Plantations Sentence Examples
The plantations are almost entirely owned by the government and Europeans, but the rice mills are in the hands of Chinese.
A few plantations are owned and managed by Europeans.
It is a small bitter species common in upland pastures and fir plantations early in the season.
His attention to all trade questions was close and constant; he was a member of the council of trade and plantations appointed in 1670, and was its president from 1672 to 1676.
Improvement contracts are granted for uncultivated bush districts, where one fourth of the produce goes to the landlord, and for plantations of fig-trees, olive-trees and vines, half of the produce of which belongs to the landlord, who at the end of ten years reimburses the tenant for a part of the improvements effected.Advertisement
This kind is sometimes seen in plantations, where it may be recognized by its shorter, darker leaves and longer cones.
During and after the war of 1868-1878, when many Cuban estates were confiscated, many families emigrated, and many others were ruined, the ownership of plantations largely passed from the hands of Cubans to Spaniards.
The most important of the firs, in an economic sense, is the Norway spruce (Picea excelsa), so well known in British plantations, though rarely attaining there the gigantic height and grandeur of form it often displays in its native woods.
The white spruce (Picea alba), sometimes met with in English plantations, is a tree of lighter growth than the black spruce, the branches being more widely apart; the foliage is of a light glaucous green; the small light-brown cones are more slender and tapering than in P. nigra, and the scales have even edges.
Near the coast runs a continuous belt of plantations, while grazing, tobacco and general farm lands cover the lower slopes of the hills, and virgin forests much of the uplands and mountains.Advertisement
Save on the coffee, tobacco and sugar plantations, where competition in large markets has compelled the adoption of adequate modern methods, agriculture in Cuba is still very primitive.
The tea plantations in the area were owned by the Scots.
Leon covers a very wide area, owing to its gardens and plantations.
Neglecting both his see and his professor - ship, to which latter he appointed a deputy described as highly incompetent, he withdrew to Calgarth Park, in his native county, where he occupied himself in forming plantations and in the improvement of agriculture.
In the vicinity of Cairns are extensive sugar plantations, with sugar mills and refineries; the culture of coffee and tobacco has rapidly extended; bananas, pine-apples and other fruits are exported in considerable quantities and there is a large industry in cedar.Advertisement
In the case of small plantations the difficulties of adjusting a right-of-way for outlet ditches have interfered seriously with this plan.
In 1776, the Minorcans of New Smyrna refused to work longer on the indigo plantations; and many of them removed to St Augustine, where they were protected by the authorities.
The coffee plantations were greatly injured by a severe hurricane which visited the island on the 8th of August 1899, but the yield for export increased from 12,157,240 lb in 1901 to 38,756,750 lh, valued at $4,693,004, in 1907.
In1671-1673he had visited the American plantations from Carolina to Rhode Island and had preached alike to Indians and to settlers; in 1674 a portion of New Jersey was sold by Lord Berkeley to John Fenwicke in trust for Edward Byllynge.
The circumstances of their subsequent life on the plantations were not favourable to the increase of their numbers.Advertisement
The closing of the traffic made the labour of the slaves more severe, and led to the employment on the plantations of many who before had been engaged in domestic work; but the slavery of Brazil had always been lighter than that of the United States.
Though introduced with success from Santo Domingo about the middle of the T 8th century, the sugar industry practically dates from 1796, when Etienne Bore first succeeded in crystallizing and clarifying the syrup. Steam motive power was first introduced on the plantations in 1822.
A comparatively low cost of labour, the fact that labour is not, as in the days of slavery, that of unintelligent blacks but of intelligent free labourers, the centralized organization and modern methods that prevail on the plantations, the remarkable fertility of the soil (which yields 5 or 6 crops on good soil and with good management, without replanting), and the proximity of the United States, in whose markets Cuba disposes of almost all her crop, have long enabled her to distance her smaller West Indian rivals and to compete with the bounty-fed beet.
Some Baganda chiefs have started cotton, rubber and cocoa plantations, the botanic department assisting in this enterprise.
There are besides about 128 private (occasionally aided) schools of similar character, owners of plantations on which there are more than ten children being obliged to provide school accommodation.Advertisement
Rubber is grown in government plantations and is also brought in by the hill tribes; while lac, mustard and potatoes are also produced.
They do much harm to plantations of sugar-cane and bananas.
On the plantations slaves lasted on average four years.
Here, tea plantations thrive in the mild climate - where better to bring a British person early in the morning !
The southern part of this region is well populated, and is covered with coffee and sugar plantations.
There are cotton and cigarette factories at the town of Tepic, besides sugar works and distilleries on the plantations.
Another group of Hymenoptera occasionally causes much harm in fir plantations, namely, the Siricidae or wood-wasps, whose larvae burrow into the trunks of the trees and thus kill them.
The question of the legal existence of slavery in Great Britain and Ireland was raised in consequence of an opinion given in 1729 by Yorke and Talbot, attorney-general and solicitor-general at the time, to the effect that a slave by coming into those countries from the West Indies did not become free, and might be compelled by his master to return to the plantations.
The mango is planted with the royal palm along the avenues of the plantations.
In Africa it seems probable that the production of rubber from vines is likely to be entirely superseded in process of time, and replaced by the plantations of trees which are already being established in those districts in which careful experiment has determined the kind of rubber tree best adapted to the locality.
Among these are the precise extent of demand, the limit of the inevitable fall in price with largely increased production, the cost of labour as increasing amounts are required, and the effect of changed conditions on the output of " wild " rubber and the competition of the new plantations which are being established in tropical America.
