Such an immigrant, therefore, must have become at once a free plebeian citizen of Rome.
Incidentally this involved an extension of plebeian privilege in two directions.
But the Kabuki-za and its yakusha (actors) remained always a plebeian institution.
If so, there would be no place in Athens for those great plebeian houses, once patrician in some other commonwealth, out of which the later Roman nobilitas was so largely formed.
The nobles not only had privileges of rank and dignity, but substantial power over the plebeian or peasant class (macehualli).
GAIUS FLAMINIUS, Roman statesman and general, of plebeian family.
Plebeian handicrafts assert their right to be represented on an equality with learned professions and wealthy corporations.
GAIUS MARIUS (155-86 B.C.), Roman general, of plebeian descent, the son of a small farmer of Cereatae (mod.
The agricultural plebeian of old Rome and the feudal noble of contemporary Europe were both of them at Venice impossible characters.
In theory, the twelve plebeian centuries were open to all freeborn youths of the age of seventeen, although in practice preference was given to the members of the older families.
The concilium plebis, although voting, like this last assembly, by tribes, could be summoned and presided over only by plebeian magistrates, and never included the patricians.
Since the plebeian element in the state had an immense numerical preponderance over the patrician these disabilities were not widely spread, and seem generally to have been cheerfully borne as the price of belonging to the families still recognized as the oldest and noblest in Rome.
At Rome down to the last it made a difference whether the candidate for office was patrician or plebeian, though the difference was in later times commonly to the advantage of the plebeian.
But although the curule aediles always ranked higher than the plebeian, their functions gradually approximated and became practically identical.
She was worshipped almost exclusively by plebeians, and her temple near the Circus Maximus was under the care of the plebeian aediles, one of whose duties was the superintendence of the corn-market.
Returning home, he was appointed tutor to the sons of Henry II., by one of whom (Charles IX.) he was afterwards made grand almoner (1561) and by the other (Henry III.) was appointed, in spite of his plebeian origin, commander of the order of the Holy Ghost.
Its utterances (plebiscite) had the full force of law; it elected the tribunes of the plebs and the plebeian aediles, and it pronounced judgment on the penalties which they proposed.
aedilis), in Roman antiquities, the name of certain Roman magistrates, probably derived from aedis (a temple), because they had the care of the temple of Ceres, where the plebeian archives were kept.
Enamoured of the beautiful daughter of the plebeian centurion Virginius, Claudius attempted to seize her by an abuse of justice.
Of one family, of the plebeian Claudian gens, only a single member, Gaius Claudius Cicero, tribune in 454 B.C., is known.
439 B.C.), a wealthy Roman plebeian, who during a severe famine bought up a large amount of corn and sold it at a low price to the people.
MARCUS FULVIUS NOBILIOR, Roman general, a member of one of the most important families of the plebeian Fulvian gens.
The tribunate called into existence a purely plebeian assembly, firstly, for the election of plebeian magistrates; secondly, for jurisdiction in cases where these magistrates had been injured; thirdly, for presenting petitions on behalf of the plebs through the consuls to the comitia centuriata.
He probably also instituted the "plebeian" games.
They were originally two in number, called " plebeian " aediles.
The whole lesson is lost if the words "patrician" and "plebeian" are used in any but their strict sense.
But the phrase "Campanian arrogance" seems to have been used proverbially for "gasconade"; and, as there was a plebeian gens Naevia in Rome, it is quite as probable that he was by birth a Roman citizen.
These were naturally those families which had been patrician in some other Italian city, but which were plebeian at Rome.
The plebeian assembly, which had perhaps originally met by curiae, was organized on the basis of the territorial tribes in 471 B.C. This change suggested a renewed organization of the whole people for comitial purposes.
In spite of the formal differences of these four assemblies and the real distinction springing from the fact that patricians were not members of the plebeian bodies, the view which is appropriate to the developed Roman constitution is that the people expressed its will equally through all, although the mode of expression varied with the channel.
GAIUS LICINIUS CALVUS STOLO, Roman statesman, the chief representative of the plebeian Licinian gens, was tribune in 377 B.C., consul in 361.
Originally intended as assistants to the tribunes, they exercised certain police functions, were empowered to inflict fines and managed the plebeian and Roman games.
Livy could never get rid of the idea that the old struggle between patrician and plebeian was something like the struggle between the nobility and the people at large in the later days of the commonwealth.
That is to say, it consisted of the remains of the old patriciate, together with those plebeian families any members of which had been chosen to curule offices.
LUCULLUS, the name of a Roman plebeian family of the Licinian gens.
This was the growth of the new nobility of Rome, that body, partly patrician, partly plebeian, to whom the name nobilitas strictly belongs in Roman history.
