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platonic

platonic

platonic Sentence Examples

  • The minute he detected something more than a platonic relationship, it was going to be good-by friendship.

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  • No one would believe two people as attractive as Sarah and Jackson could be in a platonic relationship, so it kept the neighbors from gossiping.

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  • She and Dusty had been platonic lovers, sharing a bed and their frustrations, until Bianca swept him away.

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  • The piquant comments of his platonic friend, Mademoiselle de Hautefort, upon Richelieu were relished by the king until he was informed of others said to have been made by her upon himself.

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  • He had often spoken of his daughter Jane to Herbert, and "so much commended Mr Herbert to her, that Jane became so much a Platonic as to fall in love with Mr Herbert unseen."

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  • He had often spoken of his daughter Jane to Herbert, and "so much commended Mr Herbert to her, that Jane became so much a Platonic as to fall in love with Mr Herbert unseen."

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  • The famous seat of the Platonic philosophy was a gymnasium enlarged as a public park by Cimon; it lay about a mile to the north-west of the Dipylon Gate, with which it was connected by a street bordered with tombs.

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  • Dean was sure the young woman's promise of a platonic night was already forgotten.

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  • So you agree that a relationship between a man and a woman can be platonic.

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  • Oh, I believe your feelings for him are platonic.

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  • Gaye, The Platonic Conception of Immortality and its Connexion with the Theory of Ideas (1904); R.

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  • 3 Platonic.

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  • Thus he ascribes eternity of existence to species under the form of the " Platonic ideas."

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  • In 1492 he again travelled in Italy, studying in Florence, Rome and Venice, making himself familiar with the writings of Aristotle, though greatly influenced by the Platonic philosophy.

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  • 2.214) as consisting in: " (I) the dualistic opposition of the divine and the earthly; (2) an abstract conception of God, excluding all knowledge of the divine nature; (3) contempt for the world of the senses, on the ground of the Platonic doctrines of matter and of the descent of the soul from a superior world into the body; (4) the theory of intermediate potencies or beings, through whom God acts upon the world of phenomena; (5) the requirement of an ascetic self-emancipation from the bondage of sense and faith in a higher revelation to man when in a state called enthusiasm."

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  • He develops the Platonic philosophy into an elaborate system by means of the doctrine of emanation.

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  • But, while in all these doctrines he appears in the character of a Platonic philosopher, traces of rational criticism are not wanting.

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  • GEMISTUS PLETHO [or [[Plethon], Georgius]] (c. 1355-1450), Greek Platonic philosopher and scholar, one of the chief pioneers of the revival of learning in Western Europe, was a Byzantine by birth who settled at Mistra in the Peloponnese, the site of ancient Sparta.

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  • While the translation was still in progress Ficino from time to time submitted its pages to the scholars, Angelo Poliziano, Cristoforo Landino, Demetrios Chalchondylas and others; and since these men were all members of the Platonic Academy, there can be no doubt that the discussions raised upon the text and Latin version greatly served to promote the purpose of Cosimo's foundation.

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  • About the same time Marsilio completed and published his treatise on the Platonic doctrine of immortality (Theologia Platonica de immortalitate animae), the work by which his claims to take rank as a philosopher must be estimated.

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  • As a philosopher, he can advance no claim to originality, his laborious treatise on Platonic theology being little better than a mass of ill-digested erudition.

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  • The value of that work cannot be denied; the impulse which it gave to Platonic studies in Italy, and through them to the formation of the new philosophy in Europe, is indisputable.

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  • He maintained that the Platonic doctrine was providentially made to harmonize with Christianity, in order that by its means speculative intellects might be led to Christ.

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  • From these it may be gathered that nearly every living scholar of note was included in the list of his friends, and that the subjects which interested him were by no means confined to his Platonic sudies.

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  • Thus it is used to translate the Platonic 'SEa, Et50s, the permanent reality which makes a thing what it is, in contrast with the particulars which are finite and subject to change.

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  • He became famous as a teacher of Greek letters and the Platonic philosophy; in 1463 he was made professor at Padua, and in 1479 he was summoned by Lorenzo de' Medici to Florence to fill the professorship vacated by John Argyropoulos.

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  • The first form of Realism corresponds to the Platonic theory of the transcendence of the ideas; the second reproduces the Aristotelian doctrine of the essence as inseparable from the individual thing.

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  • And accordingly it gave rise to the three great doctrines which divided the medieval schools: Realism of the Platonic type, embodied in the formula universalia ante rein; Realism of the Aristotelian type, universalia in re; and Nominalism, including Conceptualism, expressed by the phrase universalia post rem, and also claiming to be based upon the Peripatetic doctrine.

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  • Some general information as to the Platonic doctrines (chiefly in a Neoplatonic garb) was obtainable from the commentary with which Chalcidius (6th century) accompanied his translation, from the work of Apuleius (2nd century) De dogmate Platonis, and indirectly from the commentary of Macrobius (c. 400) on the Somnium Scipionis of Cicero, and from the writings of St Augustine.

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  • Erigena does not separate his Platonic theory of pre-existent exemplars from the Aristotelian doctrine of the universal as in the individuals.

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  • As Ueberweg points out, his theory is rather a result of the transference of the Aristotelian conception of substance to the Platonic Idea, and of an identification of the relation of accidents to the substance in which they inhere with that of the individuals to the Idea of which, in the Platonic doctrine, they are copies (Hist.

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  • At all events, while Erigena's Realism is pronounced, the Platonic and Aristotelian forms of the doctrine are not distinguished in his writings.

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  • Like his master, he defended Plato - or what he considered to be the Platonic theory - against the attacks of Aristotle.

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  • 1249), whose treatises De universo and De anima make extensive use of Aristotle and the Arabians, but display a similar Platonic leaning.

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  • ALCINOUS, the Platonic philosopher, lived probably in the time of the Caesars.

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  • The Platonic testimony, if it proved anything, would prove too much, namely, that the doctrine of the unity of Being originated, not with Xenophanes, but before him; and, in fact, the passage from the Sophist no more proves that Plato attributed to Xenophanes the philosophy of Parmenides than Theaetetus, 160 D, proves that Plato attributed to Homer the philosophy of Heraclitus.

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  • It may be presumed with some certainty that his attentions to women were for the most part platonic; indeed, both on the good and the bad side of him, he was all brain.

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  • But they soon found out that neither Chosroes nor his state corresponded to the Platonic ideal, and Chosroes, in his treaty with Justinian, stipulated that they should return unmolested.

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  • After the Renaissance, with its renewal of interest in Platonic studies, numerous attempts were made to rationalize the myth of Atlantis.

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  • The term has also been applied to the Italian humanists of the Renaissance, and in modern times, somewhat vaguely, to thinkers who have based their speculations on the Platonic metaphysics or on Plotinus, and incorporated with it a tendency towards a mystical explanation of ultimate phenomena.

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  • As forerunners of Neoplatonism we may regard, on the one hand, those Stoics who accepted the Platonic distinction between the sensible world and the intelligible, and, on the other hand, the so-called Neopythagoreans and religious philosophers like Plutarch of Chaeronea and especially Numenius of Apamea.

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  • The religious ethics of Philo - a compound of Stoic, Platonic and Neopythagorean elements - already bear the peculiar stamp which we recognize in Neoplatonism.

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  • Phil.) begun to endeavour after an amalgamation of the Spinozistic conception of substance with the Platonic view of an ideal realm, and to find therein the means of enriching the bareness of absolute reason.

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  • His idea of the universe was essentially Pythagorean and Platonic. He started with the conviction that the arrangement of its parts must correspond with certain abstract conceptions of the beautiful and harmonious.

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  • All these inspiring metaphysical and moral doctrines the pupil accepted from his master's dialogues, and throughout his life adhered to the general spirit of realism without materialism pervading the Platonic philosophy.

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  • The Eudemus, on the soul (Fragmenta, 37 seq.), must have been in style and thought the most Platonic of all the Aristotelian writings.

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  • Hardly less Platonic is the Protrepticus (Fragm.

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  • This is indeed a doctrine of Platonic ethics from which Aristotle in his later days never swerved.

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  • This indifference to goods of body and estate is quite Platonic, but is.

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  • He rejected the Platonic hypothesis of forms, and affirmed that they are not separate but common, without however as yet having advanced to a constructive metaphysics of his own; while at the same time, after having at first adopted his master's dialectical treatment of metaphysical problems, he soon passed from dialogues to didactic works,, which had the result of separating metaphysics from dialectic. The all-important consequence of this first departure from Platonism was that Aristotle became and remained primarily a metaphysician.

