His poems and orations were published after his death.
His poems, both secular and religious, contained in his Diwan and scattered in the liturgy, are all in Hebrew, though he employed Arabic metres.
An orator and writer of Latin verse, he left three books of graceful Latin poems (printed with Salmon Macrin's Odes, 1546, by R.
The poems show traces of French influence.
His lectures and poems had now made him famous, and he was summoned to Munich where, in 1638, he became court chaplain to the elector Maximilian I.
He left four poems.
One of the separate poems was edited by J.
The quarrel was made up about the beginning of 25 B.C.; and soon after Propertius published his first book of poems and inscribed it with the name of his mistress.
His French poems met with little success, but a description in Latin verse of a tournament (carrousel, circus regius), given by Louis XIV.
That he was capable of better work than is suggested by his average accomplishment is shown by two allegorical poems - the Complaint of the Black Knight and the Temple of Glass (once attributed to Hawes).
Another still later myth, which occurs in the epic poems, makes Brahma be born from a lotus which grew out of the navel of the god Vishnu whilst floating on the primordial waters.
about 1340), wrote poems (Behinath ha-`olam), commentaries on agada and a defence of Maimonides against Solomon Adreth.
He had a book of his poems in raised print from which I read "In School Days."
Some of his poems are said to have been written in ecstasies.
It is not known to have been printed before 1786, when it appeared in Pinkerton's Ancient Scottish Poems. 3.
is Ashestiel, where Sir Walter Scott resided from 1804 to 1812, where he wrote his most famous poems and began Waverley, and which he left for Abbotsford.
The poems of Propertius, as they have come down to us, consist of four books containing 4046 lines of elegiac verse.
The subjects of the poems are threefold: (I) amatory and personal, mostly regarding Cynthia - seventy-two (sixty Cynthia elegies), of which the last book contains three; (2) political and social, on events of the day - thirteen, including three in the last book; (3) historical and antiquarian - six, of which five are in the last book.
Propertius's poems bear evident marks of the study of his predecessors, both Greek and Latin, and of the influence of his contemporaries.
There is hardly a page of Ovid which does not show obligations to his poems, while other writers made a more sparing use of his stories.
Thus the restoration and interpretation of the poems is one of peculiar delicacy and difficulty.
For the quality of Propertius's education, the poems themselves are the only, but a sufficient, testimony.
Few of the poems can be dated with certainty, but those that can, with the exception of iv.
Housman (without publishing an edition) has done much to improve and explain the poems. For further information we may refer to F.
He was the friend and patron of scholars, caused manuscripts to be copied and medieval poems to be collected.
From a sick-bed, from which he never rose, he conducted this work with surprising energy, and there composed those poems, too few in number, but immortal in the English language, such as the "Song of the Shirt" (which appeared anonymously in the Christmas number of Punch, 1843), the "Bridge of Sighs" and the "Song of the Labourer," which seized the deep human interests of the time, and transported them from the ground of social philosophy into the loftier domain of the imagination.
Besides the English editions quoted in the text, the alliterative English poems were partially edited by J.
He became (1756-1759) the leading spirit of Nicolai's important literary undertakings, the Bibliothek and the Literaturbriefe, and ran some risk (which Frederick's good nature obviated) by somewhat freely criticizing the poems of the king of Prussia.
Among his other works are: Det hvide Hus (The White House, 1898), Excentriske Noveller (1885), Stille Eksistenzer (1886), Liv og Dod (Life and Death, (1899), Englen Michael (1902), a volume of poems (1889) and of recollections (Ti Aar, 1891).
His literary talent, though mainly employed in journalism, was also shown in a little volume of verses, Poems of a Life (1884).
The serious poems in which he celebrated the public events of his later years are dull and lifeless.
She published also a small volume of religious poems, and towards the end of her career gave some public readings from her writings.
These poems were recited at rhapsodic contests together with those of Homer and Hesiod, and Orphic hymns were used in the Eleusinian mysteries.'
The so-called Orphic Poems, still extant, are of much later date, probably belonging to the 4th century A.D.; they consist of: (I) an Argonautica, glorifying the deeds of Orpheus on the " Argo," (2) a didactic poem on the magic powers of stones, called Lithica, (3) eighty-seven hymns on various divinities and personified forces of nature.
The Orphic poems also played an important part in the controversies between Christian and pagan writers in the 3rd and 4th centuries after Christ; pagan writers quoted them to show the real meaning of the multitude of gods, while Christians retorted by reference to the obscene and disgraceful fictions by which the former degraded their gods.
There is an edition of the Orphic Fragments and of the poems by E.
She was the Sacharissa of the poems of her admirer, Edmund Waller, and for her second husband she married Sir Robert Smythe.
(partly in Arabic) not only numerous Responsa, but also treatises on law, commentaries on the Mishnah and the Bible, a lexicon called in Arabic al-Hawi, and poems such as the Musar Haskel, but most of them are now lost or known only from translations or.
Some of his poems are extant, and an Introduction to the Talmud mentioned above.
1860), a poet, translated Italian poems into Hebrew; S.
1871), translated German poems into Hebrew; S.
Pushkin in one of his poems described young Gorchakov as "Fortune's favoured son," and predicted his success.
It consists of a calendar and almanac, a catechism, hymns, many of them translations from the German, metrical versions of the Psalms, and a collection of ballads and satirical poems against the Catholic church and clergy.
Dalyell in Scotish Poems of the Sixteenth Century (1801); and of the 1578 volume by David Laing in 1868.
As early as 1875 he published a volume of poems in Gujarati, followed in 1877 by The Indian Muse in English Garb, which attracted attention in England, notably from Tennyson, Max Miller, and Florence Nightingale.
of the Greek Euchologion contain numerous prayers to be offered over animals sacrificed; and in the form of agape such sacrifices were common in Italy and Gaul on the natalis dies of a saint, and Paulinus of Nola, the friend of Augustine, in his Latin poems, describes them (c. 400) in detail.
A confused notice in Suidas mentions three persons of the name: the first, the inventor of the alphabet; the second, the son of Pandion, "according to some" the first prose writer, a little later than Orpheus, author of a history of the Foundation of Miletus and of Ionia generally, in four books; the third, the son of Archelaus, of later date, author of a history of Attica in fourteen books, and of some poems of an erotic character.
Alexander disliked business of state, preferring literature and philosophy; a collection of his Latin poems appeared at Paris in 1656 under the title Philomathi Labores Juveniles.
The work was completed in August 1843, the five years' labour having been broken by the composition of reviews of Lockhart's Life of Scott (1838), Kenyon's Poems (1839), Chateaubriand (1839), Bancroft's United States (1841), Mariotti's Italy (1842), and Madame Calderon's Life in Mexico (1843), and by the preparation of an abridgment of his Ferdinand and Isabella in anticipation of its threatened abridgment by another hand.
12) were numerous both in prose and in verse: besides the /1XXot, he is said to have written epic poems, tragedies, comedies and satyric dramas.
Fragments of his poems have been collected by Wilke, De graecorum syllis (Warsaw, 1820), Paul, Dissertatio de syllis (Berlin, 1821), and Wachsmuth, Sillographorum graec. reliquiae (Leipzig, 1885).
Laws were engraved on cypress by the ancients, and objects of value were preserved in receptacles made of it; thus Horace speaks of poems levi servanda cupresso.
The O'Neills of Ulster: Their History and Genealogy, by Thomas Mathews (3 vols., Dublin, 1907), an ill-arranged and uncritical work, has little historical value, but contains a mass of traditional and legendary lore, and a number of translations of ancient poems, and genealogical tables of doubtful authority.
Neither of the poems in Deut.
The success of these ventures prompted him to collect his poems in 1722.
Between the publication of the collected edition of his poems and his settling down in the Luckenbooths, he had published a few shorter poems and had issued the first instalments of The Tea-Table Miscellany and The Ever Green (both 1724-1727).
In The Ever Green, being a Collection of Scots Poems wrote by the Ingenious before 1600, Ramsay had another purpose, to reawaken an interest in the older national literature.
Ramsay wrote little afterwards, though he published a few shorter poems, and new editions of his earlier work.
A complete edition of his Poems appeared in London in 1731 and in Dublin in 1733.
The Tea-Table Miscellany was reprinted in 1871 (2 vols., Glasgow; John Crum); The Ever Green in 1875 (2 vols., Glasgow; Robert Forrester); The Poems of Allan Ramsay in 1877 (2 vols., Paisley; Alex.
Even in the Homeric poems, which belong to an age when the great Minoan civilization was already decadent, the Cretans appear as the only Greek people who attempted to compete with the Phoenicians as bold and adventurous navigators.