A large number of plantations in British Malaya and Ceylon are now actively exporting increasing quantities of rubber.
It may be estimated that between one and two million acres of land in the different countries referred to have been already appropriated for rubber plantations.
This practice, which involves periodical weeding, adds considerably to the cost of maintaining plantations, and, although justified so far by results, possesses several other disadvantages.
One of the most important subjects in connexion with rubber plantations is the method to be adopted in tapping the trees for latex.
America, and it is therefore probable that with greater experience as to the best methods of tapping and with older trees considerably larger yields may be expected from plantations in the future.
So far the Hevea plantations in Ceylon and the East have not been seriously troubled by insect or fungoid pests, and those which have occurred have succumbed to proper treatment.
Vigorous measures are now taken in many plantations to remove all old wood and to extract stumps of old trees, which in the first instance it was considered unnecessary to remove.
Large plantations have been formed by the Government of India both in Assam and Bengal, but most FIG.
It seems at present doubtful, however, whether the establishment of plantations of Ficus will be profitable under ordinary conditions in India.
Bayamo was then surrounded by fine plantations.
The termites, or " white ants," are exceptionally destructive because of their habit of tunnelling through the softer woods of habitations and furniture, while some species of ants, like the sadba, are equally destructive to plantations because of the rapidity with which they strip a tree of its foliage.
Along the coast, much of the virgin forest has been cut away, not only for the creation of cultivated plantations, but to meet the commercial demand for Brazil-wood and furniture woods.
The old system of locating immigrants in colonies, or colonial nuclei, which involved an enormous outlay of money with but slight benefit to the country, has been superseded by a system of locating the immigrants on the large plantations under formal contracts.
Sugar plantations were laid out in the vicinity.
It lies at the foot of Birnam Hill (1324 ft.), once covered with a royal forest that has been partly replaced by plantations.
The tea plant was first introduced in Natal in 1850, but little attention was paid to it until the failure of the coffee plantations about 1875, since when only small quantities of coffee have been produced.
The government maintains experimental farms and forestry plantations and a veterinary department to cope with lung sickness, rinderpest, East Coast fever and such like diseases.
Many trees have been introduced and considerable plantations made, as for instance on the slopes between Johannesburg and Pretoria.
Kensington Gardens, originally attached to Kensington Palace, were subsequently much extended; they are magnificently timbered, and contain plantations of rare shrubs and flowering trees.
Extraction of cane juice by diffusion (a process more fully described under the head of beetroot sugar manufacture) is adopted in a few plantations in Java and Cuba, in Louisiana Etr cti o n and the Hawaiian Islands, and in one or two factories y f i in Egypt; b u t hitherto, except under exceptional conditions (as at Aska, in the Madras Presidency, where the local price for sugar is three or four times the London price), it would not seem to offer any substantial advantage over double or triple crushing.
With the latter system practically as much sugar is obtained from the canes as by diffusion, and the resulting megass furnishes, in a well-appointed factory, sufficient fuel for the crop. With diffusion, however, in addition to the strict scientific control necessary to secure the benefits of the process, fuel - that is, coal or wood - has to be provided for the working off of the crop, since the spent chips or slices from the diffusers are useless for this purpose; although it is true that in some plantations the spent chips have to a certain extent been utilized as fuel by mixing them with a portion of the molasses, which otherwise would have been sold or converted into rum.
On some plantations making sugar for particular markets and use in refineries it is the custom to make only one class of sugar, by boiling the molasses produced by the purging of one strike with the sugar in the next strike.
The centres of population are Noumea (Numea), the capital, on a fine harbour of the west coast near the southern extremity of the island, with 7000 inhabitants; Bourail, an agricultural penitentiary (1800); La Foa, in the centre of the coffee plantations; Moindu, St Louis and St Vincent.
The people have to work on the chief's plantations and fisheries, and also work in parties for each other, breaking up new land, &c. This often ends in feasting and in dances (pilu pilu), which include allegorical representations of events or ideas.
The demand for saltpetre as an ingredient of gunpowder led to the formation of saltpetre plantations or nitriaries, which at one time were common in France, Germany, and other countries; the natural conditions were simulated by exposing heaps of decaying organic matter mixed with alkalies (lime, &c.) to atmospheric action.
Thence proceeding eastwards to higher altitudes where coffee plantations give way to fields of wheat and barley, they reached the town of Jibla situated among a group of mountains exceeding 10,000 ft.
On the main route from Hodeda to Sana the first coffee plantations are reached at Usil, at an altitude of 4300 ft., and throughout the western slopes of the range up to an altitude of 7000 ft.
Accra is connected by cable with Europe and South Africa, and is the sea terminus of a railway serving the districts N.E., where are flourishing cocoa plantations.
The coast-valleys through which they flow, especially those of Majes and Locumba, are famous for their vineyards, and in the valley of Tambo there are extensive olive plantations.
With the cinchona trees grow many kinds of melastomaceae, especially the Lasiandra, with masses of purple flowers, tree-ferns and palms. In the warm valleys there are large plantations of coca (Erythroxylon Coca), the annual produce of which is stated at 15,000,000 lb.
There are two distinct general types - the coast tribes occupying the fertile river valleys, who are employed on the plantations, in domestic service in the cities, or in small industries of their own, no longer numerous; and the sierra tribes, who are agriculturists, miners, stock-breeders and packers, still comparatively numerous.
They have since preferred to live in the towns, although many continue on the plantations.
Within the area thus defined tsetse-flies are not found continuously, however, but occur only in small tracts called" belts " or " patches," which, since cover and shade are necessities of life to these insects, are always situated in forest, bush or banana plantations, or among other shady vegetation.