Just as the old patricians had striven to keep plebeians out of high offices, so now the new nobles, patrician and plebeian alike, strove to keep "new men," men who had not the jus imaginum, out of high office.
But there was still the difference that in the old state of things the plebeian was shut out by law, while in the new state of things no law shut out the new man.
The case is again often misunderstood because the words "patrician" and "plebeian," like so many other technical Roman and Greek words, have come in modern language to be used in a way quite unlike their original sense.
The word "plebeian," in its strict sense, is no more contemptuous than the word commoner !in England.
Not long after his arrival in Sijistan, Ibn Ash`ath, exasperated by the masterful tone of Hajjaj, the plebeian, towards himself, the high-born, decided to revolt.
The so-called cities (7rbXas) of the TEpioucot answered pretty well to the local plebeian tribes; the difference is that the 7repioLKOC never became a united corporate body like the Roman plebs.
The practical result of the Licinian reform was that the great plebeian families became, for all practical purposes, patrician.
15, with the a plebeian family in ancient Rome, arrogance.
Thus, at a comparatively early period, three classes of equites may be distinguished: (a) The patrician equites equo publico of the sex suifragia; (b) the plebeian equites in the twelve remaining centuries; (c) the equites equo private, both patrician and plebeian.
More than Naevius and Plautus he represented the pure native element in that literature, the mind and character of Latium, the plebeian pugnacity, which was one of the great forces in the Roman state.
"The people build cities, princes pull them down; the industry of the citizens creates wealth for rapacious lords to plunder; plebeian magistrates pass good laws for kings to violate; the people love peace, and their rulers stir up war."
After the death of Peter the Great, Golitsuin became the recognized head of the old Conservative party which had never forgiven Peter for putting away Eudoxia and marrying the plebeian Martha Skavronskaya.
The wealth of the burghers during this period was equalled by their turbulent spirit of independence; feuds were frequent, - against the rival city of Bruges, against the counts, or, within the city itself, between the plebeian crafts and the patrician governing class.
We see indeed faint traces of distinction among the patricians themselves, which may lead us to guess that the equality of all patricians may have been won by struggles of unrecorded days, not unlike those which in recorded days brought about the equality of patrician and plebeian.
The proud Arabic lords could not acquiesce in paying to a plebeian...
The distinction between patrician and plebeian, domestic slavery, and beating and slicing to death were abolished.
CRASSUS (literally "dense," "thick," "fat"), a family name in the Roman gens Licinia (plebeian).
The election of a plebeian to the office for the first time in 337 was certainly opposed by the consul who presided at the election, but there appears to have been no legal obstacle to it.
For these settlers he has to find British wives, and to this end collects 11,000 noble and 60,000 plebeian virgins, who are wrecked on their passage across.
plebeian people are described as the unproblematic response to circumstances beyond their own control.
plebeian critics sought, in contrast, to make it nonsensical or disastrous.
Patrician rank seems to have been regarded as a necessary attribute of the princeps; and in two cases we are told that it was conferred upon a plebeian princeps by the senate (Vita Juliani, 3; Macrini, 7) .
When one branch of a family was admitted and one shut out we have an analogy to the patrician and plebeian Claudii, though the distinction had come about in quite another way.
Writers, savants, poets, artists, noble and plebeian, layman and cleric, without any previous concert, or obvious connexion, were working towards that ideal of political liberty which was to unite all the Magyars.
But its aristocratic organization, based as this was on property qualifications which gave the greatest voting power to the richest men, prevented it from being a fitting channel for the expression of plebeian claims. Hence the plebs adopted a new political organization of their own.
Again, a method of taking up Roman citizenship which is well attested for a very early period reveals the possibility of a plebeian who does not stand in any relation to a patron.
At the close of the monarchy, the plebeian possessed the private rights of citizenship in entirety, except for his inability to contract a legal marriage with a patrician, and one of the public rights, that of giving his vote in the assembly.'
But the adoption of P. Clodius Pulcher into a plebeian family in J9 B.C. with a view to election to the tribunate shows that a rejection of patrician rights (transitio ad plebem) was not difficult to effect by any patrician who preferred actual power to the dignity of ancient descent.
Instead of the old hereditary nobility, consisting of the members of the patrician clans, there arose a nobility of office, consisting of all those families, whether patrician or plebeian, which had held curule office.
Virginius, a plebeian centurion.
Latin will be counted the language of the earlier plebeian stratum of the population of Rome and Latium, probably once spread over a large area of the peninsula, and akin in sijme degree to the language or languages spoken in north Italy before either the Etruscan or the Gallic invasions began.
