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plurality

plurality

plurality Sentence Examples

  • A majority vote was formerly required, but since the adoption of the tenth amendment (November 28, 1893) a plurality vote has elected.

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  • Unfortunately, however, the method of agreement is liable to be baffled by " plurality of causes."

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  • Among Oriental nations plurality of legal wives is customary.

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  • Whether in the earliest days there was a single officer at the head of a congregation, or a plurality of officers of equal authority, it is impossible to say with assurance.

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  • They possess the principle of individuation in themselves, he teaches, but plurality of individuals is in such a case equivalent to plurality of species (in eis tot sunt species quot sunt individua).

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  • The campaign turned on the tariff issue, and Harrison was elected, receiving 233 electoral votes to 168 for Cleveland, who however received a popular plurality of more than 100,000.

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  • In the cosmogonies of many ancient peoples there was a plurality of heavens, probably among the earlier Hebrews, the idea being elaborated in rabbinical literature, among the Babylonians and in Zoroastrianism.

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  • Just as in the synagogue there was a plurality of rulers called elders, so there was in every Christian church a plurality of elders.

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  • In the initial stages of the Apostolic Church it was no doubt sufficient to have a plurality of presbyters with absolutely similar duties and powers.

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  • Plurality of Reals is not possible."

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  • Plurality of Reals is not possible."

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  • The critic has the right of it when he points out, for example, that the practical difficulty in the Method of Agreement is not due to plurality of causes, as Mill states, but rather to intermixture of effects, while, if the canon could be satisfied exactly, the result would not be rendered uncertain in the manner or to the extent which he supposes.

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  • and of the plurality of worlds.

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  • For reasons not purely logical Leibnitz declares for the plurality of such subjects.

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  • and of the plurality of worlds.

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  • For reasons not purely logical Leibnitz declares for the plurality of such subjects.

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  • In the election Van Buren received 170 electoral votes against 73 for William Henry Harrison, his principal opponent; but the popular vote showed a plurality of less than 25,000 in a total vote of about 1,500,000.

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  • Whilst it can hardly be allowed that Xenophanes, so far from denying, actually affirms a plurality of gods, it must be conceded to Freudenthal that Xenophanes's polemic was directed against the anthropomorphic tendencies and the mythological details of the contemporary polytheism rather than against the polytheistic principle, and that, apart from the treatise De Melisso Xenophane et Gorgia, now generally discredited, there is no direct evidence to prove him a consistent monotheist.

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  • His suggestion of a plurality of votes, proportioned to the elector's degree of education, was avowedly put forward only as an ideal; he admitted that no authentic test of education could for the present be found.

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  • This pococurantism might easily be interpreted as an insight into the limitations of inverse method as such or as a belief in the plurality of causes in Mill's sense of the phrase.

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  • This pococurantism might easily be interpreted as an insight into the limitations of inverse method as such or as a belief in the plurality of causes in Mill's sense of the phrase.

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  • In 1870 appeared his Other Worlds than Ours, in which he discussed the question of the plurality of worlds in the light of.

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  • The universal of this stage is the universal of fact, what is recognized as predicable of a plurality of subjects.

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  • We discard the conception of the universal as a predicate applicable to a plurality, or even to all, of the members of a group. To know merely KaTa 7ravros is not to know, save accidentally.

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  • Only thus could a plurality of rulers of equal rank act in an efficient and orderly way.

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  • A pupil of Nessus, or, as some accounts prefer, of Democritus himself, he was a complete sceptic. He accepted the Democritean theory of atoms and void and the plurality of worlds, but held a theory of his own that the stars are formed from day to day by the moisture in the air under the heat of the sun.

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  • In the same year a separate law was passed providing for primary elections for the choice of United States senators; but here also the method is not that of nomination by a plurality throughout the state, but by the vote of counties and legislative districts, so that this measure, like the other primary law, is not sufficiently direct to give Baltimore a vote proportional to its population.

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  • By 1906 this plurality of authorship had become almost a commonplace of the market.

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  • At the diet of 1605 Sigismund and his partisans endeavoured so far to reform the Polish constitution as to substitute a decision by a plurality of votes for unanimity in the diet.

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  • The introduction, spread and prominence of the name Yahweh, the development of conceptions concerning his nature, his supremacy over other gods and the lofty monotheism which denied a plurality of gods, are questions of o.

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  • The Anabaptists insisted on freedom in the matter, and Bernardino Ochino conditionally defended plurality of wives.

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  • Judgment is consciousness of the identity or difference and of the causal relations of the given; naming the actual combinations of the data, but also requiring a priori categories of the understanding, the notions of identity, difference and causality, as principles of thought or laws, to combine the plurality of the given into a unity (Schuppe).

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  • By 1906 this plurality of authorship had become almost a commonplace of the market.

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  • From 1904 to 1906 he was lieutenant-governor of Ohio, but in 1910, when nominated for governor by the Republicans, was defeated by a plurality of 10o,000.

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  • At its May session in 1742 the General Court of Massachusetts forbade itinerant preaching save with full consent from the resident pastor; in May 1743 the annual ministerial convention, by a small plurality, declared against "several errors in doctrine and disorders in practice which have of late obtained in various parts of the land," against lay preachers and disorderly revival meetings; in the same year Charles Chauncy, who disapproved of the revival, published Seasonable Thoughts on the State of Religion in New England; and in 1744-1745 Whitefield, upon his second tour in New England, found that the faculties of Harvard and Yale had officially "testified" and "declared" against him and that most pulpits were closed to him.

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  • Finally he was bent upon reforming the Polish constitution by substituting the decision of all matters by a plurality of votes for a unanimity impossible to count upon.

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  • In 1826 in Genesee county the disappearance of a printer named William Morgan was attributed to Free-Masons and aroused a strong antipathy to that order; and the anti-Masonic movement, through the fostering care of Weed, Francis Granger (1792-1868) and others, spread to other states and led eventually to the establishment of a political organization that by uniting various anti-Jacksonian elements, polled in the New York state election of 1832 more than 156,000 votes for Francis Granger, their candidate for governor against Marcy, who was chosen by about 10,000 plurality.