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  • During his master's life, in the second period of his own life, he protested against the Platonic hypothesis of forms, formal numbers and the one as the good, and tended to separate metaphysics from dialectic by beginning to pass from dialogues to didactic works.

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  • B 2, 997 b 3-5, referring back to A 6 and 9 about Platonic forms. Sometimes, on the other hand, the reference only goes back to a previous part of a given topic, e.g.

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  • We have seen how anxious Aristotle was to be considered one of the Platonists, how reluctant he was to depart from Plato's hypothesis of forms, and how, in denying the separability, he retained the Platonic belief in the reality and even in the unity of the universal.

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  • We have now to see that, in writing the Categories, on the one hand he carried his differences from his master further than he had done in his early criticisms by insisting that individual substances are not only real, but are the very things which sustain the universal; but on the other hand, he clung to further relics of the Platonic theory, and it is those which differentiate the Categories and the Metaphysics.

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  • But even so the Categories concludes that everything is either a predicate of, or inherent in, a substance; and the view that this colour belongs to this substance only in the sense of being in it, not of it, leaves the impression that, like a Platonic form, it is an entity rather in than of an individual substance, though even in the Categories Aristotle is careful to deny its separability.

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  • The short discourse on the expression of thought by language (irEpi `Epjs vElas, De Interpretatione) is based on the Platonic division of the sentence (X6yos) into noun and verb (ivoµa and Am).

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  • Above all, we must consider our present point that Platonic influence is a sign of earliness in an Aristotelian work; and generally, the same man may both think and write differently at different times, especially if, like Aristotle, he has been a prolific author.

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  • As the Platonic philosophy was primarily moral, and its metaphysics a theory of the moral order of the universe, Aristotle from the first must have mastered the Platonic ethics.

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  • Indeed, the final proof that the Eudemian Ethics is earlier than the Nicomachean is the very fact that it is more under Platonic influence.

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  • Because, then, it is very like, but more rudimentary and more Platonic, we conclude that the Eudemian is an earlier draft of the Nicomachean Ethics, written by Aristotle when he was still in process of transition from Plato's ethics to his own.

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  • It is also Platonic, like the Endemian Ethics, in making little of external goods in the account of good fortune (ii.

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  • Because, then, the Magna Moralia is very like the Nicomachean Ethics, but more rudimentary, nearer to the Platonic dialogues in style and to a less degree in matter, and also like the Eudemian Ethics, we conclude that it is also like that treatise in having been written as an earlier draft of the Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle himself.

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  • Order Of The Philosophical Writings Some of Aristotle's philosophical writings then are earlier than others; because they show more Platonic influence, and are more rudimentary; e.g.

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  • the Categories earlier than some parts of the Metaphysics, because under the influence of Platonic forms it talks of inherent attributes, and allows secondary substances which are universal; the De Interpretatione earlier than the Analytics, because in it the Platonic analysis of the sentence into noun and verb is retained for the proposition; the Eudemian Ethics and the Magna Moralia earlier than the Nicomachean Ethics, because they are rudimentary sketches of it, and the one written rather in the theological spirit, the other rather in the dialectical style, of Plato; and the Rhetoric to Alexander earlier than the Rhetoric, because it contains a rudimentary theory of the rational evidences afterwards developed into a logic of rhetoric in the Rhetoric and Analytics.

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  • But none of his extant writings is so much dialectic, like a Platonic dialogue.

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  • From the eight passages, which refer to the extraneous discourses, we find (1) that Platonic forms were made by them matters of common talk (reOptiXnrat, Met.

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  • 10, 217 b 31-218 a 30); (3) that the discussions of Platonic forms in them and in philosophical discourses were different (E.E.

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  • THE Aristotelian Philosophy We have now (r) sketched the life of Aristotle as a reader and a writer from early manhood; (2) have watched him as a Platonist, partly imitating but gradually emancipating himself from his master to form a philosophy of his own; (3) have traced the gradual composition of his writings from Plato's time onwards; (4) have distinguished earlier, more Platonic and rudimentary, from later, more independent and mature, writings; (5) have founded the real order of his writings, not on chronology, nor on tradition, but on his classification of science and learning.

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  • Bernard's teaching was distinguished partly by its pronounced Platonic tendency, partly by the stress laid upon literary study of the greater Latin writers; and the influence of the latter feature is noticeable in all John of Salisbury's works.

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  • Perhaps the most famous are a little treatise on Italian prose, and a dialogue entitled Gli Asolani, in which Platonic affection is explained and recommended in a rather longwinded fashion, to the amusement of the reader who remembers the relations of the beautiful Morosina with the author.

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  • himself with two "sisters" of ripe age and fair to look upon; but of allowing his presbyters and deacons also to contract platonic unions with Christian ladies.

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  • At the age of eighteen he went to Athens, where the Platonic school was flourishing under the lead of Xenocrates.

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  • It is possible that the relations between the sexes - in this prototype of Rabelais's Abbey of Theleme - were not entirely what is termed Platonic. But there is on the other hand scarcely a doubt that the tales of licentiousness circulated by opponents are groundless.

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  • But the peculiar way in which it enforces its morals in terms of the Platonic contrast between the spiritual and sensuous worlds, as archetype and temporal manifestation, suggests a special local type of theology which must be taken into account in fixing its provenance.

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  • The sophist of whom the Platonic Protagoras is here thinking was Hippias of Elis, who gave popular lectures, not only upon the four subjects just mentioned, but also upon grammar, mythology, family history, archaeology, Homerology and the education of youth.

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  • Now it is true that before 447 B.C., besides the teachers of writing, gymnastics and music, to whom the young Greek resorted for elementary instruction, there were artists and artisans who not only practised their crafts, but also communicated them to apprentices and pupils, and that accordingly the Platonic Protagoras recognizes in the gymnast Iccus, the physician Herodicus, and the musicians Agathocles and Pythoclides, forerunners of the sophists.

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  • It must be presumed, then, that, in virtue of his general suspicions of the Platonic testimony, Grote in this matter leaves the Sophist out of account.

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  • The first procession or emanation, as above indicated, is the realm of ideas in the Platonic sense, the word or wisdom of God.

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  • The Platonic division was, however, offered as the scientific method of the school.

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  • Else much of his criticism of Platonic doctrine 5 does, indeed, miss fire.

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  • These and like developments, which are to be divined from references in the Aristotelian writings, jejune, and, for the most part, of probable interpretation only, complete the material which Aristotle could utilize when he seceded from the Platonic school and embarked upon his own course of logical inquiry.

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  • The maturity of its philosophic outlook tends to give it a place relatively advanced in the Platonic canon.

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  • If this be pressed as suggesting that the philosopher Aristotle was already in full activity at the date of writing, it is of importance to know what Platonic dialogues were later than the debut of his critical pupil.

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  • He had abandoned for the most part - the Platonic sense of the corresponding verb, viz.

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  • Platonic tradition, or in its ritual and theological side.

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  • There is a Stoic element in the ethic of the Pauline epistles, but the theological affinity that the Johannine gospel, with its background of philosophic ideas, exhibits to Platonic and Neoplatonist teaching caused the effort at absorption to be directed rather in that direction.

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  • The Platonic dialogue Hipparchus attributes it to Hipparchus, son of Peisistratus.

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  • Again, the Platonic dialogue Hip parchus (which though not genuine is probably earlier than the Alexandrian times) asserts that Hipparchus, son of Peisistratus, first brought the poems to Athens, and obliged the rhapsodists at the Panathenaea to follow the order of the text, " as they still do," instead of reciting portions chosen at will.

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  • But if we reject it, have we any better reason for believing the parallel assertion in the Platonic Hipparchus?

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  • The Platonic Hipparchus follows this erroneous version, and may therefore be regarded as representing (at best) mere local tradition.

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  • Either is enough to fill the space in Homer's canvas; and the suspicion arises (as when two Platonic dialogues bear the same name) that if either had been genuine, the other would not have come into existence.

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  • It is used twice in connexion with the Platonic Ideas (N.

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  • The epistle, on the other hand, rather takes the place of a public speech, it is written with an audience in view, it is a literary form, a distinctly artistic effort aiming at permanence; and it bears much the same relation to a letter as a Platonic dialogue does to a private talk between two friends.

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  • Following Duns Scotus, he adopted the Platonic theory of ideas, and denied that Aristotle had made any contribution to metaphysical speculation.