As a man he shows many of the strong qualities of the old Roman plebeian - the aggressive boldness, the intolerance of superiority and privilege, which animated the tribunes in their opposition to the senatorian rule.
Manius AcILIUS Glabrio, Roman statesman and general, member of a plebeian family.
Whether we regard him as a priest who published poem after poem in praise of an adored mistress, as a plebeian man of letters who conversed on equal terms with kings and princes, as a solitary dedicated to the love of nature, as an amateur diplomatist treating affairs of state with pompous eloquence in missives sent to popes and emperors, or again as a traveller eager for change of scene, ready to climb mountains for the enjoyment of broad prospects over spreading champaigns; in all these divers manifestations of his peculiar genius we trace some contrast with the manners of the, 4th century, some emphatic anticipation of the 16th.
PISO, the name of a distinguished Roman plebeian family of the Calpurnian gens which continued in existence till the end of the 2nd century A.D.
The pureblood Ruman population, noble and plebeian, inhabited the cities and towns or larger villages; the peasantry were mostly of Little Russian and Hungarian race, and were in a servile condition.
Their narrative is unmethodical and inartificial; their style is tame and plebeian; their conception of biography is that of a collection of anecdotes; they have II.
POMPEY, the common English form of Pompeius, the name of a Roman plebeian family.
The Ogulnian law in the same year increased the number to nine, five plebeian being added to the four patrician members.
AHENOBARBUS (" brazen-bearded"), the name of a plebeian Roman family of the gens Domitia.
Mummius was the first novas homo of plebeian origin who received a distinctive cognomen for military services.
The Banda-manna saga (1050-1060), the only comedy among the sagas, is also a northern tale; it relates the struggles of a plebeian who gets a chieftancy against the old families of the neighbourhood, whom he successfully outwits; Ol-kofra pattr is a later imitation of it in the same humorous strain.
subject or plebeian tribes, or in other words the Firbolgs, who paid daer- or base rent to the Milesians.
They looked down on the Syrian, they thought the Berber a lout and a plebeian, they scorned the renegade, and called him a slave and son of a slave.
Behetrias, called plebeian lordships, were districts and townships of peasants who were bound to have a lord, and to make him payments in money or in kind, but who had a varying freedom of choice in electing their lord.
After the war Laelius advanced from plebeian aedile (197) to praetor in Sicily (196) to consul (190 ).
plebeian aedile (197) to praetor in Sicily (196) to consul (190 ).
plebeian classes, and given them this higher mental ambition.
plebeian agitators had been dispossessed by machines and treated as machines.
No general law was ever passed to abolish the privileges of the patricians; still less was any law ever passed to abolish the distinction between patrician and plebeian.
While at Rome the distinction of patrician and plebeian was never wiped out, while it remained to the last a legal distinction even when practical privilege had turned the other way, at Athens, after the democracy had reached its full growth, the distinction seems to have had no legal existence whatever.
Yet even in good writers on Roman history the words "patrician" and "plebeian" are often misapplied by being transferred to the later disputes at Rome, in which they are quite out of place.
The process which at Rome gradually gave the plebeian a political advantage over the patrician was carried at Florence to a far greater length at a single blow.
He said among other things: " The Jacobins of contemporary social democracy - the Bolsheviks - desire that the people, that is the proletarians and peasants, should settle the reckoning of Monarchy and Aristocracy in plebeian fashion - by ruthlessly annihilating the enemies of freedom."
The gens contained a patrician and a plebeian family; the chief representatives of the former were the Pulchri, of the latter the Marcelli (see Marcellus).
These were the inauguration of the rex sacrorum and the flamens, and that abjuration of hereditary worship (detestatio sacrorum) which was made by a man who passed from his clan (gens) either by an act of adrogation (see Roman Law and Adoption) or by transition from the patrician to the plebeian order.
Mommsen that the plebeian order had its sole origin in the clients who attached themselves in a position of semi-freedom to the heads of patrician houses, and gradually evolved a freedom and citizenship of their own (see Patron And Client).
First, it was necessary to unify the plebeian order by putting the legal status of the clients on a level with that of the unattached plebeians; and again enrolment in the army involved registration in the tribes and centuries; and as the army soon developed into a legislative assembly meeting in centuries (comitia centuriata), the whole citizen body, including plebeians, now acquired a share of political power, which had hitherto belonged solely to the patricians.
The proud Arabic lords could not acquiesce in paying to a plebeian like Hajjaj, invested with absolute power by the caliph, the strict obedience he required.
The earlier centuries were called sex suiragia (" the six votes"); and at first consisted exclusively of patricians, while those of Servius Tullius were entirely or far the most part plebeian.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.