The union of Portsmouth and Newport, March 12, 1640, was followed by the consolidation of all four settlements, May 19, 1647, under a patent of March 14, 1644, issued by the parliamentary board of commissioners for plantations.
In the patent of 1644 the entire colony was called Providence Plantations.
The official designation for the province as a whole in the charter of 1663, therefore, was Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
It grows to a length of 6 ft., lives in swamps, plantations, forests, on the plains and on the hills, and is very prolific, producing dozens of young, which at birth are 10 in.
Since then the increase of plantations has led to the partial restoration of the species in the south of Scotland and the north of England; and it was reintroduced into Dorset early in the 19th century.
The trees principally represented are oak and beech, with some newer plantations of Scotch fir.
Plantations of the nopal and the tuna, which are called nopaleries, are established for the purpose of rearing this insect, the Coccus Cacti, and these often contain as many as 50,000 plants.
The most important is the Deutsch-Ostafrikanische G esellschaft, founded in 1885, which has trading stations in each seaport, and flourishing plantations in various parts of the country.
In addition to the companies a comparatively large number of private individuals have laid out plantations, Usambara and Pare having become favourite districts for agricultural enterprise.
The revolt was due largely to resentment against the restrictions enforced by the Germans in their efforts at civilization, including compulsory work on European plantations in certain districts.
Among the new industries are sugar and coffee plantations, while cotton, ground-nuts and rubber figure increasingly among the exports, cotton and cottonseed being of special importance.
Now on the mainland and in the islands plantations have been established and tobacco and cotton have been successfully grown.
In 1840 only a small Indian village marked its site, and its subsequent growth was due to the sugar plantations established by a Jesuit settlement.
The neighbourhood abounds in market gardens and plantations of aromatic herbs for the manufacture of scents and essences.
European plants and animals were introduced into Hispaniola and Cuba, and sugar plantations were set up. But the main object of the Spaniards, who could not labour in the tropics even if they had wished to do so, was always gold, to be won by slave labour.
From these two centres, and from later settlements, arose the "Plantations" of the English, which gradually increased to the number of thirteen and were destined to become the United States of America.
Though the British government gave, more or less unwillingly, a large measure of self-government to the Plantations, it was no less intent than the Spanish crown on retaining the whole colonial trade in British hands, and on excluding foreigners.
Therefore he carried on the policy of excluding the Huguenots - the only colonizing element among his subjects, - and drove them into the English plantations.
On the one hand were the English plantations, populated, cultivated, profitable, stretching along the east coast of North America; on the other were the Canadian settlements, poverty-stricken, empty, over-officialled, a cause of constant expense to the home government, and, at a vast distance, those of Louisiana, struggling and bankrupt.
The causes which led to the revolt of the Plantations, the political and military history of the War of Independence, are dealt with under the heading of United States (History) and American War Of Independence.
A few years later another committee of the council was appointed to act as intermediaries between the crown and the colonies,, or foreign plantations, as they were then called.
This joint commission of trade and plantations was abolished in 1675, and it was not until twenty years later that it was revived under William III.
A large extent of woodland consists of ash and chestnut plantations, maintained for the growth of hop poles.
The government ceased to cultivate sugar in 1891, but coffee, and to some extent cinchona, are cultivated on government plantations, though not in equal quantity to that grown on land held on emphyteusis.
The cultivation of pepper, cochineal, cinnamon and indigo for the government had already ceased; De Waal restricted the area of the sugar plantations (carried on by forced native labour) as from 1878, and provided for their abolition after 1890.
Little natural wood remains in the county, but plantations flourish on the great estates, and orchards have proved successful.
Finally, the lord proprietor was deprived of his government from 1654 to 1658 in obedience to instructions from parliament which were originally intended to affect only Virginia, but were so modified, through the influence of Claiborne and some Puritan exiles from Virginia who had settled in Maryland, as to apply also to " the plantations within Chesapeake Bay."
The town consists of three portions - the citadel on a limestone hill, the upper and the lower town - separated by irregular plantations of date trees.
He was commissioner for improving the streets and buildings of London, for examining into the affairs of charitable foundations, commissioner of the Mint, and of foreign plantations.
The tjus frequent forests and plantations and are carnivorous, eating anything they can overpower.
These ants will strip a tree in a few hours and are very destructive to fruit plantations.
This class is also furnishing the small traders of the towns, overseers on the plantations and public works, petty officials, and to some extent the teachers and professional men of the provincial towns.
An indirect result of the industrial development of Mexico, which began during the last quarter of the 19th century, has been an increased interest in agriculture, and especially in undertakings requiring large investments of capital, such as coffee, sugar and rubber plantations.
The production of rubber is becoming an important industry, large plantations having been set with both Hevea and Castilloa rubber trees.
Of the 208 plantations in the state of Hidalgo in 1897, 129 were devoted to maguey.
For local traffic there are several lines; one from Iztapa, near San J ose, to Naranjo, and another from Ocos to the western coffee plantations.
The narrow-gauge railway that serves the German plantations in the Vera Paz region is largely owned by Germans.
The chief plantations are owned and managed by Germans; more than half of the crop is sent to Germany, while three-fifths of the remainder go to the United States and one-fifth to Great Britain.
The indigo and cotton plantations yield little profit, owing to foreign competition, and have in most cases been converted to other uses.
The condition of the Indians on the plantations is often akin to slavery, owing to the system adopted by some planters of making payments in advance; for the Indians soon spend their earnings, and thus contract debts which can only be repaid by long service.
