If a plant cannot live according to its nature, it dies; and so a man.
If she left from Ashley, she would arrive in time to plant a garden at the ranch.
The Immortal side of him is weak. He'll do whatever it takes to get his mate back, and I intend to plant the idea in his head.
In the future, each plant will be on the Internet.
When spring came on, the soldiers found a plant just showing out of the ground that looked like asparagus, which, for some reason, they called "Mashka's sweet root."
You are to find your way to the underworld. When you are there, you will plant this in the ground.
WATER-LILY, a name somewhat vaguely given to almost any floating plant with conspicuous flowers, but applying more especially to the species of Nymphaea, Nuphar, and other members of the order Nymphaeaceae.
Presently they came to a low plant which had broad, spreading leaves, in the center of which grew a single fruit about as large as a peach.
The " nardoo " seed, on which the aborigines sometimes contrived to exist, is a creeping plant, growing plentifully in swamps and shallow pools, and belongs to the natural order of Marsileaceae.
The yeast plant and its allies are saprophytes and form no chlorophyll.
The growth of the plant is slow, and its durability proportionately great, its death being determined generally by that of the tree on which it has established itself.
The plant is about 1 ft.
Amid the scattered property and the crowd on the open space, she, in her rich satin cloak with a bright lilac shawl on her head, suggested a delicate exotic plant thrown out onto the snow.
Any portion of the underground rhizome when broken off is capable of producing a new plant; hence the difficulty of eradicating them when once established.
Thus any twining plant with a heart-shaped leaf, white and green above and purple beneath, is called by them guaco (R.
She was a plant by the Dark One who lured you and probably the rest of your brothers into bed.
The waiting room consisted of two chairs, an empty magazine rack, and a potted plant in the corner.
Again, it was the growth of a plant that furnished the text for a lesson.
Father will plant melons and peas and beans.
This flora, isolated by arid country from the rest of the continent, has evidently derived its plant life from an outside source, probably from lands no longer existing.
The spore-cases remain after the plant is dried up and withered.
Suppose Alfred Nota and his pal Homer's break-in at Collingswood Avenue was just a cover-up and their true mission was to plant a listening device.
I thought you said they were getting ready to spread Shipton's body parts around to the sick and needy and then plant what was left.
These investigators regarded yeast as a plant, and Meyer gave to the germs the systematic name of "Saccharomyces" (sugar fungus).
These forests were formerly very thick, but they are now greatly thinned by the Turks, who cut them down and take no care to plant others in their place.
They subsisted miserably on the bounty of some natives, and partly by feeding on the seeds of a plant called nardoo.
The landscape around them was bleak, almost as devoid of plant life as the white sands had been.
Teaching classes was unexciting to him and Martha recently told me his summer plant testing project was a major disappointment.
No one here knew how to plant crops, but the next town over was made up of farm laborers.
Who better than your own daughter to plant as a mole?
The next depicted the planet, the next a woman holding a knife, then the fountain, a plant, a river.
Some of the Mangaboos fell down and had to be dragged from the fire, and all were so withered that it would be necessary to plant them at once.
Mow it down, plow it under and plant food that had to be tended.
The road edged a thatch of forest past the water treatment plant and the power plant, and circled the central command hub in which she worked before leading to the main entrance of the compound.
And if I can't eat the piglets you may as well plant me at once and raise catsup.
The youth may build or plant or sail, only let him not be hindered from doing that which he tells me he would like to do.
This wealth of plant life is confined to the littoral and the coastal valleys, but the central valleys and the plateaux have, if not a varied flora, a considerable wealth of timber trees in every way superior to the flora inland in the same latitudes.
Farmers don't optimize per plant but per farm.
The municipality owns its electric-lighting plant; the water-works are under private ownership. The first settlement in the neighbourhood was made in 1838.
The name is taken from Nicotiana, the tobacco plant, so called after Jean Nicot (1530-1600), French ambassador at Lisbon, who introduced tobacco into France in 1560.
One of Martha's Bird Song chores had been keeping the struggling plant hydrated.
How do you think I had my soul to plant in human-Deidre's head when she was born?
How did he know to plant you as my assistant?
The first steel plant in the southern states was established at Birmingham in 1897; in 1902, at Ensley, one of the suburbs, there were 10 furnaces controlled by one company.
It is very interesting to watch a plant grow, it is like taking part in creation.
This never costs anything to speak of, unless you plant more than enough.
It is probably a poisonous plant, belonging, as it does, to a dangerous cohort.
Yates plowed yard today to plant grass.
The smoking shell spun like a top between him and the prostrate adjutant, near a wormwood plant between the field and the meadow.
We plow them under so we can plant a garden and then spend half our time pulling them out of it so we can grow something to eat.
From our point of view, the job of the plant is to convert sunlight into energy and store that energy in a tasty way; then when we eat the plant, we get that energy.
Of late years many experiments have been made on the influence of electric fields or currents on plant growth.
In 2005, rice became the first crop plant whose complete genome had been compiled.
The mining and washing plant is extremely good and largely constructed at Cagliari.
