Fragments of another rhyming poem (pr.
The poem is dedicated to James IV., not without some lesson in commendation of virtue and honour.
to the east, commemorated in Wordsworth's poem of the "Highland Girl."
Have you read the beautiful poem, "Waiting"?
He said he was the little boy in the poem, and that the girl's name was Sally, and more which I have forgotten.
He inspired the production of The Dangers and Adventures of the Famous Hero and Knight Sir Teuerdank, an allegorical poem describing his adventures on his journey to marry Mary of Burgundy.
Sometimes, if a poem was very pleasing, he gave the poet a prize.
John Mayne (1759-1836), a native of Dumfries, commemorated the gathering in an excellent humorous poem called "The Siller Gun."
No MS. of the poem is extant.
Chretien de Troyes' treatment of him is contradictory; in the Erec, his earliest extant poem, Lancelot's name appears as third on the list of the knights of Arthur's court.
Another alliterative poem in the northern dialect, of 15th-century origin, is based on the Historia de proeliis, and was edited by Skeat for the E.E.T.S.
It is a poem, of no great interest, on the life of the Buddha.
Then he ordered his treasurer to pay the poet five hundred pieces of gold; for, indeed, the poem which he had recited was wonderfully fine.
This morning Helen was reading for the first time Bryant's poem, "Oh, mother of a mighty race!"
The morning wind forever blows, the poem of creation is uninterrupted; but few are the ears that hear it.
Such was the way in which the first true English poem was written.
There is in the British Museum a poem printed in 1666, entitled Letter to the bishop of Munster containing a Panegyrick of his heroick achievements in heroick verse.
It is a Latin poem in ten books of hexameters, and contains a curious admixture of Biblical history.
At the age of eighteen Moratin won the second prize of the Academy for a heroic poem on the conquest of Granada, and two years afterwards he attracted more general attention with his LecciOn poetica, a satire upon the popular poets of the day.
Chretien's poem has been published by Professor Wendelin Foerster, in his edition of the works of that poet, Der Karrenritter (1899).
Some of his shorter essays on medicine, logic, &c., take a poetical form (the poem on logic was published by Schmoelders in 1836).
It is a very strong poem and set me dreaming too.
His dramatic poem La Tentazione and his tragedy Camma achieved some success in their day.
If it be true, as Bishop Alcock of Ely affirms, that Lydgate wrote a poem on the loss of France and Gascony, it seems necessary to suppose that he lived two years longer, and thus indications point to the year 1451, or thereabouts, as the date of his death.
Abu '1 Kasim Mansur (or Hasan), who took the nom de plume of Firdousi, author of the epic poem the Shahnama, or "Book of Kings," a complete history of Persia in nearly 60,000 verses, was born at Shadab, a suburb of Tus, about the year 329 of the Hegira (941 A.D.), or earlier.
"Surely," said the abbess, "this is a poem, most sweet, most true, most beautiful.
The poem runs to over goo lines and is written in eight-lined stanzas.
I said to her, "Tell me, when you have read the poem through, who you think the mother is."
I am afraid I find fault with the poem as much as I enjoy it.
In 1536 his didactic poem in Latin hexameters, De immortalitate animarum, was published at Lyons.
No one shall be allowed to think it was anything wrong; and some day she will write a great, beautiful story or poem that will make many people happy.
Hostius, who wrote a poem on the Illyrian War of 178 B.C., of which some fragments are preserved.
In another annual called the Gem appeared the poem on the story of "Eugene Aram," which first manifested the full extent of that poetical vigour which seemed to advance just in proportion as his physical health declined.
This enthusiastic love of poverty is certainly the keynote of St Francis's spirit; and so one of his disciples in an allegorical poem (translated into English as The Lady of Poverty by Montgomery Carmichael, 1901), and Giotto in one of the frescoes at Assisi, celebrated the "holy nuptials of Francis with Lady Poverty."
All creatures he called his "brothers" or "sisters" - the chief example is the poem of the "Praises of the Creatures," wherein "brother Sun," "sister Moon," "brother Wind," and "sister Water" are called on to praise God.
Besides the ELXXoi we have some lines preserved from the 'IvaaXyoi, a poem in elegiac verse, which appears to have inculcated the tenets of scepticism, and one or two fragments which cannot be with certainty assigned to either poem.
Wollaston also published anonymously a small book, On the Design of the Book of Ecclesiastes, or the Unreasonableness of Men's Restless Contention for the Present Enjoyments, represented in an English Poem (London, 1691).
In answer to my question she recited a part of the poem called 'Freaks of the Frost,' and she referred to a little piece about winter, in one of the school readers.
In the German poem this is a veritable "Isle of Maidens," where no man ever enters, and where it is perpetual spring.
In 1764 Moratin published a collection of pieces, chiefly lyrical, under the title of El Poeta, and in 1765 a short didactic poem on the chase (Diana 0 arte de la caza).
of Beziers), the poet, and some time in the 13th century lived Joseph Ezobhi of Perpignan, whose ethical poem, Qe`arath Yoseph, was translated by Reuchlin and later by others.
Ettmiiller first applied Lachmann's ballad-theory to the poem (1841), and K.
It has the "mixed" faults which make the greater poem of his Scots successor, Thomson, a "transitional" document, but these give it an historical, if not an individual, interest.
He had no scholarly interest in the past, and he never hesitated to transform the texts when he could give contemporary "point" to a poem; but his instinct was good, and he did much to stimulate an ignorant public to fresh enjoyment.
The praise of the fair sex in the first poem is exceptional in the literature of his age; and its geniality may help us to understand the author's popularity with his contemporaries.
After this it is surprising to find that in his next poem, Le Chevalier au Lion, Lancelot is once, and only once, casually referred to, and that in a passing reference to his rescue of the queen.
Chretien states that he composed the poem (which he left to be completed by Godefroi de Leigni) at the request of the countess Marie of Champagne, who provided him with matiere et san.
The logical conclusion appears to be that the Charrette poem is a "Tendenz-Schrift," composed under certain special conditions, in response to a special demand.
As poet-laureate, his occasional verses did not escape adverse criticism; his hasty poem in praise of the Jameson Raid in 1896 being a notable instance.
That national poet collected in the earliest Scottish poem, written in the reign of Bruce's grandson, the copious traditions which clustered round his memory.
Curiously, Apotheosis is used by the Latin Christian poet, Prudentius (c. 400), as the title of a poem defending orthodox views on the person of Christ and other points of doctrine - the affectation of a decadent age.
2 Elster (Beitrage) says that the poem is the work of two poets: the first part by a Thuringian wandering minstrel, the second - which differs in style and dialect - by a Bavarian official.
The period we have briefly traversed was immortalized by Dante in an epic which from one point of view might be called the poem of the Guelphs and Ghibellines.
Lucretius traces, in the fifth book of his poem, the progressive genesis of vegetal and animal forms out of the motherearth.
The so-called Orphic Poems, still extant, are of much later date, probably belonging to the 4th century A.D.; they consist of: (I) an Argonautica, glorifying the deeds of Orpheus on the " Argo," (2) a didactic poem on the magic powers of stones, called Lithica, (3) eighty-seven hymns on various divinities and personified forces of nature.
The subject of the poem is the rescue of the queen from her abductor Meleagant; and what makes the matter more perplexing is that Chretien handles the situation as one with which his hearers are already familiar; it is Lancelot, and not Arthur or another, to whom the office of rescuer naturally belongs.
The poet Whittier has written a poem about him, which you will like to hear.
The author, Ulrich von Zatzikhoven, tells us that he translated his poem from a French (welsches) book in the possession of Hugo de Morville, one of the English hostages, who, in 1194, replaced Richard Coeur de Lion in the prison of Leopold of Austria.
A Dutch version of a short episodic poem, Lancelot et le cerf au pied blanc will be found in M.
1552) distinguished himself at the battle of Pinkie (1547), and furnished material for his later namesake's famous poem, The Lay of the Last Minstrel; and his great-grandson Sir Walter (1565-1611) was created Lord Scott of Buccleuch in 1606.
On the Scottish side The BMus, a poem by John Barbour, edited by W.
But a careful study of the seventh poem of the last book, in which Propertius gives an account of a dream of her which he had after her death, leads us to the belief that they were once more reconciled, and that in her last illness Cynthia left to her former lover the duty of carrying out her wishes with regard to the disposal of her effects and the arrangements of her funeral.
Between 1283 and 1290, a Bavarian disciple of Wolfram's 2 adopted the story and developed it into an epic poem of nearly 8000 lines, incorporating episodes of Lohengrin's prowess in tournament, his wars with Henry I.
Those are red-letter days in our lives when we meet people who thrill us like a fine poem, people whose handshake is brimful of unspoken sympathy, and whose sweet, rich natures impart to our eager, impatient spirits a wonderful restfulness which, in its essence, is divine.
Then I asked many questions about the poem, and read his answers by placing my fingers on his lips.
About the same time, in a letter to a friend, in which she makes mention of her Southern home, she gives so close a reproduction from a poem by one of her favourite authors that I will give extracts from Helen's letter and from the poem itself:
10, a poem addressed to Augustus, thus making five books, and this arrangement has been accepted by several editors.
In England the story first appears in a short poem preserved among the Cotton MSS.
(It is well, however, to bear in mind the possibility of later addition or alteration in such lists.) In Cliges he again ranks as third, being overthrown by the hero of the poem.
Firdousi next repaired to Bagdad, where he made the acquaintance of a merchant, who introduced him to the vizier of the caliph, al-Qadir, by presenting an Arabic poem which the poet had composed in his honour.
The caliph summoned him into his presence, and was so much pleased with a poem of a thousand couplets, which Firdousi composed in his honour, that he at once received him into favour.
The fact of his having devoted his life and talents to chronicling the renown of fire-worshipping Persians was, however, somewhat of a crime in the orthodox caliph's eyes; in order therefore to recover his prestige, Firdousi composed another poem of 9000 couplets on the theme borrowed from the Koran of the loves of Joseph and Potiphar's wife - Yusuf and Zuleikha (edited by H.
This poem, though rare and little known, is still in existence - the Royal Asiatic Society possessing a copy.
There is every reason therefore to believe that Firdousi adhered faithfully to these records of antiquity, and that the poem is a perfect storehouse of the genuine traditions of the country.
