Pleasure sentence example

pleasure
  • It was a pleasure to meet you.

    1848
    392
  • Graceful, coordinated and a pleasure to watch.

    431
    245
  • My pleasure, you need anything else?

    311
    143
  • The Guards had made their whole march as if on a pleasure trip, parading their cleanliness and discipline.

    248
    128
  • Nothing gives me greater pleasure than to take my friends out rowing when they visit me.

    232
    141
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  • I have never played with words again for the mere pleasure of the game.

    105
    58
  • Colonel Michaud, do not forget what I say to you here, perhaps we may recall it with pleasure someday...

    111
    64
  • What pleasure is there to be so caustique?

    96
    50
  • Museums and art stores are also sources of pleasure and inspiration.

    110
    67
  • She simply enjoyed their pleasure and tried to fit in with it.

    78
    35
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  • I can never tell you how much pleasure they have given us.

    58
    36
  • She looked about with pleasure, smiling joyfully.

    49
    29
  • I remember, yes, I remember you with the standard! said Kutuzov, and a flush of pleasure suffused Prince Andrew's face at this recollection.

    67
    48
  • For some time he engrossed the general attention, and Anna Pavlovna felt that the novelty she had served up was received with pleasure by all her visitors.

    36
    19
  • With mournful pleasure she now lingered over these images, repelling with horror only the last one, the picture of his death, which she felt she could not contemplate even in imagination at this still and mystic hour of night.

    46
    29
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  • I understand pleasure, not happiness.

    35
    19
  • Deities ate for pleasure, not out of need.

    36
    23
  • She was delighted, and showed her pleasure by hugging and kissing the little fellow, which embarrassed him very much.

    21
    11
  • The tutors came, and the nurses, and Dmitri, and several acquaintances, and the countess reread the letter each time with fresh pleasure and each time discovered in it fresh proofs of Nikolenka's virtues.

    20
    10
  • It's a pleasure, sir.

    42
    35
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  • She took a pair of pear-shaped ruby earrings from her huge reticule and, having given them to the rosy Natasha, who beamed with the pleasure of her saint's-day fete, turned away at once and addressed herself to Pierre.

    15
    8
  • Apart from the advantage he derived from Anatole, the very process of dominating another's will was in itself a pleasure, a habit, and a necessity to Dolokhov.

    14
    8
  • What the diplomatic matter might be he did not care, but it gave him great pleasure to prepare a circular, memorandum, or report, skillfully, pointedly, and elegantly.

    20
    15
  • The whole reason he'd avoided her was because of Wynn's warning – pleasure kills – a reminder that Deidre's tumor was connected to her emotions.

    22
    18
  • I trust that my readers have not concluded from the preceding chapter on books that reading is my only pleasure; my pleasures and amusements are many and varied.

    14
    10
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  • She closed her eyes and shuddered in pleasure.

    3
    0
  • Added to it was the pleasure of seeing Cynthia, after all she'd undergone, so utterly enjoying the day.

    22
    19
  • It didn't give her much pleasure to win by default.

    5
    2
  • A pleasure fair, called the Statute Fair, takes place shortly before Michaelmas.

    3
    0
  • He kept open house for visitors; he had printers close at hand in Geneva; he fitted up a private theatre in which he could enjoy what was perhaps the greatest pleasure of his whole life - acting in a play of his own, stage-managed by himself.

    3
    0
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  • I am not considering my own pleasure and I won't allow it to be said!

    22
    19
  • She'd taken great pleasure in stuffing it there.

    24
    22
  • The past few days had done much to improve Cynthia Byrne and she beamed with pleasure when Dean presented a bottle of wine, the same brand and year they were served at Café Richard.

    2
    0
  • I'll forego the pleasure and take Carmen's advice.

    2
    0
  • Even now it was a pleasure to watch him.

    2
    0
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  • He has to give up all thoughts of pleasure.

    2
    0
  • A large pleasure traffic is maintained by the steamers of the New Palace Company and others in summer between London Bridge and Southend, Clacton and Harwich, Ramsgate, Margate and other resorts of the Kent coast, and Calais and Boulogne.

    2
    0
  • There is a large passenger traffic, including pleasure trips, principally radiating from Toronto.

    2
    0
  • S., now in ruins, was a fashionable pleasure resort.

    2
    0
  • Having thus disposed of the ideas of truth and causality, he proceeds to undermine the ethical criterion, and denies that any man can aim at Good, Pleasure or Happiness as an absolute, concrete ideal.

    2
    0
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  • All actions are product of pleasure and pain, good and evil.

    2
    0
  • For if the pleasure of virtuous activity is a supervening end beyond the activity, it becomes a supervening end beyond the happiness of virtuous activity, which thus ceases to be the final end.

    2
    0
  • Nevertheless, the distinction between activity and pleasure is true.

    2
    0
  • On the whole, the three moral treatises proceed on very similar lines down to the common identification of pleasure with activity, and then diverge.

    2
    0
  • The cause of poetry is man's instinct of representation and his love of representations caused by the pleasure of learning.

    2
    0
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  • In response to Molly's questions about covered bridges, we drove through two more in the area for her pleasure.

    1
    0
  • He was not long for this world, and she was no Jenn-- a woman there for his physical pleasure.

    1
    0
  • He drank for a long minute then threw his head back, roaring with pleasure.

    1
    0
  • Just because you sacrificed your virtue for a few moments of pleasure doesn't mean I have tossed aside my innocence.

    1
    0
  • Rather than feel pleasure at her words, they struck him like the cold shower he needed.

    1
    0
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  • I've a bet with Leland—a night of unforgettable pleasure for him against a new golf outfit for me.

    1
    0
  • She started to groan with pleasure, but it came out more an eager whimper that sent a rush of heat to her face.

    1
    0
  • It was a typical evening – one some people might consider boring, but to him it was pure pleasure.

    1
    0
  • He handed it to the youth, who tried hard not to smile in pleasure.

    1
    0
  • When he kissed a hot trail down her neck, she moaned with pleasure.

    1
    0
  • His arms pressed her closer, his smooth lips seeking hers in ardent pleasure.

    1
    0
  • She moaned with pleasure.

    2
    1
  • It couldn't be deer season, so that meant the dog was chasing the deer for pleasure - or worse.

    1
    0
  • It was sinful to get so much pleasure out of another person's predicament.

    1
    0
  • There was no denying the pleasure in his amber eyes as he boldly surveyed her from head to toe.

    1
    0
  • He has the interest of being the last poet of the free republic. In his life and in his art he was the precursor of those poets who used their genius as the interpreter and minister of pleasure; but he rises above them in the spirit of personal independence, in his affection for his friends, in his keen enjoyment of natural and simple pleasures, and in his power of giving vital expression to these feelings.

    1
    0
  • Moreover, the distinction between activity and pleasure in the tenth book is really fatal to the consistency of the whole Nicomachean Ethics, which started in the first book with the identification of happiness and virtuous activity.

