All attempts to bribe him were unsuccessful, and Pyrrhus is said to have been so impressed that he released the prisoners without ransom (Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 18).
38; Plutarch, Theseus, Pausanias i.
When the third sacrifice came round Theseus volunteered to go, and with the help of Ariadne slew the Minotaur (Plutarch, Theseus, 15-19; Diod.
His chief works were Latin versions of Plutarch,.
She was to a considerable extent selftaught; and her love of reading made her acquainted first with Plutarch - a passion for which author she continued to cherish throughout her life - thereafter with Bossuet, Massillon, and authors of a like stamp, and finally with Montesquieu, Voltaire and Rousseau.
63; Plutarch, Cimon, 16), but this story must be regarded as at least doubtful.
Polybius accuses Cleomenes of the murder, but Plutarch is probably right in saying that it was the work of those who had caused the death of Agis, and feared his brother's vengeance.
Plutarch, Cleomenes, i.
1; Plutarch, Otho.
Plutarch (Pericles) gives many interesting details as to Pericles' personal bearing, home life, and patronage of art, literature and philosophy, derived in part from the old comic poets, Aristophanes, Cratinus, Eupolis, Hermippus, Plato and Teleclides; in part from the contemporary memoirs of Stesimbrotus and Ion of Chios.
His mother was a Langhorne, in some way related to the poet and translator of Plutarch.
See Jugurtha; also Sallust, Jugurtha, 80-120; Plutarch, Marius, 8-32, Sulla, 3; A.
also in particular Plutarch, Artax.
According to Plutarch he was made an object of attack by the political enemies of Pericles, and died in prison at Athens.
"In all these works," says Plutarch, "Pheidias was the adviser and overseer of Pericles."
If Plutarch tells us that he superintended the great works of Pericles on the Acropolis, this phrase is very vague.
p. 609; Plutarch, Sulla, 26).
55-63; Plutarch, Pompey, 25.48; Josephus, Antiq.
This history, in the composition of which Pollio received assistance from the grammarian Ateius Praetextatus, was used as an authority by Plutarch and Appian (Horace, Odes, ii.
See Plutarch, Caesar.
There is more than one meaning of Plutarch discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
2, Brutus, 67; Plutarch, Cicero, 9).
Plutarch (Symp. iv.
The ancient authorities for Sulla and his time are his Life by Plutarch (who made use of the Memoirs); Appian, Bell.
In Sparta children were flogged before the altar of Artemis Orthia till the blood flowed (Plutarch, Instit.
The priests of Cybele, or archigalli, submitted to the discipline in the temple of the goddess (Plutarch, Adv.
126, 127, 133; Plato, Cratylus, 402 A and Theaetetus, 152 E; Plutarch, Isis and Osiris, 45, 48; Arist.
See Plutarch, De Malignitate Herodoti, 26; Xenophon, Anab.
With Plutarch, who dedicated to him his treatise IIEpi Tov irpwrov 11vxpov, with Herodes Atticus, to whom he bequeathed his library at Rome, with Demetrius the Cynic, Cornelius Fronto, Aulus Gellius, and with Hadrian himself, he lived on intimate terms; his great rival, whom he violently attacked in his later years, was Polemon of Smyrna.
On the arrival of Timoleon he was compelled to surrender and retire to Corinth (343), where he spent the rest of his days in poverty (Diodorus Siculus xvi.; Plutarch, Timoleon).
also Plutarch's life of Artaxerxes.
8.3-8; Plutarch, Lysander ix.
See Plutarch's biography.
and Philip III., Hooke's Roman History, part of a translation of Rollin's Ancient History, Langhorne's Plutarch, Burnet's History of My Own Times, thirty volumes of the Annual Register, Millar's Historical View of the English Government, Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History, M`Crie's Knox, and two histories of the Quakers.
Languages he disliked, but he spent much of his spare time in reading history, especially Plutarch.
He read much of the pamphlet literature then flooding the country, but he still preferred the, more general studies in history and literature, Plutarch, Caesar, Corneille, Voltaire and Rousseau being his favourite author:.
25-27; Plutarch, Pompey, 30; Vell.
Ausfeld, Zur Kritik des griechischen Alexanderromans (Bruchsal, 1894); Plutarch, Alexander, 52-55; Arrian, Anab.
See Plutarch, Marius, Sulla; Appian, B.
13; Plutarch, Crassus; Suetonius, Caesar, 15.
There he continued his studies with ardour, made himself yet more master of Plato and Plutarch, and became especially advanced in theology under the venerable G.
Herodotus describes the oil pits near Ardericca (near Babylon), and the pitch spring of Zacynthus (Zante), whilst Strabo, Dioscorides and Pliny mention the use of the oil of Agrigentum, in Sicily, for illumination, and Plutarch refers to the petroleum found near Ecbatana (Kerkuk).
The other view traces it to khem or khame, hieroglyph khmi, which denotes black earth as opposed to barren sand, and occurs in Plutarch as XvAda; on this derivation alchemy is explained as meaning the " Egyptian art."
Plutarch's statement that the Thirty Tyrants removed the bema so as to face the land instead of the sea is probably due to a misunderstanding.
The design of connecting Athens with the Peiraeus by long parallel walls is ascribed by Plutarch to Themistocles.
12; Plutarch, Marius, 28-30; Livy, Epit.
In the later legend, she was abandoned, while asleep on the island of Naxos, by Theseus, who had fallen a victim to the charms of Aegle (Plutarch, Theseus, 20; Diodorus, iv.
Plutarch, Theseus; Pausanias i.
He adopted 4 the Persian garb (Plutarch, de fort.
Plutarch speaks of his intercourse with the deity, and compares him with Lycurgus and Numa (Numa, 4).