In addition to the breweries, rum and brandy distilleries, sugar mills and tobacco factories, which are sometimes worked as adjuncts to the plantations, there are many purely urban industries, such as the manufacture of woollen and cotton goods on a large scale, and manufactures of building material and furniture; but these industries are far less important than agriculture.
Under the system of slave labour which existed before 1860, the average size of the plantations tended to increase, but since 1860 the reverse has been true, the average plantation in 1860 being 346 acres, and in 1900 92.7 acres.
Another feature of agriculture in Georgia was the great increase in the number of farms, the average size of plantations having declined from 440 acres in 1860 to 117.5 in 1900, or almost 75%, while the area in cultivation increased only 15.6% between 1850 and 1900.
In Scotland the date of its introduction is a disputed point, but it seems to have been planted at Dunkeld by the 2nd duke of Athole in 1727, and about thirteen or fourteen years later considerable plantations were made at that place, the commencement of one of the largest planting experiments on record; it is estimated that 14 million larches were planted on the Athole estates between that date and 1826.
Plantations have been made in America with an economic view, the tree growing much faster, and producing good timber at an earlier age than the native hackmatack (or tamarack), while the wood is less ponderous, and therefore more generally applicable.
In East Tennessee most of the people were small farmers, while West Tennessee was a land of great slave plantations.
It is also fond of gnawing the bark of young trees, and thus often does great damage to plantations.
On the small high island of Florida there is much undulating grass-land interspersed with fine clumps of trees; patches of cultivated land surround its numerous villages, and plantations on the hill-sides testify to the richness of its soil.
Both the Board of Trade and Plantations and the additional secretary were abolished in 1782, and the executive business wholly given over to the home office.
In 1909, on six large rubber plantations, mostly on the windward side of the island of Maui, there were planted 444,450 ceara trees, 66,700 hevea trees, and 600 castilloa trees.
In 1907 there were vanilla plantations in the islands of Oahu and Hawaii.
In 1900 the total number of Portuguese in the islands, including those born there, was not far from 16,000, about 2400 of whom were employed in sugar plantations.
Various methods of co-operation or profit-sharing are in successful operation on some plantations.
In the neighbourhood there are large cocoa plantations; and the city has a thriving trade in cocoa, coffee, hides, cotton, native tobacco and indigo.
Though the Boeotian climate suffered from the exhalations of Copais, which produced a heavy atmosphere with foggy winters and sultry summers, its rich soil was suited alike for crops, plantations and pasture; the CopaIs plain, though able to turn into marsh when the choking of the katavothra caused the lake to encroach, being among the most fertile in Greece.
Trees and shrubs in thick plantations, or in sheltered warm places, are ill fitted for planting in bleak and cold situations.
Care should be taken, however, not to hem in the garden by crowded plantations, shelter from the prevailing strong winds being all that is required, while the more open it is in other directions the better.
Occasionally this sunk wall is placed on the exterior of the screen plantations, and walks lead through the trees, so that views are obtained of the adjacent country.
Although the interior garden receives its form from the walls, the ring fence and plantations may be adapted to the shape and surface of the ground.
Raspberries, grape vines, &c., that have been laid down may now be uncovered and tied up to stakes or trellises, and all new plantations of these and other fruits may now be made.
Even before the arrival of Europeans Sumatra was known for its pepper plantations; and these still form the most conspicuous feature of the south of the island.
Belawan is connected with Medan by a railway, constructed before 1890 by a private company, almost entirely dependent for its earnings upon the numerous tobacco plantations, several of which belong to British corporations.
The tobacco plantations of British North Borneo were nearly all started by planters from Deli.
A second railway in the district of Deli connects the inland plantations with the coast; and there is another, as already indicated, in the lower Achin valley.
The settlement was in a low marshy district which proved to be unhealthy; it was accidentally burned in January 1608, was almost completely destroyed by Nathaniel Bacon in September 1676, the state house and other buildings were again burned in 1698, and after the removal of the seat of government of Virginia from Jamestown to the Middle Plantations (now Williamsburg) in 1699 the village fell rapidly into decay.
The nut of the kola tree is in great demand, and since 1905 many cocoa plantations have been established, especially in the eastern districts.
South-west from this point extends the line of gardens which occupy the site of former landward fortifications, pleasantly diversified by water and plantations, skirted on the inner side by three wide boulevards, Ostervold, Norrevold and Vestervold Gade, and containing noteworthy public buildings, mostly modern.
Rice is the staple crop; there are promising plantations of coffee and rubber.
He continued nevertheless in the royal favour, and subsequently was appointed one of the commissioners of the admiralty and a member of the board of trade and plantations.
The majority of the yerbales (tea plantations) were formerly the property of the government, but have been acquired by private enterprise.
Extensive cocoanut plantations are also found in the plains, and market-gardening is practised in the neighbourhood of the towns.
Several plantations have been successfully put out both by the Russian government and private enterprise in the Caucasus, but it is doubtful whether they could exist long but for the high rate of duty on tea entering Russia from foreign countries.
Many of the original Indian plantations were established on hill-sides, after the example of known districts in China, where hill slopes and odd corners are commonly occupied with tea-plants.
The failure of the great Hamburg house of Godefroy in 1879 threatened to ruin the growing German industries in the South Seas, which it had helped to build up. Bismarck therefore consented to apply to the Reichstag for a state guarantee to a company which would take over its great plantations in Samoa.
They founded coffee and sugar plantations and gave a great impulse to trade.
Plantations founded by German industry are fairly successful.
On Blackdown, closely screened by plantations, Aldworth, built for Alfred, Lord Tennyson, who died here i 1892.
The weeping-willow, myrtle, elm, cypress and eucalyptus are also used in the gardens and plantations.