His extant works are (a) three poems, "The Praises of Wemen" (224 lines), "On Luve" (10 lines), and "The Miseries of a Pure Scholar" (189 lines), and (b) a Latin account of the Arbuthnot family, Originis et Incrementi Arbuthnoticae Familiae Descriptio Historica (still in MS.), of which an English continuation, by the father of Dr John Arbuthnot, is preserved in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh.
The poems are printed in Pinkerton's Ancient Scottish Poems (1786), i.
Harrison-Ainsworth in his novel Crichton (new ed., 1892) reprints and translates some documents relating to Crichton, as well as some of his poems.
He also posed as an author and patron of literature; his poems, severely criticized by Philoxenus, were hissed at the Olympic games; but having gained a prize for a tragedy on the Ransom of Hector at the Lenaea at Athens, he was so elated that he engaged in a debauch which proved fatal.
Very often, if not most frequently, it cannot be doubted that the occult religious significance depends on an artificial exegesis; but there are also poems of Hafiz, Saadi, and other writers, religious in their first intentions.
The " Cherubic Wanderer," and other poems, of Johann Scheffier (1624-1677), known as Angelus Silesius, are more closely related in style and thought to Eckhart than to Boehme.
Here Venantius Fortunatus, the Italian poet, found a friendly reception, and two of the poems printed under his name are usually attributed to Radegunda.
The best of his poems is The Quest of the Sangraal: Chant the First (Exeter, 1864).
Another edition of his Poetical Works (1899) has a preface and bibliography by Alfred Wallis, and a complete edition of his poems by C. E.
Byles, with the title Cornish Ballads and other Poems, appeared in 1904.
His lyrical poems are wanting in spontaneity and individuality, but many of them possess a simple, orderly charm, as of an English country lane.
The Poems and Verse-translations of Jeremy Taylor were edited by Dr. A.
His writings, consisting of short poems, philosophical essays, grammatical notes and letters, were published after his death by his pupil Jacob Faber.
A different but essential side of his character is seen in his poems and humorous pieces, such as the Vergleichende Anatomie der Engel (1825), written under the pseudonym of "Dr Mises."
His writings, which include some Latin poems, prove him a man of learning, and he appears to have been acquainted not only with the Latin classics, but also with Greek, and even Hebrew.
774, Mardos), a Persian king of infamous memory; the prevalent Greek form Smerdis has assimilated the Persian name to the Greek (Asiatic) name Smerdis or Smerdies, which occurs in the poems of Alcaeus and Anacreon.
His Essais en vers et en prose (1797) contains the Marseillaise, a prose tale of the sentimental kind called Adelaide et Monville, and some occasional poems.
Angilbert, however, was little like the true medieval saint; his poems reveal rather the culture and tastes of a man of the world, enjoying the closest intimacy with the imperial family.
Of the shorter poems, besides the greeting to Pippin on his return from the campaign against the Avars (796), an epistle to David (Charlemagne) incidentally reveals a delightful picture of the poet living with his children in a house surrounded by pleasant gardens near the emperor's palace.
Angilbert's poems have been published by E.
The ruins of Palmyra greatly interested the Arabs, and are commemorated in several poems quoted by Yaqut and others; they are referred to by the early poet Nabigha as proofs of the might of Solomon and his sovereignty over their builders the Jinn (Derenbourg, Journ.
His nephew, Diego, the younger (1586-1660), produced Chauleidos (1628) and other Latin poems, including sacred dramas; a novel, Casamento Perfeito (1630); and shone as a historical critic.
The romantic character of the history of this family has been the subject of poems, dramas and novels.
New poems in abundance dealt with the history of the Crusades, either in a faithful narrative, like that of the Chanson of Ambroise, which narrates the Third Crusade, or in a free and poetical spirit, such as breathes in the Chanson d'Antioche.
vii.), some sermons of contested authenticity, some poems (Aenigmata, ed.
Her literary work consists of the Heptameron, of poems entitled Les Marguerites de la marguerite des princesses, and of Letters.
The Marguerites consist of a very miscellaneous collection of poems, mysteries, farces, devotional poems of considerable length, spiritual and miscellaneous songs, &c. The Dernieres poesies, not printed till 1896 (by M.
The poet Marc Antonia Flaminio, for instance, congratulates himself in pretty Latin verses on her singing his poems.
The Homeric poems scarcely mention Attica, and the legends, though numerous, are rarely of direct historical value.
In fact, it does for the Robin Hood cycle what a few years before Sir Thomas Malory had done for the Arthurian romances - what in the 6th century B.C. Peisistratus is said to have done for the Homeric poems.
The best collections of Robin Hood poems are those of Ritson (8vo, 1795) and Gutch (2nd ed., 1847), and of Professor Child in the 5th volume of his invaluable English and Scotch Popular Ballads (Boston, 1888).
Xenophanes in the middle of the 6th century had made the first great attack on the crude mythology of early Greece, including in his onslaught the whole anthropomorphic system enshrined in the poems of Homer and Hesiod.
Among his contemporaries Chastellain acquired a great reputation by his poems and occasional pieces now little considered.
For an exposition of Quakerism on its spiritual side many of the poems by Whittier may be referred to, also Quaker Strongholds and Light Arising by Caroline E.
He wrote his lectures at high pressure, and devoted much time to the editing and publication of the numerous poems which he had written at various times during his life.
A few poems by Emmet of little merit are appended to Madden's biography.
The poems of this statesman, though possessing little merit of their own, being for the most part translations from Nevayi, form one of the landmarks in the history of Ottoman literature.
He spent the summer months in Scotland, writing articles, poems, and above all his first romance, The Sea-Cook, afterwards known as Treasure Island; but he was driven back to Davos in October.
In 1885 he published, after long indecision, his volume of poems, A Child's Garden of Verses, an inferior story, The Body Snatcher, and that admirable romance, Prince Otto, in which the peculiar quality of Stevenson's style was displayed at its highest.
In July he published his volume of lyrical poems called Underwoods.
The Works of John Home were collected and published by Henry Mackenzie in 1822 with "An Account of the Life and Writings of Mr John Home," which also appeared separately in the same year, but several of his smaller poems seem to have escaped the editor's observation.
of Original Poems by Scottish Gentlemen (1762)., See also Sir W.
He published his first volume of Poems in 1827, and in 1833 appeared his Poems and Prose Writings, republished in 1850 in two volumes, in which were included practically all of his poems and of his prose contributions to periodical literature.
The cycle of Guillaume has more unity than the other great cycles of Charlemagne or of Doon de Mayence, the various poems which compose it forming branches of the main story rather than independent epic poems. There exist numerous cyclic MSS.
The inconsistencies between the real and the epic Guillaume are often left standing in the poems. The personages associated with Guillaume in his Spanish wars belong to Provence, and have names common in the south.
Two other poems are consecrated to his later exploits, La Bataille Loquifer, the work of a French Sicilian poet, Jendeu de Brie (fl.
Le Couronnement Looys, already mentioned, Le Charroi de Nimes (12th century) in which Guillaume, who had been forgotten in the distribution of fiefs, enumerates his services to the terrified Louis, and Aliscans (r2th century), with the earlier Chanrun, are among the finest of the French epic poems. The figure of Vivien is among the most heroic elaborated by the trouveres, and the giant Rainouart has more than a touch of Rabelaisian humour.
The conclusions arrived at by earlier writers are combated by Joseph Bedier in the first volume, "Le Cycle de Guillaume d'Orange" (1908), of his Legendes epiques, in which he constructs a theory that the cycle of Guillaume d'Orange grew up round the various shrines on the pilgrim route to Saint Gilles of Provence and Saint James of Compostella - that the chansons de geste were, in fact, the product of 11th and 12th century trouveres, exploiting local ecclesiastical traditions, and were not developed from earlier poems dating back perhaps to the lifetime of Guillaume of Toulouse, the saint of Gellone.
None of these poems show any very patriotic feeling, though Chartier's prose is evidence that he was not indifferent to the misfortunes of his country.
In the Homeric poems Laconia appears as the realm of an Achaean prince, Menelaus, whose capital was perhaps Therapne on the left bank of the Eurotas, S.E.
He wrote poems of all kinds in a language hitherto employed only for ballads and hymns; he instituted a theatre, and composed a rich collection of comedies for it; he filled the shelves of the citizens with works in their own tongue on history, law, politics, science, philology and philosophy, all written in a true and manly style, and representing the extreme attainment of European culture at the moment.
He brought out also in 1856 a short volume of poems called Vaterleindische Gedichte, and another volume in the following year.
The most distinguished of the native scholars was John Cesinge, alias Janus Pannonius, who composed Latin epigrams, panegyrics and epic poems. The best edition of his works was published by Count S.