The entire poem (which only existed in MS. up to the beginning of the 19th century) was published (1831-1868) with a French translation in a magnificent folio edition, at the expense of the French government, by the learned and indefatigable Julius von Mohl.
The episode of Sohrab and Rustam is well known to English readers from Matthew Arnold's poem.
Longfellow (who married Nathan Appleton's daughter) wrote his poem "The Old Clock on the Stairs."
The Chanson de Roland, which cannot be posterior to the First Crusade - for the poem never alludes to it - already contains the idea of the Holy War against Islam.
Secondly, besides the plagiarist Tudebod, there are the artistic redacteurs of the Gesta, who confess their indebtedness, but plead the bad style of their original - Guibert of Nogent, Balderich of Dol, Robert of Reims (all c. 1120-1130), and Fulco, the author of a Virgilian poem on the Crusades, continued by Gilo (ob.
This is an octosyllabic poem in French verse, written by Ambroise, a Norman trouvere who followed Richard I.
The poem first came to be known by scholars about 1873, and has been edited by M.
In a barbarous Latin poem, written in celebration of the conquest of Almeria by Alphonso VII.
The Poem of the Cid is but a fragment of 3744 lines, written in a barbarous style, in rugged assonant rhymes, and a rude Alexandrine measure, but it glows with the pure fire of poetry, and is full of a noble simplicity and a true epical grandeur, invaluable as a living picture of the age.
Damas Hinard has published the poem, with a literal French translation and notes, and John Hookham Frere has rendered it into English with extraordinary spirit and fidelity.
Lefranc), are interesting and characteristic, consisting of verse-epistles, comedies (pieces in dramatic form on the death of Francis I., &c.), Les Prisons, a long allegorical poem of amorous-religious-historical tenor; some miscellaneous verse chiefly in dizains, and a later and remarkable piece, Le Navire, expressing her despair at her brother's death.
The religious poem, Le Miroir de lame pecheresse was translated by Queen Elizabeth.
of that poem the figure of Sloth is represented as saying "I can nou,te perfitly my pater-noster, as the prest it syngeth: But I can rymes of Robyn Hood and Randolf Erle of Chestre."
Sloth in Langland's poem couples him, as we have seen, with Randle, earl of Chester; and no one doubts this nobleman's existence because he had "rymes" made about him.
He chose the legend of Tannhauser, collecting his materials from the ancient Tannhauser-Lied, the Volksbuch, Tieck's poetical Erzahlung, Hoffmann's story of Der Sangerkrieg, and the medieval poem on Der Wartburgkrieg.
This last-named legend introduces the incidental poem of " Loherangrin," and so led Wagner to the study of Wolfram von Eschenbach's Parzival and Titurel, with great results later on.
Wagner had hardly finished the score of Lohengrin before he was at work upon the poem of Der Ring des Nibelungen.
Das Rheingold, prologue in 4 scenes to Der Ring des Nibelungen; ein Buhnenfestspiel (poem written last of the series, which was begun in 1848 and finished in 1851-1852; music, 1853 - 1854).
Tristan and Isolde; 3 acts (poem written in 1857; music, 1857-1859).
Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg; 3 acts (sketch of play, 1845 poem, 1861-1862; music, 1862-1867).
Parsifal: ein Buhnenweihfestspiel (a solemn stage festival play), 3 acts (poem, 1876-1877; music, 1877-1882, Charfreitagszauber already sketched in 1857).
It is thus a true letter, but in the grand style, verging on the nature not of an essay but a poem.
21), and to a king Nicomedes the geographical poem of the Pseudo-Scymnus is dedicated.
The map or diagram of which Leonardo Dati in his poem on the Sphere (Della Spera) wrote in 1422 " un T dentre a uno 0 mostra it disegno " (a T within an 0 shows the design) is one of the most persistent types among the circular or wheel maps of the world.
Cosimo employed almost the last hours of his life in listening to Ficino's reading of a treatise on the highest good; while Lorenzo, in a poem on true happiness, described him as the mirror of the world, the nursling of sacred muses, the harmonizer of wisdom and beauty in complete accord.
A mesnevi is a poem written in rhyming couplets, and is usually narrative in subject.
Ottoman literature may be said to open with a few mystic lines, the work of Sultan Veled, son of Maulana Jelal-ud-Din, the author of the great Persian poem the Mathnawi.
Another mystic poet of this early time was `Ashil Pasha, who left a long poem in rhyming couplets, which is called, inappropriately enough, his Divan.
His contemporary, Mesihi, whose beautiful verses on spring are perhaps better known in Europe than any other Turkish poem, deserves a passing mention.
Husn u 'A s4 (Beauty and Love), as his great poem is called, is an allegorical romance full of tenderness and imaginative power.
It may have been during his exile, when withdrawn from his active career as a dramatist, that he composed or completed his poem on the first Punic war.
He was not only the oldest native dramatist, but the first author of an epic poem (Bellum Punicum) - which, by combining the representation of actual contemporary history with a mythical background, may be said to have created the Roman type of epic poetry.
The poem was one continuous work, but was divided into seven books by a grammarian of a later age.
An important influence in Roman literature and belief, which had its origin in Sicily, first appeared in this poem - the recognition of the mythical connexion of Aeneas and his Trojans with the foundation of Rome.
In regard to the poem which forms the third and closing chapter of the present book of Habakkuk, there is much more general agreement.
These liturgical notes make extremely probable the supposition that the poem has been taken from some collection like that of our present book of Psalms, probably on the ground of the authorship asserted by the superscription there attached to it.
which carries no more intrinsic weight than the Davidic titles of the Psalms. The poem begins with a prayer that God will renew the historic manifestation of the exodus, which inaugurated the national history and faith; a thunderstorm moving up from the south is then described, in which God is revealed (3-7); it is asked whether this manifestation, whose course is further described, is against nature only (8-ii); the answer is given that it is for the salvation of Israel against its wicked foes (12-15); the poet describes the effect in terror upon himself (16) and declares his confidence in God, even in utter agricultural adversity (17-19).
In any case, there is nothing in this fine poem to connect it with the conception of the Chaldaeans as a divine instrument.
Complaints of the obstructions in it are not uncommon, and John Taylor, the Water Poet (1580-1653), in a poem commemorating a voyage from Oxford to London, bewails the difficulties he found on the passage.
' The poem of Aymeri de Narbonne contains the account of the young Aymeri's brilliant capture of Narbonne, which he then receives as a fief from Charlemagne, of his marriage with Ermenjart, sister of Boniface, king of the Lombards, and of their children.
The opening of this poem furnished, though indirectly, the matter of the Aymerillot of Victor Hugo's Legende des siecles.
His earliest poem is the Livre des quatre dames, written after the battle of Agincourt.
2 From the fundamental principle of virtual velocities, which thus acquired a new significance, Lagrange deduced, with the aid of the calculus of variations, the whole system of mechanical truths, by processes so elegant, lucid and harmonious as to constitute, in Sir William Hamilton's words, "a kind of scientific poem."
Shortly after this, in 1564, Tasso was a student there, and was tried for writing a satirical poem.
The thrush is represented by a number of species, one of which, the sabia (Mimus), has become the popular song-bird of Brazil through a poem written by Gonsalves Dias.
After the coup d'etat of 1851 he settled with his family in Jersey, where he pursued agricultural experiments and wrote his socialist poem La Greve de Samarez.
1470-1492), author of the Scots historical poem The Actis and Deidis of the Illustere and Vailzeand Campioun Schir William Wallace, Knicht of Ellerslie, flourished in the latter half of the 15th century.
The poem (preserved in a unique MS., dated 1488, in the Advocates' library, Edinburgh) is divided into eleven books and runs to 11,853 lines.
The poem owed its subsequent widespread reputation to its appeal to this sentiment rather than to its literary quality.
On the other hand, there are elements in the poem which show that it is not entirely the work of a poor crowder; and these (notably references to historical and literary authorities, and occasional reminiscences of the literary tricks of the Scots Chaucerian school) have inclined some to the view that the text, as we have it, is an edited version of the minstrel's rough song story.
The poem appears, on the authority of Laing, to have been printed at the press of Chepman & Myllar about 1508, but the fragments which Laing saw are not extant.
This poem was a brilliant satire on contemporary manners, and enjoyed an extraordinary success.
The only poem he published at this time was the famous Nicolai Klimii iter subterraneum (1741), afterwards translated into Danish by Baggesen.
Tennyson's poem "The LotusEaters").
In polite literature the heroic poem Zrinyidsz (1651), descriptive of the fall of Sziget, by Nicholas Zrinyi, grandson of the defender of that fortress, marks a new era in Hungarian poetry.
Of a more general character, and combining the merits of the above schools, are the works of the authors who constituted the socalled "Debreczen Class," which boasts the names of the naturalist and philologist John Foldi, compiler of a considerable part of the Debreczeni magyar grammatica; Michael Fazekas, author of Ludas Matyi (Vienna, 1817), an epic poem, in 4 cantos; and Joseph Kovacs.
To these may be added the names of Charles Berecz, Joseph Zalar, Samuel Nyilas, Joseph Vida, Lewis Tolnai, the sentimental Ladislaus Szelestey, and the talented painter Zoltan Balogh, whose romantic poem Alpdri was published in 1871 by the Kisfaludy society.
Az ember tragoedidja (The Tragedy of Man), by Emeric Madach (1861), is a dramatic poem of a philosophical and contemplative character, and is not intended for the stage.
and ii., which were sometimes reckoned as one poem (Acts xiii.
and III., for the composition of a poem and its acceptance as part of the Levitical liturgy are not necessarily coincident in date, except in psalms written with a direct liturgical purpose.
The only possible question for the critic is whether the ascription of these psalms to David was due to the idea that he was the psalmist par excellence, to whom any poem of unknown origin was naturally ascribed, or whether we have in some at least of these titles an example of the habit so common in later Jewish literature of writing in the name of ancient worthies.
27 (a poem of which every translatable verse is explicable if it refers to the great procession at the rededication of the Temple in 164 B.C.) the same two tribes are joined with Judah and Ben j amin (sc. Judaea) as celebrating the Lord's victory.
The author has incorporated in it the finest poem to be found in all Syriac literature, the famous Hymn of the Soul.