While cotton is grown chiefly in the Delta, the sugar plantations, which cover about 10o,000 acres, are mainly in Upper Egypt.
A proportionally large importation of timber is caused by the scarcity of native timber suitable for building purposes, the plantations of firs and pines being insufficient to produce the quantity required, and the quality of the wood being inferior beyond the age of about forty years.
Eliza Lucas Pinckney (c. 1722-1793) was the daughter of Lieut.-Colonel George Lucas of the British army, who about 1738 removed from Antigua to South Carolina, where he acquired several plantations.
He was almost immediately recalled to Antigua, and his daughter undertook the management of the plantations with conspicuous success.
She is said to have been the first to introduce into South Carolina (and into continental North America) the cultivation and manufacture of indigo, and she also imported silkworms-in 1753 she presented to the princess of Wales a dress made of silk from her plantations.
In 1812 woods and plantations occupied 907,695 acres, of which 501,469 acres were natural woods and 406,226 planted.
The modern plantations consist mostly of Scots fir with a sprinkling of larch.
The petition was rejected by General Thomas Gage; and Thomas Legge, earl of Dartmouth (1731-1801), Secretary of State for Plantations and President of the Board of Trade, drew up a plan of government for Illinois in which all officials were appointed by the crown.
The state also makes annual grants directly to owners who are willing to place their plantations under state supervision, for the sale of plants at half price to the poorer peasantry, for making protective or sheltering plantations, and for free transport of marl or loam.
Sugar plantations in the environs appeared before the end of the 16th century.
At the same time governmental plantations were established in the Nilgiri hills and at Darjeeling, and these have been continued up to the present time.
A considerable amount bf the bark from private plantations is bought by the government and treated at the government factories.
Indiscriminate timber-cutting has been prohibited, the burning of the jungle by the hill tribes has been confined within bounds, large areas have been surveyed and demarcated, plantations have been laid out, and, generally, forest conservation has become a reality.
There are sugar factories, where rum is also distilled and a few other manufactures, but the prosperity of the province depends on the "jungle" products obtained through the natives and from the plantations owned by Portuguese and worked by indentured labour, the labourers being generally "recruited" from the far interior.
Owing to the destruction of the primeval forests for the formation of sugar plantations, the indigenous flora is only seen in parts of the interior plains, in the river valleys and on the hills; and it is not now easy to distinguish between what is native and what has come from abroad.
For several years prior to 1891, coffee, grown principally in the provinces of Cavite, Batangas and Lepanto-Bontoc, Luzon, was nearly as important a crop as tobacco, but between 1891 and 1898 most of the coffee plantations were destroyed by insects and disease.
In the middle stands the huge volcano Cherimai, clad with virgin forest and coffee plantations, and surrounded at its foot by rice fields.
The principal products of cultivation are sugar, coffee, rice and also tea and pulse (rachang), the plantations being for the most part owned by Europeans.
The cotton and coffee plants are indigenous; banana plantations surround the villages.
Stock ranches, tobacco plantations, and hay and grain farms, average from Boo to 530 acres, and counteract the tendency of dairy farms, beet plantations, orchards, vegetable gardens and nurseries to lower the size of the farm unit still further.
The filbert is economically grown on the borders of plantations or orchards, or in open spots in woods.
Plantations of filberts are made in autumn, in well-drained ground, and a space of about io ft.
The plantations are chiefly owned and managed by Germans, and the product is of good quality; but coffee-planting, like most Nicaraguan industries, suffers from the scarcity of labour.
Rubber is collected in the forests, and plantations have been formed.
It landed, at a place which was called Jamestown, on the 13th of May 1607, and resulted in the establishment of many plantations along the James river.
In 1611, 650 additional colonists landed, the James and Appomattox rivers were explored and "plantations" were established at Henrico and New Bermuda.
Dexter became, with Williams and Clarke, a leading statesman in Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
Many tracts, originally rocky and sterile, have been irrigated and converted into vineyards and plantations.
The tea plantations are the one great source of wealth to the province, and the necessities of tea cultivation are the chief stimulants to the development of Assam.
Plantations in England are generally ready for final cutting in from sixty to seventy years, and many are cleared at a much earlier stage of growth.
In plantations its bright foliage, with the orange cones and young shoots, render it an ornamental tree, hardy in southern Britain.
The tree has been naturalized in many warm countries, even in China; in England it seldom attains any large size, as the deficient summer heat prevents the wood from maturing; but trees occur occasionally in plantations 20 or 30 ft.
The destruction of the forests by timbercutters and charcoal-burners has been allowed to go on unchecked, no plantations have been laid out, and nothing has been done for forest conservation.
For surrendered rights and privileges the sultan and his grandees received monetary compensations in the shape of annual subventions, and these also have been paid for the losses formerly incurred by the wilful destruction of the nutmeg plantations, carried out in order to enhance the value of this commodity and monopolize its cultivation.
The restrictions on nutmeggrowing have long since been removed, and many plantations, with free labour, have been started in Ternate since 1885.
In gardening, a labyrinth or maze means an intricate network of pathways enclosed by hedges or plantations, so that those FIG.
The Dutch have established cocoa and coffee plantations at various points.
It manufactures linen and flannel, and in the neighbourhood are extensive tobacco plantations.
In the frassinetti or plantations the trees are placed about 7 ft.
But the state was authorized by an amendment adopted in 1868 to issue bonds for the reimbursement of the expenses incurred by its cities, towns, and plantations on account of the Civil War, and these bonds, with those issued by the state itself during the Civil War, constituted the largest part of the state's bonded indebtedness.