During the latter part of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th two poets of a higher order appeared in Valentine Balassa, the earliest Magyar lyrical writer, and his contemporary John Rimay, whose poems are of a contemplative and pleasing character.
The lyric and epic poems of Stephen GyongyOsi, who sang the deeds of Maria Szechy, the heroine of Murany, Murdnyi Venus (Kassa, 1664), are samples rather of a general improvement in the style than of the purity of the language.
The most noteworthy follower of Dugonics was Adam Horvath, author of the epic poems Hunniasz (Gyor, 1787) and Rudolphiasz (Vienna, 1817).
The lyric poems of Kolcsey can hardly be surpassed, whilst his orations, and markedly the Emlek beszed Kazinczy felett (Commemorative Speech on Kazinczy), exhibit not only his own powers, but the singular excellence of the Magyar language as an oratorical medium.
Generally less varied and romantic, though easier in style, are the heroic poems Augsburgi iitkozet (Battle of Augsburg) and Aradi gyules (Diet of Arad) of Gregory Czuczor, who was, moreover, very felicitous as an epigrammatist.
His poems, which embody the national genius, have passed into the very life of the people; particularly is he happy in the pieces descriptive of rural life.
The poems of Count Geza Zichy and Victor Dalmady, those of the latter published at Budapest in 1876, are mostly written on subjects, of a domestic nature, but are conceived in a patriotic spirit.
Joseph Kiss in 1876 brought out a few lyric and epic poems of considerable merit.
The Arvizonyv or " Inundation Book," edited by Eotvos (1839-1841), is a collection of narratives and poems by the most celebrated authors of the time.
1894), whose Szerelem Konyve (" Book of Love ") has become a popular classic; Victor Dalmady, who published in the 'nineties his Hazafias Koltemenyek (Patriotic Poems); and Ladislas Arany, son of the great John.
1849) published his lyrical poems in 1892.
1850) has made a sphere of his own in his charming poems for and about children, Edes anydm (" My dear Mother ").
1860), author of A tegnap es a ma (" Yesterday and To-day," 1889), Versek (Poems, 1893), &c., there is undoubted power of genuine satire and deep humour.
Among his later poems may be mentioned La Divine Tragedie (1916) and La Quadrature de l'Amour (1920).
Silva is the subject also of several laudatory poems and dramas, one or two of which were composed by Brazilian compatriots.
Many of the psalms are doxologies or the like, expressly written for the Temple; others are made up of extracts from older poems in a way perfectly natural in a hymn-book, but otherwise hardly intelligible.
No canon of literary criticism can treat as valuable external evidence an attestation which first appears so many centuries after the supposed date of the poems.
every psalm, except the introductory poems i.
Nothing can be further removed than this from any possible situation in the life of the David of the books of Samuel, and the case is still worse in the second Davidic collection, especially where we have in the titles definite notes as to the historical occasion on which the poems are supposed to have been written.
We need not suppose that congregations gathered together to worship away from Jerusalem, especially in times of distress, would necessarily sing the religious poems which they had collected, though it is by no means improbable that they would do so.
is correct), at all events not earlier than 150 B.C., a south Galilaean synagogue made a collection of the various religious poems current among its members.
Perhaps those which were to be sung according to the old Davidic mode formed the nucleus of the collection, and to these were added other poems to be sung according to the more intricate Korahite and Asaphic modes.
The former was the author of a good many poems; the longest - which is however by some attributed to Ephraim8 - is the work in 12 books on the history of Joseph, of which a complete edition was published by Bedjan in 1901.
Other poems of his were edited by Overbeck in S.
Ephraemi Syri, &c., opera selecta, pp. 2 5 1 -33 6; and these have since been supplemented by Zettersteen's edition of a large number of his religious poems or metrical prayers (Beitrdge zur Kenntniss der religiosen Dichtung Balais, Leipzig, 1902).
Many of his poems have now been published.'
This long, trailing garment was especially characteristic of Ionia; in the Homeric poems (Il.
His teaching found expression in poems, which he recited rhapsodically in the course of his travels.
Some of his poems have been translated with great success by Arthur Symons in Images of Good and Evil; the most convenient edition of his works, which have been frequently reprinted, is that contained in vol.
But inasmuch as the De nugis is undoubtedly, and certain satirical poems directed against the loose life of the clergy of the day most probably, his work, the speech must not be taken too literally.
De nugis curialium and the Latin Poems attributed to Map have been edited for the Camden Society by T.
The two narrative poems which succeeded the early lyrics, Jocelyn and the Chute d'un ange, were, according to Lamartine's original plan, parts of a vast "Epic of the Ages," some further fragments of which survive.
After his death some poems and Memoires inedits of his youth were published, and also two volumes of correspondence, while in 1893 Mlle V.
All that is known of him from this date to his death about 1520 is derived from the poems or from entries in the royal registers of payments of pension and grants of livery.
In his allegorical poems reminiscences of the master's style and literary habit are most frequent.
One hundred and one poems have been ascribed to Dunbar.
Dunbar's chief allegorical poems are The Goldyn Targe and The Thrissil and the Rois.
This strain runs throughout many of the occasional poems, and is not wanting in odd passages in Dunbar's contemporaries; and it has the additional interest of showing a direct historical relationship with the work of later Scottish poets, and chiefly with that of Robert Burns.
If further selection be made from the large body of miscellaneous poems, the comic poem on the physician Andro Kennedy may stand out as one of the best contributions to medieval Goliardic literature; The Two Mariit Wemen and the Wedo, as one of the richest and most effective pastiches in the older alliterative style, then used by the Scottish Chaucerians for burlesque purposes; Done is a battell on the Dragon Blak, for religious feeling expressed in melodious verse; and the well-known Lament for the Makaris.
The chief authorities for the text of Dunbar's poems are :- (a) the Asloan MS. (c. 1515); (b) the Chepman and Myllar Prints (1508) preserved in the Advocates' library, Edinburgh; (c) Bannatyne MS. (156$) in the same; (d) the Maitland Folio MS. (c. 1570-1590) in the Pepysian library, Magdalene College, Cambridge.
Some of the poems appear in the Makculloch MS. (before 1500) in the library of the university of Edinburgh; in MS. Cotton Vitellius A.
Selections have been frequently reprinted since Ramsay's Ever-Green (1724) and Hailes's Ancient Scottish Poems (1817).
Professor Schipper's William Dunbar, sein Leben and seine Gedichte (with German translations of several of the poems), appeared at Berlin in 1884.
History Of Medicine Medicine a Portrayed in the Homeric Poems. - In the state of society pictured by Homer it is clear that medicine has already had a history.
There is no sign in the Homeric poems of the subordination of medicine to religion which is seen in ancient Egypt and India, nor are priests charged, as they were in those countries, with medical functions - all circumstances which throw grave doubts on the commonly received opinion that medicine derived its origin in all countries from religious observances.
The rise of speculative philosophy in Greece was coincident with the beginning of prose composition, and many of the earliest philosophers wrote in the prose of the Ionic dialect; others, however, and especially the writers of the Greek colonies in Italy and Sicily, expounded their systems in continuous poems composed in the epic hexameter.
His literary capacity was early shown in the remarkable fiction of his Memoirs of Arthur Hamilton (1886) under the pseudonym of "Christopher Carr," and his Poems (1893) and Lyrics (1895) established his reputation as a writer of verse.
Rossetti (1904), Edward FitzGerald (1905) and Walter Pater (1906), in the "English Men of Letters" series; Lord Vyet and other Poems (1897), Peace and other Poems (1905); The Upton Letters (1905), From a College Window (1906), Beside Still Waters (1907).
Voltaire, who had been sent home, submitted, and for a time pretended to work in a Parisian lawyer's office; but he again manifested a faculty for getting into trouble - this time in the still more dangerous way of writing libellous poems - so that his father was glad to send him to stay for nearly a year (1714-15) with Louis de Caumartin, marquis de Saint-Ange, in the country.
An excuse was provided in the fact that the poet had a copy of some unpublished poems of Frederick's, and as soon as Voltaire arrived hands were laid on him, at first with courtesy enough.
As regards his poems proper, of which there are two long ones, the Henriade and the Pucelle, besides smaller pieces, of which a bare catalogue fills fourteen royal octavo columns, their value is very unequal.
The minor poems are as much above the Pucelle as the Pucelle is above the Henriade.
The romantic side of Jacobitism was stimulated by Sir Walter Scott's Waverley, and many Jacobite poems were written during the 19th century.
The chief collections of Jacobite poems are: Charles Mackay's Jacobite Songs and Ballads of Scotland, 1688-1746, with Appendix of Modern Jacobite Songs (1861); G.
His poems are his best work, and afford us a vivid picture of the times.