    2
    1
  • Nicomachean means " addressed to Nicomachus," and Eudemian " addressed to Eudemus "; but, as Cicero thought that the Nicomachean Ethics was written by Nicomachus, so the author of the Scholium thought that the Eudemian Ethics, at least so far as the first account of pleasure goes, was written by Eudemus.

    2
    1
  • Another improvement was the completion and embellishment of the Mangue canal, originally designed as an entrance to a central market for the boats plying on the bay, but now destined for drainage purposes and as a public pleasure ground.

    2
    1
  • The 43,000 lines which it contains are of but little interest to the historian; they are too evidently the work of a romancier courtois, who takes pleasure in recounting love-adventures such as those he has described in his romance of Troy.

    2
    1
  • It was, however, the disreputable Lefort who, for the sake of his own interests, diverted the young tsar from mere pleasure to serious enterprises, by persuading him first to undertake the Azov expedition, and then to go abroad to complete his education.

    2
    1
  • His early years were spent in alternate pleasure and military service.

    0
    0
  • There is a special pleasure in the subsidence of that meaning beneath a soothing sensation; but a system based thereon cannot be universal.

    0
    0
  • The voiced sound to this is generally written z as in azure, but sometimes s as in pleasure.

    0
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  • In addition to the park in the south-western district, Frankfort possesses two delightful pleasure grounds, which attract large numbers of visitors, the Palmengarten in the west and the zoological garden in the east of the city.

    0
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  • Pain, pleasure, passion and peril must all find him unperturbed.

    0
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  • On the contrary, many of them took pleasure in composing versicles to which Chinese words were admitted and which showed something of the parallelism peculiar to Chinese poetry, since the first ideograph of the last line was required to be identical with the final ideograph.

    0
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  • The books were profusely illustrated with wood-cuts and chromoxylographs from pictures of the ukiyoe masters, who, like the playwright, the actor and the romancer, ministered to the pleasure of the man in the street.

    0
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  • The Concordat brought the clergy into subjection, and enabled him to distribute benefices at his pleasure among the most docile of his courtiers.

    0
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  • But though he thus sacrificed his own prospects to the cardinal's good pleasure, Dlugosz was far too sagacious to approve of the provocative attitude of Olesnicki, and frequently and fearlessly remonstrated with him on his conduct.

    0
    0
  • Hence pleasure is, on the whole, good, and asceticism reprehensible, although in man's case there has arisen (owing to the rapidity of evolution) a certain derangement and divergence between the pleasant and the salutary (§ 39).

    0
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  • Nevertheless pleasure forms an "inexpugnable element" of the moral aim (§ 16).

    0
    0
  • Both of these are original and indispensable, but egoism has the priority, since there must be egoistic pleasure somewhere before there can be altruistic sympathy with it.

    0
    0
  • And so in the ideal state everyone will derive egoistic pleasure from doing such altruistic acts as may still be needed.

    0
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  • Even oratory was intended quite as much for readers as for the audiences to which it was immediately addressed; and some of the greatest speeches which have come down from that great age of orators were never delivered at all, but were published as manifestoes after the event with the view of influencing educated opinion, and as works of art with the view of giving pleasure to educated taste.

    0
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  • Catulus in the preceding generation, was a kind of dilettante poet and a precursor of the poetry of pleasure, which attained such prominence in the elegiac poets of the Augustan age.

    0
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  • No poet has surpassed him in the power of vitally reproducing the pleasure and pain of the passing hour, not recalled by idealizing reflection as in Horace, nor overlaid with mythological ornament as in Propertius, but in all the keenness of immediate impression.

    0
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  • The life of pleasure which he had lived in his youth comes back to him, not as it was in its actual distractions and disappointments, but in the idealizing light of meditative retrospect.

    0
    0
  • From the time of Mimnermus this form seems to have presented itself as the most natural vehicle for the poetry of pleasure in an age of luxury, refinement and incipient decay.

    0
    0
  • As an amatory poet he is the poet of pleasure and intrigue rather than of tender sentiment or absorbing passion.

    0
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  • The charm of Villehardouin can escape no reader; but few readers will fail to derive some additional pleasure from the two essays which SainteBeuve devoted to him, reprinted in the ninth volume of the Causeries du lundi.

    0
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  • Temporary migration, or travel for purposes of business, enterprise or pleasure, will be considered only incidentally, and because in some cases it is difficult to distinguish between such movements and permanent migration.

    0
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  • Like Locke he had a peculiar pleasure in bringing forward young men.

    0
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  • Crantor paid especial attention to ethics, and arranged "good" things in the following order - virtue, health, pleasure, riches.

    0
    0
  • Brought up a Lutheran, and fond of pleasure, she had shown no liking for Scottish Calvinism, and soon incurred rebukes on account of her religion, "vanity," absence from church, "night waking and balling."

    0
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  • Thus the scales, the positionand declination-circles, the field of view, the heads of all the micrometer-microscopes, the focusing scale, &c., are read without the aid of a hand-lamp and with an amount of illumination that can be regulated at the observer's pleasure.

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  • On the tail rope plan the engine has two drums worked by spur gearing, which can be connected with, or cast loose from, the driving shaft at pleasure.

    0
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  • At the same time her undisguised impatience of the cumbrous court etiquette shocked many people, and her taste for pleasure led her to seek the society of the comte d'Artois and his young and dissolute circle.

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  • To refute this book and to prove that there could be no such thing as religion, he wrote and printed a small pamphlet, A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain, which brought him some curious acquaintances, and of which he soon became thoroughly ashamed.

    0
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  • He stood unappalled, gave pleasure to his friends and did honour to his country."

    0
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  • Johnson, of whose various and often merely churlish remarks on Garrick and his doings many are scattered through the pages of Boswell, spoke warmly of the elegance and sprightliness of his friend's conversation, as well as of his liberality and kindness of heart; while to the great actor's art he paid the exquisite tribute of describing Garrick's sudden death as having " eclipsed the gaiety of nations, and impoverished the public stock of harmless pleasure."

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  • Under the empire the praetorians or imperial guards were commanded by one, two, or even three praefects (praefecti praetorio), who were chosen by the emperor from among the knights and held office at his pleasure.

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  • Trinity fair, dating from the year 1443, is now a pleasure fair.

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  • There are various pleasure resorts in the mountains, and among seaside resorts are Santa Monica, Ocean Park, Venice, Playa del Rey, Hermosa, Redondo, Terminal Island, Long Beach, Alamitos Bay, Huntington Beach, Newport, Balboa and Corona del Mar.

    0
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  • Pain exists to throw pleasure into conscious relief.

    0
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  • An annual pleasure fair is held on Easter Monday, and a regatta in August or September.

    0
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  • Business and pleasure, however, still detained him in Europe for four years longer.