His favourite metre was the pentasyllabic. Cyrillona composed a poem on the invasion of the Huns in 395, 9 and is by some regarded as identical with Ephraim's nephew Abhsamya, who in 403-404 " composed hymns and discourses on the invasion of the Roman empire by the Huns."
He does not seek in that poem to draw Italian peasants from the life, but to bring back the shepherds of Theocritus on Italian scenes.
The Mort Artus, however, we know to be the prose working over of an earlier and independent poem.
Now this incident of the "Three Days' Tournament" is found alike in the prose Lancelot and in the German Lanzelet, this latter translated from a French poem which, in 1194, was in the possession of Hugo de Morville.
Taking all the evidence into consideration it seems more probable that Map had, at a comparatively early date, before he became so important an official, composed a poem on the subject of Lancelot, which was the direct source of the German version, and which Chretien also knew and followed.
Charles X., on whose coronation he wrote a poem, gave him the order of the Legion of Honour.
He is spoken of as the Rhymer of Scotland in the accounts of the English privy council dealing with the visit of the mission for the hand of Margaret Tudor, rather because he wrote a poem in praise of London,than because, as has been stated, he held the post of laureate at the Scottish court.
Dunbar works on the same theme in a shorter poem, known as Beauty and the Prisoner.
This poem has the additional interest of showing the racial antipathy between the "Inglis"- speaking inhabitants of the Lothians and the "Scots" or Gaelic-speaking folk of the west country.
If further selection be made from the large body of miscellaneous poems, the comic poem on the physician Andro Kennedy may stand out as one of the best contributions to medieval Goliardic literature; The Two Mariit Wemen and the Wedo, as one of the richest and most effective pastiches in the older alliterative style, then used by the Scottish Chaucerians for burlesque purposes; Done is a battell on the Dragon Blak, for religious feeling expressed in melodious verse; and the well-known Lament for the Makaris.
The best-known is the rhyming Latin poem on health by Joannes de Meditano, Regimen sanitatis Salerni, professedly written for the use of the "king of England," supposed to mean William the Conqueror; it had an immense reputation in the middle ages, and was afterwards many times printed, and translated into most European languages.
A single mention of his poem, the De rerum natura (which from the condition in which it has reached us may be assumed to have been published posthumously) in a letter of Cicero's to his brother Quintus, written early in S4 B.C., confirms the date given by Donatus as that of the poet's death.
The evidence afforded by the poem rather leads to the conclusion that the tradition contains some germ of fact.
is remarkable that in more than one passage of his poem Lucretius writes with extraordinary vividness of the impression produced both by dreams and by waking visions.
But the strongest confirmation of the tradition is the unfinished condition in which the poem has reached us.
These breaks in continuity show what might also be inferred from frequent repetitions of lines which have appeared earlier in the poem, and from the rough workmanship of passages in the later books, that the poem could not have received the final revision of the author.
Although our conception of the poet's life is necessarily vague and meagre, yet his personal force is so remarkable and so vividly impressed on his poem, that we seem able to form a consistent idea of his qualities and characteristics.
Passages in his poem attest his familiarity with the pomp and luxury of city life, with the attractions of the public games and with the pageantry of great military spectacles.
But much the greater mass of the illustrations of his philosophy indicate that, while engaged on his poem he must have passed much of his time in the open air, exercising at once the keen observation of a naturalist and the contemplative vision of a poet.
Other expressions in his poem (e.g.
Foremost among these were the writings of Epicurus; but he had also an intimate knowledge of the philosophical poem of Empedocles, and at least an acquaintance with the works of Democritus, Anaxagoras, Heraclitus, Plato and the Stoical writers.
The peculiarity of the poem of Lucretius, that which makes it unique in literature, is that it is a reasoned system of philosophy, written in verse.
As in the case of nearly all the great works of Roman literary genius, the form of the poem was borrowed from the Greeks.
The fragments of the poem of Empedocles show that the Roman poet regarded that work as his model.
The main idea of the poem is the irreconcilable opposition between the truth of the laws of nature and the falsehood of the old superstitions.
Although the title of the poem implies that it is a treatise on the "whole nature of things," the aim of Lucretius is to treat only those branches of science which are necessary to clear the mind from the fear of the gods and the terrors of a future state.
All phenomena, moral as well as material, are contemplated by him in their relation to one great organic whole, which he acknowledges under the name of "Natura daedala rerum," and the most beneficent manifestations of which he seems to symbolize and almost to deify in the "Alma Venus," whom, in apparent contradiction to his denial of a divine interference with human affairs, he invokes with prayer in the opening lines of the poem.
The cardinal line of the poem, "Tantum religio potuit suadere malorum," is elicited from him as his protest against the sacrifice of Iphigenia by her father.
de Bernieres, a nobleman of Rouen, and endeavouring to procure a "privilege" for his poem.
The Henriade was at last licensed in France; Brutus, a play which he had printed in England, was accepted for performance, but kept back for a time by the author; and he began the celebrated poem of the Pucelle, the amusement and the torment of great part of his life.
He was soon again in trouble, this time for the poem of Le Mondain, and he at once crossed the frontier and then made for Brussels.
In the same year he wrote a poem on Fontenoy, he received medals from the pope and dedicated Mahomet to him, a.nd he wrote court divertissements and other things to admiration.
The original story was probably contained in an old epic poem called Mcvuas 7roeiats, the authorship of which was ascribed to Prodicus of Phocaea.
But, though he published nothing, his pen was not idle, and he was occupied with a series of essays on the future of Austria and the best means of liberating Germany and redressing the balance of Europe; though he himself confessed to his friend Adam Muller (August 4th, r806) that, in the miserable circumstances of the time, his essay on "the principles of a general pacification" must be taken as a "political poem."
He had sixteen children, his son Patrick being the "auld Wodrow" of Burns's poem "Twa Herds."
A Persian poem celebrated the 360 uses of the palm (Strabo xvi.
The former is divided into two sections: the first, of a metaphysical character, contains a sort of practical cosmography, chiefly based on Avicenna's theories, but frequently intermixed both with the freer speculations of the well-known philosophical brotherhood of Basra, the Ikhwan-es-safa'i, and purely Shiite or Isma`ilite ideas; the second, or ethical section of the poem, abounds in moral maxims and ingenious thoughts on man's good and bad qualities, on the necessity of shunning the company of fools and double-faced friends, on the deceptive allurements of the world and the secret snares of ambitious craving for rank and wealth.
That of course does not exclude the possibility of the bulk of the poem having been composed at an earlier period; it only ascribes its completion or perhaps final revision to Nasir's sojourn in Egypt.
Forced back by Seti, the Kheta returned and were found holding Kadesh by Rameses II., who, in his fifth year, there fought against them and a large body of allies, drawn probably in part from beyond Taurus, the battle which occasioned the monumental poem of Pentaur.
The story is the subject of a poem by Robert Browning, and also of one by Julius Wolff.
The poem was technically known as a Bar or Gesetz, the melody as a Ton or Weis.
BODHI VAMSA, a prose poem in elaborate Sanskritized Pali, composed by Upatissa in the reign of Mahinda IV.
The religious feature of this philosophy, against which has often been brought the accusation of excluding religion, resides in the consciousness of the unity of all and of the perpetual creation of the world by the spirit, as though it were a poem that the spirit is eternally composing, to which each individual contributes his strophe, or it may be only his line or his word: this poem has its end in itself and in its rhythm has beauty and joy, as well as labour and sorrow.
As a writer, he was one of the first to restore the Latin tongue to its pristine purity; and among his works are De Vera Philosophia ex quatuor doctoribus ecclesiae (Bologna, 1507), De Sermone Latino (Basel, 1513), and a poem, De Venatione (Venice, 1534).
He wrote a poem on agriculture (De re rustica) in fourteen books, the material being derived from Columella and other earlier writers.
The 9th-century poem on the Gospel history, to which its first editor, J.
The poem is based, not directly on the New Testament, but on the pseudo-Tatian's harmony of the Gospels, and it shows acquaintance with the commentaries of Alcuin, Banda and Hrabanus Maurus.
A part of this poem, as is mentioned in the article C.Edmon, is extant only in an Old English translation.
Such external evidence as exists bearing on the origin of the Heliand and the companion poem is contained in a Latin document printed by Flacius Illyricus in 1562.
The suspicion of some earlier scholars that the Praefatio and the Versus might be a modern forgery is refuted by the occurrence of the word vitteas, which is the Old Saxon fittea, corresponding to the Old English fitt, which means a "canto" of a poem.
It is not provided with a glossary, but contains an elaborate and most valuable analysis of the diction, synonymy and syntactical features of the poem.
In all forms the rhyme is the same throughout the poem, and is confined to the second half of the line except in the first line where the two halves rhyme.
The first of these is the requirement that each line should have a complete sense in itself; this produces a certain jerkiness, and often led among the Arabs to displacement in the order of the lines in a long poem.
The other feature, peculiar to the long poem (gasida, elegy), is that, whatever its real object, whatever its metre, it has a regular scheme in the arrangement of its material.
Then at last comes the real subject of the poem, usually the panegyric of some man of influence or wealth to whom the poet has come in hope of reward and before whom he recites the poem.
Yet Abu-l-`Ala, ul-Ma'arri (q.v.) was original alike in his use of rhymes and in the philosophical nature of his poems. Ibn Farid is the greatest of the mystic poets, and Busiri (q.v.) wrote the most famous poem extant in praise of the Prophet.
This last poem, like the two preceding ones written in hexameters, was composed at the command of "Father" Adalgisus, and based upon the prose narrative of Heto, abbot of .Reichenau from 806 to 822.
His most famous poem is the Hortulus, dedicated to Grimald.
The most prolific author of colonial times was Dr Pedro de Peralta y Barnuevo, who wrote more than sixty works, including an epic poem entitled Lima fundada.
5) and an epic poem on the exploits of Germanicus.
and no trace of the poem before the publication of the editio princeps of Ovid in 1471.
In June 1829 Alfred Tennyson won the Chancellor's prize medal for his poem called "Timbuctoo."
The public was at first greatly mystified by the nature and object of this poem, which was not merely a chronicle of Tennyson's emotions under bereavement, nor even a statement of his philosophical and religious beliefs, but, as he long afterwards explained, a sort of Divina Commedia, ending with happiness in the marriage of his youngest sister, Cecilia Lushington.