Dio Chrysostom, Plutarch's contemporary, declares that neither Homer nor Hesiod sang of the chariot and horses of Zeus so worthily as Zoroaster, of whom the Persians tell that, out of love to wisdom and righteousness, he withdrew himself from men, and lived in solitude upon a mountain.
Plutarch, drawing partly on Theopompus, speaks of his religion in his Isis and Osiris (cc. 46-47).
(For the theory based on Plutarch, Aristid.
Pol.), 22-24, 41; Plutarch, Aristides; Cornelius Nepos, Vita Aristidis.
In the absence of positive information the 4th-century writers (on whom Plutarch and Nepos mainly rely) seized upon his surname of "Just," and wove round it a number of anecdotes more picturesque than historical.
His first play, Agis: a tragedy, founded on Plutarch's narrative, was finished in 1747.
4; Plutarch, Camillus.
Plutarch (Cicero, 5) mentions it as reported of Aesopus, that, while representing Atreus deliberating how he should revenge himself on Thyestes, the actor forgot himself so far in the heat of action that with his truncheon he struck and killed one of the servants crossing the stage.
9, 17-19; Plutarch, Lycurgus, 5, 26; G.
According to Plutarch, he attempted to break the power of Corinth, by requesting the Corinthians to send him 1000 of their picked youths, ostensibly to aid him in war, his real intention being to put them to death; but the plot was revealed.
358, 376; Plutarch, Amatoriae narrationes, 2; Marmor parium, ep. 30; Pollux ix.
xiii.) and Plutarch, Nicias.
2 Plutarch, De Iside et Osiride, c. 52.
55, (3) an allusion by Plutarch (who died A.D.
At the age of fourteen he entered University College, Oxford, and in 1693 he published notes on Plutarch's De audiendis poetis and Basil's Oratio ad juvenes.
It is said that Philip fell in love with her in Samothrace, where they were both being initiated into the mysteries (Plutarch, Alexander, 2).
See Plutarch, Alexander, 9, 39, 68; Justin, vii.
The fullest description of such a festival is the account given by Plutarch (Aristides, 21) of the festival celebrated by the Plataeans in honour of their countrymen who had fallen at the battle of Plataea.
21-34; Plutarch, Poplicola, p. 16-1 9).
In Plutarch, De fort.
According to Plutarch (Mor.
He was thus enabled to go to; Italy to study the Vatican text of Plutarch, on the translation on whose Lives (1 559; 1 565) he had been some time engaged.
He translated seven books of Diodorus (1554), the Daphnis et Chloe of Longus (1559) and the Opera Moralia of Plutarch (1572).
His vigorous and idiomatic version of Plutarch, Vies des hommes illustres, was translated into English by Sir Thomas North, and supplied Shakespeare with materials for his Roman plays.
It was indeed to Plutarch that Amyot devoted his attention.
The personal method of Plutarch appealed to a generation addicted to memoirs and incapable of any general theory of history.
He had an oracle at Orchomenus, but during a plague it became L silent and remained so in Plutarch's time (De Defectu Oraculorum, 44).
- Demosthenes, De Corona and De Falsa Legatione; Aeschines, De Falsa Legatione and In Ctesiphontem; Lives by Plutarch, Philostratus and Libanius; the Exegesis of Apollonius.
(Wasps, 660), Andocides (de Pace, § 9), Plutarch (Aristides,, c. 24), and pseudo-Andocides (Alcibiad.
According to Pindar (apud Plutarch), the brothers built the temple of Apollo at Delphi; when they asked for a reward, the god promised them one in seven days; on the seventh day they died.
37; Plutarch, Consolatio ad Apollonium, 14; Cicero, Tusc. Disp. i.
His principal published work was an edition of Shakespeare's Poems (1898); but he wrote also on North's Plutarch and Ronsard.
34; Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 9; Justin xviii.
Upon these sources is based the biography of the king by Plutarch.
See the biographies by Plutarch and Nepos; Xen.
He never mentions his authorities, but amongst authors still extant he used Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, Polybius, Diodorus, Plutarch, Frontinus and Suetonius; amongst authors of whom only fragments now remain he drew upon Ctesias, Ephorus, Timaeus, Phylarchus and Nicolaus Damascenus.
Chaeroneia is also notable as the birthplace of Plutarch, who returned to his native town in old age, and was held in honour by its citizens for many successive generations.
85-86; Plutarch, Alexander, ch.
61), Plato, then at Syracuse, pointedly ignored Aeschines, but this does not agree with Plutarch, De adulatore et amico (c. 26).
His style in its simplicity, facility and clearness owed something to De Foe, something to Cotton Mather, something to Plutarch, more to Bunyan and to his early attempts to reproduce the manner of the third volume of the Spectator; and not the least to his own careful study of word usage.
20; Plutarch, Cicero, 17; Sallust, Catilina; Cicero, In Catilinam, iii., iv.; Pro Sulla, 25; also Catiline.
102; Plutarch, Pomp. 49; Valerius Maximus ix.
104; Plutarch, Pompey, 80.
Finally this pagan theosophy was driven from Alexandria back to Athens under Plutarch and Proclus, and occupied itself largely in purely historical work based mainly on the attempt to re-organize ancient philosophy in conformity with the system of Plotinus.
394) would explain the otherwise obscure circumstances that, according to Plutarch (Sol.
Plutarch (Pericles, II) suggests that Pericles by this means rid the city of the idle and mischievous loafers; but it would appear that the cleruchs were selected by lot, and in any case a wise policy would not deliberately entrust important military duties to recognized wastrels.
75; Plutarch, Alexander, 46, 65; Strabo xv.
Plutarch mentions his paintings as possessing; the Homeric merit of ease and absence of effort.
72; Plutarch, Alexander, 38; Athenaeus xiii.
Further, Plutarch (Quaest.