It was the only open and cultivated field for a great distance on either side of the road, so they made the most of it; and sometimes the man in the field heard more of travellers' gossip and comment than was meant for his ear: "Beans so late! peas so late!"--for I continued to plant when others had begun to hoe--the ministerial husbandman had not suspected it.
Computers can determine when to plant seed and even what to plant.
I have no doubt that time discriminates between the good and the bad; and when at last I shall plant, I shall be less likely to be disappointed.
They neither plant nor have they any manufactures except their rude bamboo and rattan vessels, the fish and game traps which they set with much skill, and the bows, blow-pipes and bamboo spears with which they and the produce of their hunting and fishing.
Let him go and come freely, let him touch real things and combine his impressions for himself, instead of sitting indoors at a little round table, while a sweet-voiced teacher suggests that he build a stone wall with his wooden blocks, or make a rainbow out of strips of coloured paper, or plant straw trees in bead flower-pots.
In 1827 and 1829, an English company endeavoured to plant a settlement at the Swan river, and this, added to a small military station established in 1825 at King George Sound, constituted Western Australia.
The next moment a broad-leaved plant was jerked from the ground where it grew and held suspended in the air before the Wizard.
The farmers, with these contracts in hand, can plant aggressively knowing they have a ready buyer at a fixed price.
Xander pushed into the mind of Ingrid to plant thoughts that would leave him free of her.
If I see, clearly see, that ladder leading from plant to man, why should I suppose it breaks off at me and does not go farther and farther?
It wouldn't physically be mine, but there's more to being a father than the time it takes to plant the seed.
Then he noticed when he bred tall pea plants with another tall plant, he occasionally got a short offspring, but usually tall ones.
What if you knew exactly what to plant, when to plant it, when to harvest it?
This is the result of my experience in raising beans: Plant the common small white bush bean about the first of June, in rows three feet by eighteen inches apart, being careful to select fresh round and unmixed seed.
She inched away from a plant whose slender stalk was maneuvering through several other plants to position its leaves in direct sunlight.
The city owns its water-supply system and owns and operates its gas plant; an electric plant, privately owned, lights the streets and many houses.
The industries are equal in importance to the transit trade, and embrace metalworking, ironfounding and machine building, the manufacture of electric plant, celluloid, automobiles, furniture, cables and chemicals, sugar refining, cigar and tobacco making, and brewing.
If you are a farmer and work alone, you can only plant as much land as you can personally plow. You can do just a couple of thousand calories of work a day, consuming only the energy produced by the food you ate.
From our standpoint, the plant wastes all the rest of its energy on riotous living: growing roots and leaves, soaking up water, separating carbon molecules from oxygen ones.
She would say, when speaking of the growth of a plant, "Mother Nature sends the sunshine and the rain to make the trees and the grass and the flowers grow."
In the center of each plant grew a daintily dressed Mangaboo, for the clothing of all these creatures grew upon them and was attached to their bodies.
A conspicuous veld plant is the orange and crimson leonotis, growing 6 ft.
While in college, Borlaug heard a lecture by Elvin Stakman about plant disease in wheat, barley, and oak crops.
That range between the smallest pea plant and the largest is the full spectrum of what that plant can be.
Although this plant is popularly termed the "meadow mushroom," it never as a rule grows in meadows.
Additionally, of the energy the plant absorbs, it only stores one tenth of it in the potato or bean or whatever part we eat.
Dropping to one of the benches, she opened one of the books and leafed through the colorful pages, pausing when she recognized a plant.
Ginseng is an important medicinal plant.
The municipality owns and operates the water-works and electriclighting plant.
Asheville is a market for live-stock, dairy products, lumber and fruits, and has various manufactories (in which a good water-power is utilized), including tanneries, cotton mills, brick and tile factories, and a wood-working and veneer plant.
The viscid pulp soon hardens, affording a protection to the seed; in germination the sucker-root penetrates the bark, and a connexion is established with the vascular tissue of the first plant.
When they are worked from a power station the great advantage is gained that the same plant which drives them can be used for many other purposes, such as working machine tools and supplying current for lighting.
During the following three years the government spent £s00,000 in making good the depreciation suffered by the plant in the transition years of 1868 and 1869, for which allowance had been made in the purchase price, and about £1,700,000 was expended on new plant.
This transmitting plant was completed in December 1901, and Marconi then crossed the Atlantic to Newfoundland and began to make experiments to ascertain if he could detect the waves emitted by it.
The municipality owns and operates the waterworks and the electric lighting plant.
of the calls originated at an exchange are for subscribers connected to other exchanges, and in these cases the junction plant forms a considerable fraction of the whole equipment.
The new licences were to terminate in 1911 without any provision for purchase or compensation in that year, but with the option to the government to purchase the plant of the licensees in 1890, 1897, or 1904 at a price to be determined by arbitration.
The government had an option to purchase the plant of the company under the licences of 1884, but did not exercise it.
The Postmaster-General on the other hand agreed to provide underground wires for the company on a rental, and agreed to buy in 1911 the company's plant in London at the cost of construction less allowance for repairs and depreciation.
The government had option to purchase the company's provincial plant under the licence of 1884.
The government contracted to buy the company's plant in 1911, thus in effect annulling the act of 1899 which had failed to accomplish its object of establishing all-round competition.