The poet wrote the sections as they occurred to him, and did not think of weaving them together into a single poem until it was too late to give them real coherency.
It is odd that this irregular poem, with its copious and varied music, its splendid sweep of emotion, its unfailing richness of texture - this poem in which Tennyson rises to heights of human sympathy and intuition which he reached nowhere else, should have been received with bitter hostility, have been styled "the dead level of prose run mad," and have been reproved more absurdly still for its "rampant and rabid bloodthirstiness of soul."
It was not perceived at the time that the four idyls were parts of a great historical or mystical poem, and they were welcomed as four polished studies of typical women: it must be confessed that in this light their even perfection of workmanship appeared to greater advantage than it eventually did in the general texture of the so-called "epic."
The noble poem Lucretius, one of the greatest of Tennyson's versified monographs, appeared in May 1868, and in this year The Holy Grail was at last finished; it was published in 1869, together with three other idyls belonging to the Arthurian epic, and various miscellaneous lyrics, besides Lucretius.
He went on quite calmly, however, sure of his mission and of his music. His next volume (1872), Gareth and Lynette and The Last Tournament, continued, and, as he then supposed, concluded The Idylls of the King, to the great satisfaction of the poet, who had found much difficulty in rounding off the last sections of the poem.
Nor, as he was to find, was the poem yet completed, but for the time being he dismissed it from his mind.
His few lyrics were spirited ballads of adventure, inspired by an exalted patriotism - "The Revenge" (1878), "The Defence of Lucknow" (1879) - but he reprinted and finally published his old suppressed poem, The Lover's Tale, and a little play of his, The Falcon, versified out of Boccaccio, was produced by the Kendals at their theatre in the last days of 1879.
The long poem celebrating the triumph of Christ and His saints was called forth by the favour shown him by Pope Leo VII., during whose pontificate he visited Rome, and he devotes fourteen books to the history of the popes.
This particular variant appears to be of British-Celtic origin, and the most faithful representative of the original tale is now very generally held to be the English Syr Percyvelle of Galles, a poem preserved in the Thornton manuscript.
Two manuscripts, indeed, the British Museum and Mons texts, preserve a fragment relating the birth and infancy of the hero, which appears to represent the source at the root alike of Chretien and of the German Parzival, but it is only a fragment, and so far no more of the poem has been discovered.
Chretien left his poem unfinished, and we do not know how he intended to complete the adventures of his hero; but those writers who undertook the task, Wauchier de Denain, Gerbert de Montreuil and Manessier, carried it out with such variety of detail, and such a bewildering indifference to Chretien's version, that it seems practically certain that there must have been, previous to Chretien's work, more than one poem dealing with the same theme.
It is certain that Gerbert knew, and used, a Perceval which, if not Kiot's poem, must have been closely akin to it; as he too makes the Swan-Knight a descendant of the Grail hero.
Later, however, stories which certainly derive from an early non-Grail tradition are introduced, and there are references which imply a knowledge of the prose Lancelot and of Chretien's poem.
This was at one time claimed as the original source of all the Perceval romances, but this theory cannot be maintained in face of the fact that the writer gives in one place what is practically a literal translation of Chretien's text in a passage which there is strong reason to believe was borrowed by Chretien from an earlier poem.
The value and interest of the Perceval romances stand very high, not alone for their intrinsic merit, though that is considerable - Chretien's Perceval, though not his best poem, is a favourable specimen of his work, and von Eschenbach's Parzival, though less elegant in style, is by far the most humanly interesting, and at the same time, most deeply spiritual, of the Grail romances - but also for the interest of the subject matter.
The immediate source of this version is the poem of Wolfram von Eschenbach, though the Grail, of course, is represented in the form of the Christian relic, not as the jewel talisman of the Parzival; but the psychological reading of the hero's character, the distinctive note of von Eschenbach's version, has been adapted by Wagner with marvellous skill, and his picture of the hero's mental and spiritual development, from extreme simplicity to the wisdom born of perfect charity, is most striking and impressive.
of his edition of Chretien's poem.
Anstruther fair supplied William Tennant (1784-1848), who was born and buried in the town, with the subject of his poem of "Anster Fair."
According to Sostratus, author of an elegiac poem called Teiresias, he was originally a girl, but had been changed into a boy by Apollo at the age of seven; after undergoing several more transformations from one sex to the other, she (for the final sex was feminine) was turned into a mouse and her lover Arachnus into a weasel (Eustathius on Odyssey, p. 1665).
The colouring is that of classic mythology, but the spiritual element is as individual as that of any classical poem by Milton, Gray, Keats or Tennyson.
Apart from his idylls and his elegies, Chenier also experimented from early youth in didactic and philosophic verse, and when he commenced his Hermes in 1783 his ambition was to condense the Encyclopedia of Diderot into a poem somewhat after the manner of Lucretius.
This poem was to treat of man's position in the Universe, first in an isolated state, and then in society.
Suzanne represents the torso of a Biblical poem on a very large scale, in six cantos.
There he wrote the best known of all his verses, the pathetic Jeune captive, a poem at once of enchantment and of despair.
Among his best known works are: Demiurgos (3 vols., 1852-1854), a "Mysterium," in which he attempted to deal with the problems of human existence, but the work found little favour; Nibelunge, an epic poem in alliterative verse, in two parts, (1) Sigfriedsage (1867-1868; 13th ed.
Still more important service was rendered by him in his long Saturnian poem on the first Punic war, in which he not only told the story of contemporary events but gave shape to the legend of the settlement of Aeneas in Latium, - the theme ultimately adopted for the great national epic of Rome.
His greatest work, which made the Romans regard him as the father of their literature, was his epic poem, in eighteen books, the Annales, in which the record of the whole career of Rome was unrolled with idealizing enthusiasm and realistic detail.
The general results of the last fifty years of the first period (130 to 80) may be thus summed up. In poetry we have the satires of Lucilius, the tragedies of Accius and of a few successors among the Roman aristocracy, who thus exemplified the affinity of the Roman stage to Roman oratory; various annalistic poems intended to serve as continuations of the great poem of Ennius; minor poems of an epigrammatic and erotic character, unimportant anticipations of the Alexandrian tendency operative in the following period; works of criticism in trochaic tetrameters by Porcius Licinus and others, forming part of the critical and grammatical movement which almost from the first accompanied the creative movement in Latin literature, and which may be regarded as rude precursors of the didactic epistles that Horace devoted to literary criticism.
Since the Annals of Ennius no great and original poem had appeared.
This isolation from the familiar ways of his contemporaries, while it was, according to tradition and the internal evidence of his poem, destructive to his spirit's health, resulted in a work of genius, unique in character, which still stands forth as the greatest philosophical poem in any language.
In the form of his poem he followed a Greek original; and the stuff out of which the texture of his philosophical argument is framed was derived from Greek science; but all that is of deep human and poetical meaning in the poem is his own.
While we recognize in the De Rerum Natura some of the most powerful poetry in any language and feel that few poets have penetrated with such passionate sincerity and courage into the secret of nature and some of the deeper truths of human life, we must acknowledge that, as compared with the great didactic poem of Virgil, it is crude and unformed in artistic design, and often rough and unequal in artistic execution.
But he has ever in form so far surpassed his originals that he alone has gained for the pure didactic poem a place among the highest forms of serious poetry, while he has so transmuted his material that, without violation of truth, he has made the whole poem alive with poetic feeling.
And, though he cannot unroll before us the page of heroic action with the power and majesty of Homer, yet by the sympathy with which he realizes the idea of Rome, and by the power with which he has used the details of tradition, of local scenes, of religious usage, to embody it, he has built up in the form of an epic poem the most enduring and the most artistically constructed monument of national grandeur.
In his Fasti he treats a subject of national interest; it is not, however, through the strength of Roman sentiment but through the power of vividly conceiving and narrating stories of strong human interest that the poem lives.
The most remarkable poetical product of the time is the long-neglected astrological poem of Manilius which was written at the beginning of Tiberius's reign.
The poem of Ti.
15), which is said by Egyptologists to be the oldest poem in the world, carries us back at once to the dawn of history.
The premature death and high talents of these young men, and the association of one of them with the most popular poem of the age, have made Hallam's family afflictions better known than any other incidents of his life.
Late in life he wrote a work on the great Roman families, wrongly identified with an extant poem De progenie Augusti Caesaris bearing the name of Messalla, but really a 15th-century production.
In the autumn of 1504 he began his Decennali, or Annals of Italy, a poem composed in rough terza rima.
But the most discriminating character of Garrick, slightly tinged with satire, is that drawn by Goldsmith in his poem of Retaliation.
He occupies a high place as a hymnologist, but principally as a translator of ancient and medieval hymns, the best known being probably "Brief life is here our portion," "To thee, 0 dear, dear country," and "Jerusalem, the golden," which are included in the poem of Bernard of Cluny, De Contemptu Mundi, translated by him in full.
Sinfidtli) are also mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf.
the lost poem of Callimachus, called AZrca, were on the origin of myths and religious observances; others were on special sciences.
The fame of Erasmus Darwin as a poet rests upon his Botanic Garden, though he also wrote The Temple of Nature, or the Origin of Society, a Poem, with Philosophical Notes (1803), and The Shrine of Nature (posthumously published).
The Botanic Garden (the second part of which - The Loves of the Plants - was published anonymously in 1789, and the whole of which appeared in 1791) is a long poem in the decasyllabic rhymed couplet.
The artificial character of the diction renders it in emotional passages stilted and even absurd, and makes Canning's clever caricature - The Loves of the Triangles - often remarkably like the poem it satirizes: in some passages, however, it is not without a stately appropriateness.
It is significant that botanical notes are added to the poem, and that its eulogies of scientific men are frequent.
The Pelagians were attacked in a glowing polemical poem of about 1000 lines, Adversus ingratos, written about 430.
An interesting, but doubtful, emendation makes this poem describe the ruin of Shamal, a state in N.
Harris; New Connecticut: an Autobiographical Poem (Boston, 1887), edited by F.
In 1835 he obtained a scholarship at University College; and in 1836 he gained the Newdigate prize for a poem on "The Knights of St John," which elicited special praise from Keble.