See Plutarch, Numa, 12; Dion.
i i,' 16; Plutarch, Dion, '11 -36; Cicero, Brutus, 17, De oratore, ii.
See also Plutarch, Cicero, chap. 59; Cicero, de Oratore, iii.
Nothing is known of his life, except the statement in Plutarch that he declined to visit the court of Alexander the Great.
26; Plutarch, Ant.
For the life of Marius the original sources are numerous passages in Cicero's works, Sallust's Jugurtha, the epitomes of the lost books of Livy, Plutarch's Lives of Sulla and Marius, Velleius Paterculus, Florus and Appian's Bellum civile.
2; Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 19).
The principal prose authors were Thucydides, parts of Plato and Demosthenes, with Aristotle, Plutarch's Lives, and, above all, Lucian, who is often imitated in the Byzantine age.
The Greek authors were Homer, Hesiod, Pindar and the dramatists, with Herodotus, Xenophon and Plato, Isocrates and Demosthenes, Plutarch and Arrian.
At Ferrara he spent the last thirty years of his long life (1370-1460), producing textbooks of Greek and Latin grammar, and translations from Strabo and Plutarch.
" In Plutarch pleasure is so mixed and confounded with profit, that I esteem the reading of him as a paradise for a curious spirit to walk in at all time."
As forerunners of Neoplatonism we may regard, on the one hand, those Stoics who accepted the Platonic distinction between the sensible world and the intelligible, and, on the other hand, the so-called Neopythagoreans and religious philosophers like Plutarch of Chaeronea and especially Numenius of Apamea.
The most distinguished teachers at Athens were Plutarch (q.v.), his disciple Syrianus (who did important work as a commentator on Plato and Aristotle, and further deserves mention for his vigorous defence of the freedom of the will), but above all Proclus (411-485).
xxviii.) couples her name with that of Cornelia, the mother of the Gracchi, as an example of the Roman matron 1 In spite of the explicit statements of Suetonius, Plutarch and Appian that Caesar was in his fifty-sixth year at the time of his murder, it is, as Mommsen has shown, practically certain that he was born in 102 B.C., since he held the chief offices of state in regular order, beginning with the aedileship in 65 B.C., and the legal age for this was fixed at 37-38.
/n==Authorities== - The principal ancient authorities for the life of Caesar are his own Commentaries, the biographies of Plutarch and Suetonius, letters and speeches of Cicero, the Catiline of Sallust, the Pharsalia of Lucan, and the histories of Appian, Dio Cassius and Velleius Paterculus (that of Livy exists only in the Epitome).
The story that he took part in the attack on Argos which was repulsed by Telesilla, the poetess, and the Argive women, can hardly be true (Plutarch, Mul.
His reputation does not seem justified; his works, as Plutarch says (De audiendis poetis, 16), have nothing poetical about them except the metre, and the style is bombastic and obscure; but they contain some interesting information as to ancient belief on the subjects treated.
11-51; Lives by Suetonius and Plutarch; Dio Cassius lxiv.; Merivale, History of the Romans under the Empire, ch.
Aristotle says that the ephors of each year on entering office declared war on the helots so that they might be put to death at any time without violating religious scruple (Plutarch, Lycurgus 28), and we have a well-attested record of 2000 helots being freed for service in war and then secretly assassinated (Thuc. iv.
Plutarch, who calls him, " the Philosopher," quotes Strabo's Memoirs (Luc. 28), and cites him as an historian (Sulla, 26).
See Arrian, Anabasis; Plutarch, Alexander; Diod.
So probably were the rhetorical works, especially the Theodectea; since both politics and oratory were the subjects which the father wanted the tutor to teach his son, and, when Alexander came to Phaselis, he is said by Plutarch (Alexander, 17) to have decorated the statue of Theodectes in honour of his association with the man through Aristotle and philosophy.
The Eudemus also contained a celebrated passage, preserved by Plutarch (Consolat.
8), exclaiming in his dialogues, according to Proclus, that he could not sympathize with the dogma even if it should be thought that he was opposing, it out of contentiousness; while Plutarch says that his attacks on the forms by means of his exoteric dialogues were thought by some.
Plato's philosophy: so far was he, says Plutarch, from following it.
the Metaphysics A, and parts of the De Coelo and Parva Naturalia, which in this respect resemble the fragment quoted by Plutarch from the early dialogue Eudemus (Fragm.
On the one hand, there is the curious story given partly by Strabo (608-609) and partly in Plutarch's Sulla (c. 26), that Aristotle's successor Theophrastus left the books of both to their joint pupil, Neleus of Scepsis, where they were hidden in a cellar, till in Sulla's time they were sold to Apellicon, who made new copies, transferred after Apellicon's death by Sulla to Rome, and there edited and published by Tyrannio and Andronicus.
We may take it then that the last date in the Rhetoric to Alexander is 340; and by a curious coincidence 340 was the year when, on Philip's marching against Byzantium, Alexander was left behind as regent and keeper of the seal, and distinguished himself so greatly that Philip was only too glad that the Macedonians called Alexander king (Plutarch, Alexander, 9).
Gellius then quotes this correspondence, also given by Plutarch, and quotes it ex Andronici philosophi libro.
When the relations of Caesar and Pompey became strained, Bibulus supported Pompey (Plutarch, Cato Minor, 41) and joined in proposing his election as sole consul (52 B.C.).
He wrote a short memoir of his step-father Brutus, which was used by Plutarch (Appian, B.C. iv.
136; Plutarch, Brutus, 13.23).
According to Plutarch, Ptolemy Soter stole it from Sinope, having been bidden by the unknown god in a dream to bring him to Alexandria.
It is possible that he is the Drusus mentioned by Plutarch as having died in 109, the year of his censorship.
23; Plutarch, Gaius Gracchus, 8-11; Florus iii.
