And two passages in the letters of the younger Pliny mention a descendant of the poet, one Passennus Paullus.
He would thus have married and had at least one child, from whom the contemporary of Pliny was descended.
For Passennus Paullus (or as an Assisi inscription calls him C. Passennus Sergius Paullus Properties Blaesus), see Pliny (Ep. vi.
73; Pliny, loc. cit.
7) much as Pliny v.
The Name Is Also Given To Certain Legendary Races Described By Ancient Naturalists And Geographers As Having No Heads, Their Mouths And Eyes Being In Their Breasts, Generally Identified With Pliny'S Blemmyae.
23-41, 44, 60; Pliny, Nat.
24; Pliny, Nat.
Pliny, Ep. i.
48; Pliny, Nat.
The colossus stood for fifty-six years, till an earthquake prostrated it in 224 B.C. Its enormous fragments continued to excite wonder in the time of Pliny, and were not removed till A.D.
From the spoils of the war he constructed the first public library at Rome, in the Atrium Libertatis, also erected by him (Pliny, Nat.
Tridentum or Trent was in the time of Pliny included in the tenth region of Italy or Venetia, but he tells us that the inhabitants were a Raetian tribe.
His researches went back to very early times; Pliny (Nat.
I 1; Pliny, Nat.
Pliny knew that flies emerge from galls.
It is narrated by Pliny and Seneca that the emperor Nero sent out two centurions on such a mission towards the source of the Nile (probably about A.D.
Even though this sea-route was known, the author of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, published after the time of Pliny, recites the old itinerary around the coast of the Arabian Gulf.
He died in 956, and was known, from the comprehensiveness of his survey, as the Pliny of the East.
13.3, 6), quoting from Nearchus, seems to include the Susians under the Elymaeans, whom he associates with the Uxii, and places on the frontiers of Persia and Susa; but Pliny more correctly makes the Eulaeus the boundary between Susiana and Elymais (N.H.
The principal mountains of Elam were on the north, called Charbanus and Cambalidus by Pliny (vi.
Its chief distinctions are that during the later Republic and earlier Empire it yielded excellent soldiers, and thus much aided the success of Caesar against Pompey and of Octavian against Antony, and that it gave Rome the poet Virgil (by origin a Celt), the historian Livy, the lyrist Catullus, Cornelius Nepos, the elder and the younger Pliny and other distinguished writers?
70 it was "Italia verius quam provincia" (Pliny).
Vectius Marcellus (probably mentioned by Pliny, H.N., II., 19 9) and Helvidia Priscilla.
It was known to Pliny under the name caeruleum, and the modern name azurite (given by F.
3), cotton grass, a statue of Jupiter carved out of cypress is stated by Pliny to have existed 600 years without showing signs of decay.
" I am not conscious," says he, " of having ever bought a book from a motive of ostentation; every volume, before it was deposited on the shelf, was either read or sufficiently examined "; he also mentions that he soon adopted the tolerating maxim of the elder Pliny, that no book is ever so bad as to be absolutely good for nothing.
The classics, " as low as Tacitus, Pliny the Younger and Juvenal," had been long familiar.
Pliny, on the other hand, calls it Sabine.
I, 4, 15; Pliny, Nat.
The Norway spruce seems to have been the "Picea" of Pliny, but is evidently often confused by the Latin writers with their "Abies," the Abies pectinate of modern botanists.
Next in order of date, though at a long interval, comes Pliny the Elder, in whose Historia Naturalis Book X.
The revival of learning was at hand, and William Turner, a Northumbrian, while residing abroad to avoid persecution at home, printed at Cologne in 1544 the first commentary on the birds mentioned by Aristotle and Pliny conceived in anything like the spirit that moves modern naturalists.'
2 The Seventh of Wotton's De differentiis animalium Libri Decem, published at Paris in 1552, treats of birds; but his work is merely a compilation from Aristotle and Pliny, with references to other classical writers who have more or less incidentally mentioned birds and other animals.
In Pliny their activity is limited to the practice of medicine and sorcery.
Herodotus describes the oil pits near Ardericca (near Babylon), and the pitch spring of Zacynthus (Zante), whilst Strabo, Dioscorides and Pliny mention the use of the oil of Agrigentum, in Sicily, for illumination, and Plutarch refers to the petroleum found near Ecbatana (Kerkuk).
But Strabo, Pliny and Ptolemy, as well as the y better Moslem geographers, drew the eastern only under the Graeco-Roman administration that we find a definite district known as Syria, and that was at first restricted to the Orontes basin.
In ancient vase paintings she is frequently met with; and the picture by Timanthes representing Agamemnon hiding his face at her sacrifice was one of the famous works of antiquity (Pliny, Nat.
The work was very much used (mention is made of an abridged edition) by Pliny the elder, Asconius Pedianus (the commentator on Cicero), Nonius, and the philologists.
the remains of the Swiss lake-dwellings perhaps not earlier than the bronze age, while Pliny alludes to bread made of it by the ancient Germans.
c. 785; Pliny, Nat.
Many substances were used as pigments: Pliny records white lead, cinnabar, verdigris and red oxide of iron; and the preparation of coloured glasses and enamels testifies to the uses to which these and other substances were put.
We learn from Cicero, Vitruvius, Seneca, Suetonius, Pliny and others, that the Romans had both general and topographical maps.
Thus, Varro (De rustici) mentions a map of Italy engraved on marble, in the temple of Tellus, Pliny, a map of the seat of war in Armenia, of the time of the emperor Nero, and the more famous map of the Roman Empire which was ordered to be prepared for Julius Caesar (44 B.C.), but only completed in the reign of Augustus, who placed a copy of it, engraved in marble, in the Porticus of his sister Octavia (7 B.C.).
330), Pliny and others, afford the only means of judging of its character.
Pliny's great work, the Natural History, was written during Vespasian's reign, and dedicated to his son Titus.
Pliny tells us that Caecilius, a freedman of the time of Augustus, left by his will as many as 4116.
The greater part is taken from Pliny's Natural History and the geography of Pomponius Mela.