The most important of these documents, a poem in Provençal, "La Nobla Leyczon," contains two lines which claimed for it the date of i 100: Ben ha mil e cent anez compli entierament Que fo scripta 1' ora, car sen al derier temp.
But it was pointed out 2 that in the oldest MS. existing in the Cambridge university library the figure 4 had been imperfectly erased before the word "cent," a discovery which harmonized with the results of a criticism of the contents of the poem itself.
His chief poem of the later period was the Argonautae, closely modelled on the epic of Apollonius Rhodius.
Varro was also the author of a Cosmographia, or Chorographia, a geographical poem imitated from the Greek of Eratosthenes or of Alexander of Ephesus, surnamed Lychnus; and of an Ephemeris, a hexameter poem on weather-signs after Aratus, from which Virgil has borrowed.
The poem, entitled the Buke of the Howlat, written about 1450, shows his devotion to the house of Douglas: "On ilk beugh till embrace Writtin in a bill was 0 Dowglass, 0 Dowglass Tender and trewe!"
The poem, which extends to loot lines written in the irregular alliterative rhymed stanza, is a bird-allegory, of the type familiar in the Parlement of Foules.
The text of the poem is preserved in the Asloan and Bannatyne MSS.
The poem has been frequently reprinted, by Pinkerton, in his Scottish Poems (1792); by D.
Le Fatiche d'Ercole (1475) is a romance in poetic prose by Pietro Bassi, and the Dodeci Travagli di Ercole (1544) a poem by J.
In 1836 he was elected a member of the Academy of Inscriptions, and in 1837 he published (with an introduction the conclusions of which would not now all be endorsed) a translation of a Provencal poem on the Albigensian war.
In June of the same year he wrote a Latin poem on the birth of the young prince James, whom he described as serenissimus princeps of France and England.
The commonest method of sacrifice was by hanging the victim on a tree; and in the poem Hdvamfil the god himself is represented as sacrificed in this way.
This superstition has been immortalized in Keats's poem, "The Eve of St Agnes."
He is sometimes called Quintus Calaber, because the only MS. of his poem was discovered at Otranto in Calabria by Cardinal Bessarion in 1450.
Handlyng Synne, a poem of nearly 13,000 lines, is a free translation, with many additions and amplifications, from William of Waddington's Manuel des Pechiez.
It is to be noted, however, that in this little poem he is to some extent confounded with the planet named after him (Ares, or Mars).
In 1845 he published Mara, a poem in four cantoes (85 pp., Longmans), containing a description of a young poet who printed 1000 copies of his first poem, of which only 10 were sold.
Unlike the people of other Slavonic countries, the Poles are comparatively poor in popular and legendary poetry, but such compositions undoubtedly existed in early times, as may be seen by the writings of their chroniclers; thus Gallus translated into Latin a poem written on Boleslaus the Brave, and a few old Polish songs are included in Wojcicki's Library of Ancient Writers.
Sometimes he is descriptive, as in his Polish poem entitled Flis (" The Boatman"), in which he gives a detailed account of the scenery on the banks of the Vistula.
There is also another poem attributed to Potocki called the New Mercury.
His most important poem is Wladystaus IV., King of Poland, in which he sings in a very bombastic strain the various expeditions of the Polish monarch.
He translated the Cid of Corneille, and wrote a poem on the subject of Psyche, based upon the well-known Greek myth.
Krasicki wrote an epic on the war of Khotin - the same as had furnished the subject of the poem of Potocki, of which Krasicki in all probability had never heard, and also that of the Dalmatian Gundulich.
Krasicki's poem is at best but a dull affair, in fact a pale copy of a poor original, the Henriade of Voltaire.
His most celebrated pieces are Hugo; Mnich (" The Monk"); Lambro, a Greek corsair, quite in the style of Byron; Anhelli, a very Dantesque poem expressing under the form of an allegory the sufferings of Poland; Krol duck (" The Spirit King"), another mysterious and allegorical poem; Waclaw, on the same subject as the Marya of Malczewski, to be afterwards noticed; Beniowski, a long poem in ottava rima on this strange adventurer, something in the style of Byron's humorous poems; Kordyan, of the same school as the English poet's Manfred; Lilla Weneda, a poem dealing with the early period of Slavonic history.
It would be impossible to analyse here his extraordinary poem Nieboska komedja (" The Undivine Comedy"), Irydion, and others.
Anton Malczewski (1793-1826) wrote one poem, Marya, a Ukrainian tale which passed School.
The chief poem is Severin Goszczynski (1803-1876) is Zamek Kaniowski (" The Tower of Kaniow").
The most interesting poem of Bogdan Zaleski is his "Spirit of the Steppe" (Duch od stepu).
Besides the longer poem previously mentioned, he is the author of many charming lyrics in the style of the Little Russian poems, such as Shevchenko has written in that language.
A poet of great vigour was Stephen Garczynski (1806-1833), the friend of Mickiewicz, celebrated for his War Sonnets and his poem entitled The Deeds of Waclaw.
He wrote a fine descriptive work, Obrazy z zycia i podrozy (" Pictures of Life and Travel"), and also a poem, Piesn o ziemi naszej (" Song of our Land").
In 1855 he published Mohort, a poem relating to the times of Stanislaus Poniatowski.
As lyrical poets may also be mentioned Jachowicz; Jaskowski, author of a fine poem, The Beginning of Winter; Edmund.
Bedier, is that there was one poem, and one only, at the root of the various versions preserved to us, and that that poem, composed in England, probably by an AngloNorman, was a work of such force and genius that it determined for all time the form of the Tristan story.
Moreover the evidence of the author of the principal Tristan poem preserved to us points in another direction.
This poet was an Anglo-Norman named Thomas; and, although little over 3000 lines of his poem have been preserved, we have three translations; a German, by Gottfried von Strassburg; a Scandinavian, by a certain Brother Robert; and an English, by Thomas, sometimes identified with Thomas of Ercildoune, though this is doubtful.
He did not live to complete his poem, but happily he carried it up to the point where the original fragments 1_.
Besides the version of Thomas, we have a fragment by a certain Beroul, also an Anglo-Norman, and a German poem by Eilhart von Oberge, both of which derive from a common source.
There also exists in two manuscripts a short poem, La Folie Tristan, relating how Tristan, disguised as a fool, visits the court of King Mark.
This poem is valuable, as, presuming upon the sufficiency of his disguise, Tristan audaciously gives a resume of his feats and of his relations with Iseult, in this agreeing with the version of Thomas.
The "Gerbert" continuation of the Perceval contains the working over of one of two short Tristan poems, called by him the Luite Tristran; the latter part, probably a distinct poem, shows Tristan, in the disguise of a minstrel, visiting the court of Mark.
Like the story of Perceval that of Tristan has been made familiar to the present generation by Richard Wagner's noble music drama, Tristan and Isolde, founded upon the poem of Gottfried von Strassburg; though, being a drama of feeling rather than of action, the story is reduced to its simple elements; the drinking of the love-potion, the passion of the lovers, their discovery by Mark and finally their death.
A broadside entitled Davy Dycars Dreame, a short and seemingly alliterative poem in the manner of Piers Plowman, brought him into trouble with the privy council, but he was dismissed with a reprimand.
and after died miserablie in exile," which is the work of Thomas Chaloner, but "Shore's Wife," his most popular poem, appeared in the 1563 edition of the same work, and to that of 1587 he contributed the "Tragedie of Thomas Wolsey."
420 of the 1st poem.
125 of the 1st poem), and speaks of his city as illustrious throughout the world (ib.
Haverhill was the birthplace of Whittier, who lived here in 1807-1836, and who in his poem Haverhill, written for the 250th anniversary of the town in 1890, and in many of his other poems, gave the poet's touch to the history, the legends and the scenery of his native city.
This is shown by the facts that he addressed to Anastasius, emperor of the East (491-518), a laudatory poem, and that the MSS.
For ten years he lived a life of ease in London, where he became the intimate friend of Robert Browning, of whose poem "Waring" he was the subject.
849), had a genuine gift for Latin poetry, a gift agreeably exemplified in his poem on the plants in the monastic garden.
1210), whose poem on the Trojan war is still extant.
c. 1203), the former being the author of the Alexandreis, and the latter that of the Anti-Claudianus, a poem familiar to Chaucer.
- xxxvii.) are not part of the original poem, but were inserted in it afterwards.
Ezra and Nehemiah were written after, Esther during, or after, the captivity: Job, which is not a history but a philosophical poem, at an uncertain date.
Nordlands Trompet (The Trumpet of Nordland), his greatest and most famous poem, was not published till 1739; Den norska Dale-Vise (The Norwegian Song of the Valley) appeared in 1696; the Aandelig Tidsfordriv (Spiritual Pastime), a volume of sacred poetry, was published in 1711.
FRANCOIS BONIVARD (1493-1570), the hero of Byron's poem, The Prisoner of Chillon, was born at Seyssel of an old Savoyard family.
Matthew Arnold's poem "St Brandan" gives fine expression to the old story that, on account of an act of charity done to a leper at Joppa, Judas was allowed an hour's respite from hell once a year.
His best known productions are Adams and Liberty, a once popular song written in 1798, The Invention of Letters (1795), and The Ruling Passion, the Harvard Phi Beta Kappa poem of 1797.
Here also he wrote a long poem against commerce, which he produced as an exposition of his opinions when, on his return to England, his father announced his intention of placing him in a commercial house at Bordeaux.
Against such a destiny D'Israeli's mind strongly revolted; and he carried his poem, with a letter earnestly appealing for advice and assistance, to Samuel Johnson; but when he called again a week after to receive an answer, the packet was returned unopened - the great Doctor was on his.
In the beginning of 1 788 he returned home, and in the next year he attacked Peter Pindar (John Wolcot) in The Gentleman's Magazine in a poem in the manner of Pope, "On the Abuse of Satire."
The authorship of the poem was much debated, and it.
Meanwhile the reactionaries of Vienna were goading the Magyar Liberals into revolt, and Arany found a safety-valve for his growing indignation by composing a satirical poem in hexameters, entitled "The Lost Constitution."
Arany sent in his work, and shortly afterwards was awarded the 25-gulden prize (7th of February 1846) by the society, which then advertised another prize for the best Magyar epic poem.
He also attempted to write another epic poem, but the time was not favourable for such an undertaking.