Acting upon these returns the legislature passed a bill prescribing the terms of separation, and directed another vote of the towns and plantations upon the question of separation and the election of delegates to a convention at Brunswick which should proceed to frame a constitution in case the second popular vote gave a majority of five to four for separation; but as that vote was only 11,969 yeas to 10,347 nays the advocates of separation were unsuccessful.
Nor can it be said that under their white masters the natives have become great agriculturists, though plantations have been established both by the state and private companies, and coffee, cocoa, tobacco, rice and maize are grown for export.
Calisaya, known as the calisaya of Santa Fe, was strongly recommended for cultivation, because the shoots of felled trees afford bark containing a considerable amount of quinine; C. Pitayensia has been introduced into the Indian plantations on account of yielding the valuable alkaloid quinidine, as well as quinine.
Boliviana and microcar pa; C. micrantha, C. Peruviana and C. nitida form only a small proportion of the plantations.
The native population having been cleared off by the Dutch, the plantations were worked by slaves and convicts till the emancipation of 1860.
The plantations (perken) were originally held by the conquerors of the natives, the government monopolizing the produce at a fixed rate; but in 1873 the government monopoly was abolished.
The cultivation of the cinchona plant in Bengal was introduced as an experiment about 1862, and is grown on government plantations in Darjeeling.
Soon afterwards Pierre Poivre, intendant of Ile de France, seeing the freedom of the Seychelles archipelago from hurricanes, caused spice plantations to be made there, with the object of wresting from the Dutch the monopoly they then enjoyed of the spice trade.
The existence of these plantations was kept secret, and it was with that object that they were destroyed by fire by the French on the appearance in the harbour in 1778 of a vessel flying the British flag.
Under King Charles, an ardent forester, the wholesale destruction of timber was arrested, and new plantations met with success.
There are several fishing villages whose inhabitants are largely engaged in the pearl fisheries, and a number of cocoa-nut plantations.
This industry has been greatly prejudiced by civil wars, which not only destroyed the plantations and interrupted transportation, but deprived them of the labouring force essential to their maintenance and development.
A railway was built inland for the transportation of fruit to Santa Marta, and is being extended toward the Magdalena as fast as new plantations are opened.
The term came into prominence in 1884-1885 in connexion with the scandals arising over the kidnapping of South Sea islanders for enforced labour on the sugar plantations of north Queensland.
It is surrounded by coffee plantations, and tobacco of excellent quality is raised in the vicinity.
It has a population of about 5000, and extensive orchards of orange and lemon trees and immense plantations of date-palms. Legend ascribes the foundation of the city to Darius, hence its name Darab-gerd (Darius-town).
The native tobacco plantations meet all the local demand, except for a small quantity of Turkish tobacco imported for the manufacture of special blends.
Along the Shatt el-Arab and the lower reaches of the Tigris and Euphrates there are vast plantations of date-palms, which produce the finest dates known.
The greater part of the area of the town is occupied by gardens and plantations of palm-trees, intersected by a number of little canals, cleansed twice daily with the ebb and flow of the tide, which rises here about 9 ft.
The looms of Suchow and the tea plantations of Ngan-hui, together with the rice of this "garden of China," for many years before treaty days, supplied the Shanghai junks with their richest freight.
There was nevertheless an increase in cocoa plantations, chiefly in the Kabinda enclave; coffee, though gathered mainly from wild plants, was also cultivated in the Loanda hinterland and other areas.
The then governorgeneral of Angola, Senhor Norton de Mattos, had already instituted reforms and in 1913 had created a Department for Native Affairs, which set itself to regulate the employment of natives, including the recruitment of labourers for the cocoa plantations on St.
It climbs well, prefers open forest in the neighbourhood of water, is often found in plantations where it retires into a hole in the ground, and lives chiefly on birds and small mammals.
In a time of famine, a chief would declare the contents of the plantations to be common property.
F One more table may be given showing the proportional areas under the various kinds of crops, grass, woods and plantations, fallow, bog, waste, &c., over a series of years.
Similar tribes are found along the coast to the Bissagos Islands, though the introduction in Sierra Leone and Liberia of settlements of repatriated slaves from the American plantations has in those places modified the original ethnic distribution.
Of fruit trees the apple, pear, plum, cherry, medlar, pomegranate, fig, quince, as well as two kinds of vine, grow wild; oranges, sweet and bitter, and other Aurantiaceae thrive well in gardens and plantations.
Tea plantations, with seeds and plants from Assam, Ceylon and the Himalayas, were started in the early part of 1900 on the slopes of the hills south of Resht at an altitude of about 1000 ft.
In 1910, apart from the date plantations, about 1,500,000 acres were under cultivation.
Rubber is obtained from the Bahr-el-Ghazalwhere there are Para and Ceara rubber plantations - and in the Sobat district.
There is also a considerable cultivation of wood, especially of fir and copse, while tobacco plantations are found at Nykerk and Wageningen.
There were few large plantations and fewer slaves in that mountainous region, while the middle and western sections were more in harmony with the sentiment in Mississippi and Alabama.
It stands upon the great Canterbury plain, which here is a dead level, though the monotony of the site has been much relieved by extensive plantations of English and Australian trees.
The district is rich in plantations of mulberries and olives.
Unfortunately, these plantations strip the land bare of its lowland forest.
Because of this, marram plantations seldom remain fixed unless fences are used to act as fixed points of sand buildup.
In agricultural areas, industrial tree plantations have undermined food security by usurping productive cropland and pastures.
How important are the ferns in the ecology of degraded ecosystems, such as logged forest and oil-palm plantations?