According to Mommsen, Solinus also used a chronicle (possibly by Cornelius Bocchus) and a Chorographia pliniana, an epitome of Pliny's work with additions made about the time of Hadrian.
10) states that it likewise grew in Syria; and, according to Pliny, it was also a native plant of the Niger and Euphrates.
The tufted head or umbel is likened by Pliny to a thyrsus.
The Cyperus dives is still become that it is reported that in the reign of Tiberius, owing to the scarcity and dearness of the material caused by a failure of the papyrus crop, there was a danger of the ordinary business of life being deranged (Pliny, N.H.
The account which Pliny (N.H.
The two layers thus " woven " - Pliny uses the word texere in describing this part of the process - formed a sheet (plagula or net), which was then soaked in water of the Nile.
The different kinds of papyrus writing material and their dimensions are also enumerated by Pliny.
An interesting question arises as to the accuracy of the different measurements given by Pliny.
It has, however, been observed that in practice the width of extant rolls does not tally in any satisfactory degree with Pliny's measurements; and a more plausible explanation has been offered (Birt, Antik.
Thus, according to Pliny (Nat.
20; Pliny, Nat.
No plausible suggestion has been offered as to the purpose of these mysterious burrows, which cannot fail to remind us of the labyrinth which, according to Varro's description as quoted by Pliny (Hist.
A town of the Veneti, mentioned by Pliny, iii.
The early printed editions of Pliny erroneously named the discoverer Obsidius, and the rock obsidianus.
The mineral was probably included with selenite under Pliny's term lapis specularis.
The lapis specularis of Pliny, scattered over the Circus Maximus to produce a shining whiteness, was probably mica.
21) speaks of its gold and tin, and Pliny (A.D.
Pliny treats of these two metals as plumbum nigrum and plumbum album respectively, which seems to show that at his time they were looked upon as being only two varieties of the same species.
In regard to the ancients' knowledge of lead compounds, we may state that the substance described by Dioscorides as, uoXv,3Saiva was undoubtedly litharge, that Pliny uses the word minium in its present sense of red lead, ana that white lead was well known to Geber in the 8th century.
Pliny mentions it under the name of minium, but it was confused with cinnabar and the red arsenic sulphide; Dioscorides mentions its preparation from white lead or lead carbonate.
This pigment is of great antiquity; Theophrastus called it kibOhov, and prepared it by acting on lead with vinegar, and Pliny, who called it cerussa, obtained it by dissolving lead in vinegar and evaporating to dryness.
In art, the most famous representation was a marble group of Niobe and her children, taken by Sosius to Rome and set up in the temple of Apollo Sosianus (Pliny, Nat.
In ancient times it was disputed whether the original was the work of Praxiteles or Scopas, and modern authorities are not agreed as to its identity with the group mentioned by Pliny.
But besides this general sense, which occurs in Pliny (iii.
During the Roman period, according to Pliny, there were settlements of 26 indigenous tribes extending from the Ampsaga as far as Cyrenaica.
As the equites practically monopolized the farming of the taxes, they came to be regarded as identical with the publicani, not, as Pliny remarks, because any particular rank was necessary to obtain the farming of the taxes, but because such occupation was beyond the reach of all except those who were possessed of considerable means.
These names were known not only to Jewish but also to heathen writers, such as Pliny and Apuleius.
It occupies, as inscriptions show, the site of the ancient Tifernum Tiberinum, near which Pliny had a villa (Epist.
He has ever been the patron saint of Mediterranean sailors, who regard St Elmo's fire as the visible sign of his guardianship. The phenomenon was known to the ancient Greeks, and Pliny in his Natural History states that when there were two lights sailors called them Castor and Pollux and invoked them as gods.
The word alumen, which we translate alum, occurs in Pliny's Natural History.
Pliny informs us that alumen was found naturally in the earth.
Pliny says that there is another kind of alum which the Greeks call schistos.
Possibly in certain places the iron sulphate may have been nearly wanting, and then the salt would be white, and would answer, as Pliny says it did, for dyeing bright colours.
Several other species of alumen are described by Pliny, but we are unable to make out to what minerals he alludes.
By the introduction of a method of classification which was due to the superficial Pliny - depending, not on structure, but on the medium inhabited by an animal, whether earth, air or waterWotton is led to associate Fishes and Whales as aquatic animals.
Pliny speaks of their descent from the Medes.
cc. I, 2, 6; Pliny iv.
Hesiod, Works and Days, 41; Pliny, Nat.
From Pliny's writings it appears that the Romans in his time did not realize the distinction between tin and lead: the former was called plumbum album or candidum to distinguish it from plumbum nigrum (lead proper).
We are told by ancient writers that the toga praetexta, with its purple border (lreplirop4wpos n'i13evva), as worn by Roman magistrates and priests, had been derived from the Etruscans (Pliny, N.H.
(2) A town in Attica, mentioned by Pliny the Elder (Nat.
They had from early times a very complicated system of superstitious medicine, or religion, related to disease and the cure of disease, borrowed, as is thought, from the Etruscans; and, though the saying of Pliny that the Roman people got on for six hundred years without doctors was doubtless an exaggeration, and not, literally speaking, exact, it must be accepted for the broad truth which it contains.
It was not meant for the physicians, and was certainly little read by them, as Celsus is quoted by no medical writer, and when referred to by Pliny, is spoken of as an author not a physician.
Of Pliny, another encyclopaedic writer, a few words must be said, though he was not a physician.
Pliny disliked doctors, and lost no opportunity of depreciating regular medicine; nevertheless he has left many quotations from, and many details about, medical authors which are of the highest value.
Certain compilations still extant bear the falsely-assumed names of eminent writers, such as Pliny and Hippocrates.
of a small olive-press with one screw which is alluded to by Pliny (Nat.
Two passages in Pliny (Nat.
The tradition, recorded by Pliny (Nat.
Moreover, Pliny (xxxvi.
In chapter 25 of the same book Pliny describes five varieties of " magnes lapis."
The scene of the discovery of glass is placed by Pliny on the banks of the little river Belus, under the heights of Mount Carmel, where sand suitable for glass-making exists and wood for fuel is abundant.