The same year he won the Nádasdy prize of the Academy with his poem "Death of Buda."
The longest, Theriaca, is an hexameter poem (958 lines) on the nature of venomous animals and the wounds which they inflict.
He is said to have written a poem on the best means of making Ionia prosperous.
But it was not till 1857 that he wrote his first poem in Catalan - a copy of verses to the Virgin of Montserrat.
In 1856 he published his first book, Within and Without, a dramatic poem; following it in 1857 with a volume of Poems, and in 1858 by the delightful " faerie romance Phantastes.
She was said to have played an important part in the poem of Stesichorus, and subsequently became a favourite figure in tragedy.
988) that in his time 128 pieces were counted in the book; and this number agrees with that contained in the Vienna MS., which gives an additional poem, besides those annotated by al-Anbari, to al-Muraqqish the Elder,and adds at the end a poem by al-Harith ibn Iiilliza.
9, 67, 68), the splendid poem of Salama ibn Jandal (No.
126), the long elegy by Abu Dhu'aib of Hudhail on the death of his sons; almost every verse of this poem is cited in illustration of some phrase or meaning of a word in the national lexicons.
Many are mere fragments, and even in the longest there are often lacunae; but the compiler evidently set down all that he could collect of a poem from the memory of the rawis, and did not, like Abu Tammam, choose only the best portions.
of Silius Italicus have a considerable gap in the 8th book, first filled up on the authority of Jac. Constantius (1503), and not printed with the rest of the poem till the edition of Aldus (1523).
Insertions of this or of a similar character may be of almost any length, from a few words to a whole chapter or a complete poem.
89, Citizen Eusebe Salverte calls attention to the poem "De Ponderibus et Mensuris" generally ascribed to Rhemnius Fannius Palaemon, and consequently 300 years older than Hypatia, in which the hydrometer is described and attributed to Archimedes.
Akontios), in Greek legend, a beautiful youth of the island of Ceos, the hero of a love-story told byCallimachus in a poem now lost, which forms the subject of two of Ovid's Heroides (xx., xxi.).
Traces of foreign influence are observable in El Moro Exposito (1833), a narrative poem dedicated to John Hookham Frere; these are still more marked in Don Alvaro o La Fuerza del sino (first played on the 22nd of March 1835), a drama of historical importance inasmuch as it established the new French romanticism in Spain.
His first poem, correct in rhyme and form,, was written before he was seven.
At nine he began "Eudosia, a poem of the Universe."
The one success of his Oxford career was the winning the Newdigate Prize by his poem "Salsette and Elephanta," which he recited in the Sheldonian Theatre (June 1839).
Chretien de Troye's Perceval (c. 1175) is doubtless based on an Anglo-Norman poem.
The second poem is the sequel to Ipomedon, and deals with the wars and subsequent reconciliation between Ipomedon's sons, Daunus, the elder, lord of Apulia, and Protesilaus, the younger, lord of Calabria.
The Anglo-Norman poem on the Life of Richard Coeur de Lion is lost, and an English version only has been preserved.
Other works, however, give us more trustworthy information, for example, the anonymous poem on Henry II.'s Conquest of Ireland in 1172 (ed.
Stevenson, Maitland Club, Edinburgh, 1836); the Black Prince, a poem by the poet Chandos, composed about 1386, and 'relating the life of the Black Prince from 1346-1376 (re-edited by Francisque Michel, London and Paris, 1883); and, lastly, the different versions of the Brutes, the form and historical importance of which have been indicated by Paul Meyer (Bulletin de la Societe des Anciens Textes, 1878, pp. 104-145), and by F.
Mall, Strassburg, 1873), poem on the calendar; Bestiaire, c. 1130 (ed.
170); Henri d'Arci's life of St Thais, poem on the Antichrist, Visio S.
In Early English Lyrics (Oxford, 1907) we have a poem in which a lover sends to his mistress a love-greeting composed in three languages, and his learned friend replies in the same style (De amico ad amicam, Responcio, viii and ix).
However, an Englishman raised his voice in favour of the ladies in a poem entitled La Bonte des dames (Meyer, Rom.
So entirely did even his immediate circle ignore his religion that a court skald composed a poem on his death representing his welcome by the heathen gods into Valhalla.
Here also the idea came to prevail that the body of the saint, or a portion of it,'was possessed of healing and protective power (Paulinus of Nola, Poem.
The extant hexameter poem De viribus (or virtutibus) herbarum, ascribed to Macer, is a medieval production by Odo Magdunensis, a French physician.
Aemilius Macer must be distinguished from the Macer called Iliacus in the Ovidian catalogue of poets, the author of an epic poem on the events preceding the opening of the Iliad.
The magnetical needle, and its suspension on a stick or straw in water, are clearly described in La Bible Guiot, a poem probably of the r3th century, by Guiot de Provins, wherein we are told that through the magnet (la manette or l'amaniere), an ugly brown stone to which iron turns of its own accord, mariners possess an art that cannot fail them.
The Libel of English Policie, a poem of the first half of the 15th century, says with reference to Iceland (chap. x.) "Out of Bristowe, and costes many one, Men haue practised by nedle and by stone Thider wardes within a litle while."
His doctrinal position is explained in his letters to his patron Eusebius, bishop of the imperial city of Nicomedia, and to Alexander of Alexandria, and in the fragments of the poem in which he set forth his dogmas, which bears the enigmatic title of " Thalia " (06XECa), used in Homer, in the sense of " a goodly banquet," most unjustly ridiculed by Athanasius as an imitation of the licentious style of the drinking-songs of the Egyptian Sotades (270 B.C.).
In 1375 (he gives the date, and his age as 60) he composed his best known poem The Brus, for which he received, in 1377, the gift of ten pounds, and, in 1378, a lifepension of twenty shillings.
(I) The Brus, in twenty books, and running to over 13,500 four-accent lines, in couplets, is a narrative poem with a purpose partly historical, partly patriotic. It opens with a description of the state of Scotland at the death of Alexander III.
Despite a number of errors of fact, notably the confusion of the three Bruces in the person of the hero, the poem is historically trustworthy as compared with contemporary verse-chronicle, and especially with the Wallace of the next century.
Extensive portions of the poem have been incorporated by Wyntoun (q.v.) in his Chronicle.
iii.) of a "Treteis" which Barbour made by way of "a genealogy" of "Brutus lynagis"; and elsewhere in that poem there are references to the archdeacon's "Stewartis Oryginale."
(4) Yet another work was added to the list of Barbour's works by the discovery in the university library of Cambridge, by Henry Bradshaw, of a long Scots poem of over 33,000 lines, dealing with Legends of the Saints, as told in the Legenda Aurea and other legendaries.
The general likeness of this poem to Barbour's accepted work in verse-length, dialect and style, and the facts that the lives of English saints are excluded and those of St Machar (the patron saint of Aberdeen) and St Ninian are inserted, made the ascription plausible.
In the curious poem in the Sallier papyrus (II.), written about 1800 B.C., Duan, son of Khertu, expatiates on the effects of divers handicrafts on the workmen as compared with the elevating influences of a literary life.
Adalberon wrote a satirical poem in the form of a dialogue dedicated to Robert, king of France, in which he showed his dislike of Odilo, abbot of Cluny, and his followers, and his objection to persons of humble birth being made bishops.
The poem was first published by H.
In 1761 he announced the discovery of an epic on the subject of Fingal, and in December he published Fingal, an Ancient Epic Poem in Six Books, together with Several Other Poems composed by Ossian, the Son of Fingal, translated from the Gaelic Language, written in the musical measured prose of which he had made use in his earlier volume.
His reward was the archbishopric of Benevento, and it was believed that it was only his openly licentious poem, Capitoli del forno, and the fact that the French court seemed to desire his elevation, which prevented him from being raised to a still higher dignity.
Berard, Les Phe'niciens et l'Odyssee (1902-1903), who regards the Odyssey as "the integration in a Greek voo-Tos (home-coming) of a Semitic periplus," in the form of a poem written 900-850 B.C. by an Ionic poet at the court of one of the Neleid kings of Miletus.
They were perhaps influenced by the example of Goethe, who in his Autobiography describes, at considerable length, the plan of a poem he had designed on the Wandering Jew.
Thus, probably, he suggested Grenier's poem on the subject (1857).
C. von Kleist (1715-1759), a Prussian officer, whose fine poem, Der Frzihling, had won for him Lessing's warm esteem.
The poem, which has been compared with the Chanson de Roland and the Romance of the Cid, undoubtedly contains a kernel of fact, although it cannot be regarded as in any sense an historical record.
The account of his distress is one of the finest and most touching passages in the poem.
William Bedwell, the Arabic scholar, was vicar of Tottenham, and published in 1632 a Briefe Description of the Towne of Tottenham, in which he printed for the first time the burlesque poem, the Turnament of Tottenham.
the poem on the fall of Heshbon, Num.
Among the prominent men who have lived in Fairfield are Roger Sherman, the first President Dwight of Yale (who described Fairfield in his Travels and in his poem Greenfield Hill), Chancellor James Kent, and Joseph Earle Sheffield.
Of his many works the most important are his chronicles of the four kings of Castile during whose reigns he lived; they give a generally accurate account of scenes and events, most of which he had witnessed; he also wrote a long satirical and didactic poem, interesting as a picture of his personal experiences and of contemporary morality.
Pope sur l'homme (1737, an attack on the Leibnitzian theory of that poem), Logique (6 vols., 1741), De l'esprit humain (1741), and Reflexions sur l'ouvrage intitule: La Belle Wolfienne (1743).
Nicephorus was also the author of lists of the emperors and patriarchs of Constantinople, of a poem on the capture of Jerusalem, and of a synopsis of the Scriptures, all in iambics; and of commentaries on liturgical poems.
Randolph, the adopted "son" of Ben Jonson, addressed a poem of compliment to him, and became his friend, and that Feltham attacked Ben Jonson in an ode shortly before the aged poet's death, but contributed a flattering elegy to the J onsonus Virbius in 1638.
It probably received its charter from Alexander III., was created a royal burgh in 1367 and was the scene of the poem of Peblis to the Play, ascribed to James I.
About the same time he also wrote his Anaq, a poem on grammar, of which only 97 lines out of 400 are preserved.