The program was developed to assist foresters in choosing species suitable for tropical and sub-tropical plantations.
Most of the cured herring at this time went either to Ireland or the West Indian plantations, where quality was less important.
Cross the bridge and continue N along the path as it traverses the mountainside into the forestry plantations.
The small birds like open ground for nesting sites and often nest in recently felled conifer plantations where there has been new planting.
Other ancient woodland sites have been replanted with conifers or broadleaved plantations, or have been converted to other habitats or land use.
A holiday in Kassiopi has the magnificent backdrop of Mount Pantokrator and hills covered with olive groves, vines and citrus plantations.
The author provides a brief background on the Plantation Tamils, " descendants of Indian labor migrants to the plantation Tamils, " descendants of Indian labor migrants to the plantations during the British period.
A study by Duke University in North Carolina discovered that monoculture plantations dried up local water supplies.
Pine and eucalyptus plantations cover 4% of the country and employ 17% of the formal labor force.
It was originally settled by French planters who imported labor from southern India to work the plantations.
Made from premium grade redwood Pine, with exterior grade ply roof, sourced from managed plantations.
It passes through dry puna, thick cloud forest and some plantations at the end.
These plantations are becoming a rarity due to world coffee markets forcing the spread of high tech mass production techniques.
Made from premium grade Scandinavian redwood from renewable plantations, which will mellow to a honey brown with weathering.
Asian elephant, Sumatran rhinoceros, orangutan, and tiger populations are all declining because palm oil plantations are encroaching on their habitats.
Spice plantations of cloves, cinnamon, nutmeg and vanilla punctuate the landscape and tinge the atmosphere with a pleasant spicy scent.
The aristocratic owners of these plantations dealt directly with trade, exporting on to the world market from riverside wharfs.
The pedunculated variety is most abundant in the southern and midland counties, the sessilefruited kinds in the northern parts and in Wales, especially in upland districts; the straighter growth and abundant acorns of this sub-species have led to its extensive introduction into plantations.
At such settlements the river is lined with gardens and plantations of palms. The greater part of the region, however, even along the river shores, is inhabited only by roaming Bedouin or halfsavage Madan Arabs (see Irak).
In compliance with this request he produced the able Memoire justificatif, composed in French, and delivered to the courts of Europe; and shortly afterwards he received a seat at the Board of Trade and Plantations - little more than a sinecure in itself, but with a very substantial salary of nearly Boo per annum.
The plants are mainly shrubs and trees; British representatives are Sambucus (elder), Viburnum (guelder-rose and wayfaring tree), Lonicera (honeysuckle) (see fig.); Adoxa (moschatel), a small herb with a creeping stem and small yellowish-green flowers, is occasionally found on damp hedge-banks; Linnaea, a slender creeping evergreen with a thread-like stem and pink bell-shaped flower, a northern plant, occurs in fir-forests and plantations in the north of England and Scotland.
Most of them settled in Oriente province, where their names and blood are still apparent, and with their cafetales and sugar plantations converted that region from neglect and poverty to high prosperity.
It may be useful to summarize here the experience which has been gained in the formation of plantations of Hevea and in the production of rubber.
When the plantations of Ficus in India are in full bearing it is possible that this tree may attract more attention, since the plantation rubber is likely to be of superior quality owing to the greater care taken in its preparation.
Sugar and rum were essentially plantation products down to the last ten years of the empire, when central usines using improved machinery and methods were introduced as a means of saving the sugar plantations from ruin.
The coolies are employed chiefly on the sugar, coffee, cotton and other plantations, a small proportion being employed in the coal-mines.
The holy mountain is no doubt Babylonian, and the plantations of sacred trees, one of which at least has magic virtue, can be paralleled from the monuments (see Eden).
A table given by Krabe, based on results obtained for 12 plantations amounting to 20 hectares (50 English acres) during 20 years showed the value of produce per Prussian acre (.2553 of an hectare) to be in the 1st year, £3, 6s.
In Mauritius and the Seychelles the Church Missionary Society and the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel are at work, especially among the coolies on the sugar plantations.
The introduction of Indian coolies to work the sugar plantations dates from the period of the emancipation of the slaves in 18 341839.
Forests and pulpwood plantations can be managed more sustainably.
Here too, and on Claife Heights, are the spruce plantations.
Slaves were brought from Africa to work on the sugar plantations.
To the west of Salobrena are many sugar cane plantations, which stretch across to Europe 's last sugar factory in Caleta.
Lying relatively untouched and refreshingly car-free, it leaves hired bicycles as the best way to explore the pungent vanilla plantations and tranquil coves.
Returning to the mainland, you wind your way north toward the limestone hills, undulating through pine forests and banana and papaya plantations.
The antebellum era is often associated with slavery, conflict, and sprawling Southern plantations.
Trees play an important part in the environment and it is important that levels of trees and other plantations are maintained.
Children on southern plantations were dressed in much fancier clothes than a farmer's children in the Midwest were dressed.
You can also tour the Sugar Palace (Houmas House), which has been around since before the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, and several other beautiful plantations.
Hickory (Carya) - A very interesting and distinct group of forest trees, little planted in England in our own day, but so valuable in their own country for their wood that they deserve a place in our choice plantations.
For hardiness, freedom, and fine habit, it is a choice little plant when isolated, or as an edging to plantations.
Because bamboo growth is quick and plentiful and typically doesn't need pesticides or herbicides to grow, it is relatively easy to keep bamboo plantations organic.
The ingredients that go into Amazônia Preciosa are extracted directly from nature, native forests or pesticide-free plantations, which are farmed sustainably, without damaging the environment.
