She quickly put the plates in the dishwasher and dumped the stale water from the frying pan.
California requires plates on the front and back.
"The last two, if my memory is correct," she said, taking plates from the cabinets.
Mrs. Watson quietly swept their dirty plates away.
She was putting plates on the table when the school bus dropped Jonathan off.
There were linen napkins, two china plates and champagne flutes on top.
When the last box was filled with plates, he contemplated whether to wake Elisabeth or not.
She stood and began removing the plates from the table.
She placed the plates on the table and looked up at him, her smile sad.
It forms white plates, melting at 132°, readily soluble in water, and subliming without decomposition.
She slammed the plates into the sink.
Gerald got a couple of plates from the cabinet and two knives.
One of my men spotted a Pace Arrow and was about to stop it when he saw it had Alabama license plates so he let it pass and kept going.
"Then someone took a shot at us," Cynthia said as she set out the plates on the kitchen table.
Half the cars down there have USA license plates, and the models are so new they practically still have the family pet in the back seat.
Of course, on the theory of thin plates, this direction would be determined.
The second method, which he calls the "Promptuarium Multiplicationis" on account of its being the most expeditious of all for the performance of multiplications, involves the use of a number of lamellae or little plates of metal disposed in a box.
She puts her hands in our plates and helps herself, and when the dishes are passed, she grabs them and takes out whatever she wants.
My furniture, part of which I made myself--and the rest cost me nothing of which I have not rendered an account--consisted of a bed, a table, a desk, three chairs, a looking-glass three inches in diameter, a pair of tongs and andirons, a kettle, a skillet, and a frying-pan, a dipper, a wash-bowl, two knives and forks, three plates, one cup, one spoon, a jug for oil, a jug for molasses, and a japanned lamp.
Two governesses were sitting with the Vogels at a table, on which were plates of raisins, walnuts, and almonds.
It didn't take long to fill a few plates with pancakes.
Later, when I talked to the FBI, they mentioned this turkey we're chasing plays the switch game with plates all the time.
He left, and she gazed at the plates full of cookies around the kitchen.
Dean was replenishing the coffee and setting plates for late breakfast arrivals when Maria, their newly hired helper, arrived.
They stuck around, pretending to pick up glasses and snack plates while the Dawkins four quarreled, oblivious to their presence.
She gnawed on her lower lip as she lifted their plates from the table and walked over to the sink.
Alondra and Felipa remained focused on their plates.
Pete frowned at Bordeaux, who was carefully stacking the plates.
Before he signed off, he added, "Keep your eyes peeled for a Pace Arrow Motor home with California plates."
I had barely taken a sip when I had a vision of a motor home I'd recently seen in Keene, with California plates!
Sitting on a secluded site at the far side of the circle, on the outside, sat a mid-sized Pace Arrow motor home with California Plates!
A number of cars carried out of state license plates.
"Looks like it's going to be a mite empty around here in the next few days," Fred continued as he began washing the plates.
A tiny red haired woman, under five feet, Dean guessed, emerged from the vehicle that bore Colorado license plates.
Lana stood to the side, watching Kelli prepare two plates.
After leaving the room, Hunter stopped by a green Ford with Pennsylvania license plates.
She shrugged and turned to the cabinet, removing some paper plates.
Reminding herself that the mirror promised she wasn't as exposed as much breast as it looked from above, she left the ruffle on her arms and began filling their plates.
After a silent grace, they began filling their plates.
She completed the sandwiches and put them on plates.
Buttoning a long shirt over her clothes, she joined him in the kitchen, where he was scooping scrambled eggs into two plates.
In Norwood and Rogers's process a thin coating of tin is applied to the iron before it is dipped in the zinc, by putting the plates between layers of granulated tin in a wooden tank containing a dilute solution of stannous chloride, when tin is deposited on them by galvanic action.
The application of photography to exact astronomy has created the necessity for new forms of apparatus to measure the relative positions of stellar and planetary images on photographic plates, and the relative positions of lines in photographic spectra.
It is practically impossible to work with the sensitive film in contact with the reseau-film, not only because dust particles and contact would injure the silver film, but also because the plate-glass used for the photographic plates is seldom a perfect plane.
- Diagram of the diaphragm in eyepieces of " the micrometer used for measuring the plates of the Astrographic Catalogue.
(Photos from Plates Viii., Ix., and X., P. Z.
1886, plates 26-29).
The armature consists of a bony case, partly composed of solid buckler-like plates, and partly of movable transverse bands, the latter differing in number with the species, and giving to the body a considerable degree of flexibility.
In addition to these we have the photographic plates in F.
The revolving part is made with two side frames of cast iron or steel plates, and to these the lifting gear is attached.
Morse and Gale, who assisted him, found, however, that the distance of the plates up and down the canal must be at least three or four times the width of the canal to obtain successful results.
If the current is interrupted or alternating, and if a telephone receiver has its terminals connected to a separate metallic circuit joined by earth plates at two other places to the earth, not on the same equipotential surface of the first circuit, sounds will be heard in the telephone due to a current passing through it.
He proposed that one ship should be provided with the means of making an interrupted current in a circuit formed partly of an insulated metallic wire connected with the sea at both ends by plates, and partly of the unlimited ocean.
Canal system of flow lines of current through the sea, and these might be detected by any other ships furnished with two plates dipping into the sea at stem and stern, and connected by a wire having a telephone in its circuit, provided that the two plates were not placed on the same equipotential surface of the original current flow lines.
On the question of how far the effects are due to conduction between the earth plates, and how far to true electromagnetic induction, authorities differ, some being of opinion that the two effects are in operation together.
If we suppose the cable interrupted at any place, and both sides of the gap earthed by connexion to plates, then the same conditions will still hold.
4 6 597 1, 14th May 1885) a plan for establishing at distant places two insulated elevated plates.
The idea was that variations of the primary current would create electromotive force in the secondary circuit which would act through the air condenser formed by the two plates.
He constructed one form of his coherer of a glass tube a few inches long filled with iron borings or brass filings, having contact plates or pins at the end.
38 6), the insulated wires or plates being upheld by masts, its operation is as follows: - When the key in the primary circuit of the induction coil is pressed the transmitting antenna wire is alternately charged to a high potential and discharged with the production of high frequency oscillations in it.
In later improvements the secondary circuit of this jigger was interrupted by a small condenser, and the terminals of the relay and local cell were connected to the plates of this condenser, whilst the sensitive tube was attached to the outer ends of the secondary circuit.
His proposed radiator and absorber consisted of two wing-shaped plates of copper, the transmitter plates being interrupted in the centre by a spark gap, and the receiver plates by an inductance coil from the ends of which connexions were made to a coherer.
This alteration of charge caused a corresponding change in the mutual attraction of the plates of the condenser; hence the flexible plate was made to copy the vibrations of the diaphragm of the transmitter.
Some of the so-called " Orphic tablets," metrical inscriptions engraved on small plates of gold, chiefly dating from the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C., have been discovered in tombs in southern Italy, Crete and Rome.
The latter are plates of green tissue one cell thick, while the stem consists of uniform more or less elongated cylindrical cells.
The leaves of most mosses are flat plates, each consisting of a single layer of square or oblong assimilating (chlorophyllous) cells.
The sieve-tubes of the secondary phloem usually have very oblique end-walls bearing a row of sieve-plates; plates also occur on the radial side-walls.
This is evident in the case~ of such plants as have a body consisting of filaments or plates of cells, and is little less conspicuous in those whose mass is but small, though the cells are evidently capable of computation in three dimensions.
In the red variety of Cucurbita pepo these crystals may consist of rods, thin plates, flat ribbons or spirals.
Sieve Tubes.The sieve tubes consist of partially fused rows of cells, the transverse cr lateral walls being perforated by minute openings, through which the contents of the cells are connected with each other, and which after a certain time become closed by,the formation of callus on the sieve plates.
Although for a time it was lost sight of on the continent, Sir Isaac Newton thought so highly of this book that he prepared an annotated edition which was published in Cambridge in 1672, with the addition of the plates which had been planned by Varenius, but not produced by the original publishers.
Dromaeognathae have a struthious palate, with a broad vomer meeting in front the broad maxillo-palatal plates, while behind it reaches the pterygoids.
The maxillopalatine plates (mxp) are dotted to show their spongy character.