    0
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  • The inconsistency of selling funeral requisites in the temple of Libitina, seeing that she is identified with Venus, is explained by him as indicating that one and the same goddess presides over birth and death; or the association of such things with the goddess of love and pleasure is intended to show that death is not a calamity, but rather a consummation to be desired.

    0
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  • The first commissioner of education was chosen by the legislature for a term of six years, but it was arranged that his successor should be chosen by the regents and continue in office during their pleasure.

    0
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  • William Smith (1697-1769), but when they excepted to the commissions of the chief-justice, James de Lancey (1703-1760) and one of his associates, because by these commissions the justices had been appointed " during pleasure " instead of " during good behaviour," the chief justice disbarred them.

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  • The further independence of judges became a leading issue in 1761 when the assembly insisted that they should be appointed during good behaviour, and refused to pay the salaries of those appointed during pleasure; but the home government met this refusal by ordering that they be paid out of the quit-rents.

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  • A case was preferred against him in the Star Chamber of revealing state secrets, to which was added in 1635 a charge of subornation of perjury, of which he had undoubtedly been guilty and for which he was condemned in 1637 to pay a fine of io,000, to be deprived of the temporalities of all his benefices, and to be imprisoned during the king's pleasure.

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  • With picturesque surroundings, excellent bathing beach and ideal climate, Santa Barbara is one of the most popular of the health and pleasure resorts of California.

    0
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  • He was also much about the court, and he admits very frankly that in his youth he led a life of pleasure, if not exactly of excess.

    0
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  • He visited Paris occasionally, and travelled for health or pleasure to Cauterets, Eaux Chaudes and elsewhere.

    0
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  • Harlan, it is said, found his chief pleasure in the society of his sister `Abbasa and Ja`far, and in order that these two might be with him continuously without breach of etiquette, persuaded them to contract a purely formal marriage.

    0
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  • In the previous November the queen had had the pleasure of receiving, on a private visit, her grandson, the German Emperor, who came accompanied by the empress and by two of their sons.

    0
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  • His life was also happy, for he had pleasure in his work, he loved and was loved by his wife and children; he had a strong constitution, and retained his bodily and mental powers to the last; his faith in the religion of his youth was unshaken to the end; and he lived throughout his long life with the consciousness of rectitude.

    0
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  • Their devotion to the national and democratic cause in Italy in 1830-1831 gave him much pleasure, which was overclouded by the death of the elder, Napoleon Louis, in the spring campaign of 1831 in the Romagna.

    0
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  • He loved music himself, and justified this profane pleasure by the example of Bishop Grosseteste, who lodged his harper in the chamber next his own; but he holds up as a warning to gleemen the fate of the minstrel who sang loud while the bishop said grace, and was miserably killed by a falling stone in consequence.

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  • For the next thirty-five years its "Elysian Fields" were a famous pleasure resort of New York City.

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  • They permitted each congregation to use at pleasure the Augsburg Confession or the Heidelberg Catechism.

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  • This attitude of indifference to real knowledge passed in the younger and less reputable generation into a corroding moral scepticism which recognized no good but pleasure and no right but might.

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  • Thus Cyrenaicism goes beyond the critical scepticism of the Sophists and deduces a single, universal aim for all men, namely pleasure.

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  • It follows (1) that past and future pleasure have no real existence for us, and (2) that among present pleasures there is no distinction of kind, but only of intensity.

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  • Yet Aristippus was compelled to admit that some actions which give immediate pleasure entail more than their equivalent of pain.

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  • Aristippus, both in theory and in practice, insisted that true pleasure belongs only to him who is self-controlled and master of himself.

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  • Theodorus, held even more strongly that passing pleasure may be a delusion, and that permanent tranquillity is a truer end of conduct.

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  • Anniceris, in whose thought the school reached its highest perfection, declared that true pleasure consists sometimes in self-sacrifice and that sympathy in enjoyment is a real source of happiness.

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  • Their primary object is to gratify the pleasure most persons take in viewing at close range the curious and beautiful living products of nature, but they serve also as means of instruction in natural history, providing material for museums and for investigations in comparative anatomy and pathology, while they may have a commercial value as pleasure resorts, or as show grounds for the display of animals that have been imported or bred for sale.

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  • Messrs Jennison have maintained since 1831 a Zoological Collection in their pleasure Park at Belle Vue, Manchester.

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  • Cognition is therefore distinct from emotion and conation; it has no psychological connexion with feelings of pleasure and pain, nor does it tend as such to issue in action.

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  • Flekkerd, a neighbouring island, is a favourite pleasure resort.

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  • He took pleasure in displaying his power over the great, and in punishing them in the spiritual courts for moral offences.

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  • Other pleasure resorts are the Lagoon on the Kentucky side (in Ludlow, Ky.), Chester Park, about 6 m.

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  • His investment with the insignia of the highest grade of the Order of the Star of India appeared to give him much pleasure.

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  • Aristotle further held that the good man in achieving virtue must experience pleasure (iiSov17), which is, therefore, not the same as, but the sequel to or concomitant of eudaemonia.

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  • Among the ancients the Epicureans expressed all eudaemonia in terms of pleasure.

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  • The fundametal difficulty which confronts those who would distinguish between pleasure and eudaemonia is that all pleasure is ultimately a mental phenomenon, whether it be roused by food, music, doing a moral action or committing a theft.

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  • There is a marked disposition on the part of critics of hedonism to confuse "pleasure" with animal pleasure or "passion," - in other words, with a pleasure phenomenon in which the predominant feature is entire lack of self-control, whereas the word "pleasure" has strictly no such connotation.

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  • Pleasure is strictly nothing more than the state of being pleased, and hedonism the theory that man's chief good consists in acting in such a way as to bring about a continuous succession of such states.

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  • That they are in some cases produced by physical or sensory stimuli does not constitute them irrational, and it is purely arbitrary to confine the word pleasure to those cases in which such stimuli are the proximate causes.

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  • They trembled before the janissaries, who from the 18th century elected and deposed them at their pleasure.

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  • In the eighteenth century besides the pleasure fair, still held in February, there was another in October, now abolished.

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  • Ahmed gave himself up to pleasure during the remainder of his reign, which ended in 1617, and demoralization and corruption became as general throughout the public service as indiscipline in the ranks of the army.

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  • Marriage and sexual propagation are considered either as absolute Evil or as altogether worthless, and carnal pleasure is frequently looked upon as forbidden.

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  • For the great festival of Tezcatlipoca, the handsomest and noblest of the captives of the year had been chosen as the incarnate representative of the god, and paraded the streets for public adoration dressed in an embroidered mantle with feathers and garlands on his head and a retinue like a king; for the last month they married him to four girls representing four goddesses; on the last day wives and pages escorted him to the little temple of Tlacochcalco, where he mounted the stairs, breaking an earthenware flute against each step; this was a symbolic farewell to the joys of the world, for as he reached the top he was seized by the priests, his heart torn out and held up to the sun, his head spitted on the tzompantli, and his body eaten as sacred food, the people drawing from his fate the moral lesson that riches and pleasure may turn into poverty and sorrow.