Ioo; Plutarch, Demetrius, 47; Pliny, Nat.
On the other hand the lack of good harbours hindered its maritime development; and the Boeotian nation, although it produced great men like Pindar, Epaminondas, Pelopidas and Plutarch, was proverbially as dull as its native air.
42 ff.), Tacitus (esp. Germania), Plutarch, Marius, and Ptolemy, Geogr.
But there is no doubt that his history was very popular, and much used by Diodorus Siculus, Quintus Curtius, Justin and Plutarch, and the authors of the Alexander romances.
pp. 62, 69, 148, 154) thus the Astarte represented on the stele of Yebaw-milk, mentioned above, has all the appearance of Isis, who, according to the legend preserved by Plutarch (de Is.
Polybius (ii.-viii.) follows the Memoirs which Aratus wrote to justify his statesmanship, - Plutarch (Aratus and Cleomenes) used this same source and the hostile account of Phylarchus; Paus.
29), and is one of the authorities followed by Suetonius and Plutarch.
These and a special treatise on Philopoemen (now lost) were used by Plutarch (Philopoemen), Pausanias (viii.
1 Plutarch (Popl.
In Plutarch's Symposium of the Seven Sages, at which Aesop is a guest, there are many jests on his original servile condition, but nothing derogatory is said about his personal appearance.
From some of them it would appear that he was engaged in trade, which is indeed expressly stated by Plutarch (Solon, c. 2).
Plutarch, however, states the method in a form requiring the knowledge of Euclid vi.
12; Plutarch, Sept.
The knowledge of this theorem is distinctly attributed to Thales by Plutarch, and it was probably made use of also in his determination of the distance of a ship at sea.
He did not know, for example, that " the earth is spherical," as is erroneously stated by Plutarch (Placita, iii.
It is said that when Theseus united the whole land under one government he made the festival of the city-goddess common to the entire country, and changed the older name Athenaea to Panathenaea (Plutarch, Theseus, 24).
But in 1508 he resumed his series with an edition of the minor Greek orators; and in 1509 appeared the lesser works of Plutarch.
Plutarch (Aristides, 22) says that after the great struggle of the Persian War Aristides threw open the office to all the citizens.
The story has to be pieced together from the vague and somewhat discrepant accounts of Plutarch (Crassus, 8 - II; Pompey, 21), Appian (Bell.
- The chief ancient accounts of Epicurus are in the tenth book of Diogenes Laertius, in Lucretius, and in several treatises of Cicero and Plutarch.
Apuleius of Madaura, Plutarch of Chaeronea and, later, Numenius of Apamea).
LYSIAS, Attic orator, was born, according to Dionysius of IIalicarnassus and the author of the life ascribed to Plutarch, in 459 B.C. This date was evidently obtained by reckoning back from the foundation of Thurii (444 B.C.), since there was a tradi tion that Lysias had gone thither at the age of fifteen.
13.15; and the Talmudic tractate Sukkah) already suggested a Dionysiac celebration to Plutarch (Symp. iv.
By combining the evidence of Plutarch (in his comparison of Nicias and Crassus), Thuc. v.
Plutarch, Agis 9), and of huge cities like Alexandria, Antioch and the enlarged Ephesus.
He wrote a history of the Diadochi and their descendants, embracing the period from the death of Alexander to the war with Pyrrhus (323-272 B.C.), which is one of the chief authorities used by Diodorus Siculus (xviii.-xx.) and also by Plutarch in his life of Pyrrhus.
See Lucian, Macrobii, 22; Plutarch, Demetrius, 39; Diod.
They comprise fragments of the native historian Manetho, the descriptions of Egypt in Herodotus and Diodorus, the geographical accounts of Strabo and Ptolemy, the treatise of Plutarch on Isis and Osiris and other monographs or scattered notices of less importance.
For the story of Isis and Osiris we have indeed the late treatise ascribed to Plutarch, and a few fragments of other myths may be culled from earlier native sources.
(h) Among the classical writers, Plutarch in his treatise Concerning Isis and Os iris is the most important.
Such is the story old by Plutarch, with certain additions and modifications i older native sources.
Plutarch in his treatise on Isis and Osiris well exemplifies this standpoint: for him every god and every rite is symbolic of some natural or moral truth.
33-49; Plutarch, Camillus, 17, 22, 28; Polybius i.
See Plutarch, Pyrrhus, I 1-21; Justin xviii.
For his tutor and guardian young Theseus had one Cannidas, to whom, down to Plutarch's time, the Athenians were wont to sacrifice a black ram on the eve of the festival of Theseus.
Milchhofer considers he has found one of them in the neighbourhood of Peiraeus.s Our chief authority for the legend of Theseus is the life by Plutarch, which is a compilation from earlier writers; see also Bacchylides.
9; Plutarch, Publicola, 1 o); lowering the fasces was also the manner in which an inferior saluted a superior magistrate.
30, 49, 56, 64; Plutarch, Sulla, ii, 16 -19, 20, 23; Lucullus, 8.
He translated into Italian Plutarch's Lives of Cinna and Lucullus, and was the author of some poetical pieces, amatory and religious - strambotti and canzonetti - as well as of rhetorical prose compositions.
Both Plutarch and Ptolemy speak of the Fortunate Islands, but from their description it is not clear whether the Canaries or one of the other island groups in the western Atlantic are meant; see Isles Of The Blest.
The only reward he would accept was a branch of the sacred olive, and a promise of perpetual friendship between Athens and Cnossus (Plutarch, Solon, 12; Aristotle, Ath.
3; Suetonius, Galba, 15; Plutarch, Galba, Otho; ancient authorities quoted by Mayor on Juvenal, i.
- Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon; Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 30-34; Strabo pp. 373-374; Pausanias ii.
