually contain polarized lenses.

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  • Not too shabby if you consider the cost of a pair of prescription sunglasses-especially when you make those lenses polarized.

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  • Polarized sunglasses are specifically designed to reduce glare, and are ideal for driving.

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  • Maui Jim and sports seem to go together and that's largely due to their Polarized Plus Technology that allows their glasses to be optically correct and distortion free.

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  • These fashionable sunglasses come in a sporty wrap-around shape, and because they're polarized, they block 99.5 percent of UVA rays and 100 percent of UVB rays.

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  • One reason you might be willing to pay the $16.95 asking price is because this look is polarized.

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  • That same year, Edwin Land came up with the idea for polarized lenses that would reduce glare.

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  • Add that freedom to the hydroreflective, polarized lens qualities and you have a winner.

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  • There are two terms you'll see wrapped around Hobie sunglasses: Hydroreflective and polarized.

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  • Polarized lenses are more common than hydroreflective lenses, and these have both.

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  • Polarized lenses allow only the light you need to see through to your eyes, blocking out horizontal, glare-causing rays.

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  • The glass is also polarized for clarity and sight.

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  • The "0" Degrees pair features 100% hypoallergenic optically glazed frames with spring hinges, silicon nose pads and a CR-39 polarized lens.

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  • These $77.50 sunglasses also contain six and eight base CR-39 polarized lenses for lightweight protection.

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  • The lenses are polarized and are made with an ophthalmic grade glass for optimal visual clarity.

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  • Sierra Trading Post is another great site where you can find polarized Hobie sunglasses.

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  • They are polarized for clarity and offer 100% UV protection.

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  • That means a pair of white sunglasses with black polarized lenses have great potential for your coloring.

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  • However, if you're wearing your Oakleys to lounge on the beach or walk around downtown, a pair of inexpensive imitations with 100 percent UV protection made with plastic or polycarbonate (possibly polarized) lenses should work fine.

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  • What makes Polar Eyes sunglasses better than the average pair of polarized eyewear?

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  • There are three things that really make PolarEyes stand out when compared to your average pair of polarized sunglasses.

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  • A much lower MSRP than other polarized sunglasses of comparable quality.

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  • They are polarized for the glare reduction, and you can have improved vision on even overcast days if you need prescription lenses.

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  • Polarized lenses: Polarized lenses are also important because they are specifically made to cut down on dangerous glare that comes from sunlight and sunlit surfaces.

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  • About Sunglasses: Don't know your polarized lenses from your infrared ones?

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  • The styles all have matching magnetic polarized sunshade clip-ons.

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  • If you'd prefer it, you could even have polarized lenses cut for your individual prescription.

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  • The lenses were polarized for cutting glare and made from polycarbonate for impact resistance and super light glass for comfort.

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  • Maui Jim 501-Kaanapali: This pair is available in Gunmetal/Neutral Grey Polarized and Metallic Gloss Copper/HCL Bronze Polarized.

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  • Maui Jim 450-Lahaina: This pair is also available in Gunmetal/Neutral Gray Polarized and Metallic Gloss Copper/HCL Bronze Polarized.

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  • Maui Jim is now the fastest growing polarized sunglasses manufacturer in the world.

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  • Maui Jim Palms sunglasses are technically advanced with large polarized lenses that offer 100 percent UV protection.

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  • They are known for their polarized lenses that reduce glare and protect the eyes as well as for their stylish frames.

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  • Two years later, Maui Jim Sunglasses bought RLI Vision, creating the company that is known today as the fastest-growing manufacturer of polarized sun protection in the world.

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  • Their Polarized Plus and Polarized Plus 2 lenses block 100 percent of UV rays, and they "manage" blue light without interfering with color balance and perception.

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  • The Maui Jim polarized filters absorb 99.9 percent of reflected glare.

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  • Maui Jim's Polarized Plus technology is a multi-layered approach to sunglass construction which combines the best technologies to reduce glare.

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  • Polarized Plus is available in polycarbonate lenses in the Titanium Sport, Stainless Steel, and MJ Sport collections.

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  • Polarized Plus lenses are saltwater safe and effective for blue and infrared light.

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  • In many ways, Polarized Plus 2 is very similar to the Polarized Plus technology.

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  • Polycarbonate lenses feature the Polarized Plus technology.

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  • Maui Jim started up in Hawaii in the 1980s, and has since become the largest polarized sunglasses manufacturer in the world.

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  • The frames are nylon with spring-hinge temples and the lenses are polarized and made from glass.

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  • They do offer a history, flexibility, UV protection, the clear vision that comes with polarized lenses, and more.

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  • Wraps (usually sports styles) are everywhere in men's sunglasses and often come with mirrored or polarized lenses.

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  • But hey, you can leave a second pair of polarized sunglasses there.

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  • You can even get them in different colors, gradients, or polarized styles.

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  • Polarized Optics have been specializing in quality polarized sunglasses since 1985, and they now offer this high level of protection to their mirrored clipons.

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  • All of the clipon looks offered by The Clip On Guys are polarized.

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  • Additionally, you can choose between a standard mirror and a polarized mirrored look.

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  • ASAP -- for Native, this stands for all sports, all polarized.

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  • Polarized sunglasses work to both reduce glare and increase contrast.

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  • Shades and More offers the shatterproof polycarbonate UV filter coupled with a polarized lens.

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  • They can be done with either yellow, clear, or polarized lens.

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  • Similarly, polarized lenses are not advantageous at night, as night-time glare is not polarized like daytime, sunlight glare.

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  • Polarized lenses cut the glare and reduce brightness by 90%.

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  • These polarized lenses are ideal for driving and boating.