He was also known as the author of sacred poems. Gottfried Arnold has rightly been classed with the pietistic section of Protestant historians (Bibliotheca Sacra, 1850).
Most of Nasir's lyrical poems - were composed in his retirement, and their chief topics are - an enthusiastic praise of `Ali, his descendants, and Mostansir in particular; passionate outcries against Khorasan and its rulers, who had driven him from house and home; the highest satisfaction with the quiet solitude of Yumgan; and utter despondency again in seeing himself despised by his former associates and for ever excluded from participation in the glorious contest of life.
The inhabitants of Ethiopia, partly perhaps owing to their honourable mention in the Homeric poems, attracted the attention of many Greek researchers, from Democritus onwards.
Sievers has shown that considerable use was made of the two Latin poems by Alcimus Avitus, De initio mundi and De peccato originali.
The two poems give evidence of genius and trained skill, though the poet was no doubt hampered by the necessity of not deviating too widely from the sacred originals.
The Versus practically reproduce in outline Bwda's account of Ca dmon's dream, without mentioning the dream, but describing the poet as a herdsman, and adding that his poems, beginning with the creation, relate the history of the five ages of the world down to the coming of Christ.
It is usually maintained that this work was written before the Old Testament poems. The arguments for this view are that the Heliand contains no allusion to any foregoing poetical treatment of the antecedent history, and that the Genesis fragments exhibit a higher degree of poetic skill.
Among the works treating of the authorship, sources and place of origin of the poems, the most important are the following: E.
In his childhood Gaston Paris learned to appreciate the Old French romances as poems and stories, and this early impulse to the study of Romance literature was placed on a solid basis by courses of study at Bonn (1856-1857) under Friedrich Diez, at GÃ¶ttingen (1857-1858) and finally at the Ecole des Chartes (1858-1861).
There are references to the Ghassanid Nu'man in the poems of Nabigha.
Many of the reciters were slain in battle, and it was not till the 8th to the 10th centuries and even later that the earliest collections of these poems were made.
Of the pre-Mahommedan poets the most famous were the six whose poems were collected by Asma`i about the beginning of the 9th century (ed.
Single poems of four of theseAmru-ul-Qais, Tarafa, Zuhair and `Antara - appear in the JIo`allakat (q.v.).
One poet, a younger contemporary of Mahomet, has attracted much attention because his poems were religious and he was a monotheist.
His poems are discussed by F.
C. aandberg's Primeurs arabes, 1, aeiden, 1886), and Jarwal ibn Aus, known as al-IIutai`a, a wandering poet whose keen satires led to his imprisonment by Omar (Poems, ed.
His poems are chiefly panegyrics and love songs (ed.
His poems were very popular throughout Arabia.
of Ru'ba's poems by Ahlwardt, Berlin, 1904).
Abu Firas (932-968) was a member of the family of Saif ud-Daula, a soldier whose poems have all the charm that comes from the fact that the writer has lived through the events he narrates (ed.
Yet Abu-l-`Ala, ul-Ma'arri (q.v.) was original alike in his use of rhymes and in the philosophical nature of his poems. Ibn Farid is the greatest of the mystic poets, and Busiri (q.v.) wrote the most famous poem extant in praise of the Prophet.
- As supplemental to the account of poetry may be mentioned here some of the chief collections of ancient verse, sometimes made for the sake of the poems themselves, sometimes to give a locus classicus for usages of grammar or lexicography, sometimes to illustrate ancient manners and customs. The earliest of these is the Mo'allakat.
From the 9th century we have the Hamasas of Abu Tammam and Buhturi, and a collection of poems of the tribe Hudhail (second half ed.
In the 10th century were compiled the Jamharat ash`ar al Arab, containing forty-nine poems (ed.
846), who in like manner was chiefly famous as a philologist, and who wrote about ancient poems and battles.
They were published in shorter form with the omission of the names of authorities and of most of the poems cited; some passages quoted by later writers are not found even in the aeiden edition.
1318) the author of a theological treatise Marganitha (" the Pearl"), 1298, and the Paradise of Eden, a collection of 50 theological poems.
Edwards also wrote some poems and some other works relating to the history of the West Indies.
He was educated at the monastery of Reichenau, near Constance, where he had for his teachers Tatto and Wettin, to whose visions he devotes one of his poems. Then he went on to Fulda, where he studied for some time under Hrabanus Maurus before returning to Reichenau, of which monastery he was made abbot in 838.
Many of Walafrid's other poems are, or include, short addresses to kings and queens (Lothair, Charles, Louis, Pippin, Judith, &c.) and to friends (Einhard, Grimald, Hrabanus Maurus, Tatto, Ebbo, archbishop of Reims, Drogo, bishop of Metz, &c.).
Pedro Paz Soldan was a classical scholar who published three volumes of poems. Carlos Augusto Salaverry is known as one of Peru's best lyrical poets, and Luis Benjamin Cisneros for his two novels, Julia and Edgardo.
In his youth Ricardo Palma published three books of poems, entitled Armonias, Verbos y Gerundios and Pasionarias, and then, since 1870, devoted his great literary talents to writing the historical traditions of Peru, of which six volumes were published.
Feeling strongly the necessity that Peru had for repose, and the guilt of civil dissension, he wrote patriotic poems which became very popular.
His earlier volumes of poems, dealing with romantic themes, received little but unfriendly comment.
In 1833-1835 he published The Splendid Village; Corn-Law Rhymes, and other Poems (3 vols.), which included "The Village Patriarch" (1829), "The Ranter," an unsuccessful drama, "Keronah," and other pieces.
' Elliott lives by his determined opposition to the "bread-tax," as he called it, and his poems on the subject are saved from the common fate of political poetry by their transparent sincerity and passionate earnestness.
Jerome speaks of Lactantius as a poet, and several poems have been attributed to him: - De Ave Phoenice (which Harnack thinks makes use of Clement), De Passione Domini and De Resurrectione (Domini) or De Pascha ad Felicem Episcopum.
The poems and letters are edited in the Vienna Corpus script.
The second cycle contains the epics of Finn (Fionn, Fingal) mac Cumhail, and his son Oisin (Ossian), the bard and warrior, chiefly known from the supposed Ossianic poems of Macpherson.
He is first spoken of in Nennius's History of the Britons (9th century), and at greater length in Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain (12th century), at the end of which the French Breton cycle attained its fullest development in the poems of Chretien de Troyes and others.
The chief remains of the Spanish heroic epic are some poems on the Cid, on the seven Infantes of Lara, and on Fernán Gonzalez, count of Castile.
He passed six quiet years in the convent, but his poems written during that period are expressive of burning indignation against the corruptions of the church and profoundest sorrow for the calamities of his country.
Savonarola's writings may be classed in three categories: - (I) numerous sermons, collected mainly by Lorenzo Violi, one of his most enthusiastic hearers; (2) an immense number of devotional and moral essays and some theological works, of which Il Trionfo della Croce is the chief; (3) a few short poems and a political treatise on the government of Florence.
VESUVIUS (also Vesevus in ancient poems), a volcano rising from the eastern margin of the Bay of Naples in Italy, about 7 m.
In 1827 Frederick Tennyson (1807-1898), the eldest surviving brother, uniting with his younger brothers Charles and Alfred, published at Louth an anonymous collection of Poems by Two Brothers.
The results of this enthusiasm and this labour of the artist appeared in the volume of Poems, chiefly Lyrical, published in 1830.
The poetical work of these three years, mainly spent at Somersby, was given to the world in the volume of Poems which (dated 1833) appeared at the end of 1832.
In 1842 the two-volume edition of his Poems broke the ten years' silence which he had enforced himself to keep. Here, with many pieces already known to all lovers of modern verse, were found rich and copious additions to his work.
In his absent-minded way Tennyson was very apt to mislay objects; in earlier life he had lost the MS. of Poems, chiefly Lyrical, and had been obliged to restore the whole from scraps and memory.
The sale of Tennyson's poems now made it safe for him to settle, and on the 13th of June 1850 he was married at Shiplake to Emily Sarah Sellwood (1813-1896).
In 1857 two Arthurian poems had been tentatively and privately printed, as Enid and Nimue, or the True and the False, to see how the idyllic form would be liked by the inner circle of Tennyson's friends.
In 1880 he published the earliest of six important collections of lyrics, this being entitled Ballads and other Poems, and containing the sombre and magnificent "Rizpah."
In 1885 was published another interesting miscellany, Tiresias and other Poems, with a posthumous dedication to Edward FitzGerald.
He was past eighty when he published the collection of new verses entitled Demeter and other Poems (1889), which appeared almost simultaneously with the death of Browning, an event which left Tennyson a solitary figure indeed in poetic literature.