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  • When his regiment was mustered out of service in September 1898, Mr Roosevelt was nominated by the Republican party for the governorship of New York State and was elected in November by a substantial plurality.

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  • The plural is denoted when required by adding one of several words of plurality.

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  • It was in the pressing to its extreme consequences of the conception of uncompromising identity which is to be found in Leibnitz, that the contradictions took their rise which Herbart aimed at solving, by the method of relations and his doctrine of the ultimate plurality of " reals," The logic of relations between conceptual units, themselves unaltered by the relation, seems a kind of reflection of his metaphysical method.

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  • Lotze's procedure is, indeed, analogous to the way in which, in his philosophy of nature, he starts from a plurality of real beings, but by means of a reductive movement, an application of Kant's transcendental method, arrives at the postulate or fact of a law of their reciprocal action which calls for a monistic and idealist interpretation.

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  • In November 1891 he was elected governor of Ohio with a plurality of more than 21,000 votes in a total of 795,000 votes cast.

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  • It is impossible to discover precisely what he conceived to be the relation of this unity to the plurality of phenomena.

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  • He felt that change is the essential fact of experience and pointed out that any merely physical explanation of plurality is inherently impossible.

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  • It has been found unworkable, for instance, to classify the religions of really primitive peoples under a plurality of heads, as becomes necessary the moment that the presence of a distinctive basis of linked ideas testifies to the individuality of this or that type of higher creed.

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  • Yet once again the term has been applied to characterize a whole group of religions, like the Indo-Germanic, which are ultimately founded on the unity of the divine nature in a plurality of divine persons.

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  • A comparatively small section of the denomination maintain that a "plurality of elders" or pastors is required for the complete organization of every separate church.

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  • Movement and plurality being necessary to explain the phenomena of the universe and impossible without space (not-Being), he asserted that the latter had an equal right with Being to be considered existent.

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  • The state legislature which elected him senator did so by a plurality vote, having previously passed a resolution changing the vote requisite to choose a senator from a majority to a plurality vote.

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  • In 1852 the Free-soil candidate for the presidency received only 350 votes in New Jersey; and in 1856 the Democratic candidate received a plurality of 18,605 votes, even.

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  • An amendment, which became a part of the constitution on the 9th of November 1880, provided that a plurality of the total number of votes cast should be sufficient for election.

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  • and Mind, (2) denied the ideas, and (3) abandoned the attempt to unify the plurality of things, he explicitly rejected the theory of being expressed in (i.) and (ii.); and the rejection of the theory of being, i.e.

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  • of the conception of the One evolving itself as a plurality of ideas, entailed consequential modifications in the theory of knowledge conveyed in (iii.) and (iv.).

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  • In his ontology Xenocrates built upon Plato's foundations: that is to say, with Plato he postulated ideas or numbers to be the causes of nature's organic products, and derived these ideas or numbers from unity (which is active) and plurality (which is passive).

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  • universal mind, apprehends its own plurality as eternal, immutable, intelligible ideas; and mind as a plurality, i.e.

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  • particular mind, perceives its own plurality as transitory, mutable, sensible things.

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  • Xenocrates, however, failing, as it would seem, to grasp the idealism which was the metaphysical foundation of Plato's theory of natural kinds, took for his principles arithmetical unity and plurality, and accordingly identified ideal numbers with arithmetical numbers.

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  • Soul is a self-moving number, derived from the two fundamental principles, unity (Iv) and plurality (Iv&s aopcvros), whence it obtains its powers of rest and motion.

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  • As then the Ent is one, invariable and immutable, all plurality, variety and mutation belong to the Nonent.

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  • extended throughout space and enduring throughout time, which reason discovers beneath the variety and the mutability of things] being now complete, it remains in " Opinion " to describe the plurality of things, not as they are, for they are not, but as they seem to be.

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  • Thus, while their question meant, or ought to have meant, What is the single element which underlies the apparent plurality of the material world?

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  • their answers, Parmenides conceived, by attributing to the selected element various and varying qualities, reintroduced the plurality which the question sought to eliminate.

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  • Having thus discriminated between the permanent unity of nature and its superficial plurality, Parmenides proceeded to the separate investigation of the Ent and the Nonent.

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  • Its subject is, however, " Nature "; and nature, besides its unity, has also the semblance, if no more than the semblance, of plurality.

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  • Hence the theory of the unity of nature is necessarily followed by a theory of its seeming plurality, that is to say, of the variety and mutation of things.

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  • The theory of plurality cannot indeed pretend to the certainty of the theory of unity, being of necessity untrustworthy, because it is the partial and inconstant representation of that which is partial and inconstant in nature.

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  • But, as the material world includes, together with a real unity, the semblance of plurality, so the theory of the material world includes, together with the certain theory of the former, a probable theory of the latter.

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  • Thus, whereas the Ionians, confounding the unity and the plurality of the universe, had neglected plurality, and the Pythagoreans, contenting themselves with the reduction of the variety of nature to a duality or a series of dualities, had neglected unity, Parmenides, taking a hint from Xenophanes, made the antagonistic doctrines supply one another's deficiencies; for, as Xenophanes in his theological system had recognized at once the unity of God and the plurality of things, so Parmenides in his system of nature recognized at once the rational unity of the Ent and the phenomenal plurality of the Nonent.

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  • First, whereas it has been assumed above that Xenophanes was theologian rather than philosopher, whence it would seem to follow that the philosophical doctrine of unity originated, not with him, but with Parmenides, Zeller, supposing Xenophanes to have taught, not merely the unity of God, but also the unity of Being, assigns to Parmenides no more than an exacter conception of the doctrine of the unity of Being, the justification of that doctrine, and the denial of the plurality and the mutability of things.

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  • By his recognition of an apparent plurality supplementary to the real unity, he effected the transition from the " monism " or " henism " of the first physical succession to the " pluralism " of the second.