C. Eyton, Osteologia avium (London, 1858-1881), with many plates; C. Gegenbaur, Untersuch.
In its simplest form it consists of a tube about twelve inches long containing two glass plates, extending along its whole length and inclined at an angle of 60°.
The eye-end of the tube is closed by a metal plate having a small hole at its centre near the intersection of the glass plates.
He engraved about fifty plates, according to the usual reckoning; some thirty of them are mostly accounted indisputable - often large, full of figures, and highly studied.
It sublimes in thin plates of a dark colour and metallic lustre, and is soluble in solutions of the caustic alkalis.
In Ciampinus, Vetera Monumenta (Rome, 1747), plates xii., xiii., are several illustrations of actual examples.
In 1767 the Colebrookdale Iron Works cast a batch of iron rails or plates, each 3 ft.
on this occasion William Jessop, of the Butterley Iron Works, near Derby, proposed to get over it by laying down two plates of iron, perfectly flat and level with the road but each having on its outside a groove 4 in.
Such metal plates, or " tie-plates," have come into considerable use also in the United States, where they are always made of rolled steel, punched with rectangular holes through which the spikes pass.
Later followed the appearance of lights; quasi-human voices; musical sounds, produced, it is said, without instruments; the "materialization" or presence in material form of what seemed to be human hands and faces, and ultimately of complete figures, alleged to be not those of any person present, and sometimes claimed by witnesses as deceased relatives; "psychography," or "direct writing and drawing," asserted to be done without human intervention; "spirit-photography," or the appearance on photographic plates of human and other forms when no counterpart was visible before the camera to any but specially endowed seers; 3 unfastening of cords and bonds; elongation of the medium's body; handling of red-hot coals; and the apparent passage of solids through solids without disintegration.
Here was what seems to have been the basement of a very large hall or " Megaron," approached directly from the central court, and near this were found further reliefs, fresco representations of scenes of the bull-ring with female as well as male toreadors, and remains of a magnificent gaming-board of gold-plated ivory with intarsia work of crystal plaques set on silver plates and blue enamel (cyanus).
The shapes of these ferruginous sandstones are very fantastic - tubes, hollow spheres, plates, &c., being common.
In the Roman Catholic Church mitres are divided into three classes: (1) Mitra pretiosa, decorated with jewels, gold plates, &c.; (2) Mitra auriphrygiata, of white silk, sometimes embroidered with gold and silver thread or small pearls, or of cloth of gold plain; (3) Mitra simplex, of white silk damask, silk or linen, with the two falling bands behind terminating in red fringes.
Through the commission the, money previously spent upon Queen's Plates is offered in the form of " King's Premiums " (to the number of twenty-eight in 1907) of L1 so each for thoroughbred stallions, on condition that each stallion winning a premium shall serve not less than fifty half-bred mares, if required.
Stomach generally provided with chitinous or calcified masticatory plates.
Cephalic shield short, truncated posteriorly; eyes deeply embedded; three calcareous stomachal plates; shell external, with reduced spire.
Margins of foot well developed; eyes superficial; three chitinous stomachal plates; shell external, with reduced spire.
Cephalic shield continuous with neck; twelve to fourteen stomachal plates; a posterior pallial filament passing through a notch in shell.
Cephalic shield ending posteriorly in a median point; shell internal, largely membranous; no radula or stomachal plates.
The platy minerals have also a perfect cleavage parallel to their flat surfaces, while the fibrous species often have two or more cleavages following their long axes; hence a schistose rock may split not only by separation of the mineral plates from one another but also by cleavage of the parallel minerals through their substance.
The head is usually connected with the thorax by a distinct membranous neck, strengthened in the more generalized orders with small chitinous plates (cervical sclerites).
Paired erectile plates (patagia) are borne on the prothorax in moths, while in moths, sawflies, wasps, bees and other insects there are small plates (tegulae) - see Fig.
The chief merit of the latter work lies in its forty plates, whereon the heads and feet of many birds are indifferently figured .2 But, while the successive editions of Linnaeus's great work were revolutionizing natural history, and his example of precision in language producing excellent effect on scientific writers, several other authors were advancing the study of ornithology in a very different way - a way that pleased the eye even more than his labours were pleasing the mind.
1743 Mark Catesby brought out in London his Natural History of Carolina - two large folios containing highly coloured plates of the birds of that colony, Florida and the Bahamas.'
Far better both as draughtsman and as authority was George Edwards, who in 1 743 began, under the same title as Albin, a series of plates with letterpress, which was continued by the name of Gleanings in Natural History, and finished in 1760, when it had reached seven parts, forming four quarto volumes, the figures of which are nearly always quoted with approval.4 The year which saw the works of Edwards completed was still further distinguished by the appearance in France, where little had been done since Belon's days,' in six quarto volumes, of the Ornithologie of MathurinJacques Brisson - a work of very great merit so far as it goes, for as a descriptive ornithologist the author stands even now unsurpassed; but it must be said that his knowledge, according to internal evidence, was confined to books and to the external parts of birds' skins.
The success of Edwards's very respectable work seems to have provoked competition, and in 1765, at the instigation of Buffon, the younger d'Aubenton began the publication known as the Planches enlumineez d'histoire naturelle, which appearing in forty-two parts was not completed till 1780, when the plates' it contained reached the number of 1008 - all coloured, as its title intimates, and nearly all representing birds.
Latham entered, so far as the limits of his work would allow, into the 1 They were drawn and engraved by Martinet, who himself began in 1787 a Histoire des oiseaux with small coloured plates which have some merit, but the text is worthless.
In 1814 a sequel, The Zoological Miscellany, was begun by Leach, Nodder continuing to do the plates.
This was completed in 1817, and forms three volumes with 149 plates, 27 of which represent birds.
Frisch began the long series of works on the birds of Germany with which the literature of ornithology is enriched, by his Vorstellung der Vogel Teutschlands, which was only completed in 1763, and, its coloured plates proving very attractive, was again issued at Berlin in 1817.
The fulness and accuracy of the text, combined with the neat beauty of its coloured plates, have gone far to promote the study of ornithology in Germany, and while essentially a popular work, since it is suited to the comprehension of all readers, it is throughout written with a simple dignity that commends it to the serious and scientific. Its twelfth and last volume was published in 1844 - by no means too long a period for so arduous and honest a performance, and a supplement was begun in 1847; but, the editor - or author as he may be fairly called - dying in 1857, this continuation was finished in 1860 by the joint efforts of J.
Hayes's Natural History of British Birds, a folio with forty plates, appeared between 1771 and 1775, but was of no scientific value.
This is devoted to the very distinct and not nearly-allied groups of hornbills and of birds which for want of a better name we must call " Chatterers," and is illustrated, like those works of which a notice immediately follows, by coloured plates, done in what was then considered to be the highest style of art and by the best draughtsmen procurable.
The plates in this last are by Barraband, for many years regarded as the perfection of ornithological artists, and indeed the figures, when they happen to have been drawn from the life, are not bad; but his skill was quite unable to vivify the preserved specimens contained in museums, and when he had only these as subjects he simply copied the distortions of the " bird-stuffier."
A similar series of works was projected and begun about the same time as that of Le Vaillant by Audebert and Vieillot, though the former, who was by profession a painter and illustrated the work, was already dead more than a year before the appearance of the two volumes, bearing date 2802, and entitled Oiseaux dores ou a reflets metalliques, the effect of the plates in which he sought to heighten by the lavish use of gilding.
Temminck, whose father's aid to Le Vaillant has already been noticed, brought out at Paris a Histoire naturelle des pigeons illustrated by Madame Knip, who had drawn the plates for Desmarest's volume.3 Since we have begun by considering these large illustrated works in which the text is made subservient to the coloured plates, it may be convenient to continue our notice of such others of similar character as it may be expedient to mention here, though thereby we shall be led somewhat far afield.
Earliest in date as it is greatest in bulk stands Audubon's Birds of America in four volumes, containing four hundred and thirty-five plates, of which the first part appeared in London in 1827 and the last in 1838.
It does not seem to have been the author's original intention to publish any letterpress to this enormous work, but to let the plates tell their own story, though finally, with the assistance, as is now known, of William Macgillivray, a text, on the whole more than respectable, was produced in five large Ma egil- octavos under the title of Ornithological Biography, of liyr ay.