His first published writings were occasional poems and reviews contributed to the Konigsbergische Zeitung.
For some time he had been greatly interested by the poetry of the north, more particularly Percy's Reliques, the poems of " Ossian" (in the genuineness of which he like many others believed) and the works of Shakespeare.
Besides the poems, we have also two prose Perceval romances, the relative position of which has not yet been satisfactorily determined.
Thus it results that Japanese poems are, for the most part, impressionist; they suggest a great deal more than they actually express.
Some Christian poems under the name of Victorinus are probably not his.
Among the poems written or at least sketched during this period were L'Oaristys, L'Aveugle, La Jeune Malade, Bacchus,Euphrosine and Ld Jeune Tarentine, the last a synthesis of his purest manner, mosaic though it is of reminiscences of at least a dozen classical poets.
There he wrote the poems inspired by Fanny (Mme Laurent Lecoulteux), including the exquisite Ode a Versailles, one of his freshest, noblest and most varied poems.
Since the appearance of the editio princeps of Chenier's poems in La Touche's volume, many additional poems and fragments have been discovered, and an edition of the complete works of the poet, collated with the MSS.
His fate has been commemorated in numerous plays, pictures and poems, notably in the fine epilogue of Sully Prudhomme, the Stello of A.
He settled in Leipzig as a journalist; but the democratic views expressed in some essays and the volumes of poems Glocke and Kanone (1481) and Irdische Phantasien (1842) led to his expulsion from Saxony in 1846.
His Opera posthuma latina, including his will, his Latin poems, and his orations while public orator, with memoirs of his life, appeared in 1717.
The metre was also employed in commemorative poems, accompanied with music, which were sung at funeral banquets in celebration of the exploits and virtues of distinguished men.
The general results of the last fifty years of the first period (130 to 80) may be thus summed up. In poetry we have the satires of Lucilius, the tragedies of Accius and of a few successors among the Roman aristocracy, who thus exemplified the affinity of the Roman stage to Roman oratory; various annalistic poems intended to serve as continuations of the great poem of Ennius; minor poems of an epigrammatic and erotic character, unimportant anticipations of the Alexandrian tendency operative in the following period; works of criticism in trochaic tetrameters by Porcius Licinus and others, forming part of the critical and grammatical movement which almost from the first accompanied the creative movement in Latin literature, and which may be regarded as rude precursors of the didactic epistles that Horace devoted to literary criticism.
The earliest efforts of his art (the Eclogues) reproduce the cadences, the diction and the pastoral fancies of Theocritus; but even in these imitative poems of his youth Virgil shows a perfect mastery of his materials.
If we ask what that time provided to stir the fancy and move the mood of imaginative reflection, it is in the lyrical poems of Horace that we shall find the most varied and trustworthy answer.
The national love of works of large compass shows itself in the production of long epic poems, both of the historic and of the imitative Alexandrian type.
A little better is his contemporary, Rufius Festus Avienus, who made some free translations of astronomical and geographical poems in Greek.
The Homeric poems (12th - 10th centuries) know of Dorians only in Crete, with the obscure epithet TpexaiKes, and no hint of their origin.
So long as the Homeric poems were believed to represent Hellenic (and mainly Ionian) beliefs of the 9th century or later, the historical value of the traditions of a Dorian invasion was repeatedly questioned; most recently and thoroughly by J.
But in proportion as an earlier date has become more probable for Homer, the hypothesis of Ionic origin has become less tenable, and the belief better founded (I) that the poems represent accurately a welldefined phase of culture in prehistoric Greece, and (2) that this " Homeric " or " Achaean " phase was closed by some such general catastrophe as is presumed by the legends.
His own literary work, nearly all of which originally appeared in its pages - sermons, stories, travels, poems - was only a byproduct of a busy life.
Although in prose, they were regarded as poems; in any case they were not intended for stage representation.
in the poems of Chretien de Troyes, Gawain, though generally placed first in the list of knights, is by no means the hero par excellence.
The latter part of the Perceval is indeed devoted to the recital of his adventures at the Chastel Merveilleus, but of none of Chretien's poems is he the protagonist.
At the same time the majority of the short episodic poems connected with the cycle have Gawain for their hero.
Recent discoveries have made it practically certain that there existed, prior to the extant romances, a collection of short episodic poems, devoted to the glorification of Arthur's famous nephew and his immediate kin (his brother Ghaeris, or Gareth, and his son Guinglain), the authorship of which was attributed to a Welshman, Bleheris; fragments of this collection have been preserved to us alike in the first continuation of Chretien de Troyes Perceval, due to Wauchier de Denain, and in our vernacular Gawain poems. Among these "Bleheris" poems was one dealing with Gawain's adventures at the Grail castle,where the Grail is represented as non-Christian, and present s features strongly reminiscent of the ancient Nature mysteries.
4 and 9), his poems have perished.
His principal published work was an edition of Shakespeare's Poems (1898); but he wrote also on North's Plutarch and Ronsard.
In the Homeric poems Corinth is a mere dependency of Mycenae; nor does it figure prominently in the tradition of the Dorian migrations.
He is said to have written some poems which he sealed up and deposited in the temple of Athens at Soli (Diog.
The doubts thus cast upon the age when the Homeric poems first assumed the fixed form of writing were closely associated with the universal scepticism as to the historical accuracy of any traditions whatever regarding the early history of Greece.
The two panegyrics by unknown authors (one printed among the poems of Tibullus as iv.
i, the other included in the Catalepton, the collection of small poems attributed to Virgil) indicate the esteem in which he was held.
They included bucolic poems in Greek.
Of Machiavelli's minor poems, sonnets, capitoli and carnival songs there is not much to say.
The early poems of the cycle sometimes contain curious information on the Frankish methods in war, in council and in judicial procedure, which had no parallels in contemporary institutions.
The earliest poems of the cycle are naturally the closest to historical truth.
But it chanced to find as its exponent a poet whose genius established a model for his successors, and definitely fixed the type of later heroic poems. The other early chansons to which reference is made in Roland - Aspremont, Enfances Ogier, Guiteclin, Balan, relating to Charlemagne's wars in Italy and Saxony - are not preserved in their original form, and only the first in an early recension.
Mainet (12th century) and the kindred poems in German and Italian are perhaps based on the adventures of Charles Martel, who after his father's death had to flee to the Ardennes.
The Latin chronicle, wrongly ascribed to Turpin (Tilpinus), bishop of Reims from 753 to Boo, was in reality later than the earlier poems of the French cycle, and the first properly authenticated mention of it is in 1165.
This forms a consecutive legendary history of Charles, and is apparently based on earlier versions of the French Charlemagne poems than those which we possess.
His other works are Istoria critica e filosofica del suicidio (1761); Delle conquiste celebri esaminate col naturale diritto delle genti (1763); Storia critica del moderno diritto di natura e delle genti (1789); and a few poems and philosophic comedies.
Dam(Habonde, Notre Dame d'Abondance), whose name often occurs in poems of the Middle Ages, a beneficent fairy, who brought plenty to those whom she visited (Grimm, Teutonic Mythology, tr.
None of Herbert's English poems was published during his lifetime.
On his death-bed he gave to Nicholas Ferrar a manuscript with the title The Temple: Sacred Poems and Private Ejaculations.
The Temple is a collection of religious poems connected by unity of sentiment and inspiration.
No book is fuller of devotion to the Church of England than The Temple, and no poems in our language exhibit more of the spirit of true Christianity.
Hyde, George Herbert and his Times (1907), and the "Oxford" edition of his poems by A.
Sifrit), the hero of the Nibelungenlied, and of a number of Scandinavian poems included in the older Edda, as well as of the prose V iilsunga Saga, which is based upon the latter.
These poems are in a sense valuable as repertoires of antiquities; but their style is on the whole bad, and infinite patience is required to clear up their numerous and obscure allusions.
Of kindred character were the parodies and satirical poems, of which the best examples were the Silli of Timon and the Cinaedi of Sotades.
The name of these poems preserves their original idea; they were pictures of fresh country life.
About twelve fragments (three of them complete poems) are preserved in Strabo, Lycurgus, Stobaeus and others.
DIVAN (Arabic diwan), a Persian word, derived probably from Aramaic, meaning a "counting-house, office, bureau, tribunal"; thence, on one side, the "account-books and registers" of such an office, and, on another, the "room where the office or tribunal sits"; thence, again, from "account-book, register," a "book containing the poems of an author," arranged in a definite order (alphabetical according to the rhyme-words), perhaps because of the saying, "Poetry is the register (diwi n) of the Arabs," and from "bureau, tribunal," "a long seat, formed of a mattress laid against the side of the room, upon the floor or upon a raised structure or frame, with cushions to lean against" (Lane, Lexicon, 93 o f.).
