Plant Sentence Examples
If a plant cannot live according to its nature, it dies; and so a man.
If she left from Ashley, she would arrive in time to plant a garden at the ranch.
The Immortal side of him is weak. He'll do whatever it takes to get his mate back, and I intend to plant the idea in his head.
In the future, each plant will be on the Internet.
The plant is about 1 ft.Advertisement
When spring came on, the soldiers found a plant just showing out of the ground that looked like asparagus, which, for some reason, they called "Mashka's sweet root."
You are to find your way to the underworld. When you are there, you will plant this in the ground.
Presently they came to a low plant which had broad, spreading leaves, in the center of which grew a single fruit about as large as a peach.
The yeast plant and its allies are saprophytes and form no chlorophyll.
The " nardoo " seed, on which the aborigines sometimes contrived to exist, is a creeping plant, growing plentifully in swamps and shallow pools, and belongs to the natural order of Marsileaceae.Advertisement
The growth of the plant is slow, and its durability proportionately great, its death being determined generally by that of the tree on which it has established itself.
Amid the scattered property and the crowd on the open space, she, in her rich satin cloak with a bright lilac shawl on her head, suggested a delicate exotic plant thrown out onto the snow.
Any portion of the underground rhizome when broken off is capable of producing a new plant; hence the difficulty of eradicating them when once established.
She was a plant by the Dark One who lured you and probably the rest of your brothers into bed.
This flora, isolated by arid country from the rest of the continent, has evidently derived its plant life from an outside source, probably from lands no longer existing.Advertisement
The waiting room consisted of two chairs, an empty magazine rack, and a potted plant in the corner.
These investigators regarded yeast as a plant, and Meyer gave to the germs the systematic name of "Saccharomyces" (sugar fungus).
The spore-cases remain after the plant is dried up and withered.
In one instance Mr Rivers found one healthy plant in a badly affected field.
When the ore does not contain any considerable amount of free gold mercury is not, as a rule, used during the crushing, but the amalgamation is carried out in a separate plant.Advertisement
Suppose Alfred Nota and his pal Homer's break-in at Collingswood Avenue was just a cover-up and their true mission was to plant a listening device.
These forests were formerly very thick, but they are now greatly thinned by the Turks, who cut them down and take no care to plant others in their place.
I thought you said they were getting ready to spread Shipton's body parts around to the sick and needy and then plant what was left.
It is confined to the sporophyte, which forms the, leafy plant in these groups, and is known as the vascular system.
No doubt the primary object of the cell-wall of even the humblest protoplast is protection, and this too is the meaning of the coarser tegumentary structures of a bulkier plant.Advertisement
In larger plant the upper ends of the sluices are often cut in rock or lined with stone blocks, the grating stopping the larger stones being known as a " grizzly."
The other cereal crops consist of mandua (a grass-like plant producing a coarse grain resembling rice), wheat, barley, and china, a rice-like cereal.
The tracheids or vessels, indifferently called tracheal elements, together with the immediately associated cells (usually amylom in Pteridophytes) constitute the xylem of the plant.
The constitution of the stele of a flowering plant entirely from endarch collateral bundles, which are either themselves leaf-traces or will form leaf-traces after junction with other similar bundles, is the great characteristic of the stem-stele of flowering plants.
This takes the form of long usually richly branched tubes which penetrate the other tissues of the plant mainly in a longitudinal direction.
The new work largely centred round a discussion of the nature and origin of vessels, conspicuous features in young plant tissues which thus acquired an importance in the contemporary literature out of proportion to their real significance in the construction of the vascular plant.
A very considerable body of knowledge relating to this subject already exists, but further work on experimental lines is urgently required to enable us to understand the actual economy of plants growing under different conditions of life and the true relation of the hereditary anatomical characters which form the subject matter of systematic anatomy to those which vary according to the conditions in which the individual plant is placed.
The Nature of the Organization of Ilte Plant, and the Relations of the Cell-Membrane and the Protoplasm.This view of the structure of the plant and this method of investigation lead us to a greatly modified conception of its organization, and afford more completely an explanation of the peculiarities of form found in the vegetable kingdom.
Every plant is thus found to be composed of a number of these protoplasmic units, or, as they may preferably be termed, proloplasts, all of which are at first exactly alike in appearance and in properties.
There is little wonder, then, that in a colony of protoplasts such as constitute a large plant a considerable degree of differentiation is evident, bearing upon the question of water supply.
Others are devoted to the work of carrying it to the protoplasts situated in the interior and at the extremities of the plant, a conducting system of considerable complexity being the result.
It is evident that as the latter increases in bulk, more and more attention must be paid to the dangers of uprooting by winds and storms. Various mechanisms have been adopted in different cases, some connected with the subterranean and others with the sub-aerial portions of the plant.
Gaseous Interchanges and their Mechanism.Another feature of the construction of the plant has in recent years come into greater prominence than was formerly the case.
Investigations carried out by Blackman, and by Brown and Escombe, have shown clearly that the view put forward by Boussingault, that such absorption of gases takes place through the cuticular covering of the younger parts of the plant, is erroneous and can no longer be supported.
It constitutes practically the exterior environment of the protoplasts, though it is ramifying through the interior of the plant.
This serves a double purpose, bringing up from the soil continually a supply of the soluble mineral matters necessary for their metabolic processes, \vhich only enter the plant in solutions of extreme dilution, and at the same time keeping the plant cool by the process of evaporation.
There is a distinct advantage in the regulation of this escape, and the mechanism is directly connected with the greater or smaller quantity of water in the plant, and especially in its ep-idermal cells.
The water of the soil, which in well-drained soil is met with in the form of delicate films surrounding the particles of solid matter, is absorbed into the plant by the delicate hairs borne by the young roots, the entry being effected by a process of modified osmosis.
Its nutritive pabulum is supplied to it in the shape of certain complex organic substances which have been stored in some part or other of the seed, sometimes even in its own tissues, by the parent plant from which it springs.