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  • But after his stay at Malta, Coleridge announced to his friends that he had given up his "Socinianism" (of which ever afterwards he spoke with asperity), professing a return to Christian faith, though still putting on it a mystical construction, as when he told Crabb Robinson that "Jesus Christ was a Platonic philosopher."

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  • After giving up Unitarianism he claimed that from the first he had been a Trinitarian on Platonic lines; and some of his latest statements of the doctrine are certainly more pantheistic than Christian.

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  • In political philosophy (the Civitas Solis) he sketches an ideal communism, obviously derived from the Platonic, based on community of wives and property with statecontrol of population and universal military training.

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  • Thus, quite apart from the general similarity of their ethical doctrine, the Cynics were materialists; they were also nominalists, and combated the Platonic ideas; in their theory.

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  • The analogues therefore of metaphysical problems must be sought in physics; particularly that problem of the causes of things for which the Platonic idea and the Peripatetic " constitutive form " had been, each in its turn, received solutions.

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  • Later on much evidence goes to show that (by a divergence from the orthodox standard perhaps due to Platonic influence) it was a Stoic tenet to concede a soul, though not a rational soul, throughout the animal kingdom.

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  • Archer Hind on the Platonic psychology (Journ.

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  • we have already observed, together with an almost Platonic psychology.

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  • Gorgias is the central figure in the Platonic dialogue Gorgias.

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  • He became more and more attracted to the study of Plato and Aristotle, and his doctor's dissertation (1826) was an attempt to reach through Aristotle's criticisms a more accurate knowledge of the Platonic philosophy (Platonis de ideis et numeris doctrina ex Aristotele illustrate).

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  • While denying the possibility of an absolute method and an absolute philosophy, as contended for by Hegel and others, Trendelenburg was emphatically an idealist in the ancient or Platonic sense; his whole work was devoted to the demonstration of the ideal in the real.

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  • The tendency of Eudemus, on the other hand, is more towards the theological or Platonic side of Aristotle's.

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  • The Platonic dialogue, however, was founded on the mime, which had been cultivated half a century earlier by the Sicilian poets, Sophron and Epicharmus.

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  • In English non-dramatic literature the dialogue had not been extensively employed until Berkeley used it, in 1713, for his Platonic treatise, Hylas and Philonous.

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  • Platonic Love >>

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  • In Blanquerna (1283), a novel which describes a new Utopia, Lull renews the Platonic tradition and anticipates the methods of Sir Thomas More, Campanella and Harrington, and in the Libre de Maravelles (1286) he adopts the Oriental apologue from Kalilah and Dimnah.

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  • The academies of the day represented the prevailing intellectual tendency of Renaissance humanism, namely, an absorbing enthusiasm for classic letters and for the transcendental speculations of Platonic and neo-Platonic mysticism, not unmixed with the traditions and practice of medieval alchemy, astrology and necromantics.

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  • It is true that, as a matter of fact, the earliest uses of the word (the verb /xXoa04Eiv occurs in Herodotus and Thucydides) imply the idea of the pursuit of knowledge; but the distinction between the aogios, or wise man, and the 4nXoaoa50s, or lover of wisdom, appears first in the Platonic writings, and lends itself naturally to the so-called Socratic irony.

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  • To this correspond the Platonic confusion of logic and ethics and the attempt to substitute a theory of concepts for a metaphysic of reality.

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  • After receiving his first introduction to philosophy in Lesbos from one Leucippus or Alcippus, he proceeded to Athens, and became a member of the Platonic circle.

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  • shelter himself under the authority of Plato; but, as the Xenocratean numbers, though professedly ideal as well as mathematical, were in fact mathematical only, this return to the Platonic terminology was no more than an empty form.

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  • John preached a platonic crusade against Louis, who burned the pope's effigy at Pisa and in Amelia.

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  • He collaborated with his father Apollinaris the Elder in reproducing the Old Testament in the form of Homeric and Pindaric poetry, and the New after the fashion of Platonic dialogues, when the emperor Julian had forbidden Christians to teach the classics.

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  • Less original than Speusippus, he adhered more closely to the letter of Platonic doctrine, and is accounted the typical representative of the Old Academy.

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  • With this Platonic philosopheme Xenocrates combines the current theology, identifying the universe and the heavenly bodies with the greater gods, and reserving a place between them and mortals for the lesser divinities.

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  • Meagre as these statements are, they suffice to show that in ethics, as elsewhere, Xenocrates worked upon Platonic lines.

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  • Having accepted the Platonic metaphysical doctrine, he applied to it the Neo-Pythagorean principles and the Oriental doctrine of Emanation.

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  • Among these may be mentioned the Lehrbuch der griechischen Antiquitciten (new ed., 1889) dealing with political, religious and domestic antiquities; the Geschichte and System der Platonischen Philosophic (1839), unfinished; an edition of the Platonic Dialogues (6 vols., 1851-1853); and Culturgeschichte der Griechen and Reimer (1857-1858), published after his death by C. G.

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  • In the Platonic and Aristotelian systems, too, the theory of ideas involved an absolute separation between the material world and the world of higher reality, and though the term Logos is found the conception is vague and undeveloped.

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  • In the reaction from Platonic dualism, however, the Logos doctrine reappears in great breadth.

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  • This parts into Aoyos orcpµartKoi, which are akin, not to the Platonic ideas, but rather to the Xlyot 'vuXot of Aristotle.

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  • Platonic too is the doctrine of the divine architect who seeks to realize in the visible universe the archetypes already formed in his mind.

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  • The Rumanian government made a platonic protest against the crossing of the frontier, and the Rumanian troops fell back as the Russians advanced; provisions and stores of all kinds were supplied to the invading army against cash payments in gold, and the railways and telegraphs were freely placed at its disposal.

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  • Moses and Paul are put side by side with Aristotle and Menander, and there is a clear inclination to Platonic doctrines of preexistence and metempsychosis.

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  • The oldest suggested etymology (1455) fancifully connects it with the name of the Platonic Atlantis, while later writers have endeavoured to derive it from the Latin anterior (i.e.

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  • Among Whewell's other works - too numerous to mention - reference must be made to writings popular in their day, such as the Bridgewater Treatise on Astronomy (1833), and the essay, Of the Plurality of Worlds (1854), in which he argued against the probability of planetary life, and also to the Platonic Dialogues for English Readers (1859-1861), to the Lectures on the History of Moral Philosophy in England (1852), to the essay, Of a Liberal Education in General, with particular reference to the Leading Studies of the University of Cambridge (1845), to the important edition and abridged translation of Grotius, De jure belli et pacis (1853), and to the edition of the Mathematical Works of Isaac Barrow (1860).

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  • He teaches the medieval Platonic realism, but he accepts the Aristotelian philosophy of his day, marking off certain truths as proved and understood by the light of nature, and stamping those which are not so proved as not understood nor understandable, i.e.

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  • The author develops the Platonic theory of pre-existence, and shows that true education consists not in mere erudition, but rather in the formation of character.

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  • For the distinction between main and contributory causes of conduct (causae adjuvantes and causae principales - the a'reov and vvairwwv of Platonic and Aristotelian philosophy) preserved the possibility of regarding character, the main cause, as the responsible and accountable element in morality.

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  • Thomas Aquinas, for example, develops the Platonic Scholas- argument which proves the dependence of the will ticism.

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  • Four distinct philosophical schools trace their immediate origin to the circle that gathered round Socrates - the Megarian, the Platonic, the Cynic and the Cyrenaic. The impress of the master is manifest on all, in spite of the wide differences that divide them; they all agree in holding the most important possession of man to be wisdom or knowledge, and the most important knowledge to be knowledge of Good.

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  • It is not surprising that this somewhat complicated and delicately balanced view of the relations of " good " and " pleasure " was not long maintained within the Platonic school, and that under Speusippus, Plato's successor, the main body of Platonists took up a simply anti-hedonistic position, as we learn from the polemic of Aristotle.

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  • Yet a closer inspection shows us that when a later president of the Academy (Antiochus of Ascalon) repudiated the scepticism which for two hundred years had been accepted as the traditional Platonic doctrine, he had good grounds for claiming Plato and Aristotle as consentient authorities for the ethical position which he took up.

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  • Even on the cardinal point on which Aristotle entered into direct controversy with Plato, the definite disagreement between the two is less than at first appears; the objections of the disciple hit that part of the master's system that was rather imagined than thought; the main positive result of Platonic speculation only gains in distinctness by the application of Aristotelian analysis.

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  • Nor, finally, does Aristotle's account of the relation of pleasure to human well-being (although he has to combat the extreme anti-hedonism to which the Platonic school under Speusippus had been led) differ materially from the outcome of Plato's thought on this point, as the later dialogues present it to us.