Pliny has so accurately recorded the stages by which a permanent glass was developed that it may be assumed that he had good reason for claiming for Syria the discovery of glass.
Pliny no doubt means to refer to this when he says (Nat.
During the Roman occupation Pliny states that glass was made " per Hispanias " (Nat.
Pliny states that glass was made in Gaul, and there is reason to believe that it was made in many parts of the country and on a considerable scale.
Pliny states (Nat.
If there really was an important manufacture of glass in Ceylon at this early time, that island perhaps furnished the Indian glass of Pliny.
rock crystal, a correspondence with Pliny's statement respecting Indian glass which seems deserving of attention.
It lay off the main roads, and is hardly mentioned by ancient writers, though Pliny speaks of the Silis as flowing "ex montibus Tarvisanis."
The characters of the syllabary were all arranged and named, and elaborate lists of them were drawn up. The literature was for the most part inscribed with a metal stylus on tablets of clay, called laterculae coctiles by Pliny; the papyrus which seems to have been also employed has perished.
84; Pliny, H.N.
15, 16; Pliny, Nat.
Pliny states that in ancient times it was navigable for six Roman miles from its mouth.
Pliny explicitly speaks of a mineral Katiµ€ia or cadmic as serving for the conversion of copper into aurichalcum, and says further that the deposit (of zinc oxide) formed in the brass furnaces could be used instead of the mineral.
The same process was used for centuries after Pliny, but its rationale was not understood.
These are shown with coulter and share and also with wheels, which had in earlier times been fitted to ploughs by the Greeks and also by the natives of Cis-Alpine Gaul (Pliny, Hist.
Pastiteles is said by Pliny (Nat.
Kharid, the ancient Caminacum, and Kharibat el Beda, the Nesca of Pliny, where the Sabaean army was defeated by the Romans under Aelius Gallus in 24 B.C. From El Jail Halevy travelled northward, passing the oasis of Khab, and skirting the great desert, reached the fertile district of Nejran, where he found a colony of Jews, with whom he spent several weeks in the oasis of Makhlaf.
The same applies to the information of Pliny in his Natural History.
9), of Pliny (iv.
Pliny says that their wood was everlasting, and therefore images of the gods were made of it; he makes mention also of the oil of cedar, or cedrium, distilled from the wood, and used by the ancients for preserving their books from moths and damp; papyri anointed or rubbed with cedrium were on this account called ced ati libri.
72; Pliny, Nat.
The tomb at Chiusi described by Pliny (Nat.
A contemporary t ccount of this event has been preserved in two letters of the tl ounger Pliny to the historian Tacitus.
lisenum with his uncle, the elder Pliny, who was in command d f the fleet.
Comparing the si tatements of Pliny with the facts still observable in the district, 0
By the end of the 15th century n he mountain had resumed much the same general aspect as it is resented before the eruption described by Pliny.
Southern) Zee was a small inland lake situated in the southern part of the present gulf, and called Flevo by Tacitus, Pliny, and other early writers.
29; Pliny, Nat.
37), but it can scarcely be an old Latin word, as it is not found in Pliny or other classical writers, and Martial often introduced foreign words into his Latin.
Varro speaks of its apple trees which gave fruit twice in the year and Pliny praises its wine also.
With regard to the history of the metallurgy of gold, it may be mentioned that, according to Pliny, mercury was employed in his time both as a means of separating the precious metals and for the purposes of gilding.
Pliny shows that for this purpose the gold was placed on the fire in an earthen vessel with treble its weight of salt, and that it was afterwards again exposed to the fire with two parts of salt and one of argillaceous rock, which, in the presence of moisture, effected the decomposition of the salt; by this means the silver became converted into chloride.
13; Pliny xix.
c. 61-c. 113), Latin author of the Letters and the Panegyric on Trajan, was the second son of Lucius Caecilius Cilo, by Plinia, the sister of the Elder Pliny.
When the Elder Pliny was summoned to Rome by Vespasian in A.D.
By his will the Elder Pliny had made his nephew his adopted son, and the latter now assumed the nomen and praenomen of his adoptive father.
After the accession of Trajan in the same year, Pliny was associated with Tacitus in the impeachment of Marius Priscus for his maladministration of the province of Africa (ii.
The formal oration of thanks for this nomination, described by Pliny himself as his gratiarum actio (iii.
The only speech that has survived is the Panegyric on Trajan, first delivered by Pliny in the emperor's presence, next recited to the orator's friends for the space of three days, and ultimately published in an expanded form (Epp. iii.
Besides the Panegyric, we possess the nine books of Pliny's Letters, and a separate book containing his Correspondence with Trajan.
In the first letter of the first book Pliny states that he has collected certain of his letters without regard to chronological order (non servato temporis ordine).
Pliny's learned biographer, the Dutch scholar, Jean Masson (1709), wrongly assumed that this statement referred to the whole of the collection.
He inferred that all the nine books were published simultaneously; and he also held that Pliny was governor of Bithynia in A.D.
(not later than 109); and, lastly, that Pliny was governor of Bithynia from A.D.
In his Letters Pliny presents us with a picture of the varied interests of a cultivated Roman gentleman.
Pliny's Correspondence with Trajan supplies us with many interesting details as to the government of Bithynia, and as to the relations between the governor and the central authority.
On reaching the province, Pliny celebrates the emperor's birthday, and proceeds to examine the finances of Prusa.
When Pliny hesitates about a small affair relating to Dio Chrysostom (the Bithynian friend of Nerva and Trajan), the emperor betrays a not unnatural impatience in his response: potuisti non haerere, mi Secunde carissime (82).
Pliny also asks for a decision on the status and maintenance of deserted children (65), and on the custom of distributing public doles on the occasion of interesting events in the life of a private citizen.
Owing to a destructive fire at Nicomedia, Pliny suggests the formation of a volunteer fire-brigade, limited to 150 members.
This, however, they had ceased to do as soon as Pliny had published a decree against collegia, in accordance with the emperor's edict.
Trajan in his reply (Epp. 97) expresses approval of Pliny's course of action in the case of the Christians brought before him.