The story (alluded to by Milton, Rabelais, Mrs Browning and Schiller) of the pilot Thamus, who, sailing near the island of Paxi in the time of Tiberius, was commanded by a mighty voice to proclaim that "Pan is dead," is found in Plutarch (De orac. defectu, 17).
During the procession a chant (also called eiresione) was sung, the text of which has been preserved in Plutarch (Theseus, '22) "Eiresione carries figs and rich cakes; Honey and oil in a jar to anoint the limbs; And pure wine, that she may be drunken and go to sleep."
According to Plutarch she urged her husband to take vigorous action against Catiline, who had compromised her half-sister Fabia, a vestal virgin; also to give evidence against Clodius, being jealous of his sister Clodia.
He had the satisfaction of carrying out the decree which ordered that all the statues of Antony should be demolished, and thus " the divine justice reserved the completion of Antony's punishment for the house of Cicero" (Plutarch).
See Plutarch, Cicero, Brutus; Appian, Bell.
8;, Plutarch, Tib.
Plutarch, Crassus, 4; Aulus Gellius ii.
See Plutarch's Life; also CAESAR, GAIUS JULIUS; POMPEY; ROME: History, II.
As of old time," as Plutarch observed, " associated the heroes and snake most of all beasts with heroes," and in Photius local the term " speckled hero " thus finds an explanation.
CARNUTES (Carnuti, Carnutae, Kapvourivot in Plutarch), a Celtic people of central Gaul, between the Sequana (Seine) and the Liger (Loire).
No fragments of Archelaus remain; his doctrines have to be extracted from Diogenes Laertius, Simplicius, Plutarch and Hippolytus.
Plutarch in his Life of Lycurgus (c. 4) repeats this story, with the addition that there was already a faint report of the poems in Greece, and that certain detached fragments were in the possession of a few persons.
Amyot's Plutarch and his Daphnis and Chloe rank among the most exquisite examples of beautiful French prose.
Phaer's Virgil, Chapman's Homer, Harrington's Orlando, Marlowe's Hero and Leander, Fairfax's Jerusalem Delivered, North's Plutarch, Hoby's Courtier - to mention only a few examples - placed English readers simultaneously in possession of the most eminent and representative works of Greece, Rome and Italy.
Plutarch, too, though he takes the unfavourable view, mentions that the Sicilians gave to the severity of Phalaris the name of justice and a hatred of crime.
cap. 13 and 14, §§ 95 ff.; Strabo p. 292 ff.; Plutarch, Marius, passim; Florus iii.
47; Plutarch, Marius, 44; Cicero, Orator, 5, Brutus, 37; Quintilian, Instit.
6, pro Flacco, 38; Plutarch, Cicero, 12; Dio Cassius xxxvii.
" The Republic" (ad fin.); Caesar, De Bello Gallico, De Bello Civili; Plutarch, Lives of Antony, Brutus, Cicero, Caesar; Cicero, Letters (ed.
Plutarch, Brutus, 28; Dio Cassius xlvii.
7.9-10; Plutarch, De malignitate Herodoti, 21, p. 859 D; Diodorus xi.
Plutarch also implies the historic existence of Lelegian serfs at Tralles in the interior.
The last three writers mentioned above add that he was a tribune of the people, while Plutarch, referring to the affair, gives the further information that the Cinna who was killed by the mob was a poet.
They contain treatises on the Roman magistrates, priests and lawyers, and a compendium of Roman history from Plutarch, Tib.
The idea of a Utopia is, even in literature, far older than More's romance; it appears in the Timaeus of Plato and is fully developed in his Republic. The idealized description of Sparta in Plutarch's life of Lycurgus belongs to the same class of literary Utopias, though it professes to be historical.
Their settlement in Mesopotamia was encouraged by Tigranes, according to Plutarch (Luc. 21) and Pliny (vi.
Cornelius Nepos and Plutarch; Xenophon's Hellenica and Diodorus xiv., xv.
4, 19, 20, 25; Plutarch, Alexander, Io, 68, 75; Strabo xv.
The epistles of Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Plutarch, Seneca and the Younger Pliny claim mention at this point.
Affinities to Plutarch (cf.
See Plutarch's lives of Sertorius and Pompey; Appian, Bell.
If his successors allowed one or two more exceptions, to Diogenes of Seleucia at any rate the sage was an unrealized ideal, as we learn from Plutarch (De comm.
To reconcile the ways of God to man had been the ambition of Chrysippus, as we know from Plutarch's criticisms. He argued plausibly that natural evil was a thing indifferent - that even moral evil was required in the divine economy as a foil to set off good.
His Amphitryons is a free imitation of the Latin, yet thoroughly national in spirit and cast in the popular redondilha; the dialogue is spirited, the situations comic. King Seleucus derives from Plutarch and has a prose prologue of real interest for the history of the stage, while Filodemo is a clever tragi-comedy in verse with prose dialogues interspersed.
D10 Cassius, 50.12-51.3; Plutarch, Antonius, 62-68; Velleius Paterculus, ii.
According to Plutarch, Democritus recognized one god under the form of a fiery sphere, the soul of the world, but this idea is probably of later origin.
I; Plutarch, Cleomenes; Aratus, 35-46; Philopoemen, 5, 6; Pausanias ii.
Josephus uses the term of the national restoration of the Jews, Plutarch of the transmigration of souls, and Cicero of his own return from exile.
78; Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 25.
Very much no doubt of the substance of the lost books has been preserved both by such writers as Plutarch and Dio Cassius, and by epitomizers like Florus and Eutropius.
Plutarch, writers on rhetoric like the elder Seneca, moralists like Valerius Maximus, went to Livy for their stock examples.
30; Plutarch, Phocion, 16, 17; Arrian, Anabasis, i.
Plutarch, Demetrius, Pyrrhus, Aratus; Justin xxiv.