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  • But this does not interfere with the general ethical agreement between the two thinkers; and the doctrine that vicious pleasures are not true or real pleasures is so characteristically Platonic that we are almost surprised to find it in Aristotle.

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  • In so far as there is any important difference between the Platonic and the Aristotelian views of human good, we may observe that the latter has substantially a closer correspondence to the positive element in the ethical teaching of Socrates, though it is presented in a far more technical and scholastic form, and involves a more distinct rejection of the fundamental Socratic paradox.

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  • It should be observed that Plotinus himself is still too Platonic to hold that the absolute mortification of natural bodily appetites is required for purifying the soul; but this ascetic inference was drawn to the fullest extent by his disciple Porphyry.

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  • There is, however, a yet higher point to be reached in the upward ascent of the Neoplatonist from matter; and here the divergence of Plotinus from Platonic idealism is none the less striking, because it is a bona fide result of reverent reflection on Plato's teaching.

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  • The attempt to Christianize the old Platonic list of virtues, which we have noticed in Augustine's system, was probably due to the influence of his master Ambrose, in whose treatise De officiis ministrorum we find for the first time an exposition of Christian duty systematized on a plan borrowed from a pre-Christian moralist.

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  • His distinction among moral virtues of the justice that renders others their due from the virtues that control the appetites and passions of the agent himself, represents his interpretation of the Niconiachean Ethics; while his account of these latter virtues is a simple transcript of Aristotle's, just as his division of the non-rational element of the soul into " concupiscible " and " irascible " is the old Platonic one.

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  • This dualism of governing principles, conscience and self-love, in Butler's system, and perhaps, too, his revival of the Platonic conception of human nature as an ordered and governed community of impulses, is perhaps most nearly antici pated in Wollaston's Religion of Nature Delineated (1722).

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  • We cannot take the Platonic speculations of Iamblichus about the nature and manifestations of Egyptian godhead as evidence for the belief of the peoples who first worshipped the Egyptian gods an innumerable series of ages before Iamblichus and Plutarch.

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  • In the early centuries of the Christian era, both within and without the ranks of the church, the Platonic tone and method were paramount throughout the East.

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  • Avempace does not develop at any length this curious Platonic idea of the perfect state.

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  • His philosophy has been characterized as Socratic in content and Platonic in form.

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  • the Platonic solids, while the four polyhedra in which the centre is multiply enclosed are referred to as the Kepler-Poinsot solids, Kepler having discovered three, while Poinsot discovered the fourth.

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  • Platonic Solids.

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  • They were also discussed by the Platonists, so much so that they became known as the " Platonic solids."

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  • They bear a relation to the Platonic solids similar to the relation of " star polygons " to ordinary regular polygons, inasmuch as the centre is multiply enclosed in the former and singly in the latter.

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  • [ix.] 1813), who showed that they were derived from the Platonic solids, and that no more than four were possible.

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  • The small stellated dodecahedron is formed by stellating the Platonic dodecahedron (by "stellating " is meant developing the faces contiguous to a specified base so as to form a regular pyramid).

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  • The great dodecahedron is determined by the intersections of the twelve planes which intersect the Platonic icosahedron in five of its edges; or each face has the same boundaries as the basal sides of five covertical faces of the icosahedron.

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  • Each of the twenty triangular faces subtend at the centre the same angle as is subtended by four whole and six half faces of the Platonic icosahedron; in other words, the solid is determined by the twenty planes which can be drawn through the vertices of the three faces contiguous to any face of a Platonic icosahedron.

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  • This formula only holds for the Platonic solids.

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  • All, with the exception of Great Britain, showed sympathy for the queen-regent and her government, but none were disposed to go beyond purely platonic representations in Washington.

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  • He immersed himself "over head and ears in the study of philosophy," and fell for a time into a scepticism, from which he was delivered by a study of the "Platonic writers."

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  • Further, against the Platonic list it may be urged (I) that it is arbitrary, and (2) that the several virtues are not specifically distinct, that the basis of the division is unsound, and that there is overlapping.

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  • It is said that St Ambrose was the first to adapt the Platonic classification to Christian theology.

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  • It has frequently been alleged that his relations with Mme de Balbi, and indeed with women generally, were of a platonic nature.

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  • The minute he detected something more than a platonic relationship, it was going to be good-by friendship.

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  • Dean was sure the young woman's promise of a platonic night was already forgotten.

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  • No one would believe two people as attractive as Sarah and Jackson could be in a platonic relationship, so it kept the neighbors from gossiping.

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  • So you agree that a relationship between a man and a woman can be platonic.

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  • Oh, I believe your feelings for him are platonic.

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  • She and Dusty had been platonic lovers, sharing a bed and their frustrations, until Bianca swept him away.

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  • The eternal archetypes have obvious parallels with Platonic ideal forms.

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  • The idealized Platonic universe of spheres and circles came to be regarded as axiomatic.

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  • Was it all supposed to add up to some Platonic ideal of the MEng degree?

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  • The Republic has been seen as the classic text of Platonic Utopian idealism.

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  • His hylomorphism, then, embraces neither reductive materialism nor Platonic dualism.

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  • They affirmed the paradox of a transcendent and immanent God by rejecting both the Stoic pantheism and the Platonic cosmic dualism mentioned above.

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  • In ico mode it is the ith Platonic solid.

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  • reductive materialism nor Platonic dualism.

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  • reside in some Platonic realm untouched by the business of the world.

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  • Is the strict Platonic separation of literature from philosophy still tenable?

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  • The final three books are on solid geometry, and conclude with the construction and classification of the five Platonic solids.

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  • The friendship was purely platonic, but the husband felt or affected jealousy, and resented an intimacy which he from his total lack of culture was unable to share.

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  • Meanwhile he received a careful education at Lorenzo's brilliant humanistic court under such men as Angelo Poliziano, the classical scholar, Pico della Mirandola, the philosopher and theologian, the pious Marsilio Ficino who endeavoured to unite the Platonic cult with Christianity and the poet Bernardo Dovizio Bibbiena.

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  • This is one of the Platonic solids, and is treated in the article Polyhedron, as is also the derived Archimedean solid named the "truncated tetrahedron"; in addition, the regular tetrahedron has important crystallographic relations, being the hemihedral form of the regular octahedron and consequently a form of the cubic system.

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  • They had made many and influential friends in advance, and Madame Roland's salon soon became the rendezvous of Brissot, Petion, Robespierre and other leaders of the popular movement, above all of Buzot, whom she loved with platonic enthusiasm.

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  • Augustine adopts a Platonic thought when he teaches that the immortality of the soul follows from its participation in the eternal truths.

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  • Gaye, The Platonic Conception of Immortality and its Connexion with the Theory of Ideas (1904); R.

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  • 3 Platonic.

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  • Thus he ascribes eternity of existence to species under the form of the " Platonic ideas."

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  • The Platonic or eclectic theism, which adopted the conception of the Logos, made a place for Christ in terms of philosophy within the Godhead.

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  • 1 may or may not be affected by Philo; it is almost or quite solitary in the N.T.) Similarly, the immortality of the soul may be maintained on Platonic or quasi-Platonic lines, as by St Athanasius (Contra Gentes, § 33) - a writer who repeatedly quotes the Alexandrian Book of Wisdom, in which Platonism and the Old Testament had already joined partnership. This.

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  • They adhere to the general position with exceptions (in the case of what had been considered Platonic doctrines).

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  • In 1492 he again travelled in Italy, studying in Florence, Rome and Venice, making himself familiar with the writings of Aristotle, though greatly influenced by the Platonic philosophy.

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  • Philo's God is described in terms of absolute transcendency; his doctrine of the Logos or Divine Sophia is a theistical transformation of the Platonic world of ideas; his allegorical interpretation of the Old Testament represents the spiritualistic dissolution of historical Judaism.

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  • 2.214) as consisting in: " (I) the dualistic opposition of the divine and the earthly; (2) an abstract conception of God, excluding all knowledge of the divine nature; (3) contempt for the world of the senses, on the ground of the Platonic doctrines of matter and of the descent of the soul from a superior world into the body; (4) the theory of intermediate potencies or beings, through whom God acts upon the world of phenomena; (5) the requirement of an ascetic self-emancipation from the bondage of sense and faith in a higher revelation to man when in a state called enthusiasm."

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  • He develops the Platonic philosophy into an elaborate system by means of the doctrine of emanation.