Hardy, and still maintained by Professor Merrill) is hard to reconcile with Pliny's own statement that the Christians had promptly obeyed the emperor's decree against collegia (§ 7).
(3) They were judged and condemned by Pliny (with Trajan's full approval) by virtue of the imperiu y n delegated to him, and in accordance with the instructions issued to governors of provinces to search out and punish sacrilegious persons.
(8) This procedure was followed by Pliny (W.
Hardy that the "double aspect of Trajan's rescript, which, while it theoretically condemned the Christians, practically gave them a certain security," explains "the different views which have since been taken of it; but by most of the church writers, and perhaps on the whole with justice, it has been regarded as favourable and as rather discouraging persecution than legalizing it" (Pliny's Correspondence with Trajan, 63, 210-217).
On Pliny's life, see the works by J.
For recent literature on Pliny and the Christians, see C. F.
It was the birthplace of both the elder and the younger Pliny, the latter of whom founded baths and a library here and gave money for the support of orphan children.
Cicero follows the account of Varro, which is also in general adopted by Pliny.
to the N., where the hill is honeycombed with chambers in three storeys (now, however, much ruined and inaccessible), partly connected by a system of passages, and supported at the base by a stone wall which forms a circle and not a square - a fact which renders impossible its identification with the tomb of Porsena, the description of which Pliny (Hist.
9; Pliny, Nat.
Pliny rightly praises Trajan as the lawgiver and the founder of discipline, and Vegetius classes Augustus, Trajan and Hadrian together as restorers of the morale of the army.
The arrival of the emperor had been awaited in the capital with an impatience which is expressed by Pliny and by Martial.'
On the 1st of September in the year zoo, when Trajan was consul for the third time, Pliny, who had been designated consul for a part of the year, was appointed to deliver the "Panegyric" which has come down to us, and forms a most important source of our knowledge concerning this emperor.
During part of that time Pliny was imperial legate in the provinces of Bithynia and Pontus, and in constant communication with Trajan.
The provinces (hitherto senatorial) were in considerable disorder, which Pliny was sent to cure.
In advising Pliny about the different free communities in the provinces, Trajan showed the same regard for traditional rights and privileges which he had exhibited in face of the senate at Rome.
The famous letter to Pliny about the Christians is, according to Roman ideas, merciful and considerate.
Trajan, who had no children, had continually delayed to settle the succession to the throne, though Pliny in the "Panegyric" had pointedly drawn his attention to the matter, and it must have caused the senate much anxiety.
Our best authority is the 68th book of Dio Cassius; then comes the "Panegyric" of Pliny, with his correspondence.
The method of making these "mild" alkalis into "caustic" alkalis by treatment with lime was practised in the time of Pliny in connexion with the manufacture of soap, and it was also known that the ashes of shore-plants yielded a hard soap and those of land-plants a soft one.
But this is unlikely, notwithstanding the fact that even some pagan writers, such as Juvenal, Pliny and Martial (?), traced a resemblance between Domitian and Nero.
LENTULUS, the name of a Roman patrician family of the Cornelian gens, derived from lentes (" lentils"), which its oldest members were fond of cultivating (according to Pliny, Nat.
The author's chief sources were Varro, Pliny, Solinus, Aquila Romanus, and Aristides Quintilianus.
In reality the Albani inhabited also the mountain valleys and the land to the north towards Sarmatia, the modern Daghestan (Pliny vi.
Pliny uses it similarly of the oath by which the Christians of Bithynia bound themselves at their solemn meetings not to commit any act of wickedness.
The Christians' of Bithynia were evidently quite frank about them to Pliny (c. 112), and Justin in his Apology reveals everything to a pagan emperor (c. 150).
31, Migne 25, 300) that a court of law had not been cleared of catechumens, Jews and pagans, in a case where the legal discussion introduced the topic of the table of Christ; and the preachers of the 4th and 1 Perhaps, however, Pliny refers only to the renegades among them.
His work, which probably began with the civil wars or the death of Caesar, was continued by the elder Pliny, who, as he himself tells us, carried it down at least as far as the end of Nero's reign.
Minos; the resemblance between the Minaeans of South Arabia and Cretan Minos has afforded grounds for all kinds of speculations, ancient (Pliny vi.
He was on intimate terms with the elder Pliny, who wrote a biography of him (now lost).
1.98; Pliny, Nat.
(Boston, 1891-1894); Pliny Earle Goddard, Life and Culture of the Hupa, Univ.
No doubt he was employed mainly, as Pliny testifies, in retouching and elaborating his general history.
of Mauretania with the accounts of coasting voyages by Nearchus and other geographers, and circulated by him under the name of Onesicritus, was largely used by Pliny.
698; Pliny, Nat.
Pacuvius obtained distinction also as a painter; and the elder Pliny (Nat.
Pliny tells us that.
was situated the village of Vicus Augustanus Laurentium, taking its name probably from Augustus himself, and probably identical with the village mentioned by Pliny the younger as separated by only one villa from his own.
The remains of the villa of Pliny, too, were excavated in 1713 and in 1802-1819, and it is noteworthy that the place bears the name Villa di Pino (sic) on the staff map; how old the name is, is uncertain.
by one Vestorius is mentioned by Vitruvius and the purple of Puteoli by Pliny, as being of special excellence), &c., but not agricultural products, except certain brands of Campanian wine; but its imports were considerably greater.
Albion, Pliny 4.16,102), the most ancient name of the British Islands, though generally restricted to England.
The name Albion was taken by medieval writers from Pliny and Ptolemy.
It was principally famous, however, for its warm sulphur springs, remarkable for their variety and curative properties (Pliny, Hist.
The opinion of Pliny, that it is the most ancient aliment of mankind, appears to be well-founded, for no less than three varieties have been found in the lake dwellings of Switzerland, in deposits belonging to the Stone Period.
49; Pliny, Nat.
The Catabanes produce frankincense and Hadramut myrrh, and there is a trade in these and other spices with merchants who make the journey from Aelana (Elath, on the Gulf of `Akaba) to Minaea in seventy days; the Gabaeans (the Gaba'an of the inscriptions, Pliny's Gebanitae) take forty days to go to Hadramut.