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  • and 163 B seq.), it becomes consistent and fruitful as soon as a " definite plurality " is interpolated between them (142 B seq., 157 B seq., 160 B seq.).

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  • The God I plead for is neither the deity of Pantheism, nor the absolute unity of the Eleatics, a being divorced from all possibility of creation or plurality, a mere metaphysical abstraction.

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  • The Germans, usually Republicans, roused for the defence of their schools, voted the Democratic state ticket at the next state election (1890), with the result that George Wilbur Peck, 2 the Democratic nominee, was chosen governor by 30,000 plurality.

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  • Among Whewell's other works - too numerous to mention - reference must be made to writings popular in their day, such as the Bridgewater Treatise on Astronomy (1833), and the essay, Of the Plurality of Worlds (1854), in which he argued against the probability of planetary life, and also to the Platonic Dialogues for English Readers (1859-1861), to the Lectures on the History of Moral Philosophy in England (1852), to the essay, Of a Liberal Education in General, with particular reference to the Leading Studies of the University of Cambridge (1845), to the important edition and abridged translation of Grotius, De jure belli et pacis (1853), and to the edition of the Mathematical Works of Isaac Barrow (1860).

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  • He further attempted to build up a symbolism of numbers with the view of elaborating the doctrine of the Trinity, and explaining the meaning of unity, plurality and likeness.

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  • He discouraged plurality of livings, and consequent non-residence, established a school of divinity at Salisbury, and spent much time himself in preparing candidates for confirmation, and in the examination of those who wished to enter the priesthood.

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  • All knowledge takes the form of the concept (Begriff) or the judgment (Urtheil), the former conceiving the variety of being as a definite unity and plurality, and the latter simply connecting the concept with certain individual objects.

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  • In reply to those who thought that Parmenides's theory of the existence of the One involved inconsistencies and absurdities, Zeno tried to show that the assumption of the existence of the Many, that is to say, a plurality of things in time and space, carried with it inconsistencies and absurdities grosser and more numerous.

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  • Of the paradoxes used by Zeno to discredit the belief in plurality and motion, eight survive in the writings of Aristotle and Simplicius.

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  • In short, the ordinary belief in plurality and motion seemed to him to involve fatal inconsistencies, whence he inferred that Parmenides was justified in distinguishing the mutable movable Many from the 1 See Zeller, Die Philosophic d.

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  • Great as was the importance of these paradoxes of plurality and motion in stimulating speculation about space and time, their direct influence upon Greek thought was less considerable than that of another paradox - strangely neglected by historians of philosophy - the paradox of predication.

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  • That is to say, not perceiving that the same thing may be at once like and unlike in different relations, Zeno regarded the attribution to the same thing of likeness and unlikeness as a violation of what was afterwards known as the principle of contradiction; and, finding that plurality entailed these attributions, he inferred its unreality.

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  • He was not indeed aware how deeply he had committed himself; otherwise he would have observed that his argument, if valid against the Many of the vulgar, was valid also against the One of Parmenides, with its plurality of attributes, as well as that, in the absence of a theory of predication, it was useless to speculate about knowledge and being.

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  • For, while Parmenides had recognized, together with the One, which is, and is the object of knowledge, a Many, which is not, and therefore is not known, but nevertheless becomes, and is the object of opinion, Zeno plainly affirmed that plurality, becoming and opinion are one and all inconceivable.

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  • For the paradox of predication, which he had used to disprove the existence of plurality, was virtually a denial of all speech and all thought, and thus led to a more comprehensive scepticism than that which sprang from the contemporary theories of sensation.

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  • The result then is briefly thus: In place of the one absolute position, which in some unthinkable way the common understanding substitutes for the absolute positions of the n attributes, we have really a series of two or more positions for each attribute, every series, however, beginning with the same (as it were, central) real (hence the unity of substance in a group of attributes), but each being continued by different reals (hence the plurality and difference of attributes in unity of substance).

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  • Where there is the appearance of inherence, therefore, there is always a plurality of reals; no such correlative to substance as attribute or accident can be admitted at all.

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  • In the same year he received a plurality of the votes cast for governor, but as the constitution required a majority vote, the election was thrown into the legislature, where he was defeated by the same coalition.

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  • The system of representation had sometimes put in power a political party representing a minority of the voters: in 1878, 1884, 1886, 1888 and 1890 the Democratic candidates for state executive offices received a plurality vote; but, as a majority was not obtained, these elections were referred to the general assembly, and the Republican party in control of the lower house secured the election of its candidates; in 1901 constitutional amendments were adopted making a plurality vote sufficient for election, increasing the number of senatorial districts, and stipulating that " in forming them regard shall be had " to population.

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  • It consists of several parts, which cohere so badly that we are obliged to assume plurality of authorship.

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  • - From the foregoing description it seems clear that the book is derived from a plurality of authors.

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  • felicitous term in our culture of plurality, it would be best to avoid it.

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  • plurality of elders.

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  • plurality of the votes let alone a majority.

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  • plurality of voices to co-exist within parliament.

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  • plurality of media ownership should be reformed.

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  • plurality of religions exists.

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  • plurality of perspectives.

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  • The course will reflect the plurality of perspectives and approaches to the SIS subject matter.

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  • A We have two objectives: to maximize competition and to protect plurality, quality and diversity.

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  • Only among one age group - pensioners - did the Conservatives manage to win a plurality.

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  • Equity acknowledges the PSP is a creative and original approach to maintaining the plurality of PSB in the new broadcasting environment.

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  • They would ensure plurality in local politics in areas where choice is currently limited.

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  • The memory provides a plurality of addressable virtual communication links.

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  • Chapter 1 also offers a classification of semantic types of situational plurality.

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  • religious plurality does not lead to the suppression of competition, either between firms or in the labor market.

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  • My aim is not to standardize or evaluate the differences, but to raise questions about the values and belief of cultural plurality.

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  • Most of our assumptions about human development and political plurality and choice are rooted in the print era.

