Such an immigrant, therefore, must have become at once a free plebeian citizen of Rome.
Incidentally this involved an extension of plebeian privilege in two directions.
If so, there would be no place in Athens for those great plebeian houses, once patrician in some other commonwealth, out of which the later Roman nobilitas was so largely formed.
But the Kabuki-za and its yakusha (actors) remained always a plebeian institution.
The nobles not only had privileges of rank and dignity, but substantial power over the plebeian or peasant class (macehualli).
Plebeian handicrafts assert their right to be represented on an equality with learned professions and wealthy corporations.
Since the plebeian element in the state had an immense numerical preponderance over the patrician these disabilities were not widely spread, and seem generally to have been cheerfully borne as the price of belonging to the families still recognized as the oldest and noblest in Rome.
Of one family, of the plebeian Claudian gens, only a single member, Gaius Claudius Cicero, tribune in 454 B.C., is known.
GAIUS FLAMINIUS, Roman statesman and general, of plebeian family.
Returning home, he was appointed tutor to the sons of Henry II., by one of whom (Charles IX.) he was afterwards made grand almoner (1561) and by the other (Henry III.) was appointed, in spite of his plebeian origin, commander of the order of the Holy Ghost.
GAIUS MARIUS (155-86 B.C.), Roman general, of plebeian descent, the son of a small farmer of Cereatae (mod.
439 B.C.), a wealthy Roman plebeian, who during a severe famine bought up a large amount of corn and sold it at a low price to the people.
At Rome down to the last it made a difference whether the candidate for office was patrician or plebeian, though the difference was in later times commonly to the advantage of the plebeian.
That is to say, it consisted of the remains of the old patriciate, together with those plebeian families any members of which had been chosen to curule offices.
Livy could never get rid of the idea that the old struggle between patrician and plebeian was something like the struggle between the nobility and the people at large in the later days of the commonwealth.
The agricultural plebeian of old Rome and the feudal noble of contemporary Europe were both of them at Venice impossible characters.
Aedilis), in Roman antiquities, the name of certain Roman magistrates, probably derived from aedis (a temple), because they had the care of the temple of Ceres, where the plebeian archives were kept.
LUCULLUS, the name of a Roman plebeian family of the Licinian gens.
The concilium plebis, although voting, like this last assembly, by tribes, could be summoned and presided over only by plebeian magistrates, and never included the patricians.
This was the growth of the new nobility of Rome, that body, partly patrician, partly plebeian, to whom the name nobilitas strictly belongs in Roman history.
These were naturally those families which had been patrician in some other Italian city, but which were plebeian at Rome.
Just as the old patricians had striven to keep plebeians out of high offices, so now the new nobles, patrician and plebeian alike, strove to keep "new men," men who had not the jus imaginum, out of high office.
But there was still the difference that in the old state of things the plebeian was shut out by law, while in the new state of things no law shut out the new man.
He probably also instituted the "plebeian" games.
Thus, at a comparatively early period, three classes of equites may be distinguished: (a) The patrician equites equo publico of the sex suifragia; (b) the plebeian equites in the twelve remaining centuries; (c) the equites equo private, both patrician and plebeian.
MARCUS FULVIUS NOBILIOR, Roman general, a member of one of the most important families of the plebeian Fulvian gens.
Patrician rank seems to have been regarded as a necessary attribute of the princeps; and in two cases we are told that it was conferred upon a plebeian princeps by the senate (Vita Juliani, 3; Macrini, 7) .
The case is again often misunderstood because the words "patrician" and "plebeian," like so many other technical Roman and Greek words, have come in modern language to be used in a way quite unlike their original sense.
The word "plebeian," in its strict sense, is no more contemptuous than the word commoner !in England.
The whole lesson is lost if the words "patrician" and "plebeian" are used in any but their strict sense.
When one branch of a family was admitted and one shut out we have an analogy to the patrician and plebeian Claudii, though the distinction had come about in quite another way.
But the phrase "Campanian arrogance" seems to have been used proverbially for "gasconade"; and, as there was a plebeian gens Naevia in Rome, it is quite as probable that he was by birth a Roman citizen.