Davenant's heroic poem, Gondibert (E.W.
x.), prefaced by a lively dissertation " Concerning the Virtues of an Heroic Poem," showing his unabated interest in questions of literary style.
References to events of mythical and later times are introduced, and the poem ends with a reference to Alexander the Great, who was to unite Asia and Europe in his world-wide empire.
The poem is evidently intended to display the writer's knowledge of obscure names and uncommon myths; it is full of unusual words of doubtful meaning gathered from the older poets, and many long-winded compounds coined by the author.
He received only ten guineas for this stately and vigorous poem; but the sale was rapid and the success complete.
A few days after the publication of this poem, his tragedy of Irene, begun many years before, was brought on the stage by his old pupil, David Garrick, now manager of Drury Lane Theatre.
Indeed, the publication of this little volume bore immediate fruit in introducing its author to various men of letters, among whom was Dante Gabriel Rossetti, through whose offices Patmore became known to Holman Hunt, and was thus drawn into the eddies of the pre-Raphaelite movement, contributing his poem "The Seasons" to the Germ.
In the next year he republished, in Tamerton Church Tower, the more successful pieces from the Poems of 1844, adding several new poems which showed distinct advance, both in conception and treatment; and in the following year (1854) appeared the first part of his best known poem, "The Angel in the House," which was continued in "The Espousals" (1856), "Faithful for Ever" (1860), and "The Victories of Love" (1862).
A fragment of a Welsh poem seems to confirm this tradition, which certainly lies at the root of her later abduction by Meleagaunt.
The Pricke of Conscience is a long religious poem, in rhyming couplets, dealing with the beginning of man's life, the instability of the world, why death is to be dreaded, of doomsday, of the pains of hell, and the joys of heaven, the two latter subjects being treated with uncompromising realism.
Rolle wrote in the northern dialect, but southern transcripts are also found, and the poem exists in a Latin version (Stimulus conscientiae).
Holmes read a poem.
Whittier had in his lifetime commemorated him in his poem "The Hero," in which he called him "the Cadmus of the blind"; and in 1901 a centennial celebration of his birth was held at Boston, at which, among other notable tributes, Senator Hoar spoke of Howe as "one of the great figures of American history."
In that case he would have been put to shame, even in the eyes of many of his own followers, by the first poem that came to hand.
The last is interesting as being the first poem containing that form of the story of Aeneas's flight to which Virgil afterwards gave currency in his Aeneid.
In the last book of his epic poem, in which he seems to have given various details of his personal history, he mentions that he was in his 67th year at the date of its composition.
Till the appearance of Ennius, Roman literature, although it had produced the epic poem of Naevius and some adaptations of Greek tragedy, had been most successful in comedy.
But the work which gained him his reputation as the Homer of Rome, and which called forth the admiration of Cicero and Lucretius and frequent imitation from Virgil, was the Annales, a long narrative poem in eighteen books, containing the record of the national story from mythical times to his own.
Although the whole conception of the work implies that confusion of the provinces of poetry and history which was perpetuated by later writers, and especially by Lucan and Silius Italicus, yet it was a true instinct of genius to discern in the idea of the national destiny the only possible motive of a Roman epic. The execution of the poem (to judge from the fragments, amounting to about six hundred lines), although rough, unequal and often prosaic, seems to have combined the realistic fidelity and freshness of feeling of a contemporary chronicle with the vivifying and idealizing power of genius.
The inspiring idea of the poem was accepted, purified of all alien material, and realized in artistic shape by Virgil in his national epic. He deliberately imparted to that poem the charm of antique associations by incorporating with it much of the phraseology and sentiment of Ennius.
The funeral procession is headed by a number of poor, and generally blind, men, chanting the profession of the faith, followed by male friends of the deceased, and a party of schoolboys, also chanting, generally from a poem descriptive of the state of the soul after death.
1228) wrote a long poem in hexameters, Hexaemeron, describing the creation.
It extends to the death of Christian I., in 1481, which may be supposed to be approximately the date of the poem.
Beside these works Ranch wrote a famous moralizing poem, entitled " A new song, of the nature and song of certain birds, in which many vices are punished, and many virtues praised."
4 His works were edited by Gustav Storm (Christiania, 1877-1879) the Hexaemeron, a poem on the creation, in six books, which did not appear till 1661.
The first prize offered was won by Christian Braumann Tullin (1728-1765) for his beautiful poem of May-day.
After a struggling youth of great poverty, he published, in 1807-1809, a translation of Ossian; in 181 4 a volume of lyrical poems; and in 1817 he attracted considerable attention by his descriptive poem of The Tour in Jutland.
For many years he resided at Mantua, and superintended the education of the celebrated Lucrezia Gonzaga, in whose honour he composed a long poem.
These phenomena have been explained as due to later expansion, but the poem has all the appearance of being a unity, and the language, style and rhythm all point to a later age.
To this period belong his Memoires pour servir d l'histoire de Brandebourg and his poem L' Art de la guerre.
About the same time he commenced, at the desire of the ruler of the neighbouring Shirvan, his second romantic poem, the famous Bedouin love-story of Laila and Majnun, which has so many points in common with Ariosto's Orlando Furioso, and finished it in the short space of four months.
In this poem, which was written 593 A.H., at the request of Nur-uddin Arslan of Mosul, the son and successor of the abovementioned `Izz-uddin, Nizami returned once more from his excursion into the field of heroic deeds to his old favourite domain of romantic fiction, and added a fresh leaf to the laurel crown of immortal fame with which the unanimous consent of Eastern and Western critics has adorned his venerable head.
Procopius, De Aedificiis and the poem of Paulus Silentiarius on the dedication of St Sophia should be read in connexion with this subject.
In view of the connexion, the poem is interpreted as expressing Lamech's exultation at the advantage he expects to derive from Tubal-Cain's new inventions; the worker in bronze will forge for him new and formidable weapons, so that he will be able to take signal vengeance for the least injury.
But the poem probably had originally nothing to do with the genealogy.
The court of session was the most valuable and permanent of James's innovations, and his poem " The King's Quhair " attests his real genius.
Nevertheless the passage in the Spanish text undeniably lends some support to the Portuguese claim, and recent critics have inclined to the belief that Amadis de Gaula was written by Joao de Lobeira, a Galician knight who frequented the Portuguese court between 1258 and 1285, and to whom are ascribed two fragments of a poem in the Colocci-Brancuti Canzoniere (Nos.
Against the Portuguese claim it is argued that the Villancico corresponding to Joao de Lobeiro's poem is an interpolation in the Spanish text, that Portuguese prose was in a rudimentary stage of development at the period when--ex hypothesi - the romance was composed, and that the book was very popular in Spain almost a century before it is even mentioned in Portugal.
The poem contains some good descriptive passages, as well as some very curious indications of the state of zoological knowledge in the author's time.
The immense vivaria or theriotropheia, in which various wild animals, such as boars, stags and roe-deer, were kept in a state of semidomestication, were developments which arose at a comparatively late period; as also were the venationes in the circus, although these are mentioned as having been known as early as 186 B.C. The bald and meagre poem of Grattius Faliscus on hunting (Cynegetica) is modelled upon Xenophon's prose work; a still extant fragment (315 lines) of a similar poem with the same title, of much later date, by Nemesianus, seems to have at one See Layard (Nineveh, ii.
Dryden (5909), including The Craft of Venerie from a 15th-century MS. and a 13thcentury poem La Chasse d'on cerf.
After obtaining the Ireland scholarship and Newdigate prize for an English poem (The Gypsies), he was in 1839 elected fellow of University College, and in the same year took orders.
The last step, that of combining such ballads into one long epic poem, was not taken till after the canon was closed.
The later one is entirely in verse, and shows off the author's mastery of the artificial rules of prosody and poetics, according to which a poem, a maha-kavya, ought, according to the later writers on the Ars poetica, to be composed.
This division seems incredible, especially in face of the poem inserted in the chronicle (sub anno 942).
The poem is probably intended to celebrate the victory gained in 129 by Gaius Sempronius Tuditanus (consul and himself an annalist) over the Illyrian Iapydes (Appian, Illyrica, 10; Livy, epit.
The works of Carlo Botta are Storia naturale e medica dell' Isola di Corfu (1798); an Italian translation of Born's Joannis Physiophili specimen monachologiae (1801); Souvenirs d'un voyage en Dalmatie (1802); Storia della guerra dell' Independenza d'America (1809); Camillo, a poem (1815); Storia d'Italia dal 1789 al 1814 (1824, new ed., Prato, 1862); Storia d'Italia in continuazione al Guiccaardini (1832, new ed., Milan, 1878).
His abundant energy found still further expression in a poem entitled Esther, Queen of Persia (1714), and in the compilation of a grammar of ten languages entitled The Complete Linguist (2 vols., London, 1719-1721).
An extant poem (70 hexameters) also bears her name.
It is now generally agreed that the poem (the MS. of which was discovered in the monastery of Bobbio in 1493, but has long been lost) is not by Sulpicia, but is of much later date, probably the 5th century; according to some it is a 15th-century production, and not identical with the Bobbio poem.
LUCILIUS JUNIOR, a friend and correspondent of the younger Seneca, probably the author of Aetna, a poem on the origin of volcanic activity, variously attributed to Virgil, Cornelius Severus (epic poet of the Augustan age) and Manilius.
In favour of the authorship of Lucilius are the facts that he was a friend of Seneca and acquainted with his writings; that he had for some time held the office of imperial procurator of Sicily, and was thus familiar with the locality; that he was the author of a poem on Sicilian subjects.
It is objected that in the 79th letter of Seneca, which is the chief authority on the question, he apparently asks that Lucilius should introduce the hackneyed theme of Aetna merely as an episode in his contemplated poem, not make it the subject of separate treatment.
Goethe's hero changed with the author's riper experience and with his new conceptions of man's place and duties in the world, but the Gretchen tragedy was taken over into the finished poem, practically unaltered, from the earliest Faust of the Sturm and Drang.
But in 1798 appeared Hermann and Dorothea, one of Goethe's most perfect poems. It is indeed remarkable - when we consider by how much reflection and theoretic discussion the composition of the poem was preceded and accompanied - that it should make upon the reader so simple and "naive" an impression; in this respect it is the triumph of an art that conceals art.