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  • That you will get neither patient's put first nor greater plurality of provision without having individual financial empowerment.

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  • For 700 votes, a simple plurality should be enough to show the voters's preference.

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  • plurality voting.

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  • plurality system with single member constituencies.

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  • The course of things and their connexion is only thinkable by the assumption of a plurality of existences, the reality of which (as distinguished from our knowledge of them) can be conceived only as a multitude of relations.

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  • The weak point in the system is that episcopal superintendence being exercised in every case by a plurality of individuals there is no one, moderator or senior member, whose special duty it is to take initial action when the unpleasant work of judicial investigation or ecclesiastical discipline becomes necessary.

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  • Just as in the synagogue there was a plurality of rulers called elders, so there was in every Christian church a plurality of elders.

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  • Only thus could a plurality of rulers of equal rank act in an efficient and orderly way.

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  • In the initial stages of the Apostolic Church it was no doubt sufficient to have a plurality of presbyters with absolutely similar duties and powers.

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  • Mendelssohn asserted the pragmatic principle of the possible plurality of truths: that just as various nations need different constitutions - to one a monarchy, to another a republic, may be the most congenial to the national genius - so individuals may need different religions.

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  • Unfortunately, however, the method of agreement is liable to be baffled by " plurality of causes."

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  • His suggestion of a plurality of votes, proportioned to the elector's degree of education, was avowedly put forward only as an ideal; he admitted that no authentic test of education could for the present be found.

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  • From 1904 to 1906 he was lieutenant-governor of Ohio, but in 1910, when nominated for governor by the Republicans, was defeated by a plurality of 10o,000.

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  • Number is never indicated when the sense is obvious or can be gathered from the context; otherwise plurality is expressed by adjectives such as sagala, all, and banak, many more rarely by the repetition of the noun, and the indefinite singular by sa or satu, one, with a class-word.

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  • A pupil of Nessus, or, as some accounts prefer, of Democritus himself, he was a complete sceptic. He accepted the Democritean theory of atoms and void and the plurality of worlds, but held a theory of his own that the stars are formed from day to day by the moisture in the air under the heat of the sun.

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  • In the election Van Buren received 170 electoral votes against 73 for William Henry Harrison, his principal opponent; but the popular vote showed a plurality of less than 25,000 in a total vote of about 1,500,000.

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  • They possess the principle of individuation in themselves, he teaches, but plurality of individuals is in such a case equivalent to plurality of species (in eis tot sunt species quot sunt individua).

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  • In the cosmogonies of many ancient peoples there was a plurality of heavens, probably among the earlier Hebrews, the idea being elaborated in rabbinical literature, among the Babylonians and in Zoroastrianism.

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  • In fragments i., xiv., xvi., xxi., &c., he recognizes, thinks Freudenthal, a plurality of deities; whence it is inferred that, besides the One God, most high, perfect, eternal, who, as immanent intelligent cause, unifies the plurality of things, there were also lesser divinities, who govern portions of the universe, being themselves eternal parts of the one all-embracing Godhead.

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  • Whilst it can hardly be allowed that Xenophanes, so far from denying, actually affirms a plurality of gods, it must be conceded to Freudenthal that Xenophanes's polemic was directed against the anthropomorphic tendencies and the mythological details of the contemporary polytheism rather than against the polytheistic principle, and that, apart from the treatise De Melisso Xenophane et Gorgia, now generally discredited, there is no direct evidence to prove him a consistent monotheist.

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  • Map's career was an active and varied one; he was clerk of the royal household and justice itinerant; in 1179 he was present at the Lateran council at Rome, on his way thither being enter tained by the count of Champagne; at this time he apparentm held a plurality of ecclesiastical benefices, being a prebend of St Paul's, canon and precentor of Lincoln and parson of Westbury, Gloucestershire.

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  • Christ established not only a pontifical but a royal sovereignty (principatus) and committed to blessed Peter and his successors the empire both of earth and heaven, as is sufficiently proved by the plurality of the keys" (Codex epist.

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  • A majority vote was formerly required, but since the adoption of the tenth amendment (November 28, 1893) a plurality vote has elected.

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  • The evils attendant on this system were found to be so great that the Pluralities Act 1838 was passed to abridge the holding of benefices in plurality, and it was enacted that no person should hold under any circumstances more than two benefices, and this privilege was made subject to the restriction that his benefices were within ten statute miles of each other.

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  • But the cry of Federal interference was raised as a result of the methods employed in securing his nomination, and this, together with the party division and the popularity of Cleveland, brought about Cleveland's election by the unprecedented plurality of 192,854.

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  • The campaign turned on the tariff issue, and Harrison was elected, receiving 233 electoral votes to 168 for Cleveland, who however received a popular plurality of more than 100,000.

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  • Each church at first had at its head not a single chief pastor, but a plurality of elders (= bishops) acting as a college.

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  • In 1826 in Genesee county the disappearance of a printer named William Morgan was attributed to Free-Masons and aroused a strong antipathy to that order; and the anti-Masonic movement, through the fostering care of Weed, Francis Granger (1792-1868) and others, spread to other states and led eventually to the establishment of a political organization that by uniting various anti-Jacksonian elements, polled in the New York state election of 1832 more than 156,000 votes for Francis Granger, their candidate for governor against Marcy, who was chosen by about 10,000 plurality.

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  • When his regiment was mustered out of service in September 1898, Mr Roosevelt was nominated by the Republican party for the governorship of New York State and was elected in November by a substantial plurality.

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  • The crime of "plurality," the holding by one cleric of two or more benefices, was especially attacked, as also clerical absenteeism and ignorance, and laxity in the monastic life.

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  • When the mind, beginning with isolated individuals, groups them together in virtue of perceived resemblances and arrives at a unity in plurality, the process by which attention is diverted from individuals and concentrated on a single inclusive concept (i.e.

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  • Whether in the earliest days there was a single officer at the head of a congregation, or a plurality of officers of equal authority, it is impossible to say with assurance.