After the consolidation of the companies in1889-1890the profits declined, patent rights had expired, material reductions were made in the rates for telephone services, and considerable replacements of plant became necessary, the cost of which was charged to revenue.
By this agreement the Postmaster-General agreed to purchase all plant, land and buildings of the National Telephone Company in use at the date of the agreement or constructed after that date in accordance with the specification and rules contained in the agreement, subject to the right of the Postmaster-General to object to take over any plant not suited to his requirements.
The Postmaster-General agreed also to buy the private wire plant of the company at a value based upon three years' purchase of the net profits on the average of the three years ending 31st of December 1911.
It had paid the Post Office in royalties already £1,848,000, and the Post Office under the agreement would step into the business in 1911 by merely paying for the plant employed.
The years' working of the whole telephone system of the Post Office showed a balance of £451,787 after payment of the working expenses, while the estimated amount required to provide for depreciation of plant and interest at 3 per cent.
The average cost of constructing an exchange circuit in the metropolitan area (including the installation of telephone instruments and of exchange apparatus, but excluding the provision of spare plant) has been £33.
The plant generally understood by this name is Nepenthes, a genus containing nearly sixty species, natives of tropical Asia, north Australia and (one only) of Madagascar.
The side-saddle plant, Sarracenia, native of the eastern United States, is also known as a pitcher-plant.
Cephalotus follicularis, a native of south-west Australia, a small herbaceous plant, bears ordinary leaves close to the ground as well as pitchers.
The men in his works never struck - indeed in 1873-1878 his plant was run at an annual loss of $100,000.
Artificial props of several kindswires, cane work, trellis work, &c.are also in use in many districts (in the neighborhood of Rome canes are almost exclusively employed), and in some the plant is permitted to trail along the ground.
haviryajnas (meat-offerings), consisting of oblations (ishti) of milk, butter, cereals or flesh, and somayagas or oblations of the juice of the soma plant.
All parts of matter are capable of developing into all forms; thus the materials of the table and chair may under proper circumstances be developed to the life of the plant or of the animal.
The observation that large groups of species of widely different habits present the same fundamental plan of structure; and that parts of the same animal or plant, the functions of which are very different, likewise exhibit modifications of a common plan.
In the then state of knowledge, it appeared that all the species of animals and plants could be arranged in one series, in such a manner that, by insensible gradations, the mineral passed into the plant, the plant into the polype, the polype into the worm, and so, through gradually higher forms of life, to man, at the summit of the animated world.
In the most generally used sense, a plant is a member of the lower or vegetable order of living organized things; the term is also popularly applied to the smaller herbaceous plants, thus excluding trees and shrubs.
Some account of the history of plant classification and the development of a natural system in which an attempt is made to show the actual relationships of plants, is given in the article BOTANY.
The plant world falls into two great divisions, the higher or flowering plants (Phanerogams), characterized by the formation of a seed, and the lower or flowerless plants (Cryptogams), in which no seed is formed but the plants are disseminated by means of unicellular bodies termed spores.
The Mosses and Liverworts include forms with a more or less leaf-like thallus, such as many of the liverworts, and forms in which the plant shows a differentiation into a stem bearing remarkably simple leaves, as in the true mosses.
The independent plant which is generally attached to the soil by hair-like structures is the sexual generation, the sporophyte is a stalked or sessile capsule which remains always attached to the gametophyte from which it derives the whole or part of its nourishment.
The sporophyte is the plant which is differentiated into stem, leaf and root, which show a wonderful variety 01 form; the internal structure also shows increased complexity and variety as compared with the other group of vascular plants, the Pteridophyta.
The seed is set free from the parent plant and serves as the means of dissemination.
The plant has a well-developed main root (tap-root) and a single or branched leafy stem which is provided with a means of secondary increase in thickness.
The embryo consists of an axis bearing one (Monocotyledons) or two (Dicotyledons) cotyledons, which protect the stem bud (plumule) of the future plant, and ending below in a radicle.
The term Anatomy, originally employed in biological science to denote a description of the facts of structure revealed on cutting up an organism, whether with or without the aid of lenses for the purposes of magnification, is restricted in the present article, in accordance with a common modern use, to those facts of internal structure not concerned with the constitution of the individual cell, the structural unit of which the plant is composed.
B, Plant of the primitive Siphoneous Green Alga Protosiphon botryoides.
The basal cell has less chlorophyll than the others, and is expanded and fixed firmly to the rock on which the plant grows by the basal surface, rh, thus forming a rudimentary rhizoid.
con.) green assimilating cortical branches, which are the ends of branches from the medulla and fit tightly together, forming the continuous surface of the plant.
P, Part of spiral hydroid (tracheid) of Phanerogam (Flowering Plant).
The word is derived from the general resemblance of the texture of plant substance to that of a textile fabric, and dates from a period when the fundamental constitution of plant substance from individual cells was not yet discovered.
It is from such a living and assimilating cell, performing as it does all the vital functions of a green plant, that, according to current theory, all the different cell-forms of a higher plant have been differentiated in the course of descent.