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  • He attributed to his early discipline in this logic an impatience of vague language which in all likelihood was really fostered in him by his study of the Platonic dialogues and of Bentham, for he always had in himself more 6f Plato's fertile ingenuity in canvassing the meaning of vague terms than the schoolman's rigid consistency in the use of them.

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  • But, while in all these doctrines he appears in the character of a Platonic philosopher, traces of rational criticism are not wanting.

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  • GEMISTUS PLETHO [or [[Plethon], Georgius]] (c. 1355-1450), Greek Platonic philosopher and scholar, one of the chief pioneers of the revival of learning in Western Europe, was a Byzantine by birth who settled at Mistra in the Peloponnese, the site of ancient Sparta.

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  • The famous seat of the Platonic philosophy was a gymnasium enlarged as a public park by Cimon; it lay about a mile to the north-west of the Dipylon Gate, with which it was connected by a street bordered with tombs.

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  • The best work of the school was absorbed in the Platonic metaphysic (see E.

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  • In order to found his new academy upon a firm basis Cosimo resolved not only to assemble men of letters for the purpose of Platonic disputation at certain regular intervals, but also to appoint a hierophant and official expositor of Platonic doctrine.

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  • While the translation was still in progress Ficino from time to time submitted its pages to the scholars, Angelo Poliziano, Cristoforo Landino, Demetrios Chalchondylas and others; and since these men were all members of the Platonic Academy, there can be no doubt that the discussions raised upon the text and Latin version greatly served to promote the purpose of Cosimo's foundation.

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  • About the same time Marsilio completed and published his treatise on the Platonic doctrine of immortality (Theologia Platonica de immortalitate animae), the work by which his claims to take rank as a philosopher must be estimated.

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  • As a supplement to these labours in the field of Platonic and Alexandrian philosophy, Marsilio next devoted his energies to the translation of Dionysius the Areopagite, whose work on the celestial hierarchy, though recognized as spurious by the Neapolitan humanist, Lorenzo Valla, had supreme attraction for the mystic and uncritical intellect of Ficino.

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  • As a philosopher, he can advance no claim to originality, his laborious treatise on Platonic theology being little better than a mass of ill-digested erudition.

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  • The value of that work cannot be denied; the impulse which it gave to Platonic studies in Italy, and through them to the formation of the new philosophy in Europe, is indisputable.

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  • He maintained that the Platonic doctrine was providentially made to harmonize with Christianity, in order that by its means speculative intellects might be led to Christ.

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  • From these it may be gathered that nearly every living scholar of note was included in the list of his friends, and that the subjects which interested him were by no means confined to his Platonic sudies.

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  • Thus it is used to translate the Platonic 'SEa, Et50s, the permanent reality which makes a thing what it is, in contrast with the particulars which are finite and subject to change.

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  • He became famous as a teacher of Greek letters and the Platonic philosophy; in 1463 he was made professor at Padua, and in 1479 he was summoned by Lorenzo de' Medici to Florence to fill the professorship vacated by John Argyropoulos.

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  • The first form of Realism corresponds to the Platonic theory of the transcendence of the ideas; the second reproduces the Aristotelian doctrine of the essence as inseparable from the individual thing.

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  • And accordingly it gave rise to the three great doctrines which divided the medieval schools: Realism of the Platonic type, embodied in the formula universalia ante rein; Realism of the Aristotelian type, universalia in re; and Nominalism, including Conceptualism, expressed by the phrase universalia post rem, and also claiming to be based upon the Peripatetic doctrine.

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  • Some general information as to the Platonic doctrines (chiefly in a Neoplatonic garb) was obtainable from the commentary with which Chalcidius (6th century) accompanied his translation, from the work of Apuleius (2nd century) De dogmate Platonis, and indirectly from the commentary of Macrobius (c. 400) on the Somnium Scipionis of Cicero, and from the writings of St Augustine.

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  • Erigena does not separate his Platonic theory of pre-existent exemplars from the Aristotelian doctrine of the universal as in the individuals.

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  • As Ueberweg points out, his theory is rather a result of the transference of the Aristotelian conception of substance to the Platonic Idea, and of an identification of the relation of accidents to the substance in which they inhere with that of the individuals to the Idea of which, in the Platonic doctrine, they are copies (Hist.

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  • At all events, while Erigena's Realism is pronounced, the Platonic and Aristotelian forms of the doctrine are not distinguished in his writings.

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  • At the same time he has nothing to say against the Platonic theory of universalia ante rem (see Idealism).

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  • Like his master, he defended Plato - or what he considered to be the Platonic theory - against the attacks of Aristotle.

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  • 1249), whose treatises De universo and De anima make extensive use of Aristotle and the Arabians, but display a similar Platonic leaning.

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  • The piquant comments of his platonic friend, Mademoiselle de Hautefort, upon Richelieu were relished by the king until he was informed of others said to have been made by her upon himself.

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  • ALCINOUS, the Platonic philosopher, lived probably in the time of the Caesars.

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  • The Platonic testimony, if it proved anything, would prove too much, namely, that the doctrine of the unity of Being originated, not with Xenophanes, but before him; and, in fact, the passage from the Sophist no more proves that Plato attributed to Xenophanes the philosophy of Parmenides than Theaetetus, 160 D, proves that Plato attributed to Homer the philosophy of Heraclitus.

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  • It may be presumed with some certainty that his attentions to women were for the most part platonic; indeed, both on the good and the bad side of him, he was all brain.

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  • But they soon found out that neither Chosroes nor his state corresponded to the Platonic ideal, and Chosroes, in his treaty with Justinian, stipulated that they should return unmolested.

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  • The "EKOeves ir(o-r w (Expositio fidei), a short creed usually attributed to Gregory, and traditionally alleged to have been received by him immediately in vision from the apostle John himself, is probably authentic. A sort of Platonic dialogue of doubtful authenticity " on the impassivity and the passivity of God " in Syriac is in the British Museum.

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  • His principle, however, was essentially sound, and led directly to the Platonic Idealism.

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  • The "regular icosahedron" is one of the Platonic solids; the "great icosahedron" is a Kepler-Poinsot solid; and the "truncated icosahedron" is an Archimedean solid (see Polyhedron).

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  • Yet the Megarians were by no means in agreement with the Platonic idealism.

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  • After the Renaissance, with its renewal of interest in Platonic studies, numerous attempts were made to rationalize the myth of Atlantis.

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  • The term has also been applied to the Italian humanists of the Renaissance, and in modern times, somewhat vaguely, to thinkers who have based their speculations on the Platonic metaphysics or on Plotinus, and incorporated with it a tendency towards a mystical explanation of ultimate phenomena.

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  • As forerunners of Neoplatonism we may regard, on the one hand, those Stoics who accepted the Platonic distinction between the sensible world and the intelligible, and, on the other hand, the so-called Neopythagoreans and religious philosophers like Plutarch of Chaeronea and especially Numenius of Apamea.

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  • The religious ethics of Philo - a compound of Stoic, Platonic and Neopythagorean elements - already bear the peculiar stamp which we recognize in Neoplatonism.

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  • Phil.) begun to endeavour after an amalgamation of the Spinozistic conception of substance with the Platonic view of an ideal realm, and to find therein the means of enriching the bareness of absolute reason.

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  • His idea of the universe was essentially Pythagorean and Platonic. He started with the conviction that the arrangement of its parts must correspond with certain abstract conceptions of the beautiful and harmonious.

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  • All these inspiring metaphysical and moral doctrines the pupil accepted from his master's dialogues, and throughout his life adhered to the general spirit of realism without materialism pervading the Platonic philosophy.

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  • The Eudemus, on the soul (Fragmenta, 37 seq.), must have been in style and thought the most Platonic of all the Aristotelian writings.

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  • Hardly less Platonic is the Protrepticus (Fragm.

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  • This is indeed a doctrine of Platonic ethics from which Aristotle in his later days never swerved.

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  • This indifference to goods of body and estate is quite Platonic, but is.

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  • 185 seq.), contending that the Platonic arguments., prove not forms (1.3at) but only things common Kctvh).

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  • He rejected the Platonic hypothesis of forms, and affirmed that they are not separate but common, without however as yet having advanced to a constructive metaphysics of his own; while at the same time, after having at first adopted his master's dialectical treatment of metaphysical problems, he soon passed from dialogues to didactic works,, which had the result of separating metaphysics from dialectic. The all-important consequence of this first departure from Platonism was that Aristotle became and remained primarily a metaphysician.