If we examine the seat of active growth in a young root or twig, we find that the cells in which the organic substance, the protoplasm, of the plant is being formed and increased, are not supplied with carbon dioxide and mineral matter, but with such elaborated material as sugar and proteid substances, or others closely allied to them.
The differences between the nutritive processes of the animal and the plant are not therefore fundamental, as they were formerly held to be.
Brown and Morris in 1892 advanced strong reasons for thinking that cane-sugar, Ci2H22O11, is the first carbohydrate synthesized, and that the hexoses found in the plant result from the decomposition of this.
Starch, indeed, wherever it appears in the plant seems to be a reserve store of carbohydrate material, deposited where it is found for longer or shorter periods till it is needed for consumption.
The fate of these inorganiccompounds has not been certainly traced, but they give rise later on to the presence in the plant of various amino acid amides, such as leucin, glycin, asparagin, &c. That these are stages on the way to proteids has been inferred from the fact that when proteids are split up by various means, and especially by the digestive secretions, these nitrogen-containing acids are among the products which result.
The normal green plant is seen thus to be in possession of a complete machinery for the manufacture of its own food.
As this is not the incorporation of either into the living sobstance, but is only its manufacture into the complex substances which we find in the plant, it seems preferable to limit the term assimilation to the processes by which foods are actually taken into the protoplasm.
Each species of green plant may form a mycorhiza with two or three different Fungi, and a single species of Fungus may enter into symbiosis with several green plants.
Long ago the view that this gas might be the source of the combined nitrogen found in different forms within the plant, was critically examined, particularly by Boussingault, and later by Lawes and Gilbert and by Pugh, and it was ascertained to be erroneous, the plants only taking nitrogen into their substance when it is presented to their roots in the form of nitrates of various metals, or compounds of ammonia.
We see it exemplified in plant life in circumstances which are unnatural to the life of the plant, and the prevalence of certain constitutional tendencies among the inhabitants of crowded cities bears evidence to the same law.
A steam heating plant pipes heat to many shops, offices and residences.
The body of a vascular plant is developed in the first place by repeated division of the fertilized egg and the growth of Develop- the products of division.
The body thus formed ment of is called the embryo, and this develops into the adult Primary plant, not by continued growth of all its parts as in an animal, but by localization of the regions of cell-division and growth, such a localized region being called a growing-point.
Later, the axis branches by the formation of new growing-points, and in this way the complex system of axes forming the body of the ordinary vascular plant is built up. In the flowering plants the embryo, after developing up to a certain point, stopf growing and rests, enclosed within the seed.
It is only or germination of the latter that the development of the embryc into the free plant is begun.
This consists typically of close-fitting layers of cells with completely suberized walls, intended to replace the epidermis as the external protective layer of the plant when the latter, incapable as it is of further growth after its original formation, is broken and cast off by the increase in thickness of the stem through the activity of the cambium.
All the tissues external to the cork are cast off by the plant.
History and Bibliography.The study of plant anatomy was begun in the middle of the seventeenth century as a direct result of the construction of microscopes, with which a clear view of the structure of plant tissues could be obtained.
Secondly, the histology of fossil plants, particularly woody plants of the carboniferous period, has been placed on a sound basis, assimilated with general histological doctrine, and has considerably enlarged our conceptions of plant anatomy as a whole, though again.
The Russian plant-anatomist, Russow, may be said to have founded the consideration of plant tissues from the point of view of descent (Vergleichende Untersuchungen ber die Leilbundelkryptogamen, St Petersburg, 1872; and Betrachtungen ber Leitbndel und Grundgewebe, Dorpat, 1875).
The pursuit of this study has not only thrown valuable light on the economy of the plant as a whole, but forms an indispensable condition of the advance of morphological anatomy.
That the fixation of the gas is carried out by the fungal organism either in the soil or in the plant, and the nitrogenous substance so produced is absorbed by the organism, which is in turn consumed by the green plant.
The supply of energy to the several protoplasts which make up the body of a plant is as necessary as is the transport to them of the food they need; indeed, the two things are inseparably connected.
There is, no doubt, a direct interchange of heat between the plant and the air, which in many cases results in a gain of heat by the plant.
The question of the distribution of this stored energy to the separate protoplasts of the plant can be seen to be the same problem as the distribution of the food.
The supply of oxygen to a plant is thus seen to be as directly connected with the utilization of the energy of a cell as is that of food concerned in its nutrition.
Expenditure of Energy by Plants.The energy of the plant is, af we have seen, derived originally from the kinetic radiant energy 01 the sun.
A great part again is utilized in that increase of the body of the plant which we call growth.
As, however, we can easily see that the constructive processes are much greater than those which lead to the disappearance of material from the plant-body, there is generally to be seen a conspicuous increase in the substance of the plant.
By the multiplication of the protoplasts in these merismatic areas the substance of the plant is increased.
In other words, as these growing regions consist of cells, the growth of the entire organ or plant will depend upon the behaviour of the cells or protoplasts of which the merismatic tissues are composed.
We may speak, indeed, of the plant as possessed of a rudimentary nervous system, by the aid of which necessary adjustments are brought about.
The most constantly occurring changes that beset a plant are connected with illumination, temperature, moisture, and contact with foreign bodies.
The purpose of the movements bears out the contention that the plant is trying to adjust itself to its environment.
One somewhat similar phenomenon, differing in a few respects, marks the relation of the plant to the attraction of gravity.
When the pinnate leaf of a Mimosa pudica, the so-called sensitive plant, is pinched or struck, the leaf droops rapidly and the leaflets become approximated together, so that their upper surfaces are in contact.
The extent to which the disturbance spreads depends on the violence of the stimulationit may be confined to a few leaflets or it may extend to all the leaves of the plant.
Again, the degree of differentiation is very slight anatomically, but delicate protoplasmic threads have been shown to extend through all cell-walls, connecting together all the protoplasts of a plant.
