Plexopathy sentence example

plexopathy
  • Brachial plexopathy is any injury to the brachial plexus-the nerve bundles located on each side of the neck that give rise to the individual nerves controlling the muscles of the shoulders, arms, and hands.
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  • Brachial plexopathy occurs most often during birth, when an infant's neck and shoulders are stretched apart during passage through the birth canal.
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  • There are four general types of injury, and an individual brachial plexopathy may include any or all of these injury types, on one or both (bilateral) sides of the body.
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  • It is estimated that in North America between one and three of every 1,000 newborns are affected to some extent by brachial plexopathy.
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  • However, some physicians are concerned that the late 1990s and early 2000s trend toward decreasing elective c-section deliveries will result in more cases of brachial plexopathy among newborns.
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  • Erb's palsy is the most common type of obstetric brachial plexopathy.
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  • Brachial plexopathy can result when the following events occur.
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  • An individual brachial plexopathy may include any or all of these injury types, on one or both (bilateral) sides of the body.
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  • Premature and underdeveloped newborns are at a decreased risk for brachial plexopathy.
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  • Breech deliveries increase the risk of brachial plexopathy by 175-fold, often causing bilateral injuries to the lower nerve roots of the brachial plexus.
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  • A mother who has had previous brachial-plexus-injured infants is at a 14-fold-increased risk of having another infant with brachial plexopathy.
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  • The symptoms of brachial plexopathy vary greatly depending on the extent and severity of the damage.
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  • Symptoms of such fractures and dislocations may be similar to those of brachial plexopathy and can cause infants to not move their arms.
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  • Those at risk for obstetric brachial plexopathy are also at risk for fractures and dislocations during birth.
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  • Gentle massage and range-of-motion (ROM) exercises usually are initiated immediately, even in infants with very mild brachial plexopathy.
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  • Treatment for brachial plexopathy may include a combination of exercises and focused physical, occupational, and aquatic therapies.
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  • Play therapies are used to extend ROM from six months of age on in children with brachial plexopathy.
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  • Other treatments for brachial plexopathy can be used.
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  • About 85 percent of infants with brachial plexopathy make a complete neurological recovery within three to six years.
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  • However, the prognosis for an individual brachial plexopathy depends on the location, severity, and extent of the damage and may be difficult to predict.
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  • Complete recovery from brachial plexopathy may be difficult to define.
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  • The delay in normal functioning caused by brachial plexopathy and any muscle imbalances across a joint can have a major impact on the child's growing skeleton and can result in permanent muscular-skeletal abnormalities.
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  • The primary prevention for obstetrical brachial plexopathy is the avoidance of a potentially difficult delivery by choosing cesarean section.
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  • Although exercises required to treat brachial plexopathy in infants may be painful, they are essential for preventing much more serious pain and suffering as the child grows.
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