20; other stories in Plutarch, 6; Curtius vi.
See Plutarch's Lucullus; Appian's Mithridatic War; the epitomes of the lost books of Livy; and many passages in Cicero.
4, i i; Plutarch, Sulla, 27; Lucullus, 35, 36, 43; Orelli's Onomasticon Tullianum.
See Plutarch, Alexander, 47, 77; Arrian, Anab.
SYRIANUS, a Greek Neoplatonist philosopher, and head of the school at Athens in succession to Plutarch.
He is important as the teacher of Proclus, and, like Plutarch and Proclus, as a commentator on Plato and Aristotle.
The rest of the Jews rated the Sadducees as atheists, just as the rest of the Greeks rated the Epicureans as atheists and discerned, as Plutarch said, the sardonic grin behind the mask of their obsequious devotion to the ceremonies at which the force of public opinion compelled their attendance.
From this native Italian goddess is to be distinguished the Asiatic Bellona, whose worship was introduced into Rome from Comana, in Cappadocia, apparently by Sulla, to whom she had appeared, urging him to march to Rome and bathe in the blood of his enemies (Plutarch, Sulla, 9).
Thrasea's own model of life and conduct was Cato of Utica, on whom he had written a panegyric, one of Plutarch's chief authorities in his biography of Cato.
a i, "battle"), the "Battle of Frogs and Mice," a comic epic or parody on the Iliad, definitely attributed to Homer by the Romans, but according to Plutarch (De 529 Herodoti Malignitate, 43) the work of Pigres of Halicarnassus, the brother (or son) of Artemisia, queen of Caria and ally of Xerxes.
46-86; Plutarch, Demetrius, Eumenes; Nepos, Eumenes; Justin xv.
Next to these he valued books of biography and anecdote: Plutarch, Grimm, St Simon, Varnhagen von Ense.
The life of Antony by Plutarch is our main authority; it is upon this that Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra is based.
p. 633.) To her oriental attributes the following may be added: the sparrow and hare (productivity), the wry-neck (as a love-charm, of which Aphrodite was considered the inventor), the swan and dolphin (as a marine divinity), the tortoise (explained by Plutarch as a symbol of domesticity, but connected by Gruppe with the marine deity), the rose, the poppy, and the lime tree.
during the time of Augustus); Hellanicus of Mytilene; Stesimbrotus of Thasos, opponent of Pericles and reputed author of a political pamphlet on Themistocles, Thucydides and Pericles; Hippys and Glaucus, both of Rhegium, the first the author of histories of Italy and Sicily, the second of a treatise on ancient poets and musicians, used by Harpocration and Plutarch; Damastes of Sigeum, pupil of Hellanicus, author of genealogies of the combatants before Troy (an ethnographic and statistical list), of short treatises on poets, sophists, and geographical subjects.
Other works of Guevara are the Decada de los Cesares (Valladolid, 1539), or "Lives of the Ten Roman Emperors," in imitation of the manner of Plutarch and Suetonius; and the Epistolas familiares (Valladolid, 1 5391 545), sometimes called "The Golden Letters," often printed in Spain, and translated into all the principal languages of Europe.
38-40; Plutarch, Romulus, 17; Propertius, iv.
56-63) charges him with undue partiality for Cleomenes and unfairness towards Aratus; Plutarch (Aratus, 38), who is of the same opinion, did not hesitate to use him freely in his own biographies of Agis and Cleomenes.
Plutarch and Nepos, Pelopidas; Diodorus xv.
- A ncient: Plutarch, Pompey; Dio Cassius; Appian; Velleius Paterculus; Caesar, De bello civili; Strabo xii., 555-560; Cicero, passim; Lucan, Pharsalia.
See Plutarch, Pompey, 1; Appian, Bell.
73-87; Plutarch, Antony; Livy, Epit.
had laboured so long; but in place of this he painted with astonishing vigour the great political struggle that accompanied the fall of the republic. It was, above all, his new reading of old characters which demanded attention, if not always approval: Cicero, the favourite of men of letters, was for him "a journalist in the worst sense of the word"; Pompey, the hero of Plutarch and the Moralists, was brushed aside as a mere drill-sergeant; and the book culminated in the picture of Caesar, who established absolute rule in the name of democracy, "the complete and perfect man."
In spite of the contemptuous remarks of Cicero and Plutarch about Parmenides's versification, Nature is not without literary merit.
Some of them played the part of professional jesters (like the later buffoons and court fools), and kept collections of witticisms ready for use at their patrons' table; others relied upon flattery, others again condescended to the most degrading devices (Plutarch, De adulatore, 23; De educatione puerorum, 17).
20, 8; Plutarch, De Virtut.
Nothing more is known of Flamininus, except that, according to Plutarch, his end was peaceful andhappy.
His life has been written by Plutarch, and in modern times by F.
18-21; Plutarch, Numa; Dion.
And during the period of a century and a half between Antiochus and Plutarch, we may suppose the school to have maintained the old controversy with Stoicism on much the same ground, accepting the formula of " life according to nature," but demanding that the " good " of man should refer to his nature as a whole, the good of his rational part being the chief element, and always preferable in case of conflict, but yet not absolutely his sole good.
In Plutarch, however, we see the same tendencies of change that we have noticed in later Stoicism.
For example, we find Plutarch amplifying the suggestion in Plato's latest treatise (the Laws) that this imperfection is due to a bad world-soul that strives against the good, - a suggestion which is alien to the general tenor of Plato's doctrine, and had consequently been unnoticed during the intervening centuries.
We observe, again, the value that Plutarch attaches, not merely to the sustainment and consolation of rational religion, but to the supernatural communications vouchsafed by the divinity to certain human beings in dreams, through oracles, or by special warnings, like those of the genius of Socrates.