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  • This form of organization ultimately became universal, and already before the end of the 2nd century it was established in all the parts of Christendom with which we are acquainted, though in Egypt it seems to have been the exception rather than the rule, and even as late as the middle of the 3rd century many churches there were governed by a plurality of officers instead of by a single head (see Harnack, Mission and Ausbreitung des Christenthums, pp. 337 seq.).

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  • Finally he was bent upon reforming the Polish constitution by substituting the decision of all matters by a plurality of votes for a unanimity impossible to count upon.

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  • In 1870 appeared his Other Worlds than Ours, in which he discussed the question of the plurality of worlds in the light of.

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  • In the same year a separate law was passed providing for primary elections for the choice of United States senators; but here also the method is not that of nomination by a plurality throughout the state, but by the vote of counties and legislative districts, so that this measure, like the other primary law, is not sufficiently direct to give Baltimore a vote proportional to its population.

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  • The change in the former period with regard to a single point, which is however typical of many, is briefly summed up by Dr Cheyne: " In 1880 it was still a heresy to accept with all its consequences the plurality of authorship of the Book of Isaiah; in 1890 to a growing school of churchstudents this has become an indubitable fact " (Origin of the Psalter, xv.).

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  • At its May session in 1742 the General Court of Massachusetts forbade itinerant preaching save with full consent from the resident pastor; in May 1743 the annual ministerial convention, by a small plurality, declared against "several errors in doctrine and disorders in practice which have of late obtained in various parts of the land," against lay preachers and disorderly revival meetings; in the same year Charles Chauncy, who disapproved of the revival, published Seasonable Thoughts on the State of Religion in New England; and in 1744-1745 Whitefield, upon his second tour in New England, found that the faculties of Harvard and Yale had officially "testified" and "declared" against him and that most pulpits were closed to him.

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  • This was true in I89o of 12 states, while in one other the Roman Catholics held a plurality; in 1906 the corresponding figures were 16 and 20.

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  • Identifying the form of the good with the one, he supposed that the one, by combining with the indeterminate two, causes a plurality of forms, which like every combination of one and two are numbers but peculiar in being incommensurate with one another, so that each form is not a mathematical number (pa077pa-1.6s apt°pos), but a formal number (EDBnTLKOS apiepos).

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  • Each congregation had a plurality of elders, pastors or bishops, who were chosen according to what were believed to be the instructions of Paul, without regard to previous education or present occupation, and who enjoy a perfect equality in office.

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  • While Leucippus's notion of Being agreed generally with that of the Eleatics, he postulated its plurality (atoms) and motion, and the reality of not-Being (the void) in which his atoms moved.

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  • The crux of all metaphysical idealism is the difficulty of reconciling the unity of the object with the plurality of subjects.

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  • Hartmann has an affinity with all these predecessors, and with Spinoza, with whom he agrees that there is but one substance unaltered by the plurality of individuals which are only its modifications.

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  • Our souls he tried his best to endow with a quasiexistence, arguing that the unity of consciousness requires an indivisible subject, which is distinct from the plurality of the body but interacting with it, is in a way a centre of independent activities, and is so far a substance, or rather able to produce the appearance of a substance.

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  • Besides, he was deeply impressed by the fact of man's personality and by the problem of his personal immortality, which brought him back through Schelling to Leibnitz, whose Monadologie throughout maintains the plurality of monadic souls and the omnipresence of perception, sketches in a few sections (§§ 23, 78-81) a panpsychic parallelism, though without identity, between bodily motions and psychic perceptions, and, what is most remarkable, already uses the conservation of energy to argue that physical energy pursues its course in bodies without interacting with souls ., and that motions produce motions, perceptions produce perceptions.

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  • But this is not the sense in which a plurality of things would have to be independent in order to exist, or to be substances in the Aristotelian sense.

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  • This existing apart is the only sense in which a plurality of things need be independent in order to be real, or in order to be substances; and it is a sense in which they can all be related to each other, as I am not you, but I am addressing you.

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  • Having thus confused contradiction and difference, independence and solitariness, experience and inference, Bradley is able to deduce finally that reality is not different substances, experienced and inferred, as Aristotle thought it, but is one absolute super-personal experience, to which the socalled plurality of things, including all bodies, all souls, and even a personal God, is appearance - an appearance, as ordinarily understood, self-contradictory, but, as appearing to one spiritual reality, somehow reconciled.

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  • Hence his personal or pluralistic idealism is the view that the world is a plurality of many coexisting and interacting centres of experience, while will is the most fundamental form of experience.'

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  • The difficulty of personal idealism, on the other hand, is to reconcile the unity of the thing with the plurality of thinkers.

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  • The plural is denoted when required by adding one of several words of plurality.

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  • In Greece the idea of a fundamental unity behind the plurality of phenomena was present, though vaguely, in the minds of the early physicists (see Ionian School), but the first thinker who focussed the problem clearly was Xenophanes.

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  • Yet under Julius steps were taken to abolish plurality of benefices and to restore monastic discipline; the Collegium Germanicum, for the conversion of Germans, was established in Rome, 1552; and England was absolved by the cardinal-legate Pole, and received again into the Roman communion (1554) Julius died on the 23rd of March 1555, and was succeeded by Marcellus II.

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  • At the diet of 1605 Sigismund and his partisans endeavoured so far to reform the Polish constitution as to substitute a decision by a plurality of votes for unanimity in the diet.

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  • The introduction, spread and prominence of the name Yahweh, the development of conceptions concerning his nature, his supremacy over other gods and the lofty monotheism which denied a plurality of gods, are questions of o.

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  • Among Oriental nations plurality of legal wives is customary.

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  • The Anabaptists insisted on freedom in the matter, and Bernardino Ochino conditionally defended plurality of wives.

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  • The most obvious characteristics of the ordinary Hindu are that he worships a plurality of gods, looks upon the cow as a sacred animal, and accepts the Brahmanical supremacy (see Brahmanism) and the caste system; and when it is a question whether one of the animistic tribes has or has not entered the fold of Hinduism, these two latter points seem to be the proper test to apply.