The active contraction of muscular tissue has no counterpart in the plant.
Our perceptions differentiate but imperfectlysymptonis which are due to very different causes and reactions, probably because the organization of the plant is so much less highly specialized than that of higher animals.
If too closely packed, the soil particles present mechanical obstacles to growth; if too retentive of moisture, the root-hairs suffer, as already hinted; if too open or over-drained, the plant succumbs to drought.
Every plant is constrained to carry Out its functions of germination, growth, nutrition, reproduction, &c., between certain limits of temperature, and somewhere between the extremes of these limits each function finds ao optimum temperature at which the working of the living machinery is at its best, and, other things being equal, any great departure from this may induce pathological conditions; and many disasters are due to the failure to provide such suitable temperaturese.g.
All chlorophyll plants require light, but in very different degrees, as exemplified even in the United Kingdom by the shade-bearing beech and yew contrasted with the light-demanding larch and birch; and as with temperature so with light, every plant and even every organ has its optimum of illumination.
The drawn or etiolated condition of over-shaded plants is a case in point, though here again the soft, watery plant often really succumbs to other disease agentse.g.
A plant may be diseased as a whole, because nearly all its tissues are in a morbid or pathological condition, owing to some Fungus pervading the wholee.g.
But the case is obviously different where a plant dies because some essential organ or tissue tract has been destroyed, and other parts have suffered because supplies are cut offe.g.
Botrytis, Ergot, &c. Now it is clear that if an organism gains access to all parts of a plant, and stimulates all or most of its cells to hypertrophy, we may have the latter behaving abnormallyi.e.
If such a general parasite carries its activities farther, every cell may be killed and the plant forthwith destroyed e.g.
It must not be overlooked that the living cells of the plant react upon the parasite as well as to all external agencies, and the nature of disease becomes intelligible only if we bear in mind that it consists in such altered metabolismdeflected physiologyas is here implied.
In order that a Fungus may enter a plant, it must be able to overcome not merely the resistance of cell-walls, but that of the living protoplasm; if it cannot do this, it must remain outside as a mere epiphyte, e.g.
The dissemination of plant parasites is favored by many circumstances not always obvious, whence an air of mystery regarding epidemics was easily created in earlier times.
The spores of Rusts, Erysipheae an d other Fungi may be conveyed from plant to plant by snails; those of tree-killing polyporei, &c., by mice, rabbits, rats, &c., which rub their fur against the hymenophores.
The annual losses due to epidemic plant diseases attain proportions not easily estimated.
The terrible losses sustained by whole communities of farmers, planters, foresters, &c., from plant diseases have naturally stimulated the search for remedies, but even now the search is too often conducted in the spirit of the believer in quack medicines, although the agricultural world is awakening to the fact that before any measures likely to be successful can be attempted, the whole chain of causation of the disease must be investigated.
Discolorations are among the commonest of all signs that a plant is sickly or diseased.
The extraordinary forms, colors and textures of the true galls have always formed some of the most interesting of biological questions, for not only is there definite co-operation I between a given species of insect and of plant, as shown by the facts that the same insect may induce galls of different kinds on different plants or organs, while different insects induce different galls on the same plante.g.
The nodules on the roots of leguminous plants are induced by the presence of a minute organism now known to do no injury to the plant.
This sketch of an enormous subject shuws us that the pathology of plants is a special department of the study of variations which threaten injury to the plant, and passes imperceptibly into the study of variations in general.
Moreover, we have good reasons for inferring that different constellations of external causes may determine whether the internal physiological disturbances induced by a given agent shall lead to pathological and dangerous variations, or to changes which may be harmless or even advantageous to the plant concerned.
In a general way, floristic plant geography is concerned with species, ecological plant geography with vegetation.
This mattel- is bound up with the centres of origin and with the past migrations of species; and such questions are usually treated as a part of floristic plant geography.
Ecological Classes.Many attempts have been made to divide plants and plant communities into classes depending on habitat factors.
Such terms as hydrophytes, xerophytes, and halophytes had been used by plant geographers before Warmings time e.g., by Schouw;4 and the terms evidently supply a want felt by botanists as they have come into general use.
A local aggrettion of a species other than the dominant one in an associion brings about a plant society; for example, societies of Ericd etralix, of Scirpus caespitosus, of Molinia coerulea, of Carex irta, of Narthecium ossifra gum, and others may occur within i association of Calluna vulgaris.
The plant association is sometimes referred to in technical nguage;3 the termination -etum is added to the stem of the meric name, and the specific name is put in the genitive.
Thus A plant formaiion is a group of associations occupying habitats - iich are in essentials identical with each other.
The plant formation may be designated in technical language ph the termination -ion added to a stem denoting the habitat.
Here we find open plant associations of Haifa or Esparto Grass (Stipa lenacissima) alternating with steppes of Chih (Artemisia herba-alba); and each plant association extends for several scores of miles.
The identity of plant form of many of the conifers of both temperate and of warm temperate districts is probably a matter of phylogenetic and not of ecological importance.
Hence, in any cosmopolitan treatment of vegetation, it is necessary to consider the groups of plant communities from the standpoint of the climatic or geographical district in which they occur; and this indeed is consistently done by Schimper.
Finally, within any district of constant or fairly constant climatic conditions, it is possible to distinguish plant communities which are related chiefly to edaphic or soil conditions; and the vegetation units of these definite edaphic areas are the plant formations of some writers, and, in part, the edaphic formations of Schimper.
Physically and physiologically wet habitats, with the accompanying plant communities of lakes, reed swamps, and marshes.
Physically wet but physiologically dry ha bit ats,f with the accompanying plant communities of fens, moors, and salt marshes.
Physically and physiologically dry habitats, with the accompanying plant communities of sand dunes and sandy heaths with little humus in the soil.
Habitats of medium wetness, with the accompanying plant communities of woodlands and grasslands.