In its original form the poem was the dramatization of a specific and individualized story; in the years of Goethe's friendship with Schiller it was extended to embody the higher strivings of r8th-century humanism; ultimately, as we shall see, it became, in the second part, a vast allegory of human life and activity.
The poem had accompanied him from early manhood to the end and was the repository for the fullest "confession" of his life; it is the poetic epitome of his experience.
A collection of oracles, a theogony, an epic poem on the Argonautic expedition, prose works on purifications and sacrifices, and a cosmogony, were attributed to him.
A striking exception to the lack of unity among the tribes is afforded by the account of the defeat of Sisera, and here the old poem represents a combined effort to throw off the yoke of a foreign oppressor, while the later prose version approximates the standpoint of Josh.
A French poem written seemingly within a generation after his death represents him as a wizard.
The evidence concerning Eustace is collected by Herren Wendelin Forster and Johann Trost, in their edition of the French poem "Wistasse le moine" (Halle, 1891).
Kulliyyat, or summary), a résumé of medical science, and a commentary on Avicenna's poem on medicine; but Averroes, in medical renown, always stood far below Avicenna.
Vikramanka, the hero of Bilhana's historical poem, came to the throne in A.D.
During his college course he wrote a number of trivial pieces for a college magazine, and shortly after graduating printed for private circulation the poem which his class asked him to write for their graduation festivities.
He contributed poems to the daily press, called out by the Slavery question; he was, early in 1846, a correspondent of the London Daily News, and in the spring of 1848 he formed a connexion with the National Anti-Slavery Standard of New York, by which he agreed to furnish weekly either a poem or a prose article.
The book was not premeditated; a single poem, called out by the recruiting for the abhorred Mexican war, couched in rustic phrase and sent to the Boston Courier, had the inspiriting dash and electrifying rat-tat-tat of this new recruiting sergeant in the little army of Anti-Slavery reformers.
Lowell himself discovered what he had done at the same time that the public did, and he followed the poem with eight others either in the Courier or the Anti-Slavery Standard.
1784 (in 1811 and 1826); Sketch of the Sikhs (1812); Observations on the Disturbances in the Madras Army in 1809 (1812); Persia, a Poem, anonymous (1814); A Memoir of Central India (2 vols., 1823); and Sketches of Persia, anonymous (1827).
One with verses relating to the battle of Actium is believed to belong to a poem of Rabirius.
We hear of an early poem named Pontius Glaucus the subject of which is uncertain, and of translations of Xenophon's Oeconomica and the Phenomena of Aratus.
The Romans at this time had no manuals of philosophy or any philosophical writings in Latin apart from the poem of Lucretius and some unskilful productions by obscure Epicureans.
When the news came to Rakka, where Harun was residing, not one of the ministers ventured to tell him, until at last a poet introduced it in a poem which pleased the monarch.
During the Civil War the city was occupied on different occasions by Unionists and Confederates, and was made famous by Whittier's poem "Barbara Frietchie."
24 in the Bodleian) is an allegorical poem of the cours d'amour type, written in seven-lined Chaucerian stanzas and extending to 1379 lines.
An attempt has been made to dispute James's authorship of the poem, but the arguments elaborated by J.
Typhon: a Burlesque Poem (1704); Aesop Dress'd, or a Collection of Fables writ in Familiar Verse (1704); The Planter's Charity (1704); The Virgin Unmasked (1709, 1724, 1731, 1742), a work in which the coarser side of his nature is prominent; Treatise of the Hypochondriack and Hysterick Passions (1711, 1715, 1730) admired by Johnson (Mandeville here protests against merely speculative therapeutics, and advances fanciful theories of his own about animal spirits in connexion with "stomachic ferment": he shows a knowledge of Locke's methods, and an admiration for Sydenham); Free Thoughts on Religion (1720); A Conference about Whoring (1725); An Enquiry into the Causes of the Frequent Executions at Tyburn (1725); The Origin of Honour and the Usefulness of Christianity in War (1732).
See The Song of Dermot and the Earl, an old French Poem (by M.
instrumental music expressly contrived to illustrate in detail some poem or some succession of ideas or pictures.
In pieces such as Liszt's " Poemes symphoniques," Ce qu'on entend sur la montagne (1848-1856), after a poem by Victor Hugo, and Die Ideale (1853-1857), after a poem by Schiller, the hearer is bewildered by a series of startling orchestral effects which succeed one another apparently without rhyme or reason.
Incidents of the poem or the play are illustrated or alluded to as may be convenient, and the exigencies of musical form are not unfrequently disregarded for the sake of special effects.
1000, which contains also the Old English poem of Judith, and is bound up with other MSS.
The subject of the poem is the exploits of Beowulf, son of Ecgtheow and nephew of Hygelac, king of the " Geatas," i.e.
- Those portions of the poem that are summarized above - that is to say, those which relate the career of the hero in progressive order - contain a lucid and well-constructed story, told with a vividness of imagination and a degree of narrative skill that may with little exaggeration be called Homeric. And yet it is probable that there are few readers of Beowulf who have not felt - and there are many who after repeated perusal continue to feel - that the general impression produced by it is that of a bewildering chaos.
In the first place, a very great part of what the poem tells about Beowulf himself is not presented in regular sequence, but by way of retrospective mention or narration.
There are, however, many other episodes that have nothing to do with Beowulf himself, but seem to have been inserted with a deliberate intention of making the poem into a sort of cyclopaedia of Germanic tradition.
Of Britain there is no mention; and though there are some distinctly Christian passages, they are so incongruous in tone with the rest of the poem that they must be regarded as interpolations.
If this Danish Beowulf had been the hero of the poem, the opening would have been appropriate; but it seems strangely out of place as an introduction to the story of his namesake.
If the mass of traditions which it purports to contain be genuine, the poem is of unique importance as a source of knowledge respecting the early history of the peoples of northern Germany and Scandinavia.
Grundtvig in 1815) that one of the episodes of the poem belongs to authentic history.
This noteworthy result suggests the possibility that what the poem tells of Hygelac's near relatives, and of the events of his reign and that of his successor, is based on historic fact.
There are other points of contact between Beowulf on the one hand and the Scandinavian records on the other, confirming the conclusion that the Old English poem contains much of the historical tradition of the Gautar, the Danes and the Swedes, in its purest accessible form.
Of the hero of the poem no mention has been found elsewhere.
As the historical character of Hygelac has been proved, it is not unreasonable to accept the authority of the poem for the statement that his nephew Beowulf succeeded Heardred on the throne of the Gautar, and interfered in the dynastic quarrels of the Swedes.
The Danish king " Scyld Scefing," whose story is told in the opening lines of the poem, and his son Beowulf, are plainly identical with Sceldwea, son of Sceaf, and his son Beaw, who appear among the ancestors of Woden in the genealogy of the kings of Wessex given in the Old English Chronicle.
There is, as we shall see afterwards, some ground for believing that there were circulated in England two rival poetic versions of the story of the encounters with supernatural beings: the one referring them to Beowulf the Dane, while the other (represented by the existing poem) attached them to the legend of the son of Ecgtheow, but ingeniously contrived to do some justice to the alternative tradition by laying the scene of the Grendel incident at the court of a Scylding king.
Sarrazin has pointed out the striking resemblance between the Scandinavian legend of Bodvarr Biarki and that of the Beowulf of the poem.
It is now time to speak of the probable date and origin of the poem.
The forms under which Scandinavian names appear in the poem show clearly that these names must have entered English tradition not later than the beginning of the 7th century.
The limits of this article do not permit us to state and criticize the many elaborate theories that have been proposed respecting the origin of the poem.
a Northumbrian or Mercian) original; and this conclusion is supported by the fact that while the poem contains one important episode relating to the Angles, the name of the Saxons does not occur in it at all.
An interesting light on the history of the written text seems to be afforded by the phenomena of the existing MS. The poem is divided into numbered sections, the length of which was probably determined by the size of the pieces of parchment of which an earlier exemplar consisted.
It may reasonably be inferred that there once existed a written text of the poem that did not include these lines.
Many difficulties will be obviated if we may suppose that this passage is the beginning of a different poem, the hero of which was not Beowulf the son of Ecgtheow, but his Danish namesake.
Thorkelin, an Icelander, made or procured two transcripts of the poem, which are still preserved in the Royal Library at Copenhagen, and are valuable for the criticism of the text, the MS. having subsequently become in places less legible.
The text of the poem was edited by C. W.
Eleven English translations of the poem have been published (see C. B.
Sarrazin, Beowulf-studien (1888), which advocates the strange theory that Beowulf is a translation by Cynewulf of a poem by the Danish singer Starkadr, contains, amid much that is fanciful, not a little that deserves careful consideration.
Bugge, in Beitrage zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache and Litteratur and other periodicals, are of the utmost importance for the textual criticism and interpretation of the poem.
The poem called the Cypria was said to have been given by Homer to Stasinus of Cyprus as a daughter's dowry.
The connexion with Cyprus appears further in the predominance given in the poem to Aphrodite.
A similar story was told about the poem called the Taking of Oechalia (OiXaXias "AXwois), the subject of which was one of the exploits of Heracles.
No legend claims for Miletus even a visit from Homer, or a share in the authorship of any Homeric poem.
It may have suited the Thebaid still better, but there is no need to understand it only of that poem, as Grote does.
It was necessary, of course, to divide the poem to be recited into parts, and to compel each contending rhapsodist to take the part assigned to him.
The subdivision of a poem like the Iliad or Odyssey among different and necessarily unequal performers must have been injurious to the effect.
It is not certain indeed that the practice of reciting a long poem by the agency of several competitors was ancient, or that it prevailed elsewhere than at Athens; but as rhapsodists were numerous, and popular favour throughout Greece became more and more confined to one or two great works, it must have become almost a necessity.
The quotation from the Iliad is of interest because it is made in order to show that Homer supported the story of the travels of Paris to Egypt and Sidon (whereas the Cyclic poem called the Cypria ignored them), and also because the part of the Iliad from which it comes is cited as the " Aristeia of Diomede."
This was therefore a recognized part of the poem.
The Thebaid of Antimachus, however, was not popular, and seems to have been a great storehouse of mythological learning rather than a poem of the Homeric school.
They must therefore have been, as Bentley had said, " a sequel of songs and rhapsodies," " loose songs not collected together in the form of an epic poem till about 50o years after."
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.