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  • Judgment is consciousness of the identity or difference and of the causal relations of the given; naming the actual combinations of the data, but also requiring a priori categories of the understanding, the notions of identity, difference and causality, as principles of thought or laws, to combine the plurality of the given into a unity (Schuppe).

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  • The ideal is progressively to determine a universe of discourse till true infimae species are reached, when no further distinction in the determinate many is possible, though there is still the numerical difference of the indefinite plurality of particulars.

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  • It is this unity of apperception which enables us to combine the data of more than one sense, to affirm reality, unreality, identity, difference, unity, plurality and so forth, as also the good, the beautiful and their contraries.

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  • The universal of this stage is the universal of fact, what is recognized as predicable of a plurality of subjects.

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  • We discard the conception of the universal as a predicate applicable to a plurality, or even to all, of the members of a group. To know merely KaTa 7ravros is not to know, save accidentally.

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  • The critic has the right of it when he points out, for example, that the practical difficulty in the Method of Agreement is not due to plurality of causes, as Mill states, but rather to intermixture of effects, while, if the canon could be satisfied exactly, the result would not be rendered uncertain in the manner or to the extent which he supposes.

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  • It was in the pressing to its extreme consequences of the conception of uncompromising identity which is to be found in Leibnitz, that the contradictions took their rise which Herbart aimed at solving, by the method of relations and his doctrine of the ultimate plurality of " reals," The logic of relations between conceptual units, themselves unaltered by the relation, seems a kind of reflection of his metaphysical method.

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  • Lotze's procedure is, indeed, analogous to the way in which, in his philosophy of nature, he starts from a plurality of real beings, but by means of a reductive movement, an application of Kant's transcendental method, arrives at the postulate or fact of a law of their reciprocal action which calls for a monistic and idealist interpretation.

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  • In November 1891 he was elected governor of Ohio with a plurality of more than 21,000 votes in a total of 795,000 votes cast.

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  • It is impossible to discover precisely what he conceived to be the relation of this unity to the plurality of phenomena.

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  • He felt that change is the essential fact of experience and pointed out that any merely physical explanation of plurality is inherently impossible.

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  • It has been found unworkable, for instance, to classify the religions of really primitive peoples under a plurality of heads, as becomes necessary the moment that the presence of a distinctive basis of linked ideas testifies to the individuality of this or that type of higher creed.

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  • Yet once again the term has been applied to characterize a whole group of religions, like the Indo-Germanic, which are ultimately founded on the unity of the divine nature in a plurality of divine persons.

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  • A comparatively small section of the denomination maintain that a "plurality of elders" or pastors is required for the complete organization of every separate church.

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  • Movement and plurality being necessary to explain the phenomena of the universe and impossible without space (not-Being), he asserted that the latter had an equal right with Being to be considered existent.

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  • The state legislature which elected him senator did so by a plurality vote, having previously passed a resolution changing the vote requisite to choose a senator from a majority to a plurality vote.

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  • In 1852 the Free-soil candidate for the presidency received only 350 votes in New Jersey; and in 1856 the Democratic candidate received a plurality of 18,605 votes, even.

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  • An amendment, which became a part of the constitution on the 9th of November 1880, provided that a plurality of the total number of votes cast should be sufficient for election.

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  • and Mind, (2) denied the ideas, and (3) abandoned the attempt to unify the plurality of things, he explicitly rejected the theory of being expressed in (i.) and (ii.); and the rejection of the theory of being, i.e.

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  • of the conception of the One evolving itself as a plurality of ideas, entailed consequential modifications in the theory of knowledge conveyed in (iii.) and (iv.).

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  • In his ontology Xenocrates built upon Plato's foundations: that is to say, with Plato he postulated ideas or numbers to be the causes of nature's organic products, and derived these ideas or numbers from unity (which is active) and plurality (which is passive).

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  • universal mind, apprehends its own plurality as eternal, immutable, intelligible ideas; and mind as a plurality, i.e.

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  • particular mind, perceives its own plurality as transitory, mutable, sensible things.

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  • Xenocrates, however, failing, as it would seem, to grasp the idealism which was the metaphysical foundation of Plato's theory of natural kinds, took for his principles arithmetical unity and plurality, and accordingly identified ideal numbers with arithmetical numbers.

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  • Soul is a self-moving number, derived from the two fundamental principles, unity (Iv) and plurality (Iv&s aopcvros), whence it obtains its powers of rest and motion.

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  • As then the Ent is one, invariable and immutable, all plurality, variety and mutation belong to the Nonent.

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  • extended throughout space and enduring throughout time, which reason discovers beneath the variety and the mutability of things] being now complete, it remains in " Opinion " to describe the plurality of things, not as they are, for they are not, but as they seem to be.

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  • Thus, while their question meant, or ought to have meant, What is the single element which underlies the apparent plurality of the material world?

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  • their answers, Parmenides conceived, by attributing to the selected element various and varying qualities, reintroduced the plurality which the question sought to eliminate.

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  • Having thus discriminated between the permanent unity of nature and its superficial plurality, Parmenides proceeded to the separate investigation of the Ent and the Nonent.

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  • Its subject is, however, " Nature "; and nature, besides its unity, has also the semblance, if no more than the semblance, of plurality.

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  • Hence the theory of the unity of nature is necessarily followed by a theory of its seeming plurality, that is to say, of the variety and mutation of things.

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  • The theory of plurality cannot indeed pretend to the certainty of the theory of unity, being of necessity untrustworthy, because it is the partial and inconstant representation of that which is partial and inconstant in nature.

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  • But, as the material world includes, together with a real unity, the semblance of plurality, so the theory of the material world includes, together with the certain theory of the former, a probable theory of the latter.