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  • During his master's life, in the second period of his own life, he protested against the Platonic hypothesis of forms, formal numbers and the one as the good, and tended to separate metaphysics from dialectic by beginning to pass from dialogues to didactic works.

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  • B 2, 997 b 3-5, referring back to A 6 and 9 about Platonic forms. Sometimes, on the other hand, the reference only goes back to a previous part of a given topic, e.g.

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  • We have seen how anxious Aristotle was to be considered one of the Platonists, how reluctant he was to depart from Plato's hypothesis of forms, and how, in denying the separability, he retained the Platonic belief in the reality and even in the unity of the universal.

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  • We have now to see that, in writing the Categories, on the one hand he carried his differences from his master further than he had done in his early criticisms by insisting that individual substances are not only real, but are the very things which sustain the universal; but on the other hand, he clung to further relics of the Platonic theory, and it is those which differentiate the Categories and the Metaphysics.

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  • But even so the Categories concludes that everything is either a predicate of, or inherent in, a substance; and the view that this colour belongs to this substance only in the sense of being in it, not of it, leaves the impression that, like a Platonic form, it is an entity rather in than of an individual substance, though even in the Categories Aristotle is careful to deny its separability.

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  • The short discourse on the expression of thought by language (irEpi `Epjs vElas, De Interpretatione) is based on the Platonic division of the sentence (X6yos) into noun and verb (ivoµa and Am).

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  • Above all, we must consider our present point that Platonic influence is a sign of earliness in an Aristotelian work; and generally, the same man may both think and write differently at different times, especially if, like Aristotle, he has been a prolific author.

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  • As the Platonic philosophy was primarily moral, and its metaphysics a theory of the moral order of the universe, Aristotle from the first must have mastered the Platonic ethics.

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  • Indeed, the final proof that the Eudemian Ethics is earlier than the Nicomachean is the very fact that it is more under Platonic influence.

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  • Because, then, it is very like, but more rudimentary and more Platonic, we conclude that the Eudemian is an earlier draft of the Nicomachean Ethics, written by Aristotle when he was still in process of transition from Plato's ethics to his own.

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  • It is also Platonic, like the Endemian Ethics, in making little of external goods in the account of good fortune (ii.

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  • Because, then, the Magna Moralia is very like the Nicomachean Ethics, but more rudimentary, nearer to the Platonic dialogues in style and to a less degree in matter, and also like the Eudemian Ethics, we conclude that it is also like that treatise in having been written as an earlier draft of the Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle himself.

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  • Order Of The Philosophical Writings Some of Aristotle's philosophical writings then are earlier than others; because they show more Platonic influence, and are more rudimentary; e.g.

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  • the Categories earlier than some parts of the Metaphysics, because under the influence of Platonic forms it talks of inherent attributes, and allows secondary substances which are universal; the De Interpretatione earlier than the Analytics, because in it the Platonic analysis of the sentence into noun and verb is retained for the proposition; the Eudemian Ethics and the Magna Moralia earlier than the Nicomachean Ethics, because they are rudimentary sketches of it, and the one written rather in the theological spirit, the other rather in the dialectical style, of Plato; and the Rhetoric to Alexander earlier than the Rhetoric, because it contains a rudimentary theory of the rational evidences afterwards developed into a logic of rhetoric in the Rhetoric and Analytics.

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  • But none of his extant writings is so much dialectic, like a Platonic dialogue.

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  • From the eight passages, which refer to the extraneous discourses, we find (1) that Platonic forms were made by them matters of common talk (reOptiXnrat, Met.

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  • 10, 217 b 31-218 a 30); (3) that the discussions of Platonic forms in them and in philosophical discourses were different (E.E.

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  • THE Aristotelian Philosophy We have now (r) sketched the life of Aristotle as a reader and a writer from early manhood; (2) have watched him as a Platonist, partly imitating but gradually emancipating himself from his master to form a philosophy of his own; (3) have traced the gradual composition of his writings from Plato's time onwards; (4) have distinguished earlier, more Platonic and rudimentary, from later, more independent and mature, writings; (5) have founded the real order of his writings, not on chronology, nor on tradition, but on his classification of science and learning.

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  • Bernard's teaching was distinguished partly by its pronounced Platonic tendency, partly by the stress laid upon literary study of the greater Latin writers; and the influence of the latter feature is noticeable in all John of Salisbury's works.

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  • Perhaps the most famous are a little treatise on Italian prose, and a dialogue entitled Gli Asolani, in which Platonic affection is explained and recommended in a rather longwinded fashion, to the amusement of the reader who remembers the relations of the beautiful Morosina with the author.

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  • himself with two "sisters" of ripe age and fair to look upon; but of allowing his presbyters and deacons also to contract platonic unions with Christian ladies.

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  • At the age of eighteen he went to Athens, where the Platonic school was flourishing under the lead of Xenocrates.

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  • It is possible that the relations between the sexes - in this prototype of Rabelais's Abbey of Theleme - were not entirely what is termed Platonic. But there is on the other hand scarcely a doubt that the tales of licentiousness circulated by opponents are groundless.

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  • But the peculiar way in which it enforces its morals in terms of the Platonic contrast between the spiritual and sensuous worlds, as archetype and temporal manifestation, suggests a special local type of theology which must be taken into account in fixing its provenance.

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  • The "ordinary dodecahedron" is one of the Platonic solids (see Polyhedron).

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  • The sophist of whom the Platonic Protagoras is here thinking was Hippias of Elis, who gave popular lectures, not only upon the four subjects just mentioned, but also upon grammar, mythology, family history, archaeology, Homerology and the education of youth.

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  • Now it is true that before 447 B.C., besides the teachers of writing, gymnastics and music, to whom the young Greek resorted for elementary instruction, there were artists and artisans who not only practised their crafts, but also communicated them to apprentices and pupils, and that accordingly the Platonic Protagoras recognizes in the gymnast Iccus, the physician Herodicus, and the musicians Agathocles and Pythoclides, forerunners of the sophists.

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  • It must be presumed, then, that, in virtue of his general suspicions of the Platonic testimony, Grote in this matter leaves the Sophist out of account.

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  • The first procession or emanation, as above indicated, is the realm of ideas in the Platonic sense, the word or wisdom of God.

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  • The Platonic division was, however, offered as the scientific method of the school.

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  • Else much of his criticism of Platonic doctrine 5 does, indeed, miss fire.

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  • These and like developments, which are to be divined from references in the Aristotelian writings, jejune, and, for the most part, of probable interpretation only, complete the material which Aristotle could utilize when he seceded from the Platonic school and embarked upon his own course of logical inquiry.

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  • The maturity of its philosophic outlook tends to give it a place relatively advanced in the Platonic canon.

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  • If this be pressed as suggesting that the philosopher Aristotle was already in full activity at the date of writing, it is of importance to know what Platonic dialogues were later than the debut of his critical pupil.

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  • On the stylistic argument as applied to Platonic controversies Janell's Quaestiones Platonicae (1901) is important.

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  • He had abandoned for the most part - the Platonic sense of the corresponding verb, viz.

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  • Platonic tradition, or in its ritual and theological side.

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  • There is a Stoic element in the ethic of the Pauline epistles, but the theological affinity that the Johannine gospel, with its background of philosophic ideas, exhibits to Platonic and Neoplatonist teaching caused the effort at absorption to be directed rather in that direction.

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  • Historically he appears to have been under the dominance of the Platonic metaphor of an alphabet of nature, with a consequent belief in the relatively small number of ultimate principles to be determined, and of Plato's conception of Division, cleared of its dialectical associations and used experientially in application to his own molecular physics.

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  • The Platonic dialogue Hipparchus attributes it to Hipparchus, son of Peisistratus.

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  • Again, the Platonic dialogue Hip parchus (which though not genuine is probably earlier than the Alexandrian times) asserts that Hipparchus, son of Peisistratus, first brought the poems to Athens, and obliged the rhapsodists at the Panathenaea to follow the order of the text, " as they still do," instead of reciting portions chosen at will.

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  • But if we reject it, have we any better reason for believing the parallel assertion in the Platonic Hipparchus?

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  • The Platonic Hipparchus follows this erroneous version, and may therefore be regarded as representing (at best) mere local tradition.

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  • Either is enough to fill the space in Homer's canvas; and the suspicion arises (as when two Platonic dialogues bear the same name) that if either had been genuine, the other would not have come into existence.

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  • It is used twice in connexion with the Platonic Ideas (N.

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  • The epistle, on the other hand, rather takes the place of a public speech, it is written with an audience in view, it is a literary form, a distinctly artistic effort aiming at permanence; and it bears much the same relation to a letter as a Platonic dialogue does to a private talk between two friends.