In 1830 John Edward Gray commenced the Illustrations of Indian Zoology, a series of plates of vertebrated animals, G w but mostly of birds, from drawings, it is believed by dlcke..
In this the large plates were reduced by means of the camera lucida, the text was revised, and the whole systematically arranged.
A Monograph of the Odontophorinae or Partridges of America (1850); The Birds of Asia, in seven volumes, the last completed by Mr Sharpe (1850-1883); The Birds of Great Britain, in five volumes (1863-1873); and The Birds of New Guinea, begun in 1875, and, after the author's death in 1881, undertaken by Mr Sharpe, make up the wonderful tale consisting of more than forty folio volumes, and containing more than three thousand coloured plates.
Moreover, both in drawing and in colouring there is frequently much that is untrue to nature, so that it has not uncommonly happened for them to fail in the chief object of all zoological plates, that of affording sure means of recognizing specimens on comparison.
In estimating the letterpress, which was avowedly held to be of secondary importance to the plates, we must bear in mind that, to ensure the success of his works, it had to be written to suit a very peculiarly composed body of subscribers.
An ambitious attempt to produce in England a general series of coloured plates on a large scale was Louis Fraser's Zoologia Typica, .
The seventy plates (forty-six of which represent birds) composing, with some explanatory letterpress, the volume, are by C. Cousens and H.
There are six hundred plates, but the exact number of species figured (which has been computed at six hundred and sixty-one) is not so easily ascertained.
The plates, which show no improvement in execution on those of Martinet, are after drawings by Huet and Pretre, the former being perhaps the less bad draughtsman of the two, for he seems to have had an idea of what a bird when alive looks like, though he was not able to give his figures any vitality, while the latter simply delineated the stiff and dishevelled specimens from museum shelves.
The Galerie des oiseaux, a rival work, with plates by Oudart,' seems to have been begun immediately after the former.
entrusted to Vieillot, who, proceeding on a systematic plan, performed his task very creditably, completing the work, which forms two quarto volumes, in 1825, the original text and fifty-seven plates being relegated to the end of the second volume as a supplement.
His portion is illustrated by two hundred and ninety-nine coloured plates that, wretched as they are, have been continually reproduced in various text-books - a fact possibly due to their subjects having been judiciously selected.
Then they set about a Second Series, which, forming a single volume with fifty-three plates, was finished in 1843.
Of the thirty-six plates illustrating this volume, a small folio, twenty are devoted to Ornithology, and contain figures, which, it must be allowed, are not very successful, of several species rare at the time.
The claim to that succession was made in 1845 by Des Murs for his Iconographie ornithologique, which, containing seventy-two plates by Prevot and Oudart l (the latter of whom had marvellously improved in his drawings since he worked with Vieillot), was completed in 1849.
leading English ornithologists having contributed to the work, some of the papers are extremely good, while in the plates, which are in Keulemans's best manner, many rare species of birds are figured, some of them for the first time.
and eighty-two plates, whereof seventy represent birds, appeared between 1820 and 1821, and in 1829 a second series of the same was begun by him, which, extending to another three volumes, contained forty-eight more plates of birds out of one hundred and thirty-six, and was completed in 1833.
Notwithstanding its name it only contains eighty plates, but of them forty-two, all by Pretre and in his usual stiff style, represent birds.
Between 1831 and 1834 the same author brought out, in continuation of his Centurie, his Illustrations de zoologie with sixty plates, twenty of which represent birds.
2 Herein are contained more than nine hundred coloured and more than one hundred uncoloured plates, which are crowded with the figures of birds, a large proportion of them reduced copies from other works, and especially those of Gould.
It now behoves us to turn to general and particularly systematic works in which plates, if they exist at all, form but an accessory to the text.
However, to have conceived the idea of executing a work on so grand a scale as this - it forms three folio volumes, and contains one hundred and eighty-five coloured and one hundred and forty-eight uncoloured plates, with references to upwards of two thousand four hundred generic names - was in itself a mark of genius, and it was brought to a successful conclusion in 1849.
Buller's beautiful Birds of New Zealand (4to, 1872- New 1873), with coloured plates by Keulemans, since the publi.
the admirable Birds of Ceylon by Captain Legge (4to, 1878-1880), with coloured plates by Mr Keulemans of all the peculiar species.
Its one hundred and fourteen plates by Ford truthfully represent one hundred and twenty-two of the mounted specimens obtained by the author in his explorations into the interior.
The former of these has the entire text, but no plates; the latter reproduces the plates, but the text is in places much condensed, and excellent notes are added.
Moreover, Dr Cornay's, scheme was not given to the world with any of those adjuncts that not merely please the eye but are in many cases necessary, for, though on a subject which required for its proper comprehension a series of plates, it made even its final appearance unadorned by a single explanatory figure, and in a journal, respectable and wellknown indeed, but one not of the highest scientific rank.
C. Eyton, who for many years had been forming a collection of birds' skeletons, began the publication of a series of plates representing them.
It is composed of figures of Christ, angels, prophets and saints, in Byzantine enamel run into gold plates.
In 1701, New York, seeking another claim, obtained from the Iroquois a grant to the king of England of this territory which they claimed to have conquered but from which they had subsequently been expelled, and this grant was confirmed in 1726 and again in 1744 About 1730 English traders from Pennsylvania and Virginia began to visit the eastern and southern parts of the territory and the crisis approached as a French Canadian expedition under Celeron de Bienville took formal possession of the upper Ohio Valley by planting leaden plates at the mouths of the principal streams. This was in 1749 and in the same year George II.
The frames into which hard soaps are ladled for cooling and solidification consist of rectangular boxes made of iron plates and bound and clamped together in a way that allows the sides to be removed when required; wooden frames are used in the case of mottled soaps.
It may be more conveniently prepared by passing the vapour of sulphur over red hot charcoal, the unccndensed gases so produced being led into a tower containing plates over which a vegetable oil is allowed to flow in order to absorb any carbon bisulphide vapour, and then into a second tower containing lime, which absorbs any sulphuretted hydrogen.
Michaelis, Der Parthenon (texts and plates, Leipzig, 1871); L.
Potassium ruthenium cyanide, K4Ru(CN) 6.3H 2 O, formed when potassium ruthenate is boiled with a solution of potassium cyanide, crystallizes in colourless plates which are soluble in water.
It crystallizes in rhombic plates which melt at 42° C. and boil at 172° C. (12 mm.).
It forms rhombic prisms or plates which melt at 25° and boil at 83°, and has a spiritous smell, resembling that of camphor.
Those in the Rudimentum novitiarum published at Lubeck in 1475 are from woodcuts, while the maps in the first two editions of Ptolemy published in Italy in 1472 are from copper plates.
The objection that a copper plate shows signs of wear after a thousand impressions have been taken has been removed, since duplicate plates are readily produced by electrotyping, while transfers of copper engravings, on stone, zinc or aluminium, make it possible to turn out large editions in a printing-machine, which thus supersedes the slow-working hand-press.
Owing to the great weight of stones, their cost and their liability of being fractured in the press, zinc plates, and more recently aluminium plates, have largely taken the place of stone.
Zincographs are generally used for producing surface blocks or plates which may be printed in the same way as a wood-cut.
Photographic processes have been utilized not only in reducing maps to a smaller scale, but also for producing stones and plates from which they may be printed.
Of Gerhard Kremer (1512-1594) Hondius has already been referred to as the purchaser of Mercator's plates.
He was distinguished as the discoverer of radioactivity, having found in 1896 that uranium at ordinary temperatures emits an invisible radiation which in many respects resembles Rntgen rays, and can affect a photographic plate after passing through thin plates of metal.
Die geistige Cultur der Dandled, &c. (1896), and Beitrdge zur Ethnographie and Anthropologie der Somal, Galla and Harrarf (Leipzig, 1886), containing fine plates; H.
A third method consists in placing the specimen within bibulous paper, and enclosing the whole between two plates of coarsely perforated zinc supported in a wooden frame.
The zinc plates are then drawn close together by means of straps, and suspended before a fire until the drying is effected.
This was republished in a Latin translation with considerable alterations and omissions by Paolo Aringhi in 1651; and a century after its first appearance the plates were reproduced by Giovanni Bottari in 1737, and illustrated with great care and learning.