In theory, the twelve plebeian centuries were open to all freeborn youths of the age of seventeen, although in practice preference was given to the members of the older families.
Writers, savants, poets, artists, noble and plebeian, layman and cleric, without any previous concert, or obvious connexion, were working towards that ideal of political liberty which was to unite all the Magyars.
They were originally two in number, called " plebeian " aediles.
Originally intended as assistants to the tribunes, they exercised certain police functions, were empowered to inflict fines and managed the plebeian and Roman games.
But although the curule aediles always ranked higher than the plebeian, their functions gradually approximated and became practically identical.
More than Naevius and Plautus he represented the pure native element in that literature, the mind and character of Latium, the plebeian pugnacity, which was one of the great forces in the Roman state.
"The people build cities, princes pull them down; the industry of the citizens creates wealth for rapacious lords to plunder; plebeian magistrates pass good laws for kings to violate; the people love peace, and their rulers stir up war."
Enamoured of the beautiful daughter of the plebeian centurion Virginius, Claudius attempted to seize her by an abuse of justice.
But its aristocratic organization, based as this was on property qualifications which gave the greatest voting power to the richest men, prevented it from being a fitting channel for the expression of plebeian claims. Hence the plebs adopted a new political organization of their own.
The tribunate called into existence a purely plebeian assembly, firstly, for the election of plebeian magistrates; secondly, for jurisdiction in cases where these magistrates had been injured; thirdly, for presenting petitions on behalf of the plebs through the consuls to the comitia centuriata.
The plebeian assembly, which had perhaps originally met by curiae, was organized on the basis of the territorial tribes in 471 B.C. This change suggested a renewed organization of the whole people for comitial purposes.
In spite of the formal differences of these four assemblies and the real distinction springing from the fact that patricians were not members of the plebeian bodies, the view which is appropriate to the developed Roman constitution is that the people expressed its will equally through all, although the mode of expression varied with the channel.
Its utterances (plebiscite) had the full force of law; it elected the tribunes of the plebs and the plebeian aediles, and it pronounced judgment on the penalties which they proposed.
After the death of Peter the Great, Golitsuin became the recognized head of the old Conservative party which had never forgiven Peter for putting away Eudoxia and marrying the plebeian Martha Skavronskaya.
Again, a method of taking up Roman citizenship which is well attested for a very early period reveals the possibility of a plebeian who does not stand in any relation to a patron.
At the close of the monarchy, the plebeian possessed the private rights of citizenship in entirety, except for his inability to contract a legal marriage with a patrician, and one of the public rights, that of giving his vote in the assembly.'
But the adoption of P. Clodius Pulcher into a plebeian family in J9 B.C. with a view to election to the tribunate shows that a rejection of patrician rights (transitio ad plebem) was not difficult to effect by any patrician who preferred actual power to the dignity of ancient descent.
Instead of the old hereditary nobility, consisting of the members of the patrician clans, there arose a nobility of office, consisting of all those families, whether patrician or plebeian, which had held curule office.
Not long after his arrival in Sijistan, Ibn Ash`ath, exasperated by the masterful tone of Hajjaj, the plebeian, towards himself, the high-born, decided to revolt.
GAIUS LICINIUS CALVUS STOLO, Roman statesman, the chief representative of the plebeian Licinian gens, was tribune in 377 B.C., consul in 361.
Virginius, a plebeian centurion.
Latin will be counted the language of the earlier plebeian stratum of the population of Rome and Latium, probably once spread over a large area of the peninsula, and akin in sijme degree to the language or languages spoken in north Italy before either the Etruscan or the Gallic invasions began.
The wealth of the burghers during this period was equalled by their turbulent spirit of independence; feuds were frequent, - against the rival city of Bruges, against the counts, or, within the city itself, between the plebeian crafts and the patrician governing class.
She was worshipped almost exclusively by plebeians, and her temple near the Circus Maximus was under the care of the plebeian aediles, one of whose duties was the superintendence of the corn-market.
The so-called cities (7rbXas) of the TEpioucot answered pretty well to the local plebeian tribes; the difference is that the 7repioLKOC never became a united corporate body like the Roman plebs.
The practical result of the Licinian reform was that the great plebeian families became, for all practical purposes, patrician.