In Caulerpa the imitation of a higher plant by the differentiation of fixing, supporting and assimilating organs (root, stem and leaf) from different branches of the single cell is strikingly complete.
In all cases, while the internal threads which bear the cortical branches consist of elongated cells with few chromatophores, and no doubt serve mainly for conduction of food substances, the superficial cells of the branches themselves are packed with chromatophores and form the chief assimilating tissue of the plant.
The whole of the tissue of the plant is formed by the division of this apical cell.
In many forms its hyphae are particularly thick-walled, and may strikingly resemble the epidermis of a vascular plant.
gonium largely independent of the supply of elaborated organic food from the thallus of the mother plant (the gametophyte).
The base of the stem bears numerous cell-filaments (rhizoids) which fix the plant to the substratum upon which it is growing.
To the base of the stem are attached a number of branched cell-threads (rhizoids) which ramify in the soil, fixing the plant and absorbing water from soil.
In the aquatic, semi-aquatic, and xerophilous types, where the whole surface of the plant absorbs water, perpetually in the first two cases and during rain in the last, the hydrom strand is either much reduced or altogether absent.
where the plant lives on soil from which it absorbs its main supply of water by means of its basal rhizoids) that a water-conducting (hydrom) strand is developed.
The surface layer of the rhizome bears rhizoids, and its whole structure strikingly resembles that of the typical root of a vascular plant.
In the more highly developed series, the mosses, this last division of labor takes the form of the differentiation of special assimilative organs, the leaves, commonly with a midrib containing elongated cells for the ready removal of the products of assimilation; and in the typical forms with a localized absorptive region, a well-developed hydrom in the axis of the plant, as well as similar hydrom strands in the leaf-midribs, are constantly met with.
ferns, horse-tails, club mosses, &c., and Phanerogams or Flowering Plants) the main plant-body, that which we speak of in ordinary language as the plant, is called the sporophyte because it bears the asexual reproductive cells or spores.
The primary root is a downward prolongation of the primary axis of the plant.
From the primitive uniform Systems. mass of undifferentiated assimilating cells, which we may conceive of as the starting-point of differentiation, though such an undifferentiated body is only actually realized in the thallus of the lower Algae, there is, (1) on the one hand, a specialization of a surface layer regulating the immediate relations of the plant with its surroundings.
This surface layer in the typically subaerial shoot of the sporophyte in Pteridophytes and Phanerogams is known as the epidermis, though the name is restricted by some writers, on account of developmental differences, to the surface layer of the shoot of Angiosperms, and by others extended to the surface layer of the whole plant in both these groups.
The remaining tissue of the plant-body, a tissue that we must regard phylogenetically as the remnant of the undifferentiated tissu~ of the primitive thallus, but which often undergoes further different,iation of its own, the better to fulfil its characteristically vital functions for the whole plant, is known, from its peripheral position in relation to the primitively central conducting tissue, as (3) the cortex.
These serve not only to protect the plant against slight P dermis.
The stomata serve for all gaseous interchange between the plant and the surrounding air.
types of glands also exist, either in connection with the epidermis or not, such as nectaries, digestive glands, oil, resin and mucilage glands, &c. They serve the most various purposes in the life of the plant, but they are not of significance in relation to the primary vital activities, and cannot be dealt with in the limits of the present article.l The typical epidermis of the shoot of a land plant does not absorb water, but some plants living in situations where they cannot depend on a regular supply from the roots (e.g.
The cortex, as has been said, is in its origin the remains of th~ primitive assimilating tissue of the plant, after differentiatioi of the surface layer and the conducting system.
The cortex of the older stem of the root frequently acts as a reserve store-house for food which generally takes the form of starch, and it also assists largel) in providing the stereom of the plant.
These bundle sheaths are important in the conduction of carbohydrates away from the assimilating cells to other parts of the plant.
It is confined to the sporophyte, which forms the, leafy plant in these groups, and is known as the vascular system.
The whole tissue system is known as the stelar system (from the way in which in primitive forms it runs through the whole axis of the plant in the form of a column).
The tracheids or vessels, indifferently called tracheal elements, together with the immediately associated cells (usually amylom in Pteridophytes) constitute the xylem of the plant.
The constitution of the stele of a flowering plant entirely from endarch collateral bundles, which are either themselves leaf-traces or will form leaf-traces after junction with other similar bundles, is the great characteristic of the stem-stele of flowering plants.
This takes the form of long usually richly branched tubes which penetrate the other tissues of the plant mainly in a longitudinal direction.
The body of a vascular plant is developed in the first place by repeated division of the fertilized egg and the growth of Develop- the products of division.
The body thus formed ment of is called the embryo, and this develops into the adult Primary plant, not by continued growth of all its parts as in an animal, but by localization of the regions of cell-division and growth, such a localized region being called a growing-point.
Later, the axis branches by the formation of new growing-points, and in this way the complex system of axes forming the body of the ordinary vascular plant is built up. In the flowering plants the embryo, after developing up to a certain point, stopf growing and rests, enclosed within the seed.
It is only or germination of the latter that the development of the embryc into the free plant is begun.