The plates of De Rossi, Perret, and, indeed, all illustrations of the catacombs, exhibit frequent examples of the same destructive superstition.
is described in Renan's Mission Pilenicie, and figured in Thobois's plates.
The middle valley is often intersected by vertical "crista" and "crochet" plates projecting into it from the anterior surface of the posterior transverse ridge or from the wall, the development of which is a useful guide in discriminating species, especially those known only by teeth and bones.
It crystallizes in plates which melt at 48-49° C. and boil at 92° C. (9 mm.).
It crystallizes in colourless plates melting at 20°C. and boiling at 202°C.; it is insoluble in water, but readily dissolves in the ordinary organic solvents.
These vary in form: in some species they are entire plates, in others they are cut up into numerous divisions, in all cases traversed by numerous tracheal ramifications.
Gelatin forms a white amorphous powder; the commercial product, however, generally forms glassy plates.
As an example we may take the case of a solution of a salt such as copper sulphate in water, through which an electric current is passed between copper plates.
(4) Changes in concentration are produced in the neighbourhood of the two plates or electrodes.
Volta's cell consists essentially of two plates of different metals, such as zinc and copper, connected by an electrolyte such as a solution of salt or acid.
The electromotive force of Volta's simple cell falls off rapidly when the cell is used, and this phenomenon was shown to be due to the accumulation at the metal plates of the products of chemical changes in the cell itself.
When the zinc and copper plates are connected through a wire, a current flows, the conventionally positive electricity passing from copper to zinc in the wire and from zinc to copper in the cell.
Plates of platinum and pure or amalgamated zinc are separated by a porous pot, and each surrounded by some of the same solution of a salt of a metal more oxidizable than zinc, such as potassium.
In ordinary cells the difference is secured by using two dissimilar metals, but an electromotive force exists if two plates of the same metal are placed in solutions of different substances, or of the same substance at different concentrations.
If we take as an example a concentration cell in which silver plates are placed in solutions of silver nitrate, one of which is ten times as strong as the other, this equation gives E = o 060 X Io 8 C.G.S.
Now let us disconnect the platinum plates from the battery and join them directly with the galvanometer.
A current will flow for a while in the reverse direction; the system of plates and acidulated water through which a current has been passed, acts as an accumulator, and will itself yield a current in return.
These phenomena are explained by the existence of a reverse electromotive force at the surface of the platinum plates.
The opposing force of polarization is about 1.7 volt, but, when the plates are disconnected and used as a source of current, the electromotive force they give is only about 1.07 volt.
This irreversibility is due to the work required to evolve bubbles of gas at the surface of bright platinum plates.
If the plates be covered with a deposit of platinum black, in which the gases are absorbed as fast as they are produced, the minimum decomposition point is 1.07 volt, and the process is reversible.
Marriott's Vestiarium Christianum (1868), though it must now be read with caution, is still of much value, notably the second part, which gives texts (with translations) of passages bearing on the subject taken from early and medieval writers, with many interesting plates.
Iron ships' plates have recently been coated with copper in sections (to prevent the adhesion of barnacles), by building up a temporary trough against the side of the ship, making the thoroughly cleansed plate act both as cathode and as one side of the trough.
Elmore, Dumoulin, Cowper-Coles and others have prepared copper cylinders and plates by depositing copper on rotating mandrels with special arrangements.
They all crystallize in the monoclinic system, often, however, in forms closely resembling those of the rhombohedral or orthorhombic systems. Crystals have usually the form of hexagonal or rhomb-shaped scales, plates or prisms, with plane FIG.
The ventral valve is usually the larger, and in many genera, such as Terebratula and Rhynchonella, has a prominent beak or umbo, with a circular or otherwise shaped foramen at or near its extremity, partly bounded by one or two plates, termed a deltidium.
Terebratula, that type of opening is found in the young stages only; later a it becomes partly closed by two plates which grow out from the sides of the delthyrium.
These plates are secreted by the ventral lobe of the mantle, and were named by von Buch in 1834 the " deltidium."
The two plates may meet in the middle line, and leave only a small oval opening near the centre for the pedicle, as in Rhynchonella; or they may meet only near the base of the delthyrium forming the lower boundary of the circular pedicle-opening, as in Terebratula; or the right plate may remain quite distinct from the left plate, as in Terebratella.
Both cotton and silk are woven, and plates, &c., are carved from soap-stone.
A little vinegar is poured into each pot; they are then covered with plates of sheet lead, buried in horse-dung or spent tanner's bark, and left to themselves for a considerable time.
After a month or so the plates are converted to a more or less considerable depth into crusts of white lead.
It crystallizes in colourless plates or needles, which melt at 99° C. Its solutions in alcohol and ether have a faint blue fluorescence.
For the practical measurement of field intensity du Bois has used plates of the densest Jena flint glass.
Trans., 1888, 179, plates 15, 16).
If two iron plates, one of which is magnetized, are immersed in an electrolyte, a current will generally be indicated by a galvanometer connected with the plates.
The various comparisons previously made between the structure of Limulus and the Eurypterines on the one hand, and that of a typical Arachnid, such as Scorpio, on the other, had been vitiated by erroneous notions as to the origin of the nerves supplying the anterior appendages of Limulus (which were finally removed by Alphonse Milne-Edwards in his beautiful memoir (6) on the structure of that animal), and secondly by the erroneous identification of the double sternal plates of Limulus, called " chilaria," by Owen, with a pair of appendages (7).
The next four pairs of appendages (completing the mesosomatic series of six) consist, in both Scorpio and Limulus, of a base carrying each 130 to 150 blood-holding, leaf-like plates, lying on one another like the leaves of a book.
Their minute structure is closely similar in the two cases; the leaf-like plates receive blood from the great sternal sinus, and serve as respiratory organs.
Zoologists are familiar with many instances (fishes, crustaceans) in which the protective walls of a water-breathing organ or gill-apparatus become converted into an air-breathing organ or lung, but there is no other case known of the conversion of gill processes themselves into air-breathing plates.
There is no doubt that these are parapodial or limb appendages, carrying numerous imbricated secondary processes, and therefore comparable in essential structure to the leaf-bearing plates of the second meso somatic somite of Limulus.
VItI form of the broad plates of Limulus.
It appears not improbable that the sternal plates wedged in between Fll '` vu...
stg, Stigma or orifice of the hollow tendons of the branchial plates of Limulus.
That any partial fusion of originally distinct chitinous plates takes place in the cephalic shield of Trilobites, comparable to the partial fusion of bony pieces by suture in Vertebrata, is a suggestion contrary to fact.
It must always be remembered that we are liable (especially in the case of fossilized integuments) to attach an unwarranted interpretation to the mere discontinuity or continuity of the thickened plates of chitinous cuticle on the back of an Arthropod.
These plates may fuse, and yet the somites to which they belong may remain distinct, and each have its pair of appendages well developed.
On the other hand, an unusually large tergal plate, whether terminal or in the series, is not always due to fusion of the dorsal plates of once-separate somites, but is of ten a case of growth and enlargement of a single somite without formation of any trace of a new somite.
[Observe the powerful gnathobases of the sixth pair of prosomatic limbs and the median plates behind m.
- Thelyphonus sp. Ventral view of the anterior portion of the body to show the three prosomatic sternal plates a, b, c, and the rudimentary sternal element of the praegenital somite; opisth 1, first somite of the opisthosoma.
Sternal area broad, with prosternal, two mesosternal, and metasternal plates, the prosternum projecting forwards beneath the coxae of the 2nd pair of appendages.
- Opisthosoma dis tinctly segmented, furnished with tergal plates, as in the Ambly pygi; the ventral surface of the 1st and 2nd somites with large sternal plates, covering the genital aperture and the two pairs of FIG.
(Original as above.) pulmonary sacs, the sternal plates from the 6th to the 11th somites represented by integumental ridges, weakly chitinized in the middle.
- Opisthosoma without trace of separate terga and sterna, the segmentation merely represented posteriorly by slight integumental folds and the sterna of the 1st and 2nd somites by the opercular plates of the pulmonary sacs.
- Prosoma covered above by three plates, a larger representing the dorsal elements of the first four somites, and two smaller representing the dorsal elements of the 5th and 6th.