77, as Dilllnann has shown), in the Periplus of an anonymous contemporary of Pliny (§ 23) we read that Charibael of Zafar, " the legitimate sovereign of two nations, the Homerites and Sabaeans," maintained friendly relations with Rome by frequent embassies and gifts.
Pliny's account of Yemen, too, must be largely drawn from the expedition of Gallus, though he also used itineraries of travellers to India, like the Periplus Maxis Erythraei just quoted.
We cannot but see that their fortified posts in the north of the Sabaean kingdom had a strategical purpose; and so Pliny (xii.
Besides this road, they had the sea-route, for, according to Pliny, their allies, the Gebanites, held the port of Ocelis.
Sun-worship seems to have been peculiar to the Sabaeans and Hamdanites; and, if the Sabis of Sabota (Pliny) was in fact the sun deity Shams, this must be ascribed to Sabaean influence.
2, 2; Pliny, Paneg.
2; Pliny, Ep. vii.
The cost of maintaining the imperial postal system (vehiculatio) was transferred to the fiscus; from the same source apparently money was found for repairing the public roads and aqueducts; and lastly, the lucrative but unpopular tax of 5% on all legacies or inheritances (vicesima hereditatum), was so readjusted as to remove the grosser abuses connected with it (Pliny, Paneg.
At the same time Nerva did his best to reduce the overgrown expenditure of the state (Pliny, Ep. ii.
In October 97, in the temple of Jupiter on the Capitol, Trajan was formally adopted as his son and declared his colleague in the government of the empire (Pliny, Paneg.
20; compare also Pliny, Epistolae and Panegyricus; Tillemont, Histoire des empereurs remains, ii.; C. Merivale, History of the Romans under the Empire, ch.
Pliny speaks of the whiteness of its linen, and the productiveness of its vines is mentioned.
It is included by Pliny among the municipal towns of Etruria.
The elder Pliny described about a thousand plants, many of them famous for their medicinal virtues.
Pliny, who flourished under Vespasian, speaks particularly of a male and female palm, but his statements were not founded on any real knowledge of the organs.
28, are Kpiva, and the comparison of their beauty with royal robes suggests their identification with the red Syrian lily of Pliny.
Salts of ammonia have been known from very early times; thus the term Hammoniacus sal appears in the writings of Pliny (Nat.
Its vineyards and potteries are mentioned by Pliny, the latter doing a considerable export trade.
The name Hammoniacus sal occurs in Pliny (Nat.
The general opinion is, that the sal ammoniac of the ancients was the same as that of the moderns; but the imperfect description of Pliny is far from being conclusive.
Klaproth, has no resemblance to the salt described by Pliny.
126), in mentioning sal ammoniac, makes use of a phrase quite irreconcilable with the description of Pliny, and rather applicable to rock-salt than to our sal ammoniac. Sal ammoniac, he says, is peculiarly prized if it can be easily split into rectangular fragments.
Pliny's derivation is from the sand (iz,uµos) in which it occurred.
58, for Aphaca; Pliny, H.
146), and other ancient writers, including Pliny (Nat.
Pomet' thought that gall-nuts were the fruit of the oak, and a similar opinion obtains among the modern Chinese, who apply to them the term Mu-shih-tsze, or " fruits for the foodless."2 Hippocrates administered gall-nuts for their astringent properties, and Pliny (Nat.
4, 7; Pliny, Nat.
According to Cato (in Pliny, Nat.
That Africa had parrots does not seem to have been discovered by the ancients till long after, as Pliny tells us (vi.
This was the state of things in the time of Trajan, when the younger Pliny was appointed governor of the combined provinces (103-105 A.D.), a circumstance to which we are indebted for valuable information concerning the Roman provincial administration.
of Macedonia and the Romans, Thasos submitted to Philip, but received its freedom at the hands of the Romans after the battle of Cynoscephalae (197 B.C.), and it was still a "free" state in the time of Pliny.
His most famous pupil was Varro (116-27), the six surviving books of whose great work on the Latin language are mainly concerned with the great grammatical controversy on analogy and anomaly - a controversy which also engaged the attention of Cicero and Caesar, and of the elder Pliny and Quintilian.
470), whose Letters were modelled on those of the younger Pliny, while his poems give proof of a wide though superficial acquaintance with classical literature.
His standard authors in Latin prose are Cicero, Livy, Pliny, Frontinus and Orosius.
Pliny's Panegyric was discovered by Aurispa at Mainz (1433), and his correspondence with Trajan by Fra Giocondo in Paris about 150o.
of Arzeu is a Berber village, where are interesting ruins of a Roman settlement, identified by some authorities as the Portus Magnus of Pliny; other authorities claim Oran as occupying the site of Portus Magnus.
The name Ambrosia was also applied by Dioscorides and Pliny to certain herbs, and has been retained in modern botany for a genus of plants from which it has been extended to the group of dicotyledons called Ambrosiaceae, including Ambrosia, Xanthium and Iva, all annual herbaceous plants represented in America.
The ferret was well known to the Romans, Strabo stating that it, was brought from Africa into Spain, and Pliny that it was employed in his time in rabbithunting, under the name Viverra.
8); these or related names were known to the elder Pliny (xxx.
The so-called Dard races are referred to by Pliny and Ptolemy, and are supposed to be a people of Aryan origin who ascended the Indus valley from the plains of the Punjab, reaching as far north as Chitral, where they dispossessed the Khos.
Pliny states the Egyptian talent at 80 librae = 396,000; evidently = the Abydus lion talent, which is divided by 100, and the mina is therefore 3960, or 50 x 79.2.
34, 41; Pliny, Nat.
The mineral was mentioned by Pliny under this name, and it is sometimes now known as lead-glance (Ger.
In the time of Cicero it had lost all importance; Strabo names it as a mere village, in private hands, while for Pliny it was one of the lost cities of Latium.