This consists typically of close-fitting layers of cells with completely suberized walls, intended to replace the epidermis as the external protective layer of the plant when the latter, incapable as it is of further growth after its original formation, is broken and cast off by the increase in thickness of the stem through the activity of the cambium.
All the tissues external to the cork are cast off by the plant.
History and Bibliography.The study of plant anatomy was begun in the middle of the seventeenth century as a direct result of the construction of microscopes, with which a clear view of the structure of plant tissues could be obtained.
The new work largely centred round a discussion of the nature and origin of vessels, conspicuous features in young plant tissues which thus acquired an importance in the contemporary literature out of proportion to their real significance in the construction of the vascular plant.
This was not only in itself an important contribution to plant anatomy, but served as the starting-point of a series of researches by Van Tieghem and his pupils, which has considerably advanced our knowledge of the details of histology, and also culminated in the foundation of the doctrine of the stele (Van Tieghem and Douliot, Sur la polystlie, Ann.
Secondly, the histology of fossil plants, particularly woody plants of the carboniferous period, has been placed on a sound basis, assimilated with general histological doctrine, and has considerably enlarged our conceptions of plant anatomy as a whole, though again.
The Russian plant-anatomist, Russow, may be said to have founded the consideration of plant tissues from the point of view of descent (Vergleichende Untersuchungen ber die Leilbundelkryptogamen, St Petersburg, 1872; and Betrachtungen ber Leitbndel und Grundgewebe, Dorpat, 1875).
The pursuit of this study has not only thrown valuable light on the economy of the plant as a whole, but forms an indispensable condition of the advance of morphological anatomy.
A very considerable body of knowledge relating to this subject already exists, but further work on experimental lines is urgently required to enable us to understand the actual economy of plants growing under different conditions of life and the true relation of the hereditary anatomical characters which form the subject matter of systematic anatomy to those which vary according to the conditions in which the individual plant is placed.
The Nature of the Organization of Ilte Plant, and the Relations of the Cell-Membrane and the Protoplasm.This view of the structure of the plant and this method of investigation lead us to a greatly modified conception of its organization, and afford more completely an explanation of the peculiarities of form found in the vegetable kingdom.
Every plant is thus found to be composed of a number of these protoplasmic units, or, as they may preferably be termed, proloplasts, all of which are at first exactly alike in appearance and in properties.
There is little wonder, then, that in a colony of protoplasts such as constitute a large plant a considerable degree of differentiation is evident, bearing upon the question of water supply.
Others are devoted to the work of carrying it to the protoplasts situated in the interior and at the extremities of the plant, a conducting system of considerable complexity being the result.
Other collections of cells are in many cases set apart for giving rigidity and strength to the mass of the plant.
It is evident that as the latter increases in bulk, more and more attention must be paid to the dangers of uprooting by winds and storms. Various mechanisms have been adopted in different cases, some connected with the subterranean and others with the sub-aerial portions of the plant.
Gaseous Interchanges and their Mechanism.Another feature of the construction of the plant has in recent years come into greater prominence than was formerly the case.
No doubt the primary object of the cell-wall of even the humblest protoplast is protection, and this too is the meaning of the coarser tegumentary structures of a bulkier plant.
Investigations carried out by Blackman, and by Brown and Escombe, have shown clearly that the view put forward by Boussingault, that such absorption of gases takes place through the cuticular covering of the younger parts of the plant, is erroneous and can no longer be supported.
The difficulty is solved by the provision of a complete system of minute intercellular spaces which form a continuous series of delicate canals between the cells, extending throughout the whole substance of the plant.
This system of channels is in communication with the outer atmosphere through numerous small apertures, known as stomata, which are abundant upon the leaves and young twigs, and gaseous interchange between the plant and the air is by their assistance rendered constant and safe.
This system of intercellular spaces, extending throughout the plant, constitutes a reservoir, charged with an atmosphere which differs somewhat in its composition from the external air, its gaseous constituents varying from time to time and from place to place, in consequence of the interchanges between itself and the protoplaste.
It constitutes practically the exterior environment of the protoplasts, though it is ramifying through the interior of the plant.
This serves a double purpose, bringing up from the soil continually a supply of the soluble mineral matters necessary for their metabolic processes, \vhich only enter the plant in solutions of extreme dilution, and at the same time keeping the plant cool by the process of evaporation.
There is a distinct advantage in the regulation of this escape, and the mechanism is directly connected with the greater or smaller quantity of water in the plant, and especially in its ep-idermal cells.
The water of the soil, which in well-drained soil is met with in the form of delicate films surrounding the particles of solid matter, is absorbed into the plant by the delicate hairs borne by the young roots, the entry being effected by a process of modified osmosis.
Its nutritive pabulum is supplied to it in the shape of certain complex organic substances which have been stored in some part or other of the seed, sometimes even in its own tissues, by the parent plant from which it springs.
If we examine the seat of active growth in a young root or twig, we find that the cells in which the organic substance, the protoplasm, of the plant is being formed and increased, are not supplied with carbon dioxide and mineral matter, but with such elaborated material as sugar and proteid substances, or others closely allied to them.
The differences between the nutritive processes of the animal and the plant are not therefore fundamental, as they were formerly held to be.