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  • Following Duns Scotus, he adopted the Platonic theory of ideas, and denied that Aristotle had made any contribution to metaphysical speculation.

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  • But after his stay at Malta, Coleridge announced to his friends that he had given up his "Socinianism" (of which ever afterwards he spoke with asperity), professing a return to Christian faith, though still putting on it a mystical construction, as when he told Crabb Robinson that "Jesus Christ was a Platonic philosopher."

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  • After giving up Unitarianism he claimed that from the first he had been a Trinitarian on Platonic lines; and some of his latest statements of the doctrine are certainly more pantheistic than Christian.

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  • In political philosophy (the Civitas Solis) he sketches an ideal communism, obviously derived from the Platonic, based on community of wives and property with statecontrol of population and universal military training.

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  • Thus, quite apart from the general similarity of their ethical doctrine, the Cynics were materialists; they were also nominalists, and combated the Platonic ideas; in their theory.

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  • The analogues therefore of metaphysical problems must be sought in physics; particularly that problem of the causes of things for which the Platonic idea and the Peripatetic " constitutive form " had been, each in its turn, received solutions.

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  • Later on much evidence goes to show that (by a divergence from the orthodox standard perhaps due to Platonic influence) it was a Stoic tenet to concede a soul, though not a rational soul, throughout the animal kingdom.

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  • Archer Hind on the Platonic psychology (Journ.

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  • we have already observed, together with an almost Platonic psychology.

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  • Gorgias is the central figure in the Platonic dialogue Gorgias.

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  • He became more and more attracted to the study of Plato and Aristotle, and his doctor's dissertation (1826) was an attempt to reach through Aristotle's criticisms a more accurate knowledge of the Platonic philosophy (Platonis de ideis et numeris doctrina ex Aristotele illustrate).

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  • While denying the possibility of an absolute method and an absolute philosophy, as contended for by Hegel and others, Trendelenburg was emphatically an idealist in the ancient or Platonic sense; his whole work was devoted to the demonstration of the ideal in the real.

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  • The tendency of Eudemus, on the other hand, is more towards the theological or Platonic side of Aristotle's.

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  • The Platonic dialogue, however, was founded on the mime, which had been cultivated half a century earlier by the Sicilian poets, Sophron and Epicharmus.

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  • In English non-dramatic literature the dialogue had not been extensively employed until Berkeley used it, in 1713, for his Platonic treatise, Hylas and Philonous.

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  • Platonic Love >>

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  • In Blanquerna (1283), a novel which describes a new Utopia, Lull renews the Platonic tradition and anticipates the methods of Sir Thomas More, Campanella and Harrington, and in the Libre de Maravelles (1286) he adopts the Oriental apologue from Kalilah and Dimnah.

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  • The academies of the day represented the prevailing intellectual tendency of Renaissance humanism, namely, an absorbing enthusiasm for classic letters and for the transcendental speculations of Platonic and neo-Platonic mysticism, not unmixed with the traditions and practice of medieval alchemy, astrology and necromantics.

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  • It is true that, as a matter of fact, the earliest uses of the word (the verb /xXoa04Eiv occurs in Herodotus and Thucydides) imply the idea of the pursuit of knowledge; but the distinction between the aogios, or wise man, and the 4nXoaoa50s, or lover of wisdom, appears first in the Platonic writings, and lends itself naturally to the so-called Socratic irony.

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  • To this correspond the Platonic confusion of logic and ethics and the attempt to substitute a theory of concepts for a metaphysic of reality.

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  • After receiving his first introduction to philosophy in Lesbos from one Leucippus or Alcippus, he proceeded to Athens, and became a member of the Platonic circle.

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  • shelter himself under the authority of Plato; but, as the Xenocratean numbers, though professedly ideal as well as mathematical, were in fact mathematical only, this return to the Platonic terminology was no more than an empty form.

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  • John preached a platonic crusade against Louis, who burned the pope's effigy at Pisa and in Amelia.

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  • He collaborated with his father Apollinaris the Elder in reproducing the Old Testament in the form of Homeric and Pindaric poetry, and the New after the fashion of Platonic dialogues, when the emperor Julian had forbidden Christians to teach the classics.

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  • Less original than Speusippus, he adhered more closely to the letter of Platonic doctrine, and is accounted the typical representative of the Old Academy.

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  • With this Platonic philosopheme Xenocrates combines the current theology, identifying the universe and the heavenly bodies with the greater gods, and reserving a place between them and mortals for the lesser divinities.

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  • Meagre as these statements are, they suffice to show that in ethics, as elsewhere, Xenocrates worked upon Platonic lines.

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  • The emperor Gallienus and his wife Salonina were also his enthusiastic admirers, and favoured his idea of founding a Platonic Commonwealth (Platonopolis) in Campania (cf.

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  • Having accepted the Platonic metaphysical doctrine, he applied to it the Neo-Pythagorean principles and the Oriental doctrine of Emanation.

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  • In questions relating to cosmology, sin, death, &c., he is an eclectic, and allows himself the most unrestricted freedom, and readily incorporates Platonic (xxx.

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  • Among these may be mentioned the Lehrbuch der griechischen Antiquitciten (new ed., 1889) dealing with political, religious and domestic antiquities; the Geschichte and System der Platonischen Philosophic (1839), unfinished; an edition of the Platonic Dialogues (6 vols., 1851-1853); and Culturgeschichte der Griechen and Reimer (1857-1858), published after his death by C. G.

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  • In the Platonic and Aristotelian systems, too, the theory of ideas involved an absolute separation between the material world and the world of higher reality, and though the term Logos is found the conception is vague and undeveloped.

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  • In the reaction from Platonic dualism, however, the Logos doctrine reappears in great breadth.

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  • This parts into Aoyos orcpµartKoi, which are akin, not to the Platonic ideas, but rather to the Xlyot 'vuXot of Aristotle.

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  • Platonic too is the doctrine of the divine architect who seeks to realize in the visible universe the archetypes already formed in his mind.

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  • The Rumanian government made a platonic protest against the crossing of the frontier, and the Rumanian troops fell back as the Russians advanced; provisions and stores of all kinds were supplied to the invading army against cash payments in gold, and the railways and telegraphs were freely placed at its disposal.

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  • Moses and Paul are put side by side with Aristotle and Menander, and there is a clear inclination to Platonic doctrines of preexistence and metempsychosis.

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  • The oldest suggested etymology (1455) fancifully connects it with the name of the Platonic Atlantis, while later writers have endeavoured to derive it from the Latin anterior (i.e.

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  • Among Whewell's other works - too numerous to mention - reference must be made to writings popular in their day, such as the Bridgewater Treatise on Astronomy (1833), and the essay, Of the Plurality of Worlds (1854), in which he argued against the probability of planetary life, and also to the Platonic Dialogues for English Readers (1859-1861), to the Lectures on the History of Moral Philosophy in England (1852), to the essay, Of a Liberal Education in General, with particular reference to the Leading Studies of the University of Cambridge (1845), to the important edition and abridged translation of Grotius, De jure belli et pacis (1853), and to the edition of the Mathematical Works of Isaac Barrow (1860).

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  • He teaches the medieval Platonic realism, but he accepts the Aristotelian philosophy of his day, marking off certain truths as proved and understood by the light of nature, and stamping those which are not so proved as not understood nor understandable, i.e.

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  • The author develops the Platonic theory of pre-existence, and shows that true education consists not in mere erudition, but rather in the formation of character.

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  • For the distinction between main and contributory causes of conduct (causae adjuvantes and causae principales - the a'reov and vvairwwv of Platonic and Aristotelian philosophy) preserved the possibility of regarding character, the main cause, as the responsible and accountable element in morality.

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  • Thomas Aquinas, for example, develops the Platonic Scholas- argument which proves the dependence of the will ticism.

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  • Four distinct philosophical schools trace their immediate origin to the circle that gathered round Socrates - the Megarian, the Platonic, the Cynic and the Cyrenaic. The impress of the master is manifest on all, in spite of the wide differences that divide them; they all agree in holding the most important possession of man to be wisdom or knowledge, and the most important knowledge to be knowledge of Good.

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  • It is not surprising that this somewhat complicated and delicately balanced view of the relations of " good " and " pleasure " was not long maintained within the Platonic school, and that under Speusippus, Plato's successor, the main body of Platonists took up a simply anti-hedonistic position, as we learn from the polemic of Aristotle.