South Carolina is known for its pecan plantations, and this fundraising opportunity takes advantage of that.
A Charleston family vacation allows you to take a step back in time to explore beautiful beaches, stately mansions, historic landmarks and sprawling plantations.
Hoodia plantations have been implemented in the southern regions of Africa, but resistance to pests and disease has transpired due to its "unnatural" variety.
He was named on the council of plantations and on that of trade.
It was introduced into England by Philip Miller about 1 735, and is now common in parks and plantations, where it seems to flourish in nearly all soils.
Both these oaks grow well in British plantations, where their bright autumn foliage, though seldom so decided in tint as in their native woods, gives them a certain picturesque value.
Maceio is attractively situated in the midst of large plantations of coco-nut and dende palms, though the broad sandy beach in front and the open sun-burned plain behind give a barren character to its surroundings.
It was the first German colony to dispense (1903-1904) with an imperial subsidy towards its upkeep. Several firms have acquired plantations in which coffee, cocoa, cotton, kola and other tropical products are cultivated.
Gardens or plantations were let in the same ways and under the same conditions; but for dategroves four years' free tenure was allowed.
Similarly, the number of goats, which are reared only in hilly regions, is decreasing, especially on account of the existing forest laws, as they are the chief enemies of young plantations.
There is a small government house, standing in beautiful grounds, adjoining Albert Park, with plantations of oaks and pines.
In central Scotland, forests occur of Pinus sylvestris; and, in south-eastern England, extensive plantations and self-sown woods occur of the same species.
The montes, by which are understood plantations as well as native thickets, produce among other woods the algarrobo, a poor imitation of oak; the guayabo, a substitute for boxwood; the quebracho, of which the red kind is compared to sandalwood; and the urunday, black and white, not unlike rosewood.
The archaeological evidence outside Crete points to the actual existence of Minoan plantations as far afield on one side as Sicily and on the other as the coast of Canaan.
The estate is famous for its plantations and Dutch gardens, the pinetum containing the most representative collection of araucarias, deodars and other conifers in Europe.
As these were insufficient to give employment to all the prisoners, some were put to work on Yazoo Delta plantations on partnership contracts.
Farmers of the Piedmont Plateau formerly kept large numbers of horses and cattle from April to November in ranges in the Mountain Region, but with the opening of portions of that country to cultivation the business of pasturage declined, except as the cotton plantations demanded an increased supply of mules; there were 25,259 mules in 1850, 110,011 in 1890, 138,786 in 1900, and 181,000 in 1910.
In December 1678 he was, with sixty others, sentenced to banishment to the American plantations, but the party was liberated in London, and Peden made his way north again to divide the remaining years of his life between his own country and the north of Ireland.
The cultivators, whether owners of the plantations, as is usual in some districts, or tenants, as is customary in others, are financed as a rule by commission agents.
The nature of the engagements to go and work on the plantations was not fully explained to them, and they were hired for periods exceeding the legal term.
Before the Civil War of 1895-1898 the capital invested in sugar estates was greater by half than that reprerented by tobacco and coffee plantations, live-stock ranches and other farms. Since that time fruit and live-stock interests have increased.
Africa, can, however, only be enforced by special administrative machinery and at considerable expense, and this legislative action can only be regarded as temporary and preliminary to the establishment of plantations of rubber trees, which are not only easier to control, but the trees are less liable to injury from careless tapping.
The enormous increase in the commercial demand for rubber and the probability of the continuance of this increase in view of the great variety of purposes to which the material can be applied, has led to great activity in rubber planting in other parts of the world, especially in Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago, where the Para rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis) has been successfully introduced, and numerous plantations; many of which have not been in existence for more than ten or fifteen years, are now contributing to the world's supply.
Ever since plantations of Hevea have been made on an increasing scale in the Straits Settlements, the Federated Malay States and in Ceylon, and at the present time rubber plantations form the principal industry in these colonies.
Successful plantations of Hevea have also been established in Java, Sumatra and Borneo.
Many of these plantations have not yet reached the productive stage - that is, the sixth or seventh year.
In many plantations besides catch crops (cassava, sesame, ground-nuts, &c.) other crops, such as tea, coffee, cocoa and tobacco, are grown with rubber.
The plantations are all worked by native labour.
The community had now become self-supporting, and the year that witnessed these changes witnessed also the first representative assembly in North America, the Virginia House of Burgesses, a meeting of planters sent from the plantations to assist the governor in reforming and remaking the laws of the colony.
In 1621 a constitution was granted whereby the London Company appointed the governor and a council, and the people were to choose annually from their counties, towns, hundreds and plantations delegates to the House of Burgesses.
He entered the office of the lords commissioners of trade and plantations, of which his brother John was then secretary; and in 1753 he went to America as private secretary to Sir Danvers Osborn, just appointed governor of New York.
In 1676 the Lords of Trade and Plantations sent over Edward Randolph to investigate and gather information which would show the justice and expediency of imposing imperial control, and two years later Randolph was appointed Collector and Surveyor of Customs in New England.
Some protection has been afforded to existing plantations, and some attempt made to extend their area; but the progress in both directions is slow.
The tree is rarely planted in mixed plantations where profit is an object; it interferes with its neighbours and occupies too much room.
Rubber plantations have also been laid out, principally by American companies, the Castilloa elastica doing well.
While the English plantations were striking root along the coast, by somewhat prosaic but fruitful industry, and were growing in population with rapid strides, two other movements were in progress.
Alone, or in groups, or in long aisles, towering above the plantations or its fellow trees of the forest, its beautiful crest dominates every landscape.