Photosynthesis commences in the presence of light, carbon dioxide and when the plant is subjected to a suitable temperature.
Brown and Morris in 1892 advanced strong reasons for thinking that cane-sugar, Ci2H22O11, is the first carbohydrate synthesized, and that the hexoses found in the plant result from the decomposition of this.
Starch, indeed, wherever it appears in the plant seems to be a reserve store of carbohydrate material, deposited where it is found for longer or shorter periods till it is needed for consumption.
If not, there must exist in the green plant, side by side with it, another mechanism which is concerned with the manufacture of the complex compounds in which nitrogen is present.
The nitrogen is absorbed by the plant in some form of combination from the soil.
The green plant prefers as a rule nitrates of various metals, such as calcium, magnesium or potassium.
The fate of these inorganiccompounds has not been certainly traced, but they give rise later on to the presence in the plant of various amino acid amides, such as leucin, glycin, asparagin, &c. That these are stages on the way to proteids has been inferred from the fact that when proteids are split up by various means, and especially by the digestive secretions, these nitrogen-containing acids are among the products which result.
The normal green plant is seen thus to be in possession of a complete machinery for the manufacture of its own food.
As this is not the incorporation of either into the living sobstance, but is only its manufacture into the complex substances which we find in the plant, it seems preferable to limit the term assimilation to the processes by which foods are actually taken into the protoplasm.
Each species of green plant may form a mycorhiza with two or three different Fungi, and a single species of Fungus may enter into symbiosis with several green plants.
Long ago the view that this gas might be the source of the combined nitrogen found in different forms within the plant, was critically examined, particularly by Boussingault, and later by Lawes and Gilbert and by Pugh, and it was ascertained to be erroneous, the plants only taking nitrogen into their substance when it is presented to their roots in the form of nitrates of various metals, or compounds of ammonia.
If experimental plants are grown in ster1lized soil, these swellings do not appear, and the plant can then use no atmospheric nitrogen.
They appear to be present in large numbers in the soil, and to infect the Leguminous plant by attacking its root-hairs.
These are: (I) That the green plant is so stimulated by the symbiotic association which leads to the hypertrophy, that it is able to fix the nitrogen or cause it to enter into combination.
That the fixation of the gas is carried out by the fungal organism either in the soil or in the plant, and the nitrogenous substance so produced is absorbed by the organism, which is in turn consumed by the green plant.
The supply of energy to the several protoplasts which make up the body of a plant is as necessary as is the transport to them of the food they need; indeed, the two things are inseparably connected.
There is, no doubt, a direct interchange of heat between the plant and the air, which in many cases results in a gain of heat by the plant.
There is probably but little transformation of one form of kinetic energy into another in the plant.
The question of the distribution of this stored energy to the separate protoplasts of the plant can be seen to be the same problem as the distribution of the food.
The supply of oxygen to a plant is thus seen to be as directly connected with the utilization of the energy of a cell as is that of food concerned in its nutrition.
Expenditure of Energy by Plants.The energy of the plant is, af we have seen, derived originally from the kinetic radiant energy 01 the sun.
In such cells as are capable of absorbing it, by virtue oi their chlorophyll apparatus, the greater part of it is converted int< the potential form, and by the transport from cell to cell of th compounds constructed every part of the plant is put into possessiol of the energy it needs.
The store of energy thus accumulatec and distributed has to subserve various purposes in the econom~ of the plant.
A great part again is utilized in that increase of the body of the plant which we call growth.
As, however, we can easily see that the constructive processes are much greater than those which lead to the disappearance of material from the plant-body, there is generally to be seen a conspicuous increase in the substance of the plant.
By the multiplication of the protoplasts in these merismatic areas the substance of the plant is increased.
In other words, as these growing regions consist of cells, the growth of the entire organ or plant will depend upon the behaviour of the cells or protoplasts of which the merismatic tissues are composed.
When we consider, however, the great variability in those surroundings and the consequent changes a plant must encounter, it appears obvious that interaction ~nd adjustment between the plant and its environment must be constant and well balanced.
observer that such perceptions exist, and that they are followed by certain purposeful changes in the plant, sometimes mechanical, sometimes chemical, the object being evidently to secure some advantage for the plant, to ward off some danger, or to extricate it from some difficulty.
We may speak, indeed, of the plant as possessed of a rudimentary nervous system, by the aid of which necessary adjustments are brought about.
The most constantly occurring changes that beset a plant are connected with illumination, temperature, moisture, and contact with foreign bodies.
The purpose of the movements bears out the contention that the plant is trying to adjust itself to its environment.
One somewhat similar phenomenon, differing in a few respects, marks the relation of the plant to the attraction of gravity.
When the pinnate leaf of a Mimosa pudica, the so-called sensitive plant, is pinched or struck, the leaf droops rapidly and the leaflets become approximated together, so that their upper surfaces are in contact.
The extent to which the disturbance spreads depends on the violence of the stimulationit may be confined to a few leaflets or it may extend to all the leaves of the plant.
the telegraph plant, Desmodium gvrans, behave in a similar way under the stimulus of approaching darkness.
Again, the degree of differentiation is very slight anatomically, but delicate protoplasmic threads have been shown to extend through all cell-walls, connecting together all the protoplasts of a plant.