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  • The permanent building of the International Exhibition of 1865 adjoins the pleasure ground of St Stephen's Green.

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  • In the first place hedonism may confine itself to the view that, as a matter of observed fact, all men do in practice make pleasure the criterion of action, or it may go further and assert that men ought to seek pleasure as the sole human good.

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  • The latter statement admits an ideal, sumsnum bonum - namely, pleasure.

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  • The second confusion is the tacit assumption that the pleasure of the hedonist is necessarily or characteristically of a purely physical kind; this assumption is in the case of some hedonistic theories a pure perversion of the facts.

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  • The earliest and the most extreme type of hedonism is that of the Cyrenaic School as stated by Aristippus, who argued that the only good for man is the sentient pleasure of the moment.

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  • It is true that pleasure is the summum bonum of Epicurus, but his conception of that pleasure is profoundly modified by the Socratic doctrine of prudence and the eudaemonism of Aristotle.

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  • The true hedonist will aim at a life of enduring rational happiness; pleasure is the end of life, but true pleasure can be obtained only under the guidance of reason.

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  • He laid out a fine park or Paradise, for pleasure and the chase, to the east of his palaces, and built up a magnificent "triumphal way" sixty-two cubits broad and forbade any householder to encroach upon the street.

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  • Penn (800 ft.), are pleasure resorts in the neighbourhood.

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  • He has powers which are in ordinary times narrower than those of a European prime minister; but these powers are more secure, for instead of depending on the pleasure of a parliamentary majority, they run on to the end of his term.

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  • While unable to alienate their reservations, save to the federal government, they are not confined to them, but wander at pleasure.

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  • When death comes, the farce is over (la farce est jouee), therefore let us take our pleasure while we can.

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  • Lastly, pleasure, after having been first defined (Book vii.) as an activity, is treated over again (Book x.) as an end beyond activity, with a warning against confusing activity and pleasure.

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  • Speusippus took the ascetic view that the good is a perfect condition of, neutrality between two contrary evils, pain and pleasure.

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  • Pleasure is a physical state, and is not a generation in the body supplying a defect and establishing a natural condition, but an activity of a natural condition of the soul.

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  • Down then to their common definition of pleasure as activity the three treatises present a harmonious system of morals, consistently with one another, and with the general philosophy of Aristotle.

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  • In the Metaphysics (A 7, 1072 b 16), in discussing the occupation of God, he says " his pleasure is activity," or " his activity is pleasure," according to a difference of readings which makes no difference to the identification of pleasure and activity (b pyELa).

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  • As then we find this identification of pleasure with activity in the Metaphysics and in the De Anima, as well as in the Nicomachean Ethics, the Eudemian Ethics and the Magna Moralia, the only logical conclusion, from which there is no escape, is that, so far as the treatment of pleasure goes, any Aristotelian treatise which defines it as activity is genuine.

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  • Now it is not likely that Aristotle either, after having so often identified pleasure with activity, would say that the identification is absurd though it appears true to some persons, of whom he would in that case be one, or, having once disengaged the pleasure of perceiving and thinking from the acts of perceiving and thinking, would go backwards and confuse them.

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  • It is more likely that Aristotle identified pleasure with activity in the De Anima, the Metaphysics and the three moral treatises, as we have seen; but that afterwards some subsequent Peripatetic, considering that the pleasure of perceiving or thinking is not the same as perceiving or thinking, declared the previous identification of pleasure with activity absurd.

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  • But even so, have plants even those lowest impulses from feelings of pain or pleasure ?

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  • They despised riches not less than pleasure; neither poverty nor wealth was observable among them; at initiation every one gave his property into the common stock; every member in receipt of wages handed them over to the funds of the society.

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  • This world being the work of Satan, the perfect must eschew any and every excess of its pleasure.

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  • In general, the people are lively, good-humoured and ready-witted, fond of pleasure, lazy and extremely superstitious.

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  • The choice of the pope was then subject to the pleasure of the sovereign of Germany, against whom the Roman feudal lords, devoted as they were to the old abuses, were in constant revolt.

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  • With an insatiable love of pleasure he combined a certain external piety and a magnificent generosity in his charities.

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  • The governor controls a large amount of patronage, appointing, subject to the advice and consent of two-thirds of the senate, a secretary of the commonwealth and an attorney-general during pleasure, and a superintendent of public instruction for four years, and may fill vacancies in various offices which occur during the recess of the senate.

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  • The business and manufacturing section is close to the river and only a few feet above it; behind this, along a ridge, is the residential district; along the Sound are summer cottages and pleasure resorts.

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  • Weary of politics, and obeying a natural inclination to pleasure, Julius then virtually abdicated the management of affairs, and gave himself up to enjoyment, amusing himself with the adornment of his villa, near the Porta del Popolo, and often so far forgetting the proprieties of his office as to participate in entertainments of a questionable character.

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  • His own pleasure, whether it took the form of love or ambition, was always his first consideration.

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  • An absolute contrast to his brother, he gave himself up to a life of pleasure and allowed the administration to fall into the hands of six eunuchs.

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  • Wyoming, U.S.A., dedicated by the United States government as "a public park or pleasure ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people."

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  • Beside or behind the voluptuous or intellectual attractions of beauty and culture, she had about her the fresher charm of a fearless and frank simplicity, a genuine and enduring pleasure in small and harmless things no less than in such as were neither.

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  • From Sheffield Lodge, twelve years later, she applied to the archbishop of Glasgow and the cardinal of Guise for some pretty little dogs, to be sent her in baskets very warmly packed, - "for besides reading and working, I take pleasure only in all the little animals that I can get."

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  • Wilmington is served by the Atlantic Coast Line and the Seaboard Air Line railways, and by steamboat lines to New York, Philadelphia and Baltimore and to ports on the Cape Fear and Black rivers, and is connected by an electric line with Wrightsville Beach, a pleasure resort 12 m.

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  • Belts of shrubbery may be placed round the slips outside the walls; and these may in many cases, or in certain parts, be of sufficient breadth to furnish pleasant retired promenades, at the same time that they serve to mask the formality of the walled gardens, and are made to harmonize with the picturesque scenery of the pleasure ground.

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  • The next step was taken when it became fashionable to have conservatories attached to mansions, instead of having them in the pleasure grounds.

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  • A moist or rather a shady border, or a section of the pleasure ground supplied with bog earth, may be devoted to what is called the " American Garden," which, as it includes.

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  • The heads of departments are appointed and dismissed at the pleasure of the sovereign, usually determined, however, as in all constitutional states, by the will of the nation as indicated by its representatives.

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  • The question frequently arises, not only for those interested in the production of fur apparel, but for those who derive so much comfort and pleasure from its use, whether the supply of fur-bearing animals is likely to be exhausted.

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  • Here is also the museum of industrial art, and the Ny-Carlsberg Glyptotek, with its collection of sculpture, is on this boulevard, which skirts the pleasure garden called Tivoli.