Among his antiquarian works are Recueil d'antiquites egyptiennes, etrusques, grecques, romaines, et gauloises (6 vols., Paris, 1752-1755), Numismata Aurea Imperatorum Romanorum, and a Memoire (1755) on the method of encaustic painting with wax mentioned by Pliny, which he claimed to have rediscovered.
13; Suetonius, Vespasian, 15; Pliny, Epp. vii.
16), imitated by Ovid, and frequently quoted by Pliny and other writers.
The pteron consisted (according to Pliny) of thirty-six columns of the Ionic order, enclosing a square cella.
In Pliny's time there existed in many towns public schools controlled by the municipal authorities, concerning which Pliny remarks that they were a source of considerable disturbance in the town at the times when it was necessary to appoint teachers.
The Hebrides are mentioned by Ptolemy under the name of "E330uSat and by Pliny under that of Hebudes, the modern spelling having, it is said, originated in a misprint.
Pliny's Letter (Epist.
Pliny regarded their meal as identical in character with the common meals of hetairiae, i.e.
Pliny accordingly forbade them in Bithynia, and the renegade Christians to whom he owed his information gave them up. These suppers included an Eucharist: for it was because the faithful ate in the latter of the flesh and blood of the Son of God that the charge of devouring children was made against them.
If, then, this afternoon meal did not include it, Pliny's remark that their food was ordinary and innocent is unintelligible.
Probably Strabo was then in Rome; the fact that his work passed unnoticed by Roman writers such as the elder Pliny does not prove the contrary.
The old town is of Roman origin, but is only mentioned by Pliny and Ptolemy, and as a station on the coast-road in the Itineraries (Corp. Inscr.
79 (in which the elder Pliny met his death), but was soon rebuilt on the site now occupied by the modern Castellammare.
Twelve speeches of the kind (Pliny's included), eight of them by famous Gallic rhetoricians (Claudius Mamertinus, Eumenius, Nazarius, Drepanius Pacatus) and three of anonymous authorship, have been collected under the title of Panegyrici veteres latini (ed.
At this time it probably became a colony, as it certainly was in Pliny's days.
25; Pliny, Nat.
It answers well for fence-posts and river piles; many of the foundations of Venice rest upon larch, the lasting qualities of which were well known and appreciated, not only in medieval times, but in the days of Vitruvius and Pliny.
After the death of his father, he was brought up under the care of Arrius Antoninus, his maternal grandfather, a man of integrity and culture, and on terms of friendship with the younger Pliny.
Another tradition represents him as captured and slain by the Spartans during the war (Pliny, Nat.
It is the vacOa of Dioscorides, and the naphtha, or bitumen liquidum candidum of Pliny.
It was probably increased by Augustus and in Pliny's time had reached 180.
- The principalreferences to early Britain in classical writers occur in Strabo, Diodorus, Julius Caesar, the elder Pliny, Tacitus, Ptolemy and Cassius Dio, and in the lists of the Antonine Itinerary (probably about A.D.
Ioo; Plutarch, Demetrius, 47; Pliny, Nat.
457,47 1, 6 3 2)- 'Eaanvot is also used by Synesius and Hippolytus, and its Latin equivalent by Pliny and Solinus; 'Eaaa70t by Hegesippus and Porphyry.
The original accounts we have of them are confined to three authors - Philo, Pliny the Elder, and Josephus.
Solinus, who was known as " Pliny's Ape," echoed the words of his master about a century after that writer's death, which took place in A.D.
In Pliny they are a perennial colony settled on the western shore of the Dead Sea.
21-24), Strabo (esp. p. 290 ff.), Pliny, Hist.
A city mentioned by Stephanus and Pliny as situated near the Tigris, the identification of which is still uncertain.
746) makes the south limit of Mesopotamia the Median wall; Pliny (v.
This would be mainly in the towns, the growth of which was quite a feature of the Macedonian rule in Mesopotamia (Pliny, vi.
He wrote, after Aristotle and Theophrastus, books on the natural history of animals and plants, frequently quoted by the elder Pliny.
The Castilian use of the word in the sense of a right, privilege or charter is most probably to be traced to the Roman conventus juridici, otherwise known as jurisdictiones or fora, which in Pliny's time were already numerous in the Iberian peninsula.
The island, which belongs to Turkey, is of considerable size: Pliny says that the coast-line measured 1122 Roman miles, and the area has been estimated at 150 sq.
Pliny says that Athos was 87 m.
10, 2) and Ras el-Abiael (Pliny's Promunturium Album), where a passage had to be cut in the rock for the caravan road which from time immemorial traversed this narrow belt of lowland.
Among the Latin classical authors Juvenal, Suetonius and Pliny in well-known passages refer to the practice of physiognomy, and numerous allusions occur in the works of the Christian Fathers, especially Clement of Alexandria and Origen (for example, the familiar passage in his work against Celsus, i.
The spring is well described by Pliny (Epist.
PLINY Gaius Plinius Secundus (c. A.D.
Two centuries after the death of the Gracchi Pliny saw some of their autograph writings in his preceptor's library (xiii.
The dream prompted Pliny to begin forthwith a history of all the wars between the Romans and the Germans.
The story of his last hours is told in an interesting letter addressed twenty-seven years afterwards to Tacitus by the Elder Pliny's nephew and heir, the Younger Pliny (Epp. vi.
Pliny's principal authority is Varro.
Greek epigrams contribute their share in Pliny's descriptions of pictures and statues.
40), probably incorporating the substance of the earlier Greek treatises; but Pliny's indebtedness to Pasiteles is denied by Kalkmann,who holds that Pliny used the chronological work of Apollodorus, as well as a current catalogue of artists.
For a number of items relating to works of art near the coast of Asia Minor, and in the adjacent islands, Pliny was indebted to the general, statesman, orator and historian, Gaius Licinius Mucianus, who died before A.D.
Pliny mentions the works of art collected by Vespasian in the Temple of Peace and in his other galleries (xxxiv.
Like many of the finest spirits under the early empire, Pliny was an adherent to the Stoics.
About the middle of the 3rd century an abstract of the geographical portions of Pliny's work was produced by Solinus; and, early in the 4th, the medical passages were collected in the Medicina Plinii.