In addition to these labours of the chair, he found time to translate portions of Aristotle, Plutarch, Xenophon and Lysias from the Greek.
55-60; Plutarch, Sulla and Marius; Vell.
Plutarch's picturesque narrative bears the marks of artistic elaboration.
This view suited Lactantius, St Augustine and other early Christian writers 1 Plutarch, De Iside et Osiride.
When Plutarch examined the Osirian myth (De Isid.
His graves are shown in many places, like those of Osiris, which, says Plutarch, abounded in Egypt.
Plutarch observes that the Greeks, though accustomed to the conceptions of the animal attendants of their own gods, were amazed when they found animals worshipped as gods by the Egyptians.
We cannot take the Platonic speculations of Iamblichus about the nature and manifestations of Egyptian godhead as evidence for the belief of the peoples who first worshipped the Egyptian gods an innumerable series of ages before Iamblichus and Plutarch.
His myth, to be afterwards narrated, is found pictorially represented in a tomb and in the late temple of Philae, is frequently alluded to in the litanies of the dead about 1400 B.C., is indicated with reverent awe by Herodotus, and after the Christian era is described at full length by Plutarch.
The evidence of Herodotus, Plutarch and the other writers show that the Egyptians of each district refused to eat the flesh of the animal they held sacred.
But we have to turn to the very late authority of Plutarch (De Iside et Osiride) for an account, confessedly incomplete and expurgated, of what mythology had to tell about the great Egyptian " culture-hero," " daemon," and god.
Isis wandered, mourning, in search of the body, as Demeter sought Persephone, and perhaps in Plutarch's late version some incidents may be borrowed from the Eleusinian legend.
Plutarch purposely omits as " too blasphemous " the legend of the mangling of Horus.
Plutarch remarked the fact that the Greek myths of Cronus, of Dionysus, of Apollo and the Python, and of Demeter, " all the things that are shrouded in mystic ceremonies and are presented in rites," " do not fall short in absurdity of the legends about Osiris and Typhon."
Plutarch naturally presumed that the myths which seem absurd shrouded some great moral or physical mystery.
But we apply no such explanation to similar savage legends, and our theory is that the Osirian myth is only one of these retained to the time of Plutarch by the religious conservatism of a__race which, to the time of Plutarch, preserved in full vigour most of the practices of totemism.
21; Plutarch, De Is.
The whole subject of the relations of Greek gods to animals is best set forth in the words of Plutarch (De Is.
according to Egede, who settled the Danish colony in Greenland, regarded the stars " very nonsensically," as " so many of their ancestors "; the Egyptian priests showed Plutarch the stars that had been Isis and Osiris.
By Theseus she had a son, the well-known Hippolytus (Plutarch, Theseus).
4; Plutarch, Alexander; Curtius iv.
Theseus, who happened to be present, assisted Peirithous, and the Centaurs were driven off (Plutarch, Theseus, 30; Ovid, Metam.
In the course of his wanderings he met Alexander the Great, and, according to Plutarch (Alexander, cap. 62), encouraged him to invade the Ganges kingdom by enlarging on the extreme unpopularity of the reigning monarch.
28-32), probably following Timaeus, represents him as inducing the Syracusans to pass sentence of death on the captive Athenian generals, but we need have no hesitation in accepting the statement of Philistus (Plutarch, Nicias, 28), a Syracusan who himself took part in the defence, and Thucydides (vii.
93.104, vii.; Plutarch, Nicias, 19, 21, 27, 28, Lysander, 16, 17; Diodorus xiii.
Plutarch, Marius, 40, Pompey, 12; Appian, Bell.
Much Egyptian magic turns on the healing or protection of Horus by Isis, and it is chiefly from magical texts that the myth of Isis and Osiris as given by Plutarch can be illustrated.
14) he praises highly his accuracy in matters of chronology; and Cicero's younger contemporary, Marcus Brutus, was a devoted student of Polybius, and was engaged on the eve of the battle of Pharsalia in compiling an epitome of his histories (Suidas, s.v.; Plutarch, Brut.
There he attended the lectures of the Neoplatonists Plutarch and Syrianus, and about 450 succeeded the latter in the chair of philosophy (hence his surname Diadochus, which, however, is referred by others to his being the "successor" of Plato).
A: Plutarch's Life of Marius is the only literary evidence.
In one of his works Plutarch tells about a miracle of the Greek general Pyrrhus.
His chief opponent was Posidonius of Rhodes, who is said to have contended with him in argument in the presence of Pompey (Plutarch, Pompey, 42).
This has been discredited because it is not mentioned by Polybius, Livy or Plutarch; but it is probable that Archimedes had constructed some such burning instrument, though the connexion of it with the destruction of the Roman fleet is more than doubtful.
On Archimedes himself, see Plutarch's Life of Marcellus.
On the other hand, Plutarch describes him as 140s Cep, i.e.
Plutarch, who is clearly blinded by Pericles' subsequent brilliance, makes him suddenly burst into prominence and hold the highest place for 4 o years (i.e.
The confused story of Philochorus and Plutarch, by which 4760 citizens were disfranchised or even sold into slavery in 445, when an Egyptian prince sent a largess of corn, may refer to a subsequent application of Pericles' law, though probably on a much milder scale than is here represented.
42), Plutarch's (c. 45-125 A.D.) Life of Alexander, Arrian's Anabasis and Indica (c. A.D.
Timocreon thereupon attacked him most bitterly (see Plutarch, Themistocles, 21); and Simonides, the friend of Themistocles, retorted in an epigram (Anth.
Plutarch gives in his life of Pericles a charming account of the vast artistic activity which went on at Athens while that statesman was in power.
305, notes), was fascinated by the philosophy he taught, assumed the dress of his sect, and ultimately abandoned rhetoric and poetry for philosophy and law, having among his teachers of the one Sextus of Chaeronea, grandson of Plutarch, and later Q.