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  • My company was not unacceptable to the young and careless, as well as to the studious and literary; and as I took a particular pleasure in the company of modest women, I had no reason to be displeased with the reception I met with from them.

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  • A law was passed, despite violent protests from the Liberals, which enacted that the communes might maintain the private Catholic schools established since 1879 and suppress unsectarian schools at their pleasure.

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  • In consequence, together with Pym and Sir Robert Philips, he was thrown into confinement; and, when in the August of the next year he was released, he was commanded to remain in his house at Stoke Poges during his Majesty's pleasure.

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  • Four years later the pleasure grounds and gardens at Kew occupied by the king of Hanover were given to the nation and placed under the care of Sir William for the express purpose of being converted into an arboretum.

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  • He appears, however, as a general rule, only to kill when hungry or attacked, and not for the mere pleasure of killing, as with some other carnivorous animals.

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  • The Butter Cross, a beautiful example of timber work of the date 1633, was removed when the townhall was building, and re-erected in the pleasure ground of the Grange.

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  • Aristotle, who speaks highly of the sincerity of Eudoxus's convictions, while giving a qualified approval to his arguments, considers him wrong in not distinguishing the different kinds of pleasure and in making pleasure the summum bonum.

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  • But the editors omitted, altered, added, separated, combined and so forth entirely at their pleasure, actually making some changes which seem to have been thought improvements of style.

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  • Similarly, just because fear, hope and remembrance add to the intensity of consciousness, the Epicurean can hold that bodily pain and pleasure is a less durable and important thing than pain and pleasure of mind.

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  • The moral philosophy of Epicurus is a qualified hedonism, the heir of the Cyrenaic doctrine that pleasure is the good thing in life.

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  • After an unsuccessful invasion of Italy in 307 he elevated his friend Licinius to the rank of Augustus, and, moderating his ambition, devoted the few remaining years of his life "to the enjoyment of pleasure and to the execution of some works of public utility."

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  • In the vertical shaft there is first of all a grating which intercepts solid matters, and then, lower down, a central valve which can be opened and closed at pleasure from the top of the shaft.

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  • The principal modern pleasure grounds are Kennington Park (20 acres), and Brockwell Park (127 acres) south of Brixton, and near the southern end of Kennington Road is Kennington Oval, the ground of the Surrey County Cricket Club, the scene of its home matches and of other important fixtures.

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  • He read little Greek; for his proficiency in that language was not such that he could take much pleasure in the masters of Attic poetry and eloquence.

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  • The style and rhythm, indeed, were not exactly Virgilian; but the translation found many admirers, and was read with pleasure by Pope himself.

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  • It was indeed the first dictionary which could be read with pleasure.

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  • Its composer would seem to have been a disciple of Walahf rid; for his interests are not confined to the churches, their reliquaries, and the ecclesiastical ceremonial of saint-days, but he takes a pleasure in transcribing ancient inscriptions.

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  • In administrative reforms the Korean government followed his guidance; laws could not be enacted nor administrative measures undertaken without his consent; the appointment and dismissal of high officials, and the engagement of foreigners in government employ, were subject to his pleasure.

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  • The south shore of the borough has various summer pleasure resorts, of which Coney Island is the most popular.

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  • The world was never completely cast out; indeed the Church became the scene for ambition and the home of luxury and pleasure.

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  • The gardens proper, which originally contained only about II acres, were subsequently increased to 75 acres, and the pleasure grounds or arboretum adjoining extend to 270 acres.

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  • The old gates have been somewhat ruthlessly cleared away, and the site of the town walls on the north and west competes with the park called the Prince's Garden as a public pleasure ground.

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  • Abandoning truth and falsehood, pleasure and pain, the Vedas, this world and the next, he shall seek the Universal Soul, in knowledge of which standeth eternal salvation."

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  • One of the reasons that induced the subject populations to accept with pleasure the establishment of the Empire was the improvement in financial treatment that it secured.

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  • His table of springs of actions shows the same mean-spirited omissions that we notice in his predecessors; he measures the quantity of pleasures by the coarsest and most mechanical tests; and he sets up general pleasure as the criterion of moral goodness.

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  • It is commonly said that in making this distinction Mill has practically given up utilitarianism, because he has applied to pleasure (alleged to be the supreme criterion) a further criterion which is not pleasure.

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  • So also Mill is justified in preferring a scene of Shakespeare or an hour's conversation with a friend to a great mass of lower pleasure.

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  • To understand the genesis of human morality we must study the ways of sociable animals such as horses and monkeys, which give each other assistance in trouble, feel mutual affection and sympathy, and experience pleasure in doing actions that benefit the society to which they belong.

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  • The best feature of the Data of Ethics is its anti-ascetic vindication of pleasure as man's natural guide to what is physiologically healthy and morally good.

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  • The duty of a statesman was, therefore, to carry out the royal will in as prudent a manner as possible; he was the servant of the king, and stood or fell according to his pleasure.

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  • The general question involved in a special instance was whether or not the king's prerogative included the right of granting at pleasure livings in commendam, i.e.

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  • He accordingly wrote to Bacon, directing him to intimate to the judges his pleasure that they should delay judgment until after discussion of the matter with himself.

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  • In the second, the materials of sense are separated or divided in ways not corresponding to nature but after the mind's own pleasure, and the result is poesy or feigned history.

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  • In philosophy, the term (with its antithesis "heteronomy") was applied by Kant to that aspect of the rational will in which, qua rational, it is a law to itself, independently alike of any external authority, of the results of experience and of the impulses of pleasure and pain.

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  • Matter is no longer animated or self-acting; it is subject to the will of an agent which can enter or quit it, perhaps at its own pleasure, perhaps at the compulsion of another.

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  • See Warwick Wroth, London Pleasure Gardens of the Eighteenth Century (London, 1896).

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  • He also took pleasure in smoking a pipe of tobacco; or, when he had a mind to divert himself somewhat longer, he looked for some spiders and made them fight together, or he threw some flies into the cobweb, and was so well pleased with the result of that battle that he would sometimes break into laughter" (Colerus).

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  • Philosophia is accompanied by the liberal arts, represented as Seven Wise Virgins; the world by Power, Pleasure, Dignity, Fame and Fortune.

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  • Shapur II., a posthumous child of the late king, was then raised to the throne, a proof that the great magnates held the sovereignty in their own hands and attempted to order matters at their own pleasure.

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  • The Abbasid caliphs, who still enjoyed a precarious and shadowy authority at the pleasure of Turkish viziers, gladly surrendered themselves to the protection of the Mahommedan Seljuks, who paid them all outward respect.

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  • The town contains a summer palace of the bey, the old seraglio, arsenal and customhouse, and many villas, gardens and pleasure resorts, Goletta being a favourite place for sea-bathing.

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  • It is, however, administered by a governor-general, who holds office during the king's pleasure.