A cushion plant (Anabasis aretioides) of the north-western Sahara, frequently shows dead leaves on the exposed side whilst the plant is in full vigour on the sheltered side.
With regard to the occurrence of plants, such as Juncus effusus, which possess xerophytic characters and yet live in situations which are not ordinarily of marked physiological dryness, it should be remembered that such habitats are liable to occasional physical drought; and a plant must eventually succumb if it is not adapted to the extreme conditions of its habitat.
The elementary unit of plant structure, as of animal structure, is the cell.
It is sufficient to note here that cells were first of all discovered in various vegetable tissues by Robert Hooke in 1665 (Micrographia); Malpighi and Grew (1674-1682) gave the first clear indications of the importance of cells in the building up of plant tissues, but it was not until the beginning of the 19th century that any insight into the real nature of the cell and its functions was obtained.
The nucleus was definitely recognized in the plant cell by Robert Brown in 1831, but its presence had been previously indicated by various observers and it had been seen by Fontana in some animal cells as early as 1781.
He showed that all the organs of plants are built up of cells, that the plant embryo originates from a single cell, and that the physiological activities of the plant are dependent upon the individual activities of these vital units.
This conception of,the plant as an aggregate or colony of independent vital units governing the nutrition, growth and reproduction of the whole cannot, however, be maintained.
Those chromatophores which remain colorless, and serve simply as starch-f ormers in parts of the plant not exposed to the light, are called leucoplasts or amyloplasts.
In plant cells its presence has been demonstrated in the Thallophytes and Bryophytes.
It may also take place where rapid proliferation of the cell is going on, as in the budding of the Yeast plant.
The cytological evidence for this appears to be made stronger for animal than for plant cells.
These tubes penetrate to all parts of the plant and occur in all parts of the root, stem and leaves.
The cells not only fuse together in longitudinal and transverse rows, but put out transverse projections, which fuse with others of a similar nature, and thus form an anastomosing network of tubes which extends to all parts of the plant.
The presence of these threads between all the cells of tfie plant shows that the plant body must be regarded as a connected whole; the threads themselves probably play an important part in the growth of the cell-wall, the conduction of food and water, the process of secretion and the transmission of impulses.
Consequently all parts of the plant, except the stem, are modified leaves.
The root is an axis which never bears either leaves or the proper reproductive organs (whether sexual or asexual) of the plant.
In other words, the plant must be irritable to the stimulus exerted from without, and be capable of responding to it by changes of form and structure.
Adaptive characters are often hereditary, for instance, the seed of a parasite will produce a parasite, and the same is true of a carnivorous plant.
Under such circumstances the earths vegetation would be very different from what it is, and the study of plant distribution would be a simple affair.
Palaeontological evidence conclusively proves that the surface of the earth has been successively occupied by vegetative forms of increasing complexity, rising from the simplest algae to the most highly organized flowering plant.
The influence of physical environment becomes clearer and stronger when the distribution of plant and animal life is considered, and if it is less distinct in the case of man, the reason is found in the modifications of environment consciously produced by human effort.
Thus he demonstrated that the forms of the land exercise a directive and determining influence on climate, plant life, animal life and on man himself.
The viceroys of Peru still persevered in their attempts to plant a colony in the hypothetical southern continent.
Different species of organisms come to perfection in different climates; and it may be stated as a general rule that a species, whether of plant or animal, once established at one point, would spread over the whole zone of the climate congenial to it unless some barrier were interposed to its progress.
Plant life, utilizing solar light to combine the inorganic elements of water, soil and air into living substance, is the basis of all animal life.
A large municipal electric-lighting plant was completed in 1908.
Colchicum was known to the Greeks under the name of KoXXucov, from KoXXIs, or Colchis, a country in which the plant grew; and it is described by Dioscorides as a poison.
The dried ripe seeds of this plant are also used in medicine.
Others thrive in a greenhouse; such are C. asiaticum, a widely distributed plant on the sea-coast of tropical Asia, C. capense and C. longiflorum, from the Cape, and C. Macowani and C. Moorei from Natal.
In germination of the seed the root of the embryo (radicle) grows out to get a holdfast for the plant; this is generally followed by the growth of the short stem immediately above the root, the so-called "hypocotyl," which carries up the cotyledons above the ground, where they spread to the light and become the first green leaves of the plant.
The size and manner of growth of the adult plant show a great variety, from the small herb lasting for one season only, to the forest tree living for centuries.
The city is lighted by gas and electricity, - it was one of the first cities in the United States to adopt electric lighting, - and has a good watersupply system, owned by a private corporation, with a 41 acre filter plant of 18,000,000 gallons per diem capacity and an additional supply of water pumped from deep wells outside the city.
P. dryopteris, generally known as oakfern, is a very graceful plant with delicate fronds, 6 to 12 in.
The leaves of a closely allied plant, Empleurum serratulum, are employed as a substitute or adulterant for buchu.
The vegetable-feeders attack leaves, herbaceous or woody stems and roots; frequently different parts of a plant are attacked in the two active stages of the life-history; the cockchafers, for example, eating leaves, and their grubs gnawing roots.
The quality of the last is a matter of great importance; when it is unsuitable, the boilers will suffer, and the installation of a water-softening plant may save more in the expenses of boiler maintenance than it costs to operate.
Their primary object being the development and peopling of the land, they have naturally been made as cheaply as possible; and as in such cases the cost of the land is inconsiderable, economy has been sought by the use of lighter and rougher permanent way, plant, rolling stock, &c. Such railways are not " light " in the technical sense of having been made under enactments intended to secure permanent lowness of cost as compared with standard lines.
In Turkish cemeteries the cypress "Dark tree, still sad when others' grief is fled, The only constant mourner o'er the dead" is the most striking feature, the rule being to plant one for each interment.
According to another view, Erysichthon is the destroyer of trees, who wastes away as the plant itself loses its vigour.