All these meanings existed and exist, especially "bureau, tribunal," "book of poems" and "seat" 1; but the order of derivation may have been slightly different.
From 1838 to 1863 he lived in Breslau, where he organized the reform movement in Judaism and wrote some of his most important works, including Lehrand Lesebuch zur Sprache der Mischna (1845), Studien from Maimonides (1850), translation into German of the poems of Juda ha-Levi (1851), and Urschrift and Obersetzungen der Bibel in ihrer Abhangigkeit von der innern Entwickelung des Judentums (1857).
According to Diogenes Laertius, who credits him with an undoubtedly spurious letter to Croesus (with whom his connexion was probably legendary), Pittacus was a writer of elegiac poems, from which he quotes five lines.
the Iliad and other works on the Homeric poems are still extant in MS. He died in the year 1061.
They have been celebrated as the birthplace of King Arthur, or as the stronghold of King Mark, in a host of medieval romances, and in the poems of Tennyson and Swinburne.
In combining these two and using them as a framework for the poems, the compilers have altered, added and omitted.
(For the relation of the poems to E's narrative, see below.) Deut.
The Poems fall into two groups: the first four, in xxiii.
The remaining poems are usually regarded as later additions; thus the Oxford Hexateuch on Num.
Her first literary efforts were historical romances in verse in the style of Walter Scott - Worcester Field (published without date), Demetrius and other Poems (1833).
He is acquainted with the poems of the epic cycle, the Cypria, the Epigoni, &c. He quotes or otherwise shows familiarity with the writings of Hesiod, Olen, Musaeus, Bacis, Lysistratus, Archilochus of Paros, Alcaeus, Sappho, Solon, Aesop, Aristeas of Proconnesus, Simonides of Ceos, Phrynichus, Aeschylus and Pindar.
The poem has been frequently reprinted, by Pinkerton, in his Scottish Poems (1792); by D.
Amours in Scottish Alliterative Poems (Scottish Text Society, 18 97), pp. 47-81.
His poems, novels and comedies are full of wit and exuberant vitality.
While incumbent of Curdridge Chapel near Bishops Waltham in Hampshire, he published (1835) The Story of Justin Martyr and Other Poems, which was favourably received, and was followed in 1838 by Sabbation, Honor Neale, and other Poems, and in 1842 by Poems from Eastern Sources.
He next published (1833) a volume of Poems, chiefly Religious, and in 1834 a.
little collection of psalms and hymns entitled The Spirit of the Psalms. After his death, a volume of Remains with a memoir was published, and the poems contained in this, with those in Poems, chiefly Religious, were afterwards issued in one volume (1868).
At the age of ten he composed a tragedy under the inspiration of Caesarotti's translation of the Ossianic poems. On the marriage of his twin sister Rosina with a maternal cousin at Lyons he went to reside in that city, devoting himself during four years to the study of French literature.
On first coming to live at Montaigne he edited the works of his deceased friend Etienne de la Boetie, who had been the comrade of his youth, who died early, and who, with poems of real promise, had composed a declamatory and school-boyish theme on republicanism, entitled the Contr' un, which is one of the most over-estimated books in literature.
His exploits and adventures form the theme of a number of the Eddaic poems, and also of several stories in the prose Edda.
TALIESSIN, the name of a late 6th century British bard, of whom practically nothing is known except the attribution to him of the collection of poems known as the Book of Taliessin.
Several Irish poems are ascribed to Columba, but they are manifestly compositions of a later age.
He turned to literature and published some mediocre poems. In January 1870 a violent incident brought him again into prominence.
His materials are borrowed from the cyclic poems from which Virgil (with whose works he was probably acquainted) also drew, in particular the Aethiopis of Arctinus and the Little Iliad of Lesches.
The number of poems in one or other of these two metres is very great, and includes verses on almost every theme.
He is also said to have been a writer of erotic poems. It is as a jurist, however, that Sulpicius was chiefly distinguished.
He at once introduced himself to the distingu13hed French historian and diplomatist Robert Gaguin (1425-1502) and published a small volume of poems; and he became intimate with Johann Mauburnus (Mombaer), the leader of a mission summoned from Windesheim in 1496 to reform the abbey of Chateau-Landon.
His SOD, George Cabot Lodge (1873-1909), also became known as an author, with The Song of the Wave (1898), Poems, 1899-1902 (1902), The Great Adventure (1905), Cain: a Drama (1904), Herakles (1908) and other verse.
For instance, there are no bilinf or legendary poems, such as are found among the Russians, although many passages in the ancient chroniclers from their poetical colouring seem to be borrowed from old songs or legends, and the first verses of some of these compositions have been preserved.
Besides poems in Polish, he also wrote some in Latin.
His poems are elegant and free from the conceits and pedantry of the earlier writers.
He served under Napoleon in the Polish legion, and has left a small collection of poems, the most important being the idyl Wieslaw, in which the manners of the peasants of the district of Cracow are faithfully portrayed.
His most celebrated pieces are Hugo; Mnich (" The Monk"); Lambro, a Greek corsair, quite in the style of Byron; Anhelli, a very Dantesque poem expressing under the form of an allegory the sufferings of Poland; Krol duck (" The Spirit King"), another mysterious and allegorical poem; Waclaw, on the same subject as the Marya of Malczewski, to be afterwards noticed; Beniowski, a long poem in ottava rima on this strange adventurer, something in the style of Byron's humorous poems; Kordyan, of the same school as the English poet's Manfred; Lilla Weneda, a poem dealing with the early period of Slavonic history.
They are powerful poems written with great vigour of language, but enveloped in clouds of mysticism.
Witwicki (1800-1847) was son of a professor at Krzemieniec. He was a writer of ballads and poems dealing with rural life,.
Besides the longer poem previously mentioned, he is the author of many charming lyrics in the style of the Little Russian poems, such as Shevchenko has written in that language.
Maurice Goslawski also won fame by his Poems of a Polish Outlaw in the struggle of 1830-1831.
One of his most remarkable poems is his Jan Deborog, in which, like Mickiewicz, he has well described the scenery of his native Lithuania.
Wasilewski (1814-1846), the author of many popular songs; and Holowinski, archbishop of Mogilev (1807-1855), author of religious poems. The style of poetry in vogue in the Polish parts of Europe at the present time is chiefly lyrical.
Szujski commenced his literary career in 1859 with poems and dramas; in 1860 appeared his first historical production, Rzut oka na Historye Polski (" A Glance at Polish History ."), which attracted universal attention; and in 1862 he commenced the publication in parts of his work Dzieje Polski (" The History of Poland"), the printing of which ceased in 1866.
Other poets worthy of mention are Zagorski, Czerwienski, and Maria Konopnicka, who has published two volumes of poems that have been very favourably noticed.
In the poems, Mark is, as a rule, represented in a favourable light, a gentle, kindly man, deeply attached to both Tristan and Iseult, and only too ready to allow his suspicions to be dispelled by any plausible explanation they may choose to offer.
Some time in the 12th century the story was wrought into consecutive poems. The latest theory, championed with great skill by M.
The "Gerbert" continuation of the Perceval contains the working over of one of two short Tristan poems, called by him the Luite Tristran; the latter part, probably a distinct poem, shows Tristan, in the disguise of a minstrel, visiting the court of Mark.
Besides the poems, we possess the prose Tristan, an enormous compilation, akin to the prose Lancelot, where the original story, though still to be traced, is obscured by a mass of later Arthurian adventures.
Michel in his Tristan (1835), a collection of all the extant fragments of Tristan poems; "Tristan Menestrel" from the Perceval, ed.
His poetry is over-decorated, and his plays are grandiose historical poems in dramatic form.
His works include many academical memoirs, volumes of poems, philosophy and a valuable historical study, Om Gustav den Tredje s¢som konung och menniska (5 vols.
There he remained for four years, learning something of the art of poetry from his patron; some of the poems he contributed later (1557) to Songes and Sonettes may well date from this early period.
A few of her voluminous writings, which include poems, plays, novels, short stories, essays, collections of aphorisms, &c., may be singled out for special mention.
Her earliest publications were Sappho and Hammerstein, two poems which appeared at Leipzig in 1880.
Several of the works of "Carmen Sylva" were written in collaboration with Mite Kremnitz, one of her maids of honour, who was born at Greifswald in 1857, and married Dr Kremnitz of Bucharest; these were published between 1881 and 1888, in some cases under the pseudonyms Dito et Idem, and includes the novel Aus zwei Welten (Leipzig, 1884), Anna Boleyn (Bonn, 1886), a tragedy, In der Irre (Bonn, 1888), a collection of short stories, &c. Edleen Vaughan, or Paths of Peril, a novel (London, 1894), and Sweet Hours, poems (London, 1904), were written in English.