The active contraction of muscular tissue has no counterpart in the plant.
by Ewart; Reynolds Green, Introduction to Vegetable Physiology; The Soluble Ferments and Fermentation; Detmer, Practical Plant Physiology, trans.
Phytopathology or plant pathology (Gr.
41UT6V, plant), comprises our knowledge of the symptoms, course, causes and remedies of the maladies which threaten the life of plants, or which result in abnormalities of structure that are regarded, whether directly injurious or not to life, as unsightly or undesirable.
Plant pathology embraces several branches of study, and may be conveniently divided as follows:
Our perceptions differentiate but imperfectlysymptonis which are due to very different causes and reactions, probably because the organization of the plant is so much less highly specialized than that of higher animals.
If too closely packed, the soil particles present mechanical obstacles to growth; if too retentive of moisture, the root-hairs suffer, as already hinted; if too open or over-drained, the plant succumbs to drought.
Every plant is constrained to carry Out its functions of germination, growth, nutrition, reproduction, &c., between certain limits of temperature, and somewhere between the extremes of these limits each function finds ao optimum temperature at which the working of the living machinery is at its best, and, other things being equal, any great departure from this may induce pathological conditions; and many disasters are due to the failure to provide such suitable temperaturese.g.
All chlorophyll plants require light, but in very different degrees, as exemplified even in the United Kingdom by the shade-bearing beech and yew contrasted with the light-demanding larch and birch; and as with temperature so with light, every plant and even every organ has its optimum of illumination.
The drawn or etiolated condition of over-shaded plants is a case in point, though here again the soft, watery plant often really succumbs to other disease agentse.g.
wireworms), and so maim the plant that its foliage suffers from want of water and assimilation is diminished, or actual withering follows.
A plant may be diseased as a whole, because nearly all its tissues are in a morbid or pathological condition, owing to some Fungus pervading the wholee.g.
But the case is obviously different where a plant dies because some essential organ or tissue tract has been destroyed, and other parts have suffered because supplies are cut offe.g.
it is from the actively growing callus developed at the surface of the wounded tissues of cuttings, buddings, prunings, &c., that the healing and .renewal of tissues occur of which advantage is taken in the practice of what might well be termed plant surgery.
Botrytis, Ergot, &c. Now it is clear that if an organism gains access to all parts of a plant, and stimulates all or most of its cells to hypertrophy, we may have the latter behaving abnormallyi.e.
If such a general parasite carries its activities farther, every cell may be killed and the plant forthwith destroyed e.g.
It must not be overlooked that the living cells of the plant react upon the parasite as well as to all external agencies, and the nature of disease becomes intelligible only if we bear in mind that it consists in such altered metabolismdeflected physiologyas is here implied.
In order that a Fungus may enter a plant, it must be able to overcome not merely the resistance of cell-walls, but that of the living protoplasm; if it cannot do this, it must remain outside as a mere epiphyte, e.g.
The dissemination of plant parasites is favored by many circumstances not always obvious, whence an air of mystery regarding epidemics was easily created in earlier times.
The spores of Rusts, Erysipheae an d other Fungi may be conveyed from plant to plant by snails; those of tree-killing polyporei, &c., by mice, rabbits, rats, &c., which rub their fur against the hymenophores.
The annual losses due to epidemic plant diseases attain proportions not easily estimated.
The terrible losses sustained by whole communities of farmers, planters, foresters, &c., from plant diseases have naturally stimulated the search for remedies, but even now the search is too often conducted in the spirit of the believer in quack medicines, although the agricultural world is awakening to the fact that before any measures likely to be successful can be attempted, the whole chain of causation of the disease must be investigated.
More indirect methods, such as the grafting of less resistant scions on more vigorous stocks, of raising special late or early varieties by crossing or selection, and so on, have also met with success; but it must be understood that resistant in such cases usually means that some peculiarity of quick growth, early ripening or other life-feature in the plant is for the time being taken advantage of.
Diseases am] SymptomsThe symptoms of plant diseases are, as already said, apt to be very general in their nature, and are sometimes so vaguely defined that little can be learned from them as to the causes at work.
Discolorations are among the commonest of all signs that a plant is sickly or diseased.
The extraordinary forms, colors and textures of the true galls have always formed some of the most interesting of biological questions, for not only is there definite co-operation I between a given species of insect and of plant, as shown by the facts that the same insect may induce galls of different kinds on different plants or organs, while different insects induce different galls on the same plante.g.
the numerous galls on the oakbut the gall itself furnishes well adapted protection and abundant stores of nutriment to its particular larva, and often appears to be borne without injury to the plant.
The nodules on the roots of leguminous plants are induced by the presence of a minute organism now known to do no injury to the plant.
This sketch of an enormous subject shuws us that the pathology of plants is a special department of the study of variations which threaten injury to the plant, and passes imperceptibly into the study of variations in general.
Moreover, we have good reasons for inferring that different constellations of external causes may determine whether the internal physiological disturbances induced by a given agent shall lead to pathological and dangerous variations, or to changes which may be harmless or even advantageous to the plant concerned.