C, Lateral view, I to VI, proprosternites; c, mesosternite; and d, metasternite of the somatic appendages; a,b,c, prosoma; f, ventral surface the three tergal plates of the of the prae-genital somite; prosoma; prae-gen, the prae g, sternite of the genital genital somite; 1 to 10, the somite (first opisthosomatic ten somites of the opisthosoma.
- Dorsal area of prosoma covered with three distinct plates, two smaller representing the terga of the 5th and 6th somites, and a larger representing those of the anterior four somites, although the reduced terga of the 3rd and 4th are traceable behind the larger plate.
Ventral area without distinct sternal plates.
Opisthosoma confluent throughout its breadth with the prosoma, with the dorsal plate of which its anterior tergal plates are more or less fused; at most ten opisthosomatic somites traceable; the generative aperture thrust far forwards between the basal segments of the 6th appendages.
The salt separates from solutions containing hydrofluoric acid in large plates, which are greenish yellow in colour.
Mag., 18 9 8, 45, p. 513) has succeeded in constructing zone plates upon this principle.
In his experiments upon this subject Fraunhofer employed plates of glass dusted over with lycopodium, or studded with small metallic disks of uniform size; and he found that the diameters of the rings were proportional to the length of the waves and inversely as the diameter of the disks.
Soret's " zone plates."
The back of the obelisk is plain, but the front and sides are subdivided into storeys by a series of bands and plates, each storey having panels sunk into it which seem to represent windows with mullions and transom.
Both sexes wore many stamped gold plates sewn upon their clothes in lines or series.
They were supplied with simpler weapons and adornments, but even so their clothes had hundreds of stamped gold plates and strips of various shapes sewn on to them.
The iron plates, having been carefully cleaned with sand and hydrochloric or sulphuric acid, and lastly with water, are plunged into heated tallow to drive away the water without oxidation of the metal.
Pinches, and with critical description and plates by A.
Heidenhain, on the other hand, rejected entirely the filtration view of lymph-formation, believing that the passage of lymph across the capillary wall is a true secretion brought about by the secretory function of the endothelial plates.
One of the bronze plates which decorated the exterior of the war-chest of the legio III.
Glass was largely used in pavements, and in thin plates as a coating for walls.
St Sofia when erected by Justinian had vaults covered with mosaics and immense windows filled with plates of glass fitted into pierced marble frames; some of the plates, 7 to 8 in.
The royal glass manufactory of La Granja de San Ildefonso was founded about 1725; in the first instance for the manufacture of mirror plates, but subsequently for the production of vases and table-ware in the French style.
Mirror plates previous to the invention had been made from blown " sheet " glass, and were consequently very limited in size.
De Nehou's process of rolling molten glass poured on an iron table rendered the manufacture of very large plates possible.
In regard to gold this has been proved to be so; gold leaf, or thin films of gold produced chemically on glass plates, transmit light with a green colour.
In the ruins of a building, attached by him to the temple of Nina, terra-cotta bas-reliefs of the king and his sons have been found, as well as the heads of lions in onyx, which remind us of Egyptian work and onyx plates.
This hopper was divided into two parts by vertical division plates, against the bottom edge of which the knives in the disk forced the roots and sliced and pulped them.
inside, with the necessary division plates for the knives to cut against, and instead of making 140 to 150 revolutions the disks revolve only 60 to 70 times per minute.
When this is done, the casing is hoisted out of the centrifugal and the vertical plates and the slabs of sugar are extracted.
In this form a large number, after being cooked or stoved in moist heat for about twenty-four hours, are piled between plates in an hydraulic press, and subjected to great pressure for a month or six weeks, during which time a slow fermentation takes place, and a considerable exudation of juice results from the severe pressure.
The former contains a mixture of semi-solid and molten metal, which is raked out into iron ladles and cast into plates of 66 to 77 lb weight, to be sold as "spelter."
At this period ploughs were made almost wholly of wood, the mouldboard being cased with plates of iron.
Cavies in general, the more typical representatives of the Caviidae, are rodents with hooflike nails, four front and three hind toes, imperfect collar-bones, and the cheek-teeth divided by folds of enamel into transverse plates.
In June 1870 he at last reached the goal of his journey, Marib; here he explored the ruins of Medinat an Nahas (so called from its numerous inscriptions engraved on brass plates), and two hours to the east he found the famous dam constructed by the Himyarites across the W.
Miller's Siidarabische Alterthiimer im Kunsthistorischen Museum, Vienna, 1899, with plates).
It crystallizes in white plates, which melt at 45° C. and boil at 302° C. It is almost insoluble in water, but readily volatilizes in steam.
They crystallize in plates, and for the most part distil without decomposition.
Orthophenylene diamine, C 6 H 4 (NH2)2, crystallizes from water in plates, which melt at 102 -103° C. and boil at 256-258° C. When heated with io% hydrochloric acid to 180° C. it yields pyrocatechin (Jacob Meyer, Ber., 1897, 30, p. 2569).
Metaphenylene diamine crystallizes in rhombic plates which melt at 63° C. and boil at 287° C. It is easily soluble in water and alcohol.
From his committee he reported in April 1888 the "Mills Bill," which provided for a reduction of the duties on sugar, earthenware, glassware, plate glass, woollen goods and other articles, the substitution of ad valorem for specific duties in many cases, and the placing of lumber (of certain kinds), hemp, wool, flax, borax, tin plates, salt and other articles on the free list.
four series of "Researches on Heat," in the course of which he described the polarization of heat by tourmaline, by transmission through a bundle of thin mica plates inclined to the transmitted ray, and by reflection from the multiplied surfaces of a pile of mica plates placed at the polarizing angle, and also its circular polarization by two internal reflections in rhombs of rock-salt.
It consists of a vertical column divided into a number of sections by horizontal plates, which are perforated so that the ascending vapours have to traverse a layer of liquid.
Really large meteors can be satisfactorily photographed, but small ones leave no impression on the plates.
The zoarium may rise up into erect growths composed of a single layer of zooids, the orifices of which are all on one surface, or of two layers of zooids placed back to back, with the orifices on both sides of the fronds or plates.
The body-wall is extensively calcified in the Cyclostomata and in most Cheilostomata, which may form elegant network-like colonies, as in the unilaminar genus Retepora, or may consist of wavy anastomosing plates, as in the bilaminar Lepralia foliacea of the British coasts, specimens of which may have a diameter of many inches.
The principle usually followed in the electrolytic refining of metals is to cast the impure metal into plates, which are exposed as anodes in a suitable solvent, commonly a salt of the metal under treatment.
It consists of a stoneware tank with a thin sheet of platinum-iridium alloy at either end forming the primary electrodes, and between them a number of glass plates reaching nearly to the bottom, each having a platinum gauze sheet on either side; the two sheets belonging to each plate are in metallic connexion, but insulated from all the others, and form intermediary or bi-polar electrodes.
Kellner has also patented a "bleaching-block," as he terms it, consisting of a frame carrying parallel plates similar in principle to those last described.
17,426 of 1891) uses flat aluminium plates and points, and working with an alternating current of 3000 volts is said to have obtained 1440 grains per e.h.p. hour.
Yarnold's process, using corrugated glass plates coated on one side with gold or other metal leaf, is stated to have yielded as much as 2700 grains per e.h.p. hour.
The leading results were given in his Reisen durch verschiedene Provinzen des riissischen Reichs (3 vols., St Petersburg, 17 7 1-1776), richly illustrated with coloured plates.
of plates, contained, in addition to the narrative, the natural history results of the expedition; and an English translation in three volumes appeared in 1812.
A complete list of the plates and woodcuts (1731-1813) was published in 1814, and another list (1731-1818), in 1821.
Its ethyl ester, known as oxamaethane, crystallizes in rhombic plates which melt at 114-115° C. Phosphorus pentachloride converts it into cyan-carbonic ester, the ethyl oxamine chloride first formed being unstable: ROOC CONH2 -R000 C(C1 2) NH 2 --)CN COOR.
It crystallizes in plates which melt at 220-221° C. (with decomposition).
The integuments of the head are divided into non-imbricate shields or plates, symmetrically arranged, but not corresponding in size or shape with the underlying cranial bones or having any relation to them.
The capacity of two parallel planes can be calculated at once if we neglect the distribution of the lines of force near the edges of the plates, and assume that the only field is the uniform field between the plates.