Haverhill was the birthplace of Whittier, who lived here in 1807-1836, and who in his poem Haverhill, written for the 250th anniversary of the town in 1890, and in many of his other poems, gave the poet's touch to the history, the legends and the scenery of his native city.
He also wrote two poems, not in any way remarkable, viz.
ii., iii.; poems in E.
He published one or two volumes of poetry and contributed several poems to Blackwood's Magazine, one of which, "A Christmas Hymn," attracted much admiring attention.
the Teleki Codex), a collection of old Hungarian poems, and a manuscript of Tacitus, besides a collection of antiquities and another of minerals.
Io), who, in his work on the Homeric poems, aimed at restoring the lost recensions of Aristarchus.
Their own poems soon became the theme of criticism and of comment; and, by the time of Quintilian and Juvenal, they shared the fate (which Horace had feared) of becoming textbooks for use in schools.
470), whose Letters were modelled on those of the younger Pliny, while his poems give proof of a wide though superficial acquaintance with classical literature.
In the case of poetry, this imitative spirit is apparent in Petrarch's Africa, and in the Latin poems of Politian, Pontano, Sannazaro, Vida and many others.
These poems, which are older, and in most cases considerably older, than the narratives in which they are now embedded, if they were collected into books, must have been fairly numerous, and we could wish that more examples of them had been preserved.
He found time, even during the campaign, to translate part of Horace and to compose two poems, the Poeme des Alpes and the Chant de guerre.
The other poems of Petter Dass are less universally read; they abound, however, in queer turns of thought, and fine homely fancies.
(For his treatment of the lake poets see Wordsworth, William.) A criticism in the fifteenth number of the Review on the morality of Moore's poems led in 1806 to a duel between the two authors at Chalk Farm.
In his poems he frequently mentions Tibur with enthusiasm.
Catullus and Statius, too, have rendered it famous by their poems. The abundance of water from aqueducts and springs and the falls of the Anio were among its chief attractions.
Like Abu Tammam he made a collection of early poems, known as the Hamasa (index of the poems contained in it, in the Journal of the German Oriental Society, vol.
the books of Plato, along with certain divine oracles, the Orphic poems, and much more which they assigned to a remote antiquity,.
The list of his works given in the preface mentions the hymns, poems against the Priscillianists and against Symmachus and Peristephanon.
Zoilus appears to have been at one time a follower of Isocrates, but subsequently a pupil of Polycrates, whom he heard at Athens, where he was a teacher of rhetoric. Zoilus was chiefly known for the acerbity of his attacks on Homer (which gained him the name of Homeromastix, "scourge of Homer"), chiefly directed against the fabulous element in the Homeric poems. Zoilus also wrote against Isocrates and Plato, who had attacked the style of Lysias of which he approved.
We have but few fragments of Caesar's other works, whether political pamphlets such as the Anticato, grammatical treatises (De Analogia) or poems. All authorities agree in describing him as a consummate orator.
The of tencited poems attributed to Nezahualcoyotl may not be quite genuine, but at any rate poetry had risen above the barbaric level, while the mention of ballads among the people, court odes, and the chants of temple choirs would indicate a vocal cultivation above that of the instrumental music of drums and horns, pipes and whistles, the latter often of pottery.
Although much of his literary work consisted of political journalism, he yet found time to write a large number of essays, poems and tales.
Du Bellay replied to his various assailants in a preface to the second edition (1550) of his sonnet sequence Olive, with which he also published two polemical poems, the Musagnaeomachie, and an ode addressed to Ronsard, Contre les envieux poetes.
Olive has been supposed to be an anagram for the name of a Mlle Viole, but there is little evidence of real passion in the poems, and they may perhaps be regarded as a Petrarcan exercise, especially as, in the second edition, the dedication to his lady is exchanged for one to Marguerite de Valois, sister of Henry II.
This passion finds its clearest expression in the Latin poems. Faustine was guarded by an old and jealous husband, and du Bellay's eventual conquest may have had something to do with his departure for Paris at the end of August 1557.
In the next year he published the poems he had brought back with him from Rome, the Latin Poemata, the Antiquités de Rome, the Jeux rustiques, and the 191 sonnets of the Regrets, the greater number of which were written in Italy.
His more important books, of which English translations have been published, are the poems Gitanjali (Song Offerings) (1913), The Crescent Moon (1913), The Gardener (1913), Songs of Kabir (1915), Fruit Gathering (1916), Stray Birds (1917), The Lover's Gift and the Crossing (1918); the plays Chitra (1914), The King of the Dark Chamber (1914), The Post Office (1914),.
A number of miscellaneous poems, a few letters and Four Orations to the Cross complete the list of Grazzini's extant works.
In 1868 Adamo Rossi published in his Ricerche per le biblioteche di Perugia three "novelle" by Grazzini, from a MS. of the 16th century in the "Comunale" of Perugia: and in 1870 a small collection of those poems which have been left unpublished by previous editors appeared at Poggibonsi, Alcune Poesie inedite.
In 1856 he published his first book, Within and Without, a dramatic poem; following it in 1857 with a volume of Poems, and in 1858 by the delightful " faerie romance Phantastes.
His critical principles are explained in the preface, where he dwells on the necessity of starting as much as possible from trustworthy contemporary sources, or at least from those nearest to antiquity - the touchstone by which verbal traditions can be tested being contemporary poems. He inclines to rationalism, rejecting the marvellous and recasting legends containing it in a more historical spirit; but he makes an exception in the accounts of the introduction of Christianity into Norway and of the national saint St Olaf.
His great work is his Commentarii in Organum Logicum Aristotelis (Bordeaux, 1618); the copy in the British Museum contains a number of highlyeulogistic poems in honour of Balfour, who is described as Graium aemulus acer.
From 1821 to 1826 he published many separate poems of great beauty in the Aurora, Hebe, Aspasia, and other magazines of polite literature.
Al-Mufaddal was a careful and trustworthy collector both of texts and traditions, and is praised by all authorities on Arabian history and literature as in this respect greatly the superior of Hammad and Khalaf, who are accused (especially the latter) of unscrupulous fabrication of poems in the style of the ancients.
There is indeed a tradition that a written collection (diwan) existed in the family of an-Nu ` man, the last Lakhmid king, containing a number of poems by the Fuhul, or most eminent poets of the pagan time, and especially by those who had praised the princes of the house, and that this collection passed into the possession of the Omayyad caliphs of the house of Marwan; to this, if the tradition is to be believed, al-Mufaddal probably had access.
The rival school of Basra, on the other hand, has given currency to a story that the original collection made by al-Mufaddal included a much smaller number of poems. The Berlin MS. of al-Marzugi's commentary states that the number was thirty, but a better reading of the passage, found elsewhere,' mentions eighty; and that al-Asma`i and his school added to this nucleus poems which increased the number to a hundred and twenty.
There is no mention of it in al-Anbari's work, and it is in itself somewhat improbable, as in al-Asma`i's time the schools of Kufa and Basra were in sharp opposition one to the other, and Ibn al-A`rabi in particular was in the habit of censuring al-Asma`i's interpretations of the ancient poems. It is scarcely likely that he would have accepted his rival's additions to the work of his step-father, and have handed them on to Abu `Ikrima with his annotations.
Not more than five or six of the 126 poems appear to have been composed by poets who I l iad been born in Islam.
Such are the two long poems of `Algama ibn 'Abada (Nos.
The only other authors of whom more than three poems are cited are Bishr ibn Abi Khazim of Asad (Nos.
It is of course not the case that all the poems of al-Mufaddal's collection are complete.
A very ancient fragment (dated 1080) of al-Anbari's recension, containing five poems in whole or part, is in the Royal Library at Leipzig.
It purports to be the second part of a combination of two anthologies, the Mufaddaliyat of al-Mufaeldal and the Asma`ayat of al-Asma`i, but contains many more poems than are in either of these collections as found elsewhere.
In 1885 Professor Heinrich Thorbeckebegan an edition of the text based on the Berlin codex, but only the first fasciculus, containing forty-two poems, had appeared when his work was cut short by death.
A complete edition of al-Anbari's text and commentary, with a translation of the poems, undertaken by Sir C. J.
The Habitant Poems Of Dr W.
Garneau Is Also Remembered For His Poems, And He Was Followed By His Son Alfred Garneau (1836-1904).
He Is Usually Rather Too Derivative, He Lacks The Saving Grace, ,Of Style, And Even His Best Canadian Poems Hardly Rise Above Fervent Occasional Verse.
He published in 1910 The Prevention of Malaria, and also produced Psychologies, a volume of poems (1919), and a romance, The Revels of Orsera (1920).