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  • Thus, whereas the Ionians, confounding the unity and the plurality of the universe, had neglected plurality, and the Pythagoreans, contenting themselves with the reduction of the variety of nature to a duality or a series of dualities, had neglected unity, Parmenides, taking a hint from Xenophanes, made the antagonistic doctrines supply one another's deficiencies; for, as Xenophanes in his theological system had recognized at once the unity of God and the plurality of things, so Parmenides in his system of nature recognized at once the rational unity of the Ent and the phenomenal plurality of the Nonent.

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  • First, whereas it has been assumed above that Xenophanes was theologian rather than philosopher, whence it would seem to follow that the philosophical doctrine of unity originated, not with him, but with Parmenides, Zeller, supposing Xenophanes to have taught, not merely the unity of God, but also the unity of Being, assigns to Parmenides no more than an exacter conception of the doctrine of the unity of Being, the justification of that doctrine, and the denial of the plurality and the mutability of things.

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  • In the judgment of the present writer, Parmenides, while he denied the real existence of plurality, recognized its apparent existence, and consequently, however little value he might attach to opinion, was bound to take account of it: " pour celui méme qui nie Fexistence reelle de la nature," says Renouvier, " it reste encore a faire une histoire naturelle de l'apparence et de l'illusion."

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  • By his recognition of an apparent plurality supplementary to the real unity, he effected the transition from the " monism " or " henism " of the first physical succession to the " pluralism " of the second.

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  • and 163 B seq.), it becomes consistent and fruitful as soon as a " definite plurality " is interpolated between them (142 B seq., 157 B seq., 160 B seq.).

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  • The God I plead for is neither the deity of Pantheism, nor the absolute unity of the Eleatics, a being divorced from all possibility of creation or plurality, a mere metaphysical abstraction.

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  • The Germans, usually Republicans, roused for the defence of their schools, voted the Democratic state ticket at the next state election (1890), with the result that George Wilbur Peck, 2 the Democratic nominee, was chosen governor by 30,000 plurality.

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  • Among Whewell's other works - too numerous to mention - reference must be made to writings popular in their day, such as the Bridgewater Treatise on Astronomy (1833), and the essay, Of the Plurality of Worlds (1854), in which he argued against the probability of planetary life, and also to the Platonic Dialogues for English Readers (1859-1861), to the Lectures on the History of Moral Philosophy in England (1852), to the essay, Of a Liberal Education in General, with particular reference to the Leading Studies of the University of Cambridge (1845), to the important edition and abridged translation of Grotius, De jure belli et pacis (1853), and to the edition of the Mathematical Works of Isaac Barrow (1860).

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  • He further attempted to build up a symbolism of numbers with the view of elaborating the doctrine of the Trinity, and explaining the meaning of unity, plurality and likeness.

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  • He discouraged plurality of livings, and consequent non-residence, established a school of divinity at Salisbury, and spent much time himself in preparing candidates for confirmation, and in the examination of those who wished to enter the priesthood.

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  • All knowledge takes the form of the concept (Begriff) or the judgment (Urtheil), the former conceiving the variety of being as a definite unity and plurality, and the latter simply connecting the concept with certain individual objects.

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  • In reply to those who thought that Parmenides's theory of the existence of the One involved inconsistencies and absurdities, Zeno tried to show that the assumption of the existence of the Many, that is to say, a plurality of things in time and space, carried with it inconsistencies and absurdities grosser and more numerous.

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  • Of the paradoxes used by Zeno to discredit the belief in plurality and motion, eight survive in the writings of Aristotle and Simplicius.

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  • In short, the ordinary belief in plurality and motion seemed to him to involve fatal inconsistencies, whence he inferred that Parmenides was justified in distinguishing the mutable movable Many from the 1 See Zeller, Die Philosophic d.

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  • Great as was the importance of these paradoxes of plurality and motion in stimulating speculation about space and time, their direct influence upon Greek thought was less considerable than that of another paradox - strangely neglected by historians of philosophy - the paradox of predication.

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  • That is to say, not perceiving that the same thing may be at once like and unlike in different relations, Zeno regarded the attribution to the same thing of likeness and unlikeness as a violation of what was afterwards known as the principle of contradiction; and, finding that plurality entailed these attributions, he inferred its unreality.

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  • He was not indeed aware how deeply he had committed himself; otherwise he would have observed that his argument, if valid against the Many of the vulgar, was valid also against the One of Parmenides, with its plurality of attributes, as well as that, in the absence of a theory of predication, it was useless to speculate about knowledge and being.

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  • For, while Parmenides had recognized, together with the One, which is, and is the object of knowledge, a Many, which is not, and therefore is not known, but nevertheless becomes, and is the object of opinion, Zeno plainly affirmed that plurality, becoming and opinion are one and all inconceivable.

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  • For the paradox of predication, which he had used to disprove the existence of plurality, was virtually a denial of all speech and all thought, and thus led to a more comprehensive scepticism than that which sprang from the contemporary theories of sensation.

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  • (4) But there may be a plurality of "reals," albeit the mere conception of being can tell us nothing as to this.

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  • The result then is briefly thus: In place of the one absolute position, which in some unthinkable way the common understanding substitutes for the absolute positions of the n attributes, we have really a series of two or more positions for each attribute, every series, however, beginning with the same (as it were, central) real (hence the unity of substance in a group of attributes), but each being continued by different reals (hence the plurality and difference of attributes in unity of substance).

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  • Where there is the appearance of inherence, therefore, there is always a plurality of reals; no such correlative to substance as attribute or accident can be admitted at all.

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  • In the same year he received a plurality of the votes cast for governor, but as the constitution required a majority vote, the election was thrown into the legislature, where he was defeated by the same coalition.

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  • The system of representation had sometimes put in power a political party representing a minority of the voters: in 1878, 1884, 1886, 1888 and 1890 the Democratic candidates for state executive offices received a plurality vote; but, as a majority was not obtained, these elections were referred to the general assembly, and the Republican party in control of the lower house secured the election of its candidates; in 1901 constitutional amendments were adopted making a plurality vote sufficient for election, increasing the number of senatorial districts, and stipulating that " in forming them regard shall be had " to population.