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  • Abroad the great national interests were eagerly sacrificed for the sake of a pension, and at home his personal ease and pleasure alone decided every measure, and the fate of every minister and subject.

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  • But his visit to the French capital was no mere pleasure trip; it was also a political mission.

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  • Such analysis had been already attempted by Hobbes, and the result he came to was that man naturally is adapted only for a life of selfishness, - his end is the procuring of pleasure and the avoidance of pain.

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  • No idle gratification of curiosity, as Aristotle fabled of his life intellectual (which would be but a disguise for refined pleasure), no theory divorced from practice, no phy pursuit of science for its own sake, but knowledge so far forth as it can be realized in virtuous action, the learning of virtue by exercise and effort and training.

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  • In contrast to the Cyrenaics and the Epicureans, the Stoics denied that pleasure is actually or ought to be the object of human activity.

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  • It follows (I) that pleasure, being quite outside the pale is not the object but merely an brcyivvnpa (accompaniment) of virtuous action, and (2) that there is, within the circle of virtue, no degree.

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  • But, if so, it would follow that, since pleasure is an emotion, apathy or eradication of all emotions cannot be unconditionally required.

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  • On the 30th of October 13 56 Wykeham was appointed during pleasure surveyor (supervisor) of the king's works in the castle of Windsor, for the same purposes as at Henley, with power to take workmen everywhere, except in the fee of the church or those employed in the king's works at Westminster, the Tower of Dartford, at the same wages as Robert of Bernham, probably Burnham, Bucks, who had been appointed in 1353, used to have, viz.

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  • In July 1391 he obtained a papal bull enabling him to appoint at pleasure coadjutors to do his episcopal business.

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  • For description and general features, see Doxey's Guide to San Francisco and the Pleasure Resorts of California (San Francisco, 1897); and various guides and other publications of the California Development Board (formed by consolidation of the State Board of Trade and California Promotion Committee) in San Francisco.

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  • It has become the chief pleasure town of Germany; and though the standard of morality, owing to the enormous influx of people-bent on amusement, has become lower, yet there is so much healthy, strenuous activity in intellectual life and commercial rivalry as to entitle it, despite many moral deficiencies, to be regarded as the centre of life and learning in Germany.

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  • The summum bonum is the maximum of pleasure with the minimum of pain.

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  • But true pleasure is not sensual enjoyment; it has its principle in the soul.

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  • How the Saracens, when they took him prisoner, he being half dead with a complication of diseases, kindly left him "un mien couverture d'ecarlate" which his mother had given him, and which he put over him, having made a hole therein and bound it round him with a cord; how when he came to Acre in a pitiable condition an old servant of his house presented himself, and "brought me clean white hoods and combed my hair most comfortably"; how he bought a hundred tuns of wine and served it - the best first, according to high authority - well-watered to his private soldiers, somewhat less watered to the squires, and to the knights neat, but with a suggestive phial of the weaker liquid to mix "si comme ils vouloient" - these are the details in which he seems to take greatest pleasure, and for readers six hundred years after date perhaps they are not the least interesting details.

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  • His father placed him in the military academy at Berlin, but he left it at the age of twenty and traversed Europe, preaching his revolutionary philosophy as an apostle, and spending his money as a man of pleasure.

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  • And, though we are nowhere told that Livy undertook his history at the emperor's suggestion, it is certain that Augustus read parts of it with pleasure, and even honoured the writer with his assistance and friendship.

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  • The bitter taste of morphine is not noticeable when smoking opium, and it is therefore possible that the pleasure derived from smoking the drug is due to some product formed during combustion.

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  • His park and pleasure grounds near Rome, and the costly and laborious works in his parks and villas at Tusculum, near Naples, earned for him from Pompey (it is said) the title of the "Roman Xerxes."

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  • He was fond of pleasure and luxury,.

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  • This may be expanded or contracted at pleasure, and is moved up and down for the purpose of causing the machine to ascend or descend.

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  • Farther south, these rocks form the low coastal belt of Lancashire, edged with the longest stretches of blown sand in England, and dotted here and there with pleasure towns, like Blackpool and Southport.

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  • Thereafter a new appointment to the offices of clerk of the peace and clerk of the county council was to be made by the standing joint-committee, at whose pleasure he is to hold office.

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  • All these officers receive such remuneration as the council from time to time think fit, and hold office during pleasure.

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  • Of these all but the medical officer of health and inspectors of nuisances hold office at pleasure and receive such remuneration as the council may determine.

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  • An urban council cFQ ' may also license proprietors, drivers and conductors of horses, ponies, mules or asses standing for hiring in the district in the same way as in the case of hackney carriages, and they may also license pleasure boats and vessels, and the boatmen or persons in charge thereof, and they may make by-laws for all these purposes.

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  • He holds office at pleasure, and receives such remuneration as the council fix, and he performs all the duties of an overseer, or such of them as may be prescribed by the terms of his appointment.

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  • This part of the town is laid out with pleasure grounds and esplanades.

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  • He at first took up the study of law, but abandoned it for a life of pleasure.

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  • To the north-west of the town the Galberg - on which there is a public pleasure garden - and to the south-west the Seeberg rise to a height of over 1300 ft.

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  • There are three parks, one of which, Lake Park, is a pleasure and health resort, with a lake and chalybeate and sulphur springs.

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  • In the simple arts of broiling and roasting meat, the use of hides and furs for covering, the plaiting of mats and baskets, the devices of hunting, trapping and fishing, the pleasure taken in personal ornament, the touches of artistic decoration on objects of daily use, the savage differs in degree but not in kind from the civilized man.

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  • For himself he was young and fond of pleasure.

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  • His strongest weapons were the fine presence, the affable manners (even with citizens), and the love of pleasure and entertainments which secured his personal popularity.

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  • He took a sort of malicious pleasure in irritating the monks.

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  • But choice, he holds, is not arbitrary; it is determined in every case by " that motive which as it stands in the view of the mind is the strongest," and that motive is strongest which presents in the immediate object of volition the " greatest apparent good," that is, the greatest degree of agreeableness or pleasure.

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  • But in the great Sala dell' Asse (or della Torre) abundant traces of Leonardo's own hand were found, in the shape of a decoration of intricate geometrical knot or plait work .combined with natural leafage; the abstract puzzle-pattern, of a kind in which Leonardo took peculiar pleasure, intermingling in cunning play and contrast with a pattern of living boughs and leaves exquisitely drawn in free and vital growth.

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  • Pleasure in itself is unqualified, and affords no differentia.

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  • In the case of a beautiful object the resultant pleasure borrows its specific quality from the presence of determinations essentially objective in their nature, though not reducible to the categories of science.

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  • By November 1710 he was again domiciled in London, and writing his Journal to Stella, that unique exemplar of a giant's playfulness, "which was written for one person's private pleasure and has had indestructible attractiveness for every one since."