The planting of eucalyptus trees is out of favour at present, but it appears to have been successful in Portugal, not from any prophylactic virtues in the plant, but through the great absorption of moisture by its deep roots, which tends to dry the subsoil.
The city added to its waterworks a filtration plant, with a total capacity of 150,000 gal.
The municipality owns and operates its waterworks and its electric-lighting plant.
Venus's fly-trap (Dionaea muscipula), a rare plant, is found only south of the Neuse river; and there are several varieties of Sarracenia, carnivorous pitcher plants.
The city owns and operates its own water-supply system and electric-lighting plant.
Cross fertilization, or the impregnation of any given flower by pollen from another flower of the same species on the same or on another plant, has been proved to be of great - g advantage to the plant by securing a more FIG.
The absence of the ordinary bright green colours of vegetation is another peculiarity of this flora, almost all the plants having glaucous or whitened stems. Foliage is reduced to a minimum, the moisture of the plant being stored up in massive or fleshy stems against the long-continued drought.
Though the Turks have profoundly affected the whole of eastern Europe, the result of their conquests has been not so much to plant Asiatic culture in Europe as to arrest development entirely, the countries under their rule remaining in much the same condition as under the moribund Byzantine empire.
The plant is a native of India, but is now widely spread throughout the tropical zone.
The water-supply system and electric-lighting plant are owned and operated by the city.
The city owns its gas works, water works and an electric-lighting plant (1910) for municipal lighting.
In 1890, at Plymouth, competitions took place of light portable engines (a) using solid fuel, (b) using liquid or gaseous fuel, grist mills for use on a farm, disintegrators, and cider-making plant for use on a farm.
Aphides often ruin whole crops of fruit, corn, hops, &c., by sucking out the sap, and not only check growth, but may even entail the death of the plant.
Some aphides live only on one species of plant, others on two or more plants.
The chief industries are the manufacture of railway plant, cloth, wool, soap, shoddy, furniture, bricks and cement.
True to his Corsican instinct of attachment to the family, and contempt for legal and dynastic claims, he now began to plant his brothers and other relatives in what had been republics established by the French Jacobins.
Whatever may be its true botanical name it is the plant known in commerce as " Sea Island " cotton, owing to its introduction and successful cultivation in the Sea Islands and the coastal districts of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.
The cotton plant requires certain conditions for its successful cultivation; but, given these, it is very little affected by seasonal vicissitudes.
An idea of the requirements of the plant will perhaps be afforded by summarizing the conditions which have been found to give the best results in the United States.
Clay and " bottom " lands produce a large, leafy plant, yielding less lint in proportion.
When the weather is not favourable at the fruiting stage, the otherwise hardy cotton plant displays its great weakness in this way.
The roots are prevented from fulfilling their function of taking up water and salts from the soil; the leaves accordingly droop, and the whole plant wilts and in bad attacks dies.
A field is gone over carefully, and perhaps some 5 o of the best plants selected; a second examination in the field reduces these perhaps to one half, and each plant is numbered.
The simplest possible case in which only one plant is finally selected is illustrated in the diagram.
One plant is selected again from these 500, and the general crop of seed is used to sow about five acres for the 3rd year, from which seed is obtained for the general crop in the 4th year.
One special plant is selected each year from the Soo raised from the previous season's test plant, and in four years' time the progeny of this plant constitutes the " general crop."
The practice may be modified according to the size of estate by selecting more than one plant each year, but the principle remains unaltered.
Conditions are well adapted to the cultivation of the plant, and since the cessation of the RussoJapanese War the Japanese have undertaken the development of the industry.
Japan received cotton from India before China, and the plant is extensively grown, especially in West and Middle Japan.
The city maintains a workhouse (1882), also two market houses, and owns and manages an electric-lighting plant.
The indigo plant is grown in large quantities in the plain country to the north of Mukden, and is transported thence to the coast in carts, each of which carries rather more than a ton weight of the dye.
Plant (1819-1899) and once formed a part of the so-called " Plant System " of railways.
The municipality owns its water-works and electric-lighting plant.
Here is situated the Dreher brewery, the largest in the monarchy; and there are also important smelting and iron works, cotton-spinning, factories of electrical plant, &c. The meeting at Schwechat of the emperor Leopold I.
They also eschewed the luxuries and pursuits of settled life, and lived in tents, refusing to sow grain as well as to plant vineyards.
Heliotrope or cherry-pie (Heliotropium peruvianum) is a well-known garden plant.
Liquorice was largely grown as early as 1700-1701, when the corporation prohibited the sale of buds or sets of the plant.
This mullah, Mahommed bin Abdullah by name, had made several pilgrimages to Mecca, where he had attached himself to a sect which enjoined strict observance of the tenets of Islam and placed an interdiction on the use of the leaves of the kat plant - much sought after by the coast Arabs and Somali for their stimulating and intoxicating properties.
The municipality owns and operates its waterworks and natural gas plant.
The plant is now extinct in Lower Egypt, but is found in the Upper Nile regions and in Abyssinia.
The first accurate description of the plant is given by Theophrastus, from whom we learn that it grew in shallows of 2 cubits (about 3 ft.) or less, its main root being of the thickness of a man's wrist and 10 cubits in length.
From this root, which lay horizontally, smaller roots pushed down into the mud, and the stem of the plant sprang up to the height of 4 cubits, being triangular and tapering in form.
The various uses to which the papyrus plant was applied are also enumerated by Theophrastus.
Of the stem of the plant were made boats, sails, mats, cloth, cords, and, above all, writing materials.
The old idea that it was made from layers or pellicules growing between the rind and a central stalk has been abandoned, as it has been proved that the plant, like other reeds, contains only a cellular pith within the rind.
The stem was in fact !'cut into longitudinal strips for the purpose of being converted into the writing material, those from the centre of the plant being the broadest and most valuable.
It is with this Syracusan plant that some attempts have been made in modern times to manufacture a writing material similar to ancient papyrus.