He was a friend of Cicero, to whom he gave his support at the time of the Catilinarian conspiracy (Plutarch, Cicero, 20; Cicero„ Pro Sull y, xiv.
It was divided into twenty books, - of which the first nine remain entire, the tenth and eleventh are nearly complete, and the remaining books exist in fragments in the excerpts of Constantine Porphyrogenitus and an epitome discovered by Angelo Mai in a Milan MS. The first three books of Appian, and Plutarch's Life of Camillus also embody much of Dionysius.
9; Euripides, Alcestis; Plutarch, Amatorius, 17; Dissel, Der Mythus von Admetos und Alkestis, progr.
His principal works are translations of Strabo and of some of the Lives of Plutarch, a compendium of the Greek grammar of Chrysoloras, and a series of commentaries on Persius, Juvenal, Martial and on some of the writings of Aristotle and Cicero.
In ethics we learn from Plutarch (De virt.
Plutarch (Symposium iv., vi.
the good principle, the idea of the good, the principle that works in man inclining him to what is good; (2) Ashem, afterwards Ashem Vahishtem (Plutarch's hX'i 3 O sa), the genius of truth and the embodiment of all that is true, good and right, upright law and rule - ideas practically identical for Zoroaster; (3) Khshathrem, afterwards Khshathrem Vairim (euvoµla), the power and kingdom of Ormazd, which have subsisted from the first but not in integral completeness, the evil having crept in like tares among the wheat: the time is yet to come when it shall be fully manifested in all its unclouded majesty; (4) Armaiti (BoOa), due reverence for the divine, verecundia, spoken of as daughter of Ormazd and regarded as having her abode upon the earth; (5) Haurvatat (71Xou-os), perfection; (6) Ameretat, immortality.
74; Plutarch, Numa, 16, Quaest.
According to Plutarch, apart from its mystic virtues arising from the magical combination of 4 X 4, its sweet odour had a benign physiological effect on those who offered it.'
120) to the proposition that light is reflected from a surface at an angle equal to the angle of incidence, which Hero proved in his Catoptrica, the words used by Plutarch fitting well with the corresponding passage of that work (as to which see below).
Of his celebrated work On Grief (Hepi 7r v00us), a letter of condolence to his friend Hippocles on the death of his children, numerous extracts have been preserved in Plutarch's Consolatio ad Apollonium and in the De consolatione of Cicero, who speaks of it (Acad.
the son of a helot mother (see Helots), but this tradition is at least doubtful; according to Plutarch he was a Heraclid, though not of either royal family.
They included Memoirs of the civil wars after the death of Caesar, used by Suetonius and Plutarch; bucolic poems in Greek; translations of Greek speeches; occasional satirical and erotic verses; essays on the minutiae of grammar.
His favourite author was beyond all doubt Plutarch, and his own explicit confession makes it undeniable that Plutarch's translator, Jacques Amyot, was his master in point of vocabulary and (so far as he took any lessons in it) of style.
28; Plutarch, Quaestiones romance, 16, 17.
9-11; Plutarch, Quaestiones Graecae, ch.
Gilbert, who has investigated the sources from which Plutarch drew for his life of Theseus, believes that his chief authority was the Atthis of Ister, and that Ister mainly followed Philochorus (Philologus, xxxiii., 18 74, p. 46 sq.).
67; Plutarch, Demetrius, 31.52, Pyrrhus, 12; Appian, Syriaca, 62; Thirlwall, History of Greece, vol.
9 According to Plutarch, Cato the elder wrote histories for the use of his son, 151a ecpi ce'yaXocs (cf.
Good and evil, virtues and vices, remarks Plutarch, are all capable of being perceived "; sense, this common basis of all mental activity, is a sort of touch by which the ethereal Pneuma which is the soul's substance!
These writings were used as a quarry by the compilers and dilettanti of later times, such as Pliny, Plutarch, Gellius, Festus, Macrobius, and by Christian champions like Tertullian, Arnobius and Augustine, who did not disdain to seek in heathen literature the means of defending their faith.
To Varro's researches are mainly due the traditional dates assigned to the era of the kings and to that of the early republic. Minor writings of the same class were the De Vita Populi Romani, apparently a kind of history of Roman civilization; the De Familiis Trojanis, an account of the families who "came over" with Aeneas; the Aetia (Ai:TCa), an explanation of the origin of Roman customs, on which Plutarch drew largely in his Quaestiones Romanae; a Tribuum Liber, used by Festus; and the constitutional handbook written for the instruction of Pompey when he became consul.
Such was the conspiracy of Catiline and the character of its author, as we find them in the speeches of Cicero, and the histories of Sallust and Dio Cassius (see also Plutarch, Cicero; Vell.
so; Plutarch, Romulus, 4, 5, Quaest.
Yet it is in this religion of Zeus that we see most clearly the achievement of progressive morality; Zeus himself punishes and abolishes the savage practice; the story related by Plutarch, 2 how a kid was substituted miraculously for Helen when she was led to the altar to be offered, is a remarkably close parallel to the biblical legend of Abraham's sacrifice of Isaac.
The form of the Saturnalia is copied from Plato's Symposium and Gellius's Nodes atticae; the chief authorities (whose names, however, are not quoted) are Gellius, Seneca the philosopher, Plutarch (Quaestiones conviviales), Athenaeus and the commentaries of Servius (excluded by some) and others on Virgil.
Anna Pavlovna's circle on the contrary was enraptured by this enthusiasm and spoke of it as Plutarch speaks of the deeds of the ancients.
He had dreamed that he and Uncle Pierre, wearing helmets such as were depicted in his Plutarch, were leading a huge army.
I only pray God that something may happen to me such as happened to Plutarch's men, and I will act as they did.
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