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  • Yet a closer inspection shows us that when a later president of the Academy (Antiochus of Ascalon) repudiated the scepticism which for two hundred years had been accepted as the traditional Platonic doctrine, he had good grounds for claiming Plato and Aristotle as consentient authorities for the ethical position which he took up.

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  • Even on the cardinal point on which Aristotle entered into direct controversy with Plato, the definite disagreement between the two is less than at first appears; the objections of the disciple hit that part of the master's system that was rather imagined than thought; the main positive result of Platonic speculation only gains in distinctness by the application of Aristotelian analysis.

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  • Nor, finally, does Aristotle's account of the relation of pleasure to human well-being (although he has to combat the extreme anti-hedonism to which the Platonic school under Speusippus had been led) differ materially from the outcome of Plato's thought on this point, as the later dialogues present it to us.

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  • But this does not interfere with the general ethical agreement between the two thinkers; and the doctrine that vicious pleasures are not true or real pleasures is so characteristically Platonic that we are almost surprised to find it in Aristotle.

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  • In so far as there is any important difference between the Platonic and the Aristotelian views of human good, we may observe that the latter has substantially a closer correspondence to the positive element in the ethical teaching of Socrates, though it is presented in a far more technical and scholastic form, and involves a more distinct rejection of the fundamental Socratic paradox.

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  • It should be observed that Plotinus himself is still too Platonic to hold that the absolute mortification of natural bodily appetites is required for purifying the soul; but this ascetic inference was drawn to the fullest extent by his disciple Porphyry.

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  • There is, however, a yet higher point to be reached in the upward ascent of the Neoplatonist from matter; and here the divergence of Plotinus from Platonic idealism is none the less striking, because it is a bona fide result of reverent reflection on Plato's teaching.

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  • The attempt to Christianize the old Platonic list of virtues, which we have noticed in Augustine's system, was probably due to the influence of his master Ambrose, in whose treatise De officiis ministrorum we find for the first time an exposition of Christian duty systematized on a plan borrowed from a pre-Christian moralist.

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  • His distinction among moral virtues of the justice that renders others their due from the virtues that control the appetites and passions of the agent himself, represents his interpretation of the Niconiachean Ethics; while his account of these latter virtues is a simple transcript of Aristotle's, just as his division of the non-rational element of the soul into " concupiscible " and " irascible " is the old Platonic one.

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  • This dualism of governing principles, conscience and self-love, in Butler's system, and perhaps, too, his revival of the Platonic conception of human nature as an ordered and governed community of impulses, is perhaps most nearly antici pated in Wollaston's Religion of Nature Delineated (1722).

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  • We cannot take the Platonic speculations of Iamblichus about the nature and manifestations of Egyptian godhead as evidence for the belief of the peoples who first worshipped the Egyptian gods an innumerable series of ages before Iamblichus and Plutarch.

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  • In the early centuries of the Christian era, both within and without the ranks of the church, the Platonic tone and method were paramount throughout the East.

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  • Avempace does not develop at any length this curious Platonic idea of the perfect state.

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  • His philosophy has been characterized as Socratic in content and Platonic in form.

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  • the Platonic solids, while the four polyhedra in which the centre is multiply enclosed are referred to as the Kepler-Poinsot solids, Kepler having discovered three, while Poinsot discovered the fourth.

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  • Platonic Solids.

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  • They were also discussed by the Platonists, so much so that they became known as the " Platonic solids."

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  • Mensuration of the Platonic Solids.-The mensuration of the regular polyhedra is readily investigated by the methods of elementary geometry, the property that these solids may be inscribed in and circumscribed to concentric spheres being especially useful.

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  • They bear a relation to the Platonic solids similar to the relation of " star polygons " to ordinary regular polygons, inasmuch as the centre is multiply enclosed in the former and singly in the latter.

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  • [ix.] 1813), who showed that they were derived from the Platonic solids, and that no more than four were possible.

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  • The small stellated dodecahedron is formed by stellating the Platonic dodecahedron (by "stellating " is meant developing the faces contiguous to a specified base so as to form a regular pyramid).

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  • The great dodecahedron is determined by the intersections of the twelve planes which intersect the Platonic icosahedron in five of its edges; or each face has the same boundaries as the basal sides of five covertical faces of the icosahedron.

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  • Each of the twenty triangular faces subtend at the centre the same angle as is subtended by four whole and six half faces of the Platonic icosahedron; in other words, the solid is determined by the twenty planes which can be drawn through the vertices of the three faces contiguous to any face of a Platonic icosahedron.

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  • This formula only holds for the Platonic solids.

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  • All, with the exception of Great Britain, showed sympathy for the queen-regent and her government, but none were disposed to go beyond purely platonic representations in Washington.

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  • He immersed himself "over head and ears in the study of philosophy," and fell for a time into a scepticism, from which he was delivered by a study of the "Platonic writers."

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  • Further, against the Platonic list it may be urged (I) that it is arbitrary, and (2) that the several virtues are not specifically distinct, that the basis of the division is unsound, and that there is overlapping.

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  • It is said that St Ambrose was the first to adapt the Platonic classification to Christian theology.

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  • It has frequently been alleged that his relations with Mme de Balbi, and indeed with women generally, were of a platonic nature.

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  • Ideas may be conceived and may reside in some Platonic realm untouched by the business of the world.

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  • Is the strict Platonic separation of literature from philosophy still tenable?

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  • The final three books are on solid geometry, and conclude with the construction and classification of the five Platonic solids.

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  • These qualities are important in romantic and platonic relationships.

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  • My advice is to back off, but be nice, friendly but in a platonic way.

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  • But now that you have a sense that he just likes you in a platonic way--let it be.

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  • But the notorious video vixen swears that their relationship is purely platonic; she's only being a friend in his time of need.

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  • After that quick romance, things between them were strictly platonic.

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  • In the Platonic tradition, he argues, truth was understood as something to be unveiled.

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  • The work includes Da Vinci's drawings of the five Platonic Solids.

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  • For some escorts, the concept is purely platonic.

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  • Make sure they remember you for the right reasons - Don't be the one who sends a nude picture to the person posting in the "Strictly Platonic" section.

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  • If you don't want to show up at an event alone, invite a friend along for a platonic date.

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  • Your letter reminds me of the scene in When Harry Met Sally where Harry states that there can't be platonic relationships between men and women because men are only thinking about wanting to have sex with women.

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  • Is she interested in a platonic girlfriend relationship or is she interested in a romantic relationship?

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  • If this woman is interested in a platonic girlfriend relationship, a concern is that her personal life flows over into her professional life.

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  • But, until he ends one relationship, the two of you can only be platonic friends and not special friends because that is not fair to you (Amy).

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  • Your friendship and his level of interest are more platonic and like two very close siblings rather than like two lovers.

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  • Assuming that the relationship with the roommate is platonic and has not been intimate, your man will be very surprised to read her email and will want to straighten everything out between all of you.

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  • Lovebyrd: This site is for disabled singles looking to make new connections, romantic or platonic.

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  • Promise rings are given for a variety of reasons to symbolize a bond between to people, either romantic or platonic.

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  • Sometimes friends exchange these rings to promise continued friendship and platonic love.

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  • If the promise ring symbolizes friendship or platonic love, it is generally worn on the right ring finger.

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  • Cancer is a natural protector in relationships, whether it be romantic or platonic.

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  • Whether this is limited to a platonic friendship or a romantic relationship, Scorpios make wonderfully protective friends and fearsome enemies.

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  • They continue to date, but Ezra does his best to keep it platonic, building a friendship.

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  • While most tattoo recipients never choose tattoos based on their future romantic or platonic relationships, it's worth considering how a full body canvas may affect your social life.

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  • Beauty and the Beast dealt with Hamilton's departure by killing off her character, after having her give birth to a child from her up-to-this-point pure and platonic love affair with Vincent.

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  • 1 may or may not be affected by Philo; it is almost or quite solitary in the N.T.) Similarly, the immortality of the soul may be maintained on Platonic or quasi-Platonic lines, as by St Athanasius (Contra Gentes, § 33) - a writer who repeatedly quotes the Alexandrian Book of Wisdom, in which Platonism and the Old Testament had already joined partnership. This.

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  • His translations of platonic writers are lost, but the treatise De Definitionibus (ed.

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  • His principle, however, was essentially sound, and led directly to the Platonic Idealism.

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  • Yet the Megarians were by no means in agreement with the Platonic idealism.

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  • His translations of platonic writers are lost, but the treatise De Definitionibus (ed.

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  • "Platonic love, clouds..." he muttered.

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