In the worship the drink prepared from the haoma (Indian soma) plant had a prominent place.
Since the same plant, owing to peculiarities of climate, soil and situation, degree of exposure to light and other influences may vary greatly according to the locality in which it occurs, it is only by gathering together for comparison and study a large series of examples of each species that the flora of different regions can be satisfactorily represented.
The majority of plant specimens are most suitably fastened on paper by a mixture of equal parts of gum tragacanth and gum arabic made into a thick paste with water.
When the leaves are finely divided, as in Conium, much trouble will be experienced in lifting a half-dried specimen from one paper to another; but the plant may be placed in a sheet of thin blotting paper, and the sheet containing the plant, instead of the plant itself, can then be moved.
The plant can then be at any time examined under the microscope without injuring the mounted specimen.
The larger species of fungi, such as the Agaricini and Polyporei, &c., are prepared for the herbarium by cutting a slice out of the centre of the plant so as to show the outline of the cap or pileus, the attachment of the gills, and the character of the interior of the stem.
As it is impossible to preserve the natural colours of fungi, the specimens should, whenever possible, be accompanied by a coloured drawing of the plant.
They are then preserved in envelopes attached to a sheet of paper of the ordinary size, a single perfect specimen being washed, and spread out under the envelope so as to show the habit of the plant.
Four or five annual crops grow from one plant, but not more than three can be marketed, unless locally, as the product deteriorates.
Since these compounds are essential to plant life, it becomes necessary to replace the amount abstracted from the soil, and hence a demand for nitrogenous manures was created.
The municipality owns its water-works and its electric-lighting plant.
The cultivators, on the other hand, may not plant tobacco without permits from the regie, although the power of refusing a permit, except to known smugglers or persons of notoriously bad conduct, seems to be doubtful; nor may they sell to any purchaser, unless for export, except to the regie, while they are bound to deposit the whole of the tobacco crops which they raise in any one year in the entrepots of the regie before the month of August of the year following, [[Table A]].-Showing Revenues ceded to Ottoman Public Debt Administration at Various Periods to 1907-1908.
Should a proprietor of emiriye plant trees or vines, or erect buildings upon it, with the consent of the state, they are considered as mulk; an annual tax representing the value of the tithes on the portions of emiriye thus utilized is levied.
The municipality owns the water-works, the electric-lighting plant, the garbage plant and bath houses.
The municipal electric-lighting plant was in 1907 producing arc lights for $34 per arc, per year.
The municipal garbage plant (destructor) collects and reduces to fertilizer 200 tons of garbage per day.
Both these series contain numerous plant remains, evergreen oaks, magnolias, aralias, &c., and seams of lignite (coal), which is burnt; but in neither occur the marine beds of the United States.
It is not known as a wild plant in China or Japan.
The young tree is, in many cases, procured when it has been trained for two or three years in the nursery; but it is generally better to begin with a maiden plant - that is, a plant of the first year after it has been budded.
The spring outburst of plant life in the sea culminates about April, just about the time when the temperature of the water begins to rise rapidly.
Following the great spring production of plant substance there is, therefore, a summer outburst of animal life.
The vine, the cotton plant and barley are the main objects of cultivation.
Plant albumins or phyto-albumins have been chiefly investigated in the case of those occurring in seeds; most are globulins,.
The water-works and electric-lighting plant are owned and operated by the Territorial government, and to the plentiful water-supply is partly due the luxuriant vegetation of the city.
It appears to be synthesized in the plant tissues from carbon dioxide and water, formaldehyde being an intermediate product; or it may be a hydrolytic product of a glucoside or of a polysaccharose, such as cane sugar, starch, cellulose, &c. In the plant it is freely converted into more complex sugars, poly-saccharoses and also proteids.
Though frequently occurring, it is not a universal feature of plant life, and does not appear to be necessary or even directly connected with the nutritive system of plants.
If the latex is warmed or an acid, an alkali or astringent plant juice is added to it, " coagulation " usually takes place more or less readily, the caoutchouc separating in solid flakes or curds.
The " Ecanda " plant has been named Raphionacme utilis.
Among the plants which are being tried for this purpose are various species of Crotolaria, passion-flower, and the well-known sensitive plant of the East.
It is closely related to the Manioc, cassava or tapioca plant (Manihot utilissima) which it resembles when young and exhibits a similar tuberous root system.
In British Honduras an alkaline decoction prepared from the Moon plant (Calonictyon speciosum) is used for the same purpose.
Forsteronia gracilis of Guiana is a climbing plant which also belongs to the Apocynaceae.
In germination the cotyledons come above ground and form the first green leaves of the plant.
It has also been connected more plausibly with an Assyrian plant name, hambakulzu (Delitzsch, Assyrisches Handworterbuch, p. 281).
The municipality owns and operates the water-works (the water-supply being drawn from the Penobscot by the Holly system) and an electric-lighting plant; there is also a large electric plant for generation of electricity for power and for commercial lighting, and in Bangor and the vicinity there were in 1908 about 60 m.
Many of the residences and business places of Bowling Green are heated by a privately owned central hot-water heating plant.
The municipality owns and operates the waterworks and the electric-lighting plant.
The plant consists of two tilting oval metal pans (capacity 7 tons), one cylindrical crystallizing pot (capacity 22 tons), with two discharging spouts and one steam inlet opening, two lead moulds (capacity 31 tons), and a steam crane.
One of the stamens has been deprived of its spur; the other shows its spur, c. a row down the centre, are shot out to some little distance from she parent plant.
Plant much reduced.
The manufactures of machinery, especially locomotives and railway plant, chemicals, and hardware are also important.
The peanut, or ground-nut (Arachis hypogaea), is another widely-cultivated plant, dating from pre-Columbian times.
The tea plant was first introduced in Natal in 1850, but little attention was paid to it until the failure of the coffee plantations about 1875, since when only small quantities of coffee have been produced.
Linnaeus by his binomial system made it possible to write and speak with accuracy of any given species of plant or animal.