In the 9th Alcuin sends to Charles the Great for a copy of the earlier books (Epp. 103, Jaffe); and Dicuil gathers extracts from the pages of Pliny for his own Mensura orbis terrae (c. 825).
Pliny's work was held in high esteem in the middle ages.
Jacob Grimm, in the first paragraph of c. 37 of his Deutsche Mythologie, writing with his own fellow-countrymen in view, has commended Pliny for condescending, in the midst of his survey of the sciences of botany and zoology, to tell of the folklore of plants and animals, and has even praised him for the pains that he bestowed on his style.
Most of the recent research on Pliny has been concentrated on the investigation of his authorities, especially those which he followed in his chapters on the history of art - the only ancient account of that subject which has survived.
It represents an ancient Roman with an almost completely bald forehead and a double chin; and is almost certainly a portrait, not of Pliny the Elder, but of Pompey the Great.
The elder Pliny's anecdotes of Greek artists supplied Vasari with the subjects of the frescoes.
Urlichs, with excellent Einleitung (Berlin, 1857); The Elder Pliny's Chapters on the History of Art, trans.
On Pliny's supposed portrait, see Bernoulli, Rom.
On Pliny's Authorities, see especially F.
The Younger Pliny >>
When Pliny wrote his famous letter to Trajan (A.D.
This date agrees nearly with that given by Pliny (H.
27) and Pliny (N.
Friedlein, p. 65; Pliny, H.
Amongst private persons who owned villas at Praeneste were Pliny the younger and Symmachus.
3, 51, 52) and Pliny (H.N.
The springs mentioned by Pliny (Hist.
8.9) and Pliny (Nat.
This mountainous character and the absence of any tolerable harbour - Pliny, in enumerating the islands of the Aegean, calls it "importuosissima omnium" - prevented it from ever attaining to any political importance, but it enjoyed great celebrity from its connexion with the worship of the Cabeiri, a mysterious triad of divinities, concerning whom very little is known, but who appear, like all the similar deities venerated in different parts of Greece, to have been a remnant of a previously existing Pelasgic mythology.
But the island appears to have always enjoyed the advantage of autonomy, probably on account of its sacred character, and even in the time of Pliny it ranked as a free state.
p. 228), as well as by Pliny, who terms the additional territory thus incorporated Latium Adjectum, while he designates the original Latium, extending from the Tiber to Circeii, as Latium Antiquum.
A list of those who were wont to participate in the sacrifices on the Alban Mount is given us by Pliny (N.H.
Many of the smaller places mentioned in the list of Dionysius, or the early wars of the Romans, had altogether ceased to exist, but the statement of Pliny that fifty-three communities (populi) had thus perished within the boundaries of Old Latium is perhaps exaggerated.
Latiuvi NovUM or Adjectum, as it is termed by Pliny, comprised the territories occupied in earlier times by the Volsci and Hernici.
But it was not separated from the adjacent territories by any natural frontier or physical boundaries, and it is only by the enumeration of the towns in Pliny according to the division of Italy by Augustus that we can determine its limits.
writings of Poliziano, the Hypnerotomachia Poliphili, Dante's Divine Comedy, Petrarch's poems, a collection of early Latin poets of the Christian era, the letters of the younger Pliny, the poems of Pontanus, Sannazzaro's Arcadia, Quintilian, Valerius Maximus, and the Adagia of Erasmus were printed, either in first editions, or with a beauty of type and paper never reached before, between the years 1495 and 1514.
It is, however, noteworthy that Pliny (Hist.
It is related that he ordered the architect Dinochares to build a temple in her honour in Alexandria; in order that her statue, made of iron, might appear to be suspended in the air, the roof was to consist of an arch of loadstones (Pliny, Hist.
But one or other of the remaining varieties mentioned by Pliny (the Macedonian, the Arabian, the Cyprian, &c.) may be the true diamond, which was in great request for the tool of the gem-engraver.
Interesting descriptions of it are given by Pliny the Younger (Epist.
Pliny refers to it as the Lake of Taricheae.
Pliny further informs us that Taricheae was at the south end of the Sea of Galilee.
During the early Tertiary age it belonged to the Sarmatian Ocean, which reached from the middle Danube eastwards through Rumania, South Russia, and along both flanks of the Caucasus to the Aralo-Caspian region, and westwards had open communication with the great ocean, as indeed the ancient geographers Eratosthenes, Strabo and Pliny believed it still had in their day.
14), and the tithe of frankincense paid in Arabia to the god Sabis (Pliny, H.N.
It is singular that, while we possess a detailed description of this famous eruption in two letters of the younger Pliny (Epist.
It is called - as usual without any authority - the villa of Arrius Diomedes; but its remains are of peculiar interest to us, not only for comparison with the numerous ruins of similar buildings which occur elsewhere - often of greater extent, but in a much less perfect state of preservation - but as assisting us in understanding the description of ancient authors, such as Vitruvius and Pliny, of the numerous appurtenances frequently annexed to houses of this description.
In the two provinces of Mauretania there were at the time of Pliny a number of towns, including seven (possibly eight) Roman colonies in M.
105 if.; Strabo, especially pp. 193 if., 290 if.; Pliny, Natural History, iv.
The "chalcedonius" of Pliny was quite a different mineral, being a green stone from the copper-mines of Chalcedon, in Asia Minor, whence the name.
2 Among other crimes attributed to the species is that, according to Pliny (Hist.
Vitruvius's name is mentioned by Frontinus in his work on the aqueducts of Rome; and most of what Pliny says (Hist.
It superseded Babylon as the industrial focus of Babylonia and counted some 600,000 inhabitants (plebs urbana) according to Pliny, N.H.
In Mesopotamia, Pliny especially notes how the character of the country was changed when the old village life was broken in upon by new centres of population in the cities of Macedonian foundation (Pliny, N.H.
His future eminence as a poet was foretold when a nightingale perched upon his lips and sang (Pliny, Nat.
To prevent the plant from running to leaf, Pliny (Nat.
11), and, as Pliny tells us (N.H.
Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at cross-roads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, AECUISacµovias); and according to Pliny garlic and onions were invocated as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths.
Nebaioth and Kedar suggest the Nabataei and Cedrei of Pliny (v.
Dumah may perhaps be the same as the Domata of Pliny (vi.
- Our earliest knowledge of Denmark is derived from Pliny, who speaks of three islands named " Skandiai," a name which is also applied to Sweden.
The Promontorium Cimbrorum is spoken of in Pliny, who says that the Sinus Codanus lies between it and Mons Saevo.
The ancient Eburum was a Lucanian city, mentioned only by Pliny and in inscriptions, not far distant from the Campanian border.
The statement of Cato (in Pliny, Nat.
Livy gives their chief towns as Brixia (Brescia) and Verona; Pliny, Brixia and Cremona.
According to Artemidorus (whose authority is followed by Strabo), the towns that formed the Lycian league in the days of its integrity were twentythree in number; but Pliny states that Lycia once possessed seventy towns, of which only twenty-six remained in his day.
8, 12); and Pliny, Nat.
33) and afterwards by Strabo and Pliny.
It is, however, probable that the version given in one passage by Pliny (H.N.
The only foundation for this is to be found in the fact that in a passage cited by Pliny (H.
Like the Cubi, they also are called liberi by Pliny.
Classical: Layard, Nineveh and Babylon (1853); Pliny, Natural History, bk.
India to the east of the Indus was first made known in Europe by the historians' and men of science who accompanied Alexander the Great in 327 B.C. Their narratives, although now lost, are condensed in Strabo, Pliny and Arrian.
33; Pliny, Epp. viii.
34; Pliny, Nat.
1151) when it fell beneath the great eruption of the year 79, described by Pliny the younger vi.
According to the commonest account, on the 23rd of August of that year Pliny the elder, who had command of the Roman fleet at Misenum, set out to render assistance to a young lady of noble family named Rectina and others dwelling on that coast, but, as there was no escape by sea, the little harbour having been on a sudden filled up so as to be inaccessible, he was obliged to abandon to their fate those people of Herculaneum who had managed to flee from their houses, overwhelmed in a moment by the material poured forth by Vesuvius.
But the text of Pliny the younger, where this account is given, has been subjected to various interpret ations; and from the comparison of other classical testimonies and the study of the excavations it has been concluded that it is impossible to determine the date of the catastrophe, though there are satisfactory arguments to justify the statement that the event took place in the autumn.
And the last recensions of the passage quoted from Pliny, aided by an inscription, 3 prove that Rectina cannot have been the name of the harbour described by Beule (ib.
The torrent ran in a few hours to the sea, and formed that shallow or lagoon called by Pliny Subitum Vadum, which prevented the ships approaching the shores."
It had been previously called by the Portuguese "Ilha do Cerne," from the belief that it was the island so named by Pliny.
p. 779), Pliny (N.H.
that of Pliny and Seneca.
His most devoted admirers were the younger Pliny, who reproduced his oratorical style with considerable success, and Quintilian (x.
from Hallstatt, were the most famous iron mines of antiquity, which produced the Noric iron and Noric swords so prized and dreaded by the Romans (Pliny, Hist.
Lerida is the Ilerda of the Romans, and was the capital of the people whom they called Ilerdenses (Pliny) or Ilergetes (Ptolemy).
80; Pliny, Nat.
Pliny calls it the last town of Italy on the north-west, and its position at the confluence of two rivers, at the end of the Great and Little St Bernard, gave it considerable military importance, which is vouched for by considerable remains of Roman buildings.
Ausc. 149 seq.; Pliny viii.
In Sicily also, where Pliny (xxxvii.
Among these are the supposed traces of 2nd-century Gnosticism and " hierarchical " ideas of organization; but especially the argument from the relation of the Roman state to the Christians, which Ramsay has reversed and turned into proof of an origin prior to Pliny's correspondence with Trajan on the subject.
But the middle age in science must include much of antiquity, including Pliny.
16; Pliny, N.H.
According to Pliny, Spanish, Gallic and Greek wines were all consumed in Rome during the 1st century of the Christian era, but in Gaul the production of wine appears to have been limited to certain districts on the Rhone and Gironde.
He was often accompanied by 'Ayaq Tim (good fortune), and in this aspect may be compared with the Roman Bonus Eventus (Pliny, Nat Hist.
Gaius Antonius, nicknamed Hybrida from his half-savage disposition (Pliny, Nat.
Under the constraining power of the Roman Empire the older city states were reduced to the position of municipalities, and their financial administration became dependent on the control of the Emperor - as is abundantly illustrated in the correspondence of Pliny and Trajan.
The city was used by the Romans as a place of banishment: St Clement of Rome was exiled hither and first preached the 1 In Pliny "Heraclea Chersonesus," probably owing to a confusion with the name of the mother city.
Thirdly, what matter, I ask, if the description of the instances should fill six times as many volumes as Pliny's History?.
The preparation of the fibre as conducted in Egypt is illustrated by Pliny, who says: " The stalks themselves are immersed in water, warmed by the heat of the sun, and are kept down by weights placed upon them, for nothing is lighter than flax.
Men are not ashamed to prepare it " (Pliny, N.H.
Besides copper, according to Strabo, the island produced considerable quantities of silver; and Pliny records it as producing various kinds of precious stones, among which he mentions diamonds and emeralds, but these were doubtless nothing more than rock crystal and beryl.
She accordingly stabbed herself with a dagger, which she then handed to him with the words, "Paetus, it does not hurt" (Paete, non dolet; see Pliny, Epp. iii.
As, according to Pliny, the Roman supply was chiefly drawn from Cyprus, it came to be termed aes cyprium, which was gradually shortened to cyprium, and corrupted into cuprum, whence comes the English word copper, the French cuivre, and the German Kupfer.
Other early Roman writers, Mela and Pliny, mention the country under the name Scandinavia (Skane), a name which in native records seems always to have been confined to the southernmost district in the peninsula.
508, 514; Pliny, Nat.
A project of Seleucus to connect the Caspian with the Sea of Azov by means of a canal is mentioned by Pliny (vi.