This is the case with the Homeric poems, the ascertainment of the original form of which is a task beyond the powers of criticism.
Another question with which the textual critic of modern authors must be prepared to deal is the relative importance of different editions, each of which may have a prima facie claim to be considered authentic. Thus Shakespearean criticism must decide between the evidence of the first folio and the quartos: the critic of Shelley's poems must consider what weight is to be attached to the readings in the posthumous edition by Mrs Shelley, and in unpublished transcripts of various poems. Where there is great or complicated divergence between the editions, as in the case of Marlowe's Faustus, the production of a resultant text which may be relied upon to represent the ultimate intention of the author is well-nigh impossible.
the first letters of poems in verse and of paragraphs in prose usually, and the initial letters of lines in verse occasionally, were written separate and by another person than the scribe (who was called the rubricator), and hence were apt to be omitted.
They may be roughly arranged 1 For the convenience of the general reader these errors have been illustrated as far as possible from English authors and especially from the poems of Shelley (ed.
(a) Examples of confusion of capital letters from Shelley's poems are: Prometheus, i.
Some examples from Shelley's poems are Prometheus, ii.
Certain lapses from grammatical correctness and metrical regularity that we find in the poems of Shelley are undoubtedly due to the author, though the number of these has been reduced (as Mr Buxton Forman has pointed out) with our improved knowledge of the sources of the text.
omnes haereses often appended to De praescriptione; or the poems Adv.
Some who were writers were driven to publish by the occasion; and after the orders of government, which were occasionally published to be obeyed, occasional poems, such as the poems of Solon, the odes of Pindar and the plays of the dramatists, which all had a political significance, were probably the first writings to be published or, rather, recited and acted, from written copies.
With them came philosophical poems, such as those of Xenophanes and Empedocles; the epical history of Herodotus; the dramatic philosophy of Plato.
In the earlier poems he is practically a lay figure, his court the point of departure and return for the knights whose adventures are related in detail, but he himself a passive spectator.
Two other volumes of his manuscript notes, scrolls of poems, &c., are preserved among the Drummond MSS., now in the library of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland.
Specimens of Fowler's verses were published in 1803 by John Leyden in his Scottish Descriptive Poems. Fowler contributed a prefatory sonnet to James VI.'s Furies; and James, in return, commended, in verse, Fowler's Triumphs.
St Peter's Complaint with other Poems was published in April 595 without the author's name, and was reprinted thirteen times during the next forty years.
Ben Jonson told Drummond of Hawthornden that he would willingly have destroyed many of his own poems to be able to claim as his own Southwell's "Burning Babe," an extreme but beautiful example of his fantastic treatment of sacred subjects.
Southwell's poems were also edited by W.
Shortly after his father's death in 1740, some of Blacklock's poems began to be handed about among his acquaintances and friends, who arranged for his education at the grammar-school, and subsequently at the university of Edinburgh, where he was a student of divinity.
His first volume of Poems was published in 1746.
An edition of his poems in 1793 contains a life byHenry Mackenzie.
The young poet wooed the girl with poems, romances, dramas and mute worship, but received nothing except chilling indifference and lively ridicule.
Wace and Benoit de Sainte-More compiled their histories at his bidding, and it was in his reign that Marie de France composed her poems. An event with which he was closely connected, viz.
About 1250 Eustace of Kent introduced into England the roman d'Alexandre in his Roman de toute chevalerie, many passages of which have been imitated in one of the oldest English poems on Alexander, namely, King Alisaunder (P. Meyer, Alexandre le grand, Paris, 1886, ii.
In spite of the many calls upon his time he produced a considerable amount of literary work, usually on classical or Scottish subjects, including some poems and songs of no mean order.
StodartWalker, Selected Poems of J.
His publications include Biblical Study: Its Principles, Methods and History (1883); Hebrew Poems of the Creation (1884); American Presbyterianism: Its Origin and Early History (1885); Messianic Prophecy (1886); Whither ?
A biographical study on More's Latin poems is Philomorus, by J.
It is curious that Avenarius should have brought forward this artificial hypothesis as the natural view of the world, without reflecting that on the one hand the majority of mankind believes that the environment (R) exists, has existed, and will exist, without being a counterpart of any living being as central part (C); and that on the other hand it is so far from being natural to man to believe that sensation and thought (E) are different from, and merely dependent on, his body (C), that throughout the Homeric poems, though soul is required for other purposes, all thinking as well as sensation is regarded as a purely bodily operation.
The relation of the palace at Tiryns to those described in the Homeric poems has given rise to much discussion.
The Historiated Bible, the Letter from Heaven, the Wanderings through Heaven and Hell, the numerous Adam and Cross legends, the religious poems of the "Kaleki perehozhie" and other similar productions owe their dissemination to a large extent to the activity of the Bogomils of Bulgaria, and their successors in other lands.
AEMILIUS MACER, of Verona, Roman didactic poet, author of two poems, one on birds (Ornithogonia), the other on the antidotes against the poison of serpents (Theriaca), imitated from the Greek poet Nicander of Colophon.
For our knowledge of this subject we are indebted chiefly to Icelandic literary men of the 12th and 13th centuries, who gave accounts of many legends which had come down to them by oral tradition, besides committing to writing a number of ancient poems. Unfortunately Icelandic history is quite unique in this respect.
Some of the letters are published with the Historia Langobardorum in the Monumenta; the poems and epitaphs edited by E.
Fresh material having come to light, a new edition of the poems (Die Gedichte des Paulus Diaconus) has been edited by Karl Neff (Munich, 1908).
If he be the author of the five or six long poems which have been ascribed to him by different writers, he adds to his importance as the father of Scots poetry the reputation of being one of the most voluminous writers in Middle English, certainly the most voluminous of all Scots poets.
He was a traveller, a linguist, well versed in Scandinavian literature and philology, the author of mystical poems entitled Improvisations from the Spirit (1857), a social and medical reformer, and a convinced opponent of vivisection and also of vaccination.
There are a number of poems written in an elevated style, also dramatic works chiefly of the character of mystery plays, and collections of fairy tales and fables.
He also contributed to a volume of Poems upon Divine and Moral Subjects (1719).
In the Homeric poems we meet with ltoovtot, 2tSovin (Od.
His collection of over five hundred Basque proverbs, Atsotizac edo Refravac, included in a volume of his poems O Ce " Gastaroa Nevrthizetan, printed in Paris in 1657, was supplemented by a second collection, Atsotizen Vrrhenquina.
His works (collected edition, Venice, 1729) include a History of Venice (1551) from 1487 to 1513, dialogues, poems, and what we would now call essays.
The edition of Petrarch's Italian Poems, published by Aldus in 1501, and the Terzerime, which issued from the same press in 1502, were edited by Bembo, who was on intimate terms with the great typographer.
JAMES MACPHERSON (1736-1796), Scottish " translator " of the Ossianic poems, was born at Ruthven in the parish of Kingussie, Inverness, on the 27th of October 1736.
Dr Hugh Blair, who was a firm believer in the authenticity of the poems, got up a subscription to allow Macpherson to pursue his Gaelic researches.
In 1761 he announced the discovery of an epic on the subject of Fingal, and in December he published Fingal, an Ancient Epic Poem in Six Books, together with Several Other Poems composed by Ossian, the Son of Fingal, translated from the Gaelic Language, written in the musical measured prose of which he had made use in his earlier volume.
The genuineness of these so-called translations from the works of a 3rd-century bard was immediately challenged in England, and Dr Johnson, after some local investigation, asserted (Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland, 1775) that Macpherson had only found fragments of ancient poems and stories, which he had woven into a romance of his own composition.
After Macpherson's death, Malcolm Laing, in an appendix to his History of Scotland (1800), propounded the extreme view that the so-called Ossianic poems were altogether modern in origin, and that Macpherson's authorities were practically non-existent.
The antiquity of the Ossianic poems was defended in the introduction by Archibald Clerk to his edition of the Poems of Ossian (1870).
Sinclair, A Dissertation on the Authenticity of the Poems of Ossian (1806); Transactions of the Ossianic Society (Dublin, 1854-1861); Cours de litterature celtique, by Arbois de Jubainville, editor of the Revue celtique (1883, &c.); A.
This includes many English prose treatises by Rolle, some beautiful examples of his lyric poems, and other treatises in prose and verse from northern MSS., some of which are attributed to Rolle, and others to his followers.
In 1690 Giovanni Francesco Savaro published a play La Maria Stuarda, and since then the story of the Queen of Scots has been the subject of numerous poems and dramas, of which the most celebrated are Schiller's Maria Stuart, and three tragedies by A.
The Germans have been especially attracted by the legend, which has been made the subject of poems by Schubart, Schreiber, W.