Lamarck had put forward the hypothesis that structural alterations acquired by (that is to say, superimposed upon) a parent in the course of its life are transmitted to the offspring, and that, as these structural alterations are acquired by an animal or plant in consequence of the direct action of the environment, the offspring inheriting them would as a consequence not unfrequently start with a greater fitness for those conditions than its parents started with.
New corms are produced at the end of the season, and by these the plant is multiplied.
They require the same culture as the more familiar garden varieties; but, as some of them are apt to suffer from excess of moisture, it is advisable to plant them in prepared soil in a raised pit, where they are brought nearer to the eye, and where they can be sheltered when necessary by glazed sashes, which, however, should not be closed except when the plants are at rest, or during inclement weather in order to protect the blossoms, especially in the case of winter flowering species.
With this inadequate sum some railway plant was obtained, and subsequently lay for ten years at Delagoa Bay, the scheme having to be abandoned for want of funds.
The electric-lighting plant is owned and operated by the municipality.
This word is also employed for crowns of laurel, olive or other plant.
The municipality owns and operates the electriclighting plant.
The plant is indigenous and grows well, but, unlike cacau, it requires much manual labour in its cultivation and picking and does not seem to be favoured by the planters.
The waterworks and electric-lighting plant are owned and operated by the municipality.
Hence not only must the study of our subject include the diseases peculiar to man and the higher animals, but those of the lowest forms of animal life, and of plant life, must be held equally worthy of attention.
The tissues of an animal or plant are all under a certain pressure, caused, in the one case, by the expulsive action of the heart and the restraint of the skin and other elastic tissues, and, in the other case, by the force of the rising sap and the restraint of the periderm or bark.
A plant or animal in perfect health is more resistant to parasitical invasion than one which is ill-nourished and weakly.
The worship of the tulsi plant, or holy basil (Ocymum sanctum, Don), by the Hindus is popularly explained by its consecration to Vishnu and Krishna.
The rich land round about the holy city of Pandharpur, sacred to Vithoba the national Mahratta form of (Krishna)- Vishnu, is wholly restricted to the cultivation of the tulsi plant.
It was usual to plant these monasteries in solitary and uncultivated places, and no other house, even of their own order, was allowed to build within a certain distance of the original establishment.
This is illustrated in the "harbinger of spring," a name given to a small plant belonging to the Umbelliferae, which has a tuberous root, and small white flowers; it is found in the central states of North America, and blossoms in March.
The tail-rope plant is the more expensive, but for similar conditions the cost of working the two systems is nearly the same.
When the mine is worked through shafts, hoisting plant must be installed for raising the ore and handling men and supplies.
A man-engine consists of two heavy wooden rods (like the rods of a Cornish pumping plant), placed parallel and close to each other in a special shaft compartment, and suspended at the surface from a pair of massive walking beams (or " bobs ").
To mine ore or coal at minimum cost it is necessary to work the mine plant at nearly or quite its full capacity and to avoid interruption and delays.
To provide for the repayment from earnings of the capital invested in a mining property and expended in development, and to provide for the depreciation in value of the plant and equipment, an amortization fund must be accumulated during the life of the mine; or, if it be desired to continue the business of mining elsewhere, a similar fund must be created for the purchase, development and equipment of a new property to take the place of the original deposit when that shall be exhausted.
In order to determine the probable profit and life of the mine a definite scale of operations must be assumed, the money required for development and plant and for working capital must be estimated, the methods of mining and treating the ore determined, and their probable cost estimated.
The city owns a fine water-supply and a filtration plant covering 20 acres, with a capacity of 30,000,000 gallons daily and storage reservoirs with a capacity of 2 2 7,000,000 gallons.
The plant is a native of the Mediterranean region, and was formerly cultivated as a pot-herb.
Opposite some of these leaves springs a tendril, by aid of which the plant climbs.
Practically the tendrils assist the plant in its native state to scramble over rocks or trees.
As in the case of similar formations generally, they are endowed with a sensitiveness to touch which enables them to grasp and coil themselves round any suitable object which comes in their way, and thus to support the plant.
When the plant is grown under glass, the vine border should occupy the interior of the house and also extend outwards in the front, but it is best made by instalments of 5 or 6 ft.
The disease spreads by the mycelium growing ever the epidermis of the plant.
The mycelium spreads through the green parts of the plant, attacking the leaves, twigs and unripe grapes.
The centre of the spots on the grapes becomes darker as the disease advances, and a red line appears dividing the dark brown border into an outer and an inner rim and giving a very characteristic appearance to the diseased plant.
It is a tall perennial grass-like plant, giving off numerous erect stems 6 to 12 ft.
The plant is readily propagated by cuttings, a piece of the stem bearing buds at its nodes will root rapidly when placed in sufficiently moist ground.
The sugar-cane is widely cultivated in the tropics and some sub-tropical countries, but is not known as a wild plant.
They are also employed in Egypt, being remnants of Lhe plant used in the days when the juice passed through bone-black before going to the evaporators.
Numerous central factories have been erected in several countries with plant of large capacity, and many of them work day and night for six days in the week.
Of the 178 factories at work in Java in 1908-1909, nearly all had most efficient plant for treating the excellent canes grown in that favoured island.
The use of sulphurous acid gas is entirely abandoned, and instead of three carbonatations with corresponding labour and plant only one is required.
The subsoil not unfrequently contains materials which are deleterious to the growth of crops, and roots descending into it may absorb and convey these poisonous substances to other parts of the plant or be themselves damaged by contact with them.
It may be so compact that root development is checked or stopped altogether, in which case the plant suffers.
Chalk consists, when quite pure, of calcium carbonate (CaC03), a white solid substance useful in small amounts as a plant foodmaterial, though in excess detrimental to growth.
During the life of a plant there is a continuous stream of water passing through it which enters by the root-hairs in the soil and after passing along the stem is given off from the 'stomata of the leaves into the open air above ground.