Let V 1 and V2 be the potentials of the plates, and let a charge Q be given to one of them.
In this calculation we neglect altogether the fact that electric force distributed on curved lines exists outside the interspace between the plates, and these lines in fact extend from the back of one "Edge plate to that of the other.
p. 112) has given a full expression for the capacity C of two circular plates of thickness t and radius r placed at any distance d apart in air from which the edge effect can be calculated.
Kirchhoff's expression is as follow d+47 r rd l dlog e 167x 2 + t), +t log,: t t I (4) In the above formula e is the base of the Napierian logarithms. The first term on the right-hand side of the equation is the expression for the capacity, neglecting the curved edge distribution of electric force, and the other terms take into account, not only the uniform field between the plates, but also the non-uniform field round the edges and beyond the plates.
If all the plates on one side are connected together and also those on the other, the condensers are j oined i n parallel.
In the irregular crystalline aggregates branching and moss-like forms are most common, and in Transylvania thin plates or sheets with diagonal structures are found.
Copper plates amalgamated with mercury are also used when the gold is very fine, and in some instances amalgamated silver coins have been used for the same purpose.
In order to save finely divided gold, amalgamated copper plates are sometimes placed in a nearly level position, at a considerable distance from the head of the sluice, the gold which is retained in it being removed from time to time.
long, a certain volume being discharged at every blow and carried forward by the flushing water over an apron or table in front, covered by copper plates filled with mercury.
Similar plates are often used to catch any particles of gold that may be thrown back, while the main operation is so conducted that the bulk of the gold may be reduced to the state of amalgam by bringing the two metals into intimate contact under the stamp head, and remain in the battery.
long, also lined with amalgamated copper plates, after the pyritic and other heavy minerals have been separated by depositing in catch pits and other similar contrivances.
In the process employed at the Worcester Works in the Transvaal, the liquors, containing about 150 grains of gold per ton and from 0.08 to o 01% of cyanide, are treated in rectangular vats in which is placed a series of iron and leaden plates at intervals of 1 in.
It is based upon the facts that concentrated hot sulphuric acid converts silver and copper into soluble sulphates without attacking the gold, the silver sulphate being subsequently reduced to the metallic state by copper plates with the formation of copper sulphate.
Since the action is sometimes very violent, especially when the bullion is treated in the granulated form (it is steadier when thin plates are operated upon), it is found expedient to add the acid in several portions.
The first dorsal fin and the ventrals are transformed into pointed formidable spines, and joined to firm bony plates of the endoskeleton.
The body is divided into eleven segments and the protrusible proboscis apparently into two, and the cuticle of the central segment is thickened to form three plates, one dorsal and two ventrolateral.
Weith, Ber., 1880, 13, 1300); or in the form of its acetyl derivative by heating /3-naphthol with ammonium acetate to 270-280° C. It forms odourless, colourless plates which melt at 111-112° C. It gives no colour with ferric chloride.
On the projecting plates supported by the handles are palmettes.
Dr Leith-Adams, working from more abundant materials, has shown that the number of ridges of each tooth, especially those at the posterior end of the series, is subject to individual variation, ranging in each tooth of the series within the following limits: 3 to 4, 6 to 9, 9 to 12, 9 to 15, 14 to 16, 18 to 27 - excluding the small plates, called " talons," at each end.
Besides these variations in the number of ridges or plates of which each tooth is composed, the thickness of the enamel varies so much as to have given rise to a distinction between a " thick-plated " and a " thin-plated " variety - the latter being most prevalent among specimens from the Arctic regions.
From the specimens with thick enamel plates the transition to the other species mentioned above, including E.
It crystallizes in large plates, which melt at 98.5° C. and boil at 390° C. It is readily soluble in warm ether and in hot glacial acetic acid.
Tin amalgam is used for "silvering" mirrors, gold and silver amalgam in gilding and silvering, cadmium and copper amalgam in dentistry, and an amalgam of zinc and tin for the rubbers of electrical machines; the zinc plates of electric batteries are amalgamated in order to reduce polarization.
A pair of small plates - the tegulae - are very generally present at the bases of the fore-wings.
With the cheek-teeth formed of a number of parallel plates in the manner characteristic of the family, the viscacha is distinguished from the other members of that group by having only three hind toes; while it is also the heaviest-built and largest member of the group, with smaller ears than the rest.
In copying engraved plates for printing purposes, copper may be deposited upon the original plate, the surface of which is first rendered slightly dirty, by means of a weak solution of wax in turpentine or otherwise, to prevent adhesion.
Moulds for reproducing plates or art-work are often taken in plaster, beeswax mixed with Venice turpentine, fusible metal, or guttapercha, and the surface being rendered conductive by powdered black-lead, copper is deposited upon it evenly throughout.
4) that Bessel had indicated, by notes in his handbooks, the following points which should be kept in mind in the construction of future heliometers: (I) The segments should move in cylindrical slides; b (2) the screw should be protected from dust; 6 (3) the zero of the position circle should not be so liable to change; 7 (4) the distance of the optical centres of the segments should not change in different position angles or otherwise; 8 (5) the points of the micrometer screws should rest on ivory plates; 9 (6) there should be an apparatus for changing the screen.'° Wilhelm Struve, in describing the Pulkowa heliometer,' 1 made The distances of the optical centres of the segments from the eye-piece are in this method as I; secant of the angle under measurement.
Helmholtz in his " Ophthalmometer " has employed Clausen's principle, but arranges the plates so that both move symmetrically in opposite directions with respect to the telescope axis.
Many experiments have also been made by the use of photographic plates in order to find the greatest depth to which light penetrates.
Freezing takes place by the formation of pure ice in flat crystalline plates of the hexagonal system, which form in perpendicular planes and unite in bundles to form grains so that a thick covering of ice exhibits a fibrous structure.
During the rapid formation of ice the still unfrozen brine is often imprisoned between the little plates of frozen water; hence without some special treatment sea-ice is not suitable as a source of drinking water.
Soc. of Australia, Queensland, 1907, pp. 71-134, maps and plates; J.
In steeply inclined seams passes or shoots leading to the main level below are sometimes used, and in Belgium iron plates are sometimes laid in the excavated ground to form a slide for the coal down to the loading place.
These consist essentially of links formed of a pair of parallel plates joined by a central bolt forming a scissors joint which is connected by chain links to the cage below and the winding-rope above.
When closed by the load the width is sufficient to allow it to enter a funnel-shaped guide on a cross-bar of the frame some distance above the bank level, but on reaching the narrower portion of the guide at the top the plates are forced apart which releases the ropes and brings the lugs into contact with the top of the cross-bar which secures the cage from falling.
The tubs are then removed or struck by the landers, who pull them forward on to the platform, which is covered with cast iron plates; at the same time empty ones are pushed in from the opposite side.
upwards, are washed on plain sieve plates, but for finer-grained duff the sieve is covered with a bed of broken felspar lumps about 3 in.
In his fifth year Tiglath-Pileser attacked Comana in Cappadocia, and placed a record of his victories engraved on copper plates in a fortress he built to secure his Cilician conquests.
Dean on the Great Western railway is made up of thirty flat plates, 7 ft.
at the centre, spaced by distance pieces nibbed into the plates at the centre and by rollers at the ends.
The draw-bar is connected to the buckle, which is carried on rollers, the ends of the spring resting J on plates fixed to the under-frame.
It is a band of iron, enclosed in a circlet formed of six plates of gold, hinged one to the other, and richly jewelled and enamelled.
1.53-85, with 3 maps and 3 plates; bibliography, p. 85), which shows that the axis of the territory is a high range, composed of slates and schists of undetermined age, with intrusive plutonic rocks.
Shelley (4to, London, 1876-1880), in the coloured plates of which full justice is done to the varied beauties which these gloriously arrayed little beings display, while almost every available source of information has been consulted and the results embodied.
The north-west coast Indians hoisted the logs that formed the plates of their house frames into position with skids and parbuckles of rope.
In the Arctic and Pacific coast provinces, about Lake Superior, in Virginia and North Carolina, as well as in ruder parts of Mexico and South America, metals were cold-hammered into plates, weapons, rods and wire, ground and polished, fashioned into carved blocks of hard, tenacious stone by pressure or blow, overlaid, cold-welded and plated.