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  • As the belt of marshy ground along the south side can be laid under water at pleasure, the site of the city proper, exclusive of the considerable suburbs of Borgo di Fortezza to the north and Borgo di San Giorgio to the east, may still be said to consist, as it formerly did more distinctly, of two islands separated by a narrow channel and united by a number of bridges.

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  • Born from the loves of Bacchus and Circe, he is "much like his father, but his mother more" - a sorcerer, like her, who gives to travellers a magic draught that changes their human face into the "brutal form of some wild beast," and, hiding from them their own foul disfigurement, makes them forget all the pure ties of life, "to roll with pleasure in a sensual sty."

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  • A special feature of the Athenian festival was the "Adonis gardens," small pots of flowers forced to grow artificially, which rapidly faded (hence the expression was used to denote any transitory pleasure).

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  • The city has parks, including Hoyt Park (27 acres), used for athletic sports, Rust Park (150 acres), occupying an island in the river, and Riverside Park, a pleasure resort.

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  • He warned his hearers against the fires of concupiscence, anger, ignorance, birth, death, decay and anxiety; and taking each of the senses in order he compared all human sensations to a burning flame which seems to be something it is not, which produces pleasure and pain, but passes rapidly away, and ends only in destruction.3 Accompanied by his new disciples, the Buddha walked on to Rajagaha, the capital of King Bimbisara, who, not unmindful of their former interview, came out to welcome him.

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  • Of the roads in general it may be said that they are merely tracks across the veld made at the pleasure of the traveller.

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  • The latter, an able, ambitious man, wishing to keep the government as much as possible in his own hands, purposely neglected the young king's education, and encouraged him in his love of pleasure, his idleness and his excessive devotion to outdoor sports.

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  • The chief buildings and institutions are a hand some town hall, a museum, free libraries, technical schools, and several public pleasure grounds.

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  • Nevertheless it is only human nature, to derive some pleasure from being cited, now and then, even about a ` Theorem '; especially where.

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  • A follower of Aristippus, he denied that pleasure is the general end of human life.

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  • To each separate action there is a particular end, namely the pleasure which actually results from it Secondly, pleasure is not merely the negation of pain, inasmuch as death ends all pain and yet cannot be regarded as pleasure.

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  • There is, however, an absolute pleasure in certain virtues such as belong to the love of country, parents and friends.

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  • In these relations a man will have pleasure, even though it may result in painful and even fatal consequences.

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  • Friendship is not merely for the satisfaction of our needs, but is in itself a source of pleasure.

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  • He was to hold office only during pleasure of the other bishops.

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  • Great responsibility is centred upon him by giving him power to appoint the heads of departments and sub-departments, subject to the approval of the second branchb of the council, and permitting him to remove at pleasure for six months after an appointment; in appointing a board or commission, however, he is required to choose the members from more than one political party.

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  • In a subsequent letter on the 10th of August, Barrow expressed his pleasure at hearing the favourable opinion which Collins had formed of the paper, and added, " the name of the author is Newton, a fellow of our college, and a young man, who is only in his second year since he took the degree of master of arts, and who, with an unparalleled genius (eximio quo est acumine), has made very great progress in this branch of mathematics."

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  • Keys are inserted in the battery and galvanometer circuits to open or close them at pleasure.

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  • He does not claim to have rearranged the whole realm on a new basis, or to be levying his revenue on a new assessment made at his own pleasure.

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  • His dis again In- pleasure fell mainly on the archbishop and the earl vades of Norfolk, who had so long led the opposition.

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  • He preferred to be a man of pleasure and leisure, only awaking now and then to perpetrate some act of arbitrary cruelty.

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  • Whilst the worship of the Church of England was proscribed, every illiterate or frenzied enthusiast was allowed to harangue at his pleasure.

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  • The duke of Newcastle, who succeeded his brother, looked on the work of corruption with absolute Engels pleasure, and regarded genius and ability as an castle.

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  • By these things we may see that peerage law in old time rested upon the pleasure of the sovereign and upon no ascertained and unvarying custom.

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  • Of the power behind that pleasure this Henry, Lord Berkeley, had one sharp reminder.

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  • On the death of the latter (l0th of January 976) they assumed the sovereignty without a colleague, but throughout their joint reign Constantine exercised no power and devoted himself chiefly to pleasure.

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  • Waiting for Mr Disraeli did not enhance the pleasure of meeting him, nor when he did arrive did his appearance predispose us in his favour.

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  • His great pleasure was to contrast the hidden motive with the public pretext of transactions."

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  • The preachers were picturesque figures in long russet dress down to the heels, who, staff in hand, preached in the mother tongue to the people in churches and graveyards, in squares, streets and houses, in gardens and pleasure grounds, and then talked privately with those who had been impressed.

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  • Virtue, he taught, is life according to nature; but pleasure is not according to nature.

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  • On the contrary, a belief that conduct necessarily results upon the presence of certain motives, and that upon the application of certain incentives, whether of pain or pleasure, upon the presence of certain stimuli whether in the shape of rewards or punishments, actions of a certain character will necessarily ensue, would seem to vindicate the rationality of ordinary penal legislation, if its aim be deterrent or reformatory, to a far greater extent than is possible upon the libertarian hypothesis.

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  • If duty be chosen as opposed to pleasure the opposition between duty and pleasure is a necessary one.

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  • Whenever, for example, there is an admission on the part of any individual that in any previous act he made the attainment of pleasure his end rather than the performance of duty, there is also a tacit admission that he might have acted otherwise.

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  • And though reflection upon conduct may lead us to suppose that our past acts were determined, that desire of pleasure or the wish to avoid pain controlled our wills, the unphilosophical observer interprets, in offenders against morality, such arguments as a mere excuse.

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  • No one (if unsophisticated) ever confused the conception of pleasure with the conception of the Good, or thought that the claims of selfish interest were identical with those of duty.

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  • In their eulogy of the virtues of the citizen, they pointed out the prudential character of justice and the like as a means of obtaining pleasure and avoiding pain.

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  • He fully recognized that his good was capable of being realized only in successive parts, and gave even exaggerated emphasis to the rule of seeking the pleasure of the moment, and not troubling oneself about a dubious future.

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  • We saw that Socrates, while not claiming to have found the abstract theory of good or wise conduct, practically understood by it the faithful performance of customary duties, maintaining always that his own happiness was therewith bound up. The Cynics more boldly discarded both pleasure and mere custom as alike irrational; but in so doing they left the freed reason with no definite aim but its own freedom.

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  • What will now be his view of wisdom, virtue, pleasure and their relation to human well-being?

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  • It remains to ask whether the statement of these gives a complete account of human well-being, or whether pleasure also is to be included.

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  • After apparently maintaining (Protagoras) that pleasure is the good, he passes first to the opposite extreme, and denies it (Phaedo, Gorgias) to be a good at all.

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  • That pleasure is not the real absolute good, was no ground for not including it in the good of concrete human life; and after all only coarse and vulgar pleasures were indissolubly linked to the pains of want.