In addition to its usefulness in maintaining a turgid state of the young cells without which growth cannot proceed, water is itself a plant food-material and as absorbed from the soil contains dissolved in it all the mineral food constituents needed by plants for healthy nutrition.
Without their aid most manures would be useless for plant growth.
For the carrying on of their functions they all need to be supplied with carbohydrates or other carbon compounds which they obtain ordinarily from humus and plant residues in the soil, or possibly in some instances from carbohydrates manufactured by minute green algae with which they live in close union.
For a time after entry they multiply, obtaining the nitrogen necessary for their nutrition and growth from the free nitrogen of the air, the carbohydrate required being supplied by the pea or clover plant in whose tissues they make a home.
The nodules increase in size, and analysis shows that they are exceedingly rich in nitrogen up to the time of flowering of the host plant.
Most of these more or less directly improve the land by adding to it certain plant food constituents which are lacking, but the effect of each process is in reality very complex.
It also sets free potash and possibly other useful plant food-constituents of the soil.
Such a material would not only have an influence on the texture of the land but the lime would reduce the sourness of the land and the phosphate of lime supply one of the most valuable of plant foodconstituents.
Many of the mineral plant food-constituents locked up in the coarse herbage and in the upper layers of the soil are made immediately available to crops.
The term tobacco appears not to have been a commonly used original name for the plant, and it has come to us from a peculiar instrument used for inhaling its smoke by the inhabitants of Hispaniola (San Domingo).
The tobacco plant itself was first brought to Europe in 1558 by Francisco Fernandes, a physician who had been sent by Philip II of Spain to investigate the products of Mexico.
The services rendered by Nicot in spreading a knowledge of the plant have been commemorated in the scientific name of the genus Nicotiana.
At first the plant was supposed to possess almost miraculous healing powers, and was designated " herba panacea," " herba santa," " sana sancta Indorum "; " divine tobacco " it is called by Spenser, and " our holy herb nicotian " by William Lilly.
While the plant came to Europe through Spain, the habit of smoking was initiated and spread through English example.
The plant has alternate, simple, oblong-lanceolate leaves, those at the lower part of the stem being slightly stalked, and of large size, reaching to 2 ft.
The seeds are brown in colour, with a rough surface, of minute size, and exceedingly numerous; as many as 1,000,000 may be produced by a single plant.
The whole of the green parts of the plant are covered with long soft hairs which exude a viscid juice, giving the surface a moist glutinous feeling.
Stomata occur on both surfaces of the leaves, and, with the peculiar hair structure render the microscopic appearance of the plant highly characteristic.
Whilst, however, the plant adapts itself to a great variety of climatic conditions and will grow on almost all kinds of soil, the flavour and quality of the produce are profoundly affected by variations in these two factors.
When the plants show signs of flowering they are topped " to prevent seed formation, the terminal buds being removed, and only a certain number of leaves left on each plant to ripen.
This operation requires experienced judgment to decide when it should be done; the number of leaves to be left varies with the variety and vigour of the plant, the nature of the soil, climate, seasons and particular use for which the crop'is intended.
In the U.S.A., in the cigar tobacco district, fifteen to twenty leaves are often left on each plant, and of manufacturing tobaccos only ten to twelve leaves.
The leaves on a plant decrease in age from below upwards, and all are not ripe at exactly the same time.
In high quality tobaccos the leaves are " primed " or picked singly as they ripen, but in the great bulk of American tobaccos the whole plant is cut close to the ground when the middle leaves are about ripe.
On the other hand, comparatively trivial incidents do more harm to a relatively delicate plant like the tobacco than to more robust plants.
Careful examination of a large number of individuals of one variety growing under similar conditions reveals differences in such characters as number of leaves per plant, the size and shape of the leaves, tendency to form suckers, time of maturing and resistance to disease.
The tobacco flower is fortunately perfectly self-fertile, and by enclosing the flowers of selected plants in paper bags, so as to exclude all possibility of hybridization, progeny true to the type of the mother plant can be obtained.
Another favourable feature is the fact that a single capsule contains from 4000 to 8000 seeds, and one tobacco plant may easily produce from 500,000 to 1,000,000 seeds.
In 1886 experiments were conducted, under certain restrictions, and the plant was grown in Norfolk, Kent and other counties with sufficient success to prove the entire practicability of raising tobacco as a commercial crop in England.
The chief improvements in the plant of these processes are concerned with the manufacture of the retorts or muffles, and especially with the introduction of gas-firing.
Following in the furrow of an ordinary plough it breaks through the sub-soil to a depth of several inches, making it porous and penetrable by plant roots.
The cochineal insect is found on the cactus which grows in abundance in the vicinity, and the town is known throughout Ecuador for its manufacture of boots and shoes, and for a cordage made from cabuya, the fibre of the agave plant.
It is represented in Britain by four species of Lemna, and a still smaller and simpler plant, Wolfa, in which the fronds are only one-twentieth of an inch long and have no roots.
It is served by the Central Indiana, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, and the Pittsburg, Chicago & St Louis railways, and also by the Indiana Union Traction System (electric), the general offices and central power plant of which are situated there.
In connexion with the water works there is a good filtration plant.
Another plant universally used as a stimulant in Southern Arabia is khat (Catha edulis).
The jalap plant has slender herbaceous twining stems, with alternately placed heart-shaped pointed leaves and salver-shaped deep purplish-pink flowers.
In Jamaica also the plant has been grown, at first amongst the cinchona trees, but more recently in new ground, as it was found to exhaust the soil.
A third variety of jalap known as woody jalap, male jalap, or Orizaba root, or by the Mexicans as Purgo macho, is derived from Ipomaea orizabensis, a plant of Orizaba.
From 1655 to 1850 Great Britain claimed a protectorate over the Mosquito Indians; but little success attended the various endeavours to plant colonies, and the protectorate was disputed by Spain, the Central American republics, and the United States.