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  • It consists of several parts, which cohere so badly that we are obliged to assume plurality of authorship.

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  • - From the foregoing description it seems clear that the book is derived from a plurality of authors.

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  • Throughout the degree program, the emphasis will be given to the plurality and vitality of the cultures that occupy this vast continent.

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  • Map's career was an active and varied one; he was clerk of the royal household and justice itinerant; in 1179 he was present at the Lateran council at Rome, on his way thither being enter tained by the count of Champagne; at this time he apparentm held a plurality of ecclesiastical benefices, being a prebend of St Paul's, canon and precentor of Lincoln and parson of Westbury, Gloucestershire.

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  • The evils attendant on this system were found to be so great that the Pluralities Act 1838 was passed to abridge the holding of benefices in plurality, and it was enacted that no person should hold under any circumstances more than two benefices, and this privilege was made subject to the restriction that his benefices were within ten statute miles of each other.

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  • His splendid war record and his personal popularity caused his name to be considered as a candidate for the Presidency as early as 1868, and in 1880 he was nominated for that office by the Democrats; but he was defeated by his Republican opponent, General Garfield, though by the small popular plurality of seven thousand votes.

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  • But the cry of Federal interference was raised as a result of the methods employed in securing his nomination, and this, together with the party division and the popularity of Cleveland, brought about Cleveland's election by the unprecedented plurality of 192,854.

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  • Each church at first had at its head not a single chief pastor, but a plurality of elders (= bishops) acting as a college.

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  • The crime of "plurality," the holding by one cleric of two or more benefices, was especially attacked, as also clerical absenteeism and ignorance, and laxity in the monastic life.

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  • The change in the former period with regard to a single point, which is however typical of many, is briefly summed up by Dr Cheyne: " In 1880 it was still a heresy to accept with all its consequences the plurality of authorship of the Book of Isaiah; in 1890 to a growing school of churchstudents this has become an indubitable fact " (Origin of the Psalter, xv.).

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  • This was true in I89o of 12 states, while in one other the Roman Catholics held a plurality; in 1906 the corresponding figures were 16 and 20.

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    2
  • Identifying the form of the good with the one, he supposed that the one, by combining with the indeterminate two, causes a plurality of forms, which like every combination of one and two are numbers but peculiar in being incommensurate with one another, so that each form is not a mathematical number (pa077pa-1.6s apt°pos), but a formal number (EDBnTLKOS apiepos).

    0
    2
  • Further he supposed that in its turn each form, or formal number, is a limited one which, by combining again with the indeterminate two, causes a plurality of individuals.

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    2
  • Each congregation had a plurality of elders, pastors or bishops, who were chosen according to what were believed to be the instructions of Paul, without regard to previous education or present occupation, and who enjoy a perfect equality in office.

    0
    2
  • While Leucippus's notion of Being agreed generally with that of the Eleatics, he postulated its plurality (atoms) and motion, and the reality of not-Being (the void) in which his atoms moved.

    0
    2
  • The crux of all metaphysical idealism is the difficulty of reconciling the unity of the object with the plurality of subjects.

    0
    2
  • Hartmann has an affinity with all these predecessors, and with Spinoza, with whom he agrees that there is but one substance unaltered by the plurality of individuals which are only its modifications.

    0
    2
  • Our souls he tried his best to endow with a quasiexistence, arguing that the unity of consciousness requires an indivisible subject, which is distinct from the plurality of the body but interacting with it, is in a way a centre of independent activities, and is so far a substance, or rather able to produce the appearance of a substance.

    0
    2
  • In the text he explains that, if there were a plurality of reals, they would have to be beings independent of each other, and yet, as a plurality related to each other - and this again seems to him to be a contradiction.

    0
    2
  • But this is not the sense in which a plurality of things would have to be independent in order to exist, or to be substances in the Aristotelian sense.

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    2
  • This existing apart is the only sense in which a plurality of things need be independent in order to be real, or in order to be substances; and it is a sense in which they can all be related to each other, as I am not you, but I am addressing you.

    0
    2
  • Having thus confused contradiction and difference, independence and solitariness, experience and inference, Bradley is able to deduce finally that reality is not different substances, experienced and inferred, as Aristotle thought it, but is one absolute super-personal experience, to which the socalled plurality of things, including all bodies, all souls, and even a personal God, is appearance - an appearance, as ordinarily understood, self-contradictory, but, as appearing to one spiritual reality, somehow reconciled.

    0
    2
  • Hence his personal or pluralistic idealism is the view that the world is a plurality of many coexisting and interacting centres of experience, while will is the most fundamental form of experience.'

    0
    2
  • The difficulty of personal idealism, on the other hand, is to reconcile the unity of the thing with the plurality of thinkers.

    0
    2
  • The ideal is progressively to determine a universe of discourse till true infimae species are reached, when no further distinction in the determinate many is possible, though there is still the numerical difference of the indefinite plurality of particulars.

    0
    2
  • It is this unity of apperception which enables us to combine the data of more than one sense, to affirm reality, unreality, identity, difference, unity, plurality and so forth, as also the good, the beautiful and their contraries.

    0
    2
  • His splendid war record and his personal popularity caused his name to be considered as a candidate for the Presidency as early as 1868, and in 1880 he was nominated for that office by the Democrats; but he was defeated by his Republican opponent, General Garfield, though by the small popular plurality of seven thousand votes.

    0
    2
  • Further he supposed that in its turn each form, or formal number, is a limited one which, by combining again with the indeterminate two, causes a plurality of individuals.

    0
    2
  • In the text he explains that, if there were a plurality of reals, they would have to be beings independent of each other, and yet, as a plurality related to each other - and this again seems to him to be a contradiction.

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    2
  • Christ established not only a pontifical but a royal sovereignty (principatus) and committed to blessed Peter and his successors the empire both of earth and heaven, as is sufficiently proved by the plurality of the keys" (Codex epist.

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    3
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