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  • Accordingly, in the Republic he has no objection to trying the question of the intrinsic superiority of philosophic or virtuous' life by the standard of pleasure, and argues that the philosophic (or good) man alone enjoys real pleasure, while the sensualist spends his life in oscillating between painful want and the merely neutral state of painlessness, which he mistakes for positive pleasure.

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  • But though Plato holds this inseparable connexion of best and pleasantest to be true and important, it is only for the sake of the vulgar that he lays this stress on pleasure.

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  • For in the most philosophical comparison in the Philebus between the claims of pleasure and wisdom the former is altogether worsted; and though a place is allowed to the pure pleasures of colour, form and sound, and of intellectual exercise, and even to the " necessary " satisfaction of appetite, it is only a subordinate one.

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  • It is not surprising that this somewhat complicated and delicately balanced view of the relations of " good " and " pleasure " was not long maintained within the Platonic school, and that under Speusippus, Plato's successor, the main body of Platonists took up a simply anti-hedonistic position, as we learn from the polemic of Aristotle.

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  • In the Philebus, however, though a more careful psychological analysis leads him to soften down the exaggerations of this attack on sensual pleasure, the antithesis of knowledge and pleasure is again sharpened, and a desire to depreciate even good pleasures is more strongly shown; still even here pleasure is recognized as a constituent of that philosophic life which is the highest human good, while in the Laws, where the subject is more popularly treated, it is admitted that we cannot convince man that the just life is the best unless we can also prove it to be the pleasantest.

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  • The discussion of good (e.g.) in his Philebus relates entirely to human good, and the respective claims of Thought and Pleasure to constitute this; he only refers in passing to the Divine Thought that is the good of the ordered world, as something clearly beyond the limits of the present discussion.

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  • No doubt, too, Aristotle's attribution of pleasure to the Divine Existence shows a profound metaphysical divergence from Plato; but it is a divergence which has no practical importance.

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  • Nor, finally, does Aristotle's account of the relation of pleasure to human well-being (although he has to combat the extreme anti-hedonism to which the Platonic school under Speusippus had been led) differ materially from the outcome of Plato's thought on this point, as the later dialogues present it to us.

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  • Pleasure, in Aristotle's view, is not the primary constituent of well-being, but rather an inseparable accident of it; human well-being is essentially well-doing, excellent activity of some kind, whether its aim and end be abstract truth or noble conduct; knowledge and virtue are objects of rational choice apart from the pleasure attending them; still all activities are attended and in a manner perfected by pleasure, which is better and more desirable in proportion to the excellence of the activity.

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  • He no doubt criticizes Plato's account of the nature of pleasure, arguing that we cannot properly conceive pleasure either as a " process " or as " replenishment " - the last term, he truly says, denotes a material rather than a psychical fact.

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  • Even when the notion of " good performance of function " was thus widened, and when it had further taken in the pleasure that is inseparably connected with such functioning, it did not yet correspond to the whole of what a Greek commonly understood as " human well-being."

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  • Among the primary ends of nature, in which wisdom recognized a certain preferability, the Stoics included freedom from bodily pain; but they refused, even in this outer Stoics and court of wisdom, to find a place for pleasure.

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  • Philosophy, in the Greek view, should be the art as well as the science of good life; and hedonistic philosophy would seem a bungling and uncertain art of pleasure, as pleasure is ordinarily conceived.

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  • Hence we find that later thinkers of the Cyrenaic school felt themselves compelled to change their fundamental notion; thus Theodorus defined the good as" gladness " (Xapa) depending on wisdom, as distinct from mere pleasure, while Hegesias proclaimed that happiness was unattainable, and that the chief function of wisdom was to render life painless by producing indifference to all things that give pleasure.

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  • And Epicurus assures us that he means by pleasure what plain men mean by it; and that if the gratifications of appetite and sense are discarded, the notion is emptied of its significance.

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  • The originality of Epicurus lay in his theory that the highest point of pleasure, whether in body or mind, is to be attained by the mere removal of pain or disturbance, after which pleasure admits of variation only and not of augmentation; that therefore the utmost gratification of which the body is capable may be provided by the simplest means, and that " natural wealth " is no more than any man can earn.

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  • Lactantius (circa 300 A.D.), for example, roundly declares that Plato and Aristotle, referring everything to this earthly life, " made virtue mere folly "; though himself maintaining, with pardonable inconsistency, that man's highest good did not consist in mere pleasure, but in the consciousness of the filial relation of the soul to God.

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  • Accordingly he regards pleasure as essentially motion " helping vital action," and pain as motion " hindering " it.

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  • There is no logical connexion between this theory and the doctrine that appetite of desire has always pleasure (or the absence of pain) for its object; but a materialist, framing a system of psychology, will naturally direct his attention to the impulses arising out of bodily wants, whose obvious end is the preservation of the agent's organism; and this, together with a philosophic wish to simplify, may lead him to the conclusion that all human impulses are similarly self-regarding.

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  • Pity he finds to be grief for the calamity of others, arising from imagination of the like calamity befalling oneself; what we admire with seeming disinterestedness as beautiful (pulchrum) is really " pleasure in promise "; when men are not immediately seeking present pleasure, they desire power as a means to future pleasure, and thus have a derivative delight in the exercise of power that prompts to what we call benevolent action.

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  • Since, then, all the voluntary actions of men tend to their own preservation or pleasure, it cannot be reasonable to aim at anything else; in fact, nature rather than reason fixes this as the end of human action; it is reason's function to show the means.

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  • Hence if we ask why it is reasonable for any individual to observe the rules of social behaviour that are commonly called moral, the answer is obvious that this is only indirectly reasonable, as a means to his own preservation or pleasure.

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  • He even identifies the desire with the pleasure, apparently regarding the stir of appetite and that of fruition as two parts of the same " motion."

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  • This latter is never Pleasure simply, but always Preservation - though on occasion he enlarges the notion of " preservation " into " preservation of life so as not to be weary of it."

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  • He explains that though absolute good is discerned by the intellect, the " sweetness and flavour " of it is apprehended, not by the intellect proper, but by what he calls a " boniform faculty "; and it is in this sweetness and flavour that the motive to virtuous conduct lies; ethics is the " art of living well and happily," and true happiness lies in " the pleasure which the soul derives from the sense of virtue."

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  • The truth is that, while Locke agrees entirely with Hobbes as to the egoistic basis of rational conduct, and the interpretation of " good " and " evil" as " pleasure " and " pain," or that which is productive of pleasure and pain, he yet agrees entirely with Hobbes's opponents in holding ethical rules to be actually obligatory independently of political society, and capable of being scientifically constructed on principles intuitively known, - though he does not regard these principles as implanted in the mind at birth.

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  • As Locke cannot consistently mean by God's " goodness " anything but the disposition to give pleasure, it might be inferred that the ultimate standard of right rules of action ought to be the common happiness of the beings affected by the action; but Locke does not explicitly adopt this standard.