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  • Fishing and driving are ideal for these sunglasses because the polarized lenses reduce glare and minimize brightness.

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  • Polarized sport sunglasses are effective and in high demand because they offer substantial UV protection while providing a comfortable and lightweight frame.

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  • There are also two polarized versions of Frogskins.

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  • Both come with polished frames and polarized lenses.

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  • The Polished Black frames are done with Grey polarized lens and the Polished Rootbeer frames have Bronze polarized lens.

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  • There is even a fishing specific Half Jacket that comes in a Polished Black frame with either Shallow Blue or Deep Blue Polarized lenses.

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  • For those spending time in the water, consider the Polarized Water Jacket sunglasses.

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  • The lenses of these sunglasses are polarized and come in Black Iridium.

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  • Oakley 09-674: What makes this black iridium lens and jet black frame model stand out from its peers is the fact that it's polarized.

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  • Oakley 09-675: The bronze polarized lens and brown smoke frame of this model makes it the perfect complement to summer sports.

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  • No less than sixteen different lens colors are available here and the wearer can choose between standard lenses or polarized lenses.

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  • Searching for polarized Oakley Gascan models?

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  • Style 12-891: A polished black and grey polarized lens.

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  • Style 12-855: This beautiful tortoise framed, bronze polarized sunglass is the last in this particular collection.

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  • Style 12-885J: A brown tortoise frame and a bronze polarized lens.

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  • Style 12-884J: A matte black frame coupled with a black iridium polarized lens.

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  • Back Country also offers the Gascan look in a dark grey frame and black iridium polarized lenses.

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  • Polarized lenses are also available on this model.

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  • The lenses are polarized on this model and the Crowbar Snow's design offers moisture-wicking qualities and a fantastic fit.

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  • This style has round lenses that come in either a polarized or regular version.

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  • Polarized Radar® Pitch: This particular pair screams "action" and is available in Jet Black/Black Iridium or Brown Smoke/Bronze.

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  • Polarized Juliet ®: This one is a top seller for Oakley and comes in your choice of Carbon/Black Iridium, Plasma/Ice Iridium, and Polished/Fire Iridium.

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  • You can get the polarized versions in Black Iridium, Ice Iridium, or Fire Iridium.

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  • Choose from Black Iridium, Dark Grey, Grey, Amber Black Iridium Polarized, and Bronze Polarized lenses.

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  • Polarized lenses for sports are important because they block the glare that is often magnified by flat surfaces (like water or pavement).

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  • Oakley has successfully eliminated the haze and distortion that accompanies most polarized lenses.

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  • The Plutonite polycarbonate polarized lenses are designed to give you a optimal peripheral vision while blocking out glare.

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  • You can get polished black/black iridium, carbon/bronze polarized, light/ice iridium, dark/ice iridium polarized, and carbon/tungsten iridium.

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  • You'll pay $400.00 for these luxury sunglasses and in return you'll get high-quality metal, silicone nose pads and temples (for comfort), and your choice of photochromic, polarized, or mineral glass lenses.

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  • You can get your pick of polychromic, polarized, or mineral glass lenses.

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  • These fishing sunglasses are polarized, offer 100% UV protection, and are shatter resistant.

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  • The lenses are polycarbonate, so they're unlikely to shatter, and the tinted, polarized lenses make glare less of an obstacle.

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  • Block glare from sand, pavement, snow, and water thanks to polarized lenses.

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  • This is a small aviator style with photocromatic or polarized lenses available.

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  • Some frame colors have polarized lenses are available.

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  • Polarized lenses do an incredible job of blocking the glare from water, the road, or even sand.

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  • Persol sunglasses are listed as having photocromatic lenses (24 have polarized or photocromatic lenses available).

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  • KB Co. offers Transhades, which are both photochromic and polarized.

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  • Polarized bifocal sunglasses are good for those who frequently drive and look at maps at the same time.

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  • If you like to read outdoors on your deck or on the beach, you'll love the polarized option for your bifocals, as well.

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  • Choose the same sort of bifocal for your polarized bifocal sunglasses as you did for your original everyday eyewear.

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  • Almost any optical shop can have polarized bifocal sunglasses made for you.

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  • Tell the optician you would like polarized lenses.

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  • If you've ever tried out a pair of polarized fishing glasses, you probably haven't wanted to fish without since.

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  • When it comes to comparing regular sunglass lenses and polarized lenses, there's almost no contest.

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  • Using polarized sunglasses for fishing will help you see more clearly in bright light conditions, dim light conditions (if you're using photochromic lenses), in shallow water, and even in deep water.

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  • You can get polarized lenses in almost any color, with or without mirror coatings, and even interchangeable sets for different lighting conditions.

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  • Bright light comes at you horizontally polarized, causing glare and sometimes eyestrain.

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  • The makeup of regular sunglass lenses doesn't enable them to break down the horizontally polarized light, so while the brightness of the sun isn't so unbearable and you may have UV protection, you still get the glare off of the water.

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  • If you tend to fish in varying light conditions, opt for a polarized gray or brown lens.

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  • Technical Gear suggests photochromic lenses for low light conditions and mirrored polarized lenses for midday fishing.

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  • Oakley actually has two types of polarized sunglasses with blue lenses.

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  • Technical Gear offers polarized sunglasses ideal for fishing from lines like Smith, Costa Del Mar, and Oakley.

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  • JRW Fishing has a selection of polarized fishing glasses.

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  • They stand behind the phrase, "You get what you pay for," but they've also taken the care to choose the best polarized glasses to offer on their website.

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  • Your optical shop of choice should be able to take your prescription and a frame you pick out to design a pair of polarized fishing glasses.

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