Phenosafranine is not very stable in the free state; its chloride forms green plates.
nos jours (1874, with 12 plates; new ed., 1880, with 21 coloured plates).
If the carbonate be in excess, the salt Na4Zr04 results, which when treated with water gives Na2Zr8017 12H20, which crystallizes in hexagonal plates.
(A) With a great anterior prolongation of the ossification of the nasal partition, extending in the adult far beyond the nasal bones, and supported and embraced at the base by ascending plates from the upper jaw, forming the genus or sub-genus Tapirella.
The ash-pit is lined with iron plates to facilitate the recovery of metal accidentally spilt.
These, with other inscriptions on stone and on bronze plates brought home by Englishmen, found a cautious and sound interpreter in Osiander.
Now, it is evident that each coincidence of the perforations in the two plates is followed by a non-coincidence, during which the air-current is shut off, and that consequently, during each revolution of the upper plate, there occur n alternate passages and interceptions of the current.
In it the fixed and movable plates Do Siren.
Beneath the lower or fixed plate are four metallic rings furnished with holes corresponding to those in the plates, and which may be pushed round by projecting pins, so as to admit the air-current through any one or more of the series of perforations in the fixed plate.
and movable perforate plates and perforated rings, both the movable plates being driven by the same current and revolving about a common axis.
But with larger plates, which alone will furnish the more complicated figures, a clamp-screw must be used for fixing the plate, and, at the same time, one or more other nodal points ought to be touched with the fingers while the bow is being applied.
Bells may be regarded as somewhat like circular plates vibrating with radial nodes, and with the edges turned down.
Among the wooden objects recovered from the relic beds were tubs, plates, ladles and spoons, a flail for threshing corn, a last for stretching shoes of hide, celt handles, clubs, long-bows of yew, floats and implements of fishing and a dug-out canoe 12 ft.
in length, some having spherical heads in which plates of gold were set.
For domestic dishes they also made wooden tubs, plates, spoons, ladles and the like.
covered with buckled plates.
The anchors are built up of steel plates and angle bars, and are buried in a large mass of concrete.
The floor is of buckled plates paved with wood blocks.
Soft steel is used for rivets always, and sometimes for the whole superstructure of a bridge, but medium steel more generally for the plates, angle bars, &c., the weight of the bridge being then reduced by about 7% for a given factor of safety.
As to the maximum wind pressure on small plates normal to the wind, there is not much doubt.
is as great as on small surfaces, such as anemometer plates.
The Edison electric meter, like those of Sprague and Lane-Fox, was based upon the principle that when an electric current flows through an electrolyte, such as sulphate of copper or sulphate of zinc, the electrodes being plates of copper or zinc, metal is dissolved off one plate (the anode) and deposited on the other plate (the cathode).
It consisted of a glass vessel, containing a solution of sulphate of zinc, in which were placed two plates of pure amalgamated zinc. These plates were connected by means of a german-silver shunt, their size and the distance between them being so adjusted that about ii 0 - 0 - part of the current passing through the meter travelled through the electrolytic cell and -j o i j of the current passed through the shunt.
Before being placed in the cells the zinc plates were weighed.
The shunted voltameter was then inserted in series with the electric supply mains leading to the house or building taking electric energy, and the current which passed dissolved the zinc from one plate and deposited it upon the other, so that after a certain interval of time had elapsed the altered weight of the plates enabled the quantity of electricity to be determined from the known fact that an electric current of one ampere, flowing for one hour, removes 1.2533 grammes of zinc from a solution of sulphate of zinc. Hence the quantity in amperehours passing through the electrolytic cell being known and the fraction of the whole quantity taken by the cell being known, the quantity supplied to the house was determined.
Owing to the cost and trouble of weighing a large number of zinc plates, this type of meter fell into disuse.
In the Long-Schattner electrolytic meter, the insertion of the coin depresses a copper plate or plates into an electrolytic cell containing a solution of sulphate of copper; the passage of the current dissolves the copper off one of the plates, the loss in weight being determined by the quantity of the electricity passed.
It is obtained as rhombic plates by mixing dilute solutions of calcium chloride and sodium phosphate, and passing carbon dioxide into the liquid.
The fluorine, which is liberated as a gas at the anode, is passed through a well cooled platinum vessel, in order to free it from any acid fumes that may be carried over, and finally through two platinum tubes containing sodium fluoride to remove the last traces of hydrofluoric acid; it is then collected in a platinum tube closed with fluor-spar plates.
Slates consist largely of thin plates of mica arranged parallel to the cleavage faces.
The splitter places a block on end between his knees, and with chisel and mallet splits it into as many plates as possible of the usual thickness for roofing purposes - namely, a quarter of an inch more or less according to the size and strength required.
These plates are then placed horizontally by the dresser on a vertical iron "stand," and cut with a sharp knife into slates of various sizes suitable for the market.
The last column in the Range Table giving the inches of penetration into wrought iron is calculated from the remaining velocity by an empirical formula, as explained in the article Armour Plates.
Further, unlike diamond, it never occurs as distinctly developed crystals, but only as imperfect six-sided plates and scales.
They consist of longitudinal columns, each composed of an immense number of "electric plates."
During his eleven years' ministry (1876-1878 with Depretis, 1884-1891 with Depretis and Crispi, 1896-1898 with Rudini), he succeeded in creating large private shipyards, engine works and metallurgical works for the production of armour, steel plates and guns.
37-42, Plates 38-47; E.
The junction of the edges of the silver and copper-blend was treated with a flux of borax and the whole was submitted to the heat of a furnace until the silver was seen to be melting, when it was instantly removed, care being taken to avoid pressing upon the upper or lower surfaces, as the liquid silver in that case would have been squeezed out from between the two enclosing plates and the operation ruined.
A heavier value is shown by the precious metals -- the gold plates from Khorsabad (18) giving 129, and the gold daric coinage (21, 35) of Persia 129.2.
The silver plates at Khorsabad (18) we find to be 80 sigli of 84.6.
He has applied the theory with especial ingenuity to the interpretation of the circular bony plates in the carapace of the aberrant leather-back sea-turtles (Sphargidae) by prefacing an initial land phase, in which the typical armature of land tortoises was acquired, a first marine or pelagic phase, in which this armature was lost, a third littoral or seashore phase, in which a new polygonal armature was acquired, and a fourth resumed or secondary marine phase, in which this polygonal armature began to degenerate.
1887, with 18 plates.
The Concord granite is a medium bluish-grey coloured muscovitebiotite granite, with mica plates so abundant as to effect the durability of the polish of the stone; it is used for building-the outer walls of the Library of Congress at Washington, D.C., are made of this stone-to a less degree for monuments, for which the output of one quarry is used exclusively, and for paving blocks.
One of his most important publications was La Geographie du moyen age (5 vols., Brussels, 1852-1857), with an atlas (1849) of fifty plates entirely engraved by himself, for he rightly attached such importance to the accuracy of his maps that he would not allow them to be executed by any one else.
In studying the dispersion of the aniline dyes, a prism with a very small refracting angle is made of two glass plates slightly inclined to each other and enclosing a very thin wedge of the dye, which is either melted between the plates, or is in the form of a solution retained in position by surface-tension.
This head-shield is succeeded by a varying number of free segments, each of which consists of a medium convex tergal piece and a pair of arched lateral plates, the pleura, of which there is one on each side.
plates, 4to, St Petersburg, 1857-1860).
From the great size of the trunk and the even grain of the red cedar-like wood it is a valuable tree to the farmer and carpenter: it splits readily and evenly, and planes and polishes well; cut radially, the medullary plates give the wood a fine satiny lustre; it is strong and durable, but not so elastic as many of the western pines and firs.
is created between the fixed and movable plates, the latter are drawn into a new position which is resisted by the torque of a wire or by the force due to a weight.
1) there are two sets of fixed metal plates, connected FIG.
This needle is suspended by a fine platinum silver wire, and its normal position is such that the aluminium paddle blades are just outside the quadrantal-shaped plates.
If the needle is connected to one terminal of a circuit, and the fixed plates or cells to the other member of the circuit, and a difference of potential is created between them, then the movable needle is drawn in so that the aluminium blades are more included between the fixed plates.
In the former case the control is generally due to gravity, the plates being so balanced on the knife edge that they tend to take up a certain fixed position from which they are constrained when the electric forces come into play, their displacement relatively to the fixed plates being shown on a scale and thus indicating the P. D.
It was detected by Max Wolf at Heidelberg on plates exposed on Sept.
The salt crystallizes in large yellow plates, containing three molecules of water of crystallization.
The tubercles which cluster over the surface of the crown of the common pig are elongated and drawn out into the columns of the wart-hog, as the low transverse ridges of the mastodon's tooth become the leaf-like plates of the elephant's molar.
The Lamellibranchia are mainly characterized by the rudimentary condition of the head, and the retention of the primitive bilateral symmetry, the latter feature being accentuated by the lateral compression of the body and the development of the shell as two bilaterally symmetrical plates or valves covering each one side of the animal.
The chief points in which they vary are - (1) in the structure of the ctenidia or branchial plates; (2) in the presence of one or of two chief muscles, the fibres of which run across the animal's body from one valve of the shell to the other (adductors); (3) in the greater or less elaboration of the posterior portion of the mantle-skirt so as to form a pair of tubes, by one of which water is introduced into the sub-pallial chamber, whilst by the other it is expelled; (4) in the perfect or deficient symmetry of the two valves of the shell and the connected soft parts, as compared with one another; (5) in the development of the foot as a disk-like crawling organ (Arca, Nucula, Pectunculus, Trigonia, Lepton, Galeomma), as a simple plough-like or tongueshaped organ (Unionidae, &c.), as a re-curved saltatory organ (Cardium, &c.), as a long burrowing cylinder (Solenidae, &c.), or its partial (Mytilacea) or even complete abortion (Ostraeacea).
A further variation consists in the development of additional shelly plates upon the dorsal line between the two large valves (Pholadidae).
In Pholas dactylus we find a pair of umbonal plates, a dors-umbonal plate and a dorsal plate.
The filaments of the gill (ctenidium) of Mytilus and Arca thus form two closely set rows which depend from the axis of the gill like two parallel plates.
This is the condition seen in Arca and Mytilus, the so-called plates dividing upon the slightest touch into their constituent filaments, which are but loosely conjoined by their " ciliated junctions."
Section across the axis of a ctenidium with a pair of plates - flattened and shortened filaments - attached.
a,b, Free extremities of the plates (filaments).
Modiolarcidae.-Foot with a plantar surface; the two branchial plates serve as incubatory pouches.
Shell with a pallial sinus; dorsal region protected by accessory plates.
1 C represents the instrument used for guineas, the circular plates A representing plates of lead, which are used as ballast when lighter coins than guineas are examined.
The dentition is peculiar on account of the great size and complexity of the last upper molar, which is composed of about twelve plates, and exceeds in length the three teeth in front.
Each is an outgrowth of the body-wall at the side of the body, and consists of an axis containing two main vessels, an afferent and efferent, and bearing on either side a series of transverse plates whose blood-sinuses communicate with the vessels of the axis.
(3) St delle Chiaje, Memorie sulla storia e anatomia degli animali senza vertebre del regno di Napoli (Naples, 1823-1829), new edition with 172 plates, fol., 18 43.
It crystallizes from alcohol in orange red plates which melt at 68° C. and boil at 293° C. It does not react with acids or alkalis, but on reduction with zinc dust in acetic acid solution yields aniline.
Amino-azo-benzene, C6H5 N2 C 6 H 4 NH 2, crystallizes in yellow plates or needles and melts at 126° C. Its constitution is determined by the facts that it may be prepared by reducing nitro-azo-benzene by ammonium sulphide and that by reduction with stannous chloride it yields aniline and.
- Vertical and Longitudinal Section through the Skull of the Beaver (Castor fiber), showing the brain-cavity, the greatly developed plates of bone in the nose-cavity, the mode of implantation of the ever-growing chisel-edged incisor, and the curved rootless cheek-teeth.
rootless, and either cusped or formed of parallel plates, this diversityof structure often occurring in the same family.
There are three pairs of rooted molars, whose crowns carry transverse plates, decreasing in number from three in the first to one in the last tooth.
The jugal is without an inferior angle, and extends forwards to the lachrymal; the palate is contracted in front and deeply emarginate behind; the incisors are short, and the molars divided by continuous folds into transverse plates; and the two halves of the lower jaw are welded together in front.
The Octodontidae, which are exclusively South American, differ from the preceding family by the tympanic bulla being filled with cellular bony tissue, and by the par-occipital process curving beneath it, while the cheek-teeth are almost or completely rootless and composed of parallel plates.
The species of Octodon have larger ears, longer, tufted tails and the sides of the cheekteeth indented by plates of enamel; they are chiefly found in hedgerows and bushes, where they burrow.
It is said that this was first spun in the island of Cos by Pamphile, daughter of Plates."
Schumann 2 have shown, however, that with the help of spectroscopes void of air and specially prepared photographic plates, spectra can be registered as far down as lzoo A.
with 325 plates, Paris, 1823).
The interiors are gilt, often furnished with detachable plates and sometimes set with brilliants.
The hull of an iron or steel ship is a magnet, and the distribution of its magnetism depends upon the direction of the ship's head when building, this result being produced by induction from the earth's magnetism, developed and impressed by the hammering of the plates and frames during the process of building.
Another simple apparatus is a large vertical pipe or shoot in which sloping baffle plates or shelves are placed at intervals.
The architectural members of some of the treasure-houses have been found built into the Byzantine wall, or elsewhere on the site, as well as the terra-cotta plates that overlaid the stonework in some cases, and the pedimental figures, representing the battle of the gods and giants, from the treasure-house of the Megarians.
The "tangential arcs" (T) were explained by Young as being caused by the thin plates with their axes horizontal, refraction taking place through alternate faces.
An account of the order is given in Count Luigi Cibrario's Ordini Cavallereschi (Turin, 1846) with coloured plates of the costume and badges.
Owen) ., to which, in 1835, he added some supplementary plates; and in 1854 he finished a second and much improved edition.
with 120 coloured plates (1896); Briquet, " Les Colonies vegetales xerothermiques des alpes lemaniennes," in Bull.
The best book of coloured plates is the Atlas der Alpenflora, in 5 vols., pub.
plates by the late H.
plates; translated from the German); A.
plates); Vilmorin et Cie., The Vegetable Garden (Eng.
Let A and C be two fixed disks, and B a disk which can be brought at will within a very short distance of either A or C. Let us suppose all the plates to be equal, and let the capacities of A and C in presence of B be each equal to p, and the coefficient of induction between A and B, or C and B, be q.
Let us also suppose that the plates A and C are so distant from each other that there is no mutual influence, and that p' is the capacity of one of the disks when it stands alone.
P. Thompson (loc. cit.), consists of two fixed plates of brass A and C (fig.
The axis P N is made of varnished glass, and so are the axes that join the three plates with the brass axis N 0.
The axis N 0 passes through the brass piece M, which stands on an insulating pillar of glass, and supports the plates A and C. At one extremity of this axis is the ball D, and the other is connected with a rod of glass, N P, upon which is fixed the handle L, and also the piece G H, which is separately insulated.
The pins E, F rise out of the back of the fixed plates A and C, at unequal distances from the axis.
Nicholson thus described the operation of his machine: "When the plates A and B are opposite each other, the two fixed plates A and C may be considered as one mass, and the revolving plate B, together with the ball D, will constitute another mass.
A second rotation will, of course, produce a proportional augmentation of these increased quantities; and a continuance of turning will soon bring the intensities to their maximum, which is limited by an explosion between the plates" (Phil.
4), consisted of two curved metal plates between which revolved a pair of balls carried on an insulating stem.
Following the nomenclature usual in connexion with dynamos we may speak of the conductors which carry the initial charges as the field plates, and of the moving conductors on which are induced the charges which are subsequently added to those on the field plates, as the carriers.
The wire which connects two armature plates for a moment is the neutralizing conductor.
The two curved metal plates constitute the field plates and must have original charges imparted to them of opposite sign.
The rotating balls are the carriers, and are connected together for a moment by a wire when in a position to be acted upon inductively by the field plates, thus acquiring charges of opposite sign.
In this way the charges on the field plates were continually replenished and reinforced.
Varley also constructed a multiple form of influence machine having six rotating disks, each having a number of carriers and rotating between field plates.