Following SchrOter1 (Flahault and SchrOter, 1910: 24), the term autecology may be used for the study of the habitat conditions in relation to the single species, and the term synecology for this study in relation to plant communities.
From the phytogeographical standpoint, ecology is frequently termed ecological plant geography.
subdivided plant geography into floristic plant geography and ecological plant geography.
On the other hand, ecological plant geography seeks to ascertain the distribution of plant communities, such as associations and formations, and enquires into the nature of the factors of the habitat which are related to the distribution of plantsplant forms, species, and communities.
In a general way, floristic plant geography is concerned with species, ecological plant geography with vegetation.
Humboldt, for example, defined his view of the scope of plant geography as follows:
This mattel- is bound up with the centres of origin and with the past migrations of species; and such questions are usually treated as a part of floristic plant geography.
Ecological Classes.Many attempts have been made to divide plants and plant communities into classes depending on habitat factors.
Such terms as hydrophytes, xerophytes, and halophytes had been used by plant geographers before Warmings time e.g., by Schouw;4 and the terms evidently supply a want felt by botanists as they have come into general use.
by Fisher, Plant Geography upon a Physiological Basis (Oxford, 1903f 904).
ater is available to the plant (at least in hydrophytes).
Plant Communities.The study of plant communities ?ormationslehre or synecology) has made much progress in cent years.
Even here, however, general agreement has not ~en reached; and the questions involved in relating the facts the distribution of plant communities to the factors of the tbitat are very imperfectly understood.
Plant communities ay be classified as follows: A plant association is a cOmmunity of definite floristic corn)Sition it may be characterized by a single dominant species;, on the other hand, it may be characterized by a number of ~ominent species, one of which is abundant here, another there, hilst elsewhere two or more species may share dominance.
he former are pure associations, and are well illustrated by a mther moor, where Calluna vulgaris is the dominant plant.
A local aggrettion of a species other than the dominant one in an associion brings about a plant society; for example, societies of Ericd etralix, of Scirpus caespitosus, of Molinia coerulea, of Carex irta, of Narthecium ossifra gum, and others may occur within i association of Calluna vulgaris.
The plant societies are also)ubtless due to slight variations of the habitat.
The plant association is sometimes referred to in technical nguage;3 the termination -etum is added to the stem of the meric name, and the specific name is put in the genitive.
Thus A plant formaiion is a group of associations occupying habitats - iich are in essentials identical with each other.
The whale avi of associations on the sand dunes constitutes a plant ~
The plant formation may be designated in technical language ph the termination -ion added to a stem denoting the habitat.
Here we find open plant associations of Haifa or Esparto Grass (Stipa lenacissima) alternating with steppes of Chih (Artemisia herba-alba); and each plant association extends for several scores of miles.
The identity of plant form of many of the conifers of both temperate and of warm temperate districts is probably a matter of phylogenetic and not of ecological importance.
Hence, in any cosmopolitan treatment of vegetation, it is necessary to consider the groups of plant communities from the standpoint of the climatic or geographical district in which they occur; and this indeed is consistently done by Schimper.
Finally, within any district of constant or fairly constant climatic conditions, it is possible to distinguish plant communities which are related chiefly to edaphic or soil conditions; and the vegetation units of these definite edaphic areas are the plant formations of some writers, and, in part, the edaphic formations of Schimper.
Physically and physiologically wet habitats, with the accompanying plant communities of lakes, reed swamps, and marshes.
Physically wet but physiologically dry ha bit ats,f with the accompanying plant communities of fens, moors, and salt marshes.
Physically and physiologically dry habitats, with the accompanying plant communities of sand dunes and sandy heaths with little humus in the soil.
Habitats of medium wetness, with the accompanying plant communities of woodlands and grasslands.
A cushion plant (Anabasis aretioides) of the north-western Sahara, frequently shows dead leaves on the exposed side whilst the plant is in full vigour on the sheltered side.
With regard to the occurrence of plants, such as Juncus effusus, which possess xerophytic characters and yet live in situations which are not ordinarily of marked physiological dryness, it should be remembered that such habitats are liable to occasional physical drought; and a plant must eventually succumb if it is not adapted to the extreme conditions of its habitat.
The elementary unit of plant structure, as of animal structure, is the cell.
It is sufficient to note here that cells were first of all discovered in various vegetable tissues by Robert Hooke in 1665 (Micrographia); Malpighi and Grew (1674-1682) gave the first clear indications of the importance of cells in the building up of plant tissues, but it was not until the beginning of the 19th century that any insight into the real nature of the cell and its functions was obtained.
The nucleus was definitely recognized in the plant cell by Robert Brown in 1831, but its presence had been previously indicated by various observers and it had been seen by Fontana in some animal cells as early as 1781.
He showed that all the organs of plants are built up of cells, that the plant embryo originates from a single cell, and that the physiological activities of the plant are dependent upon the individual activities of these vital units.
This conception of,the plant as an aggregate or colony of independent vital units governing the nutrition, growth and reproduction of the whole cannot, however, be maintained.
the paren.chymatous cells, found in various parts of the plant.
Cells from different parts of a plant differ very much in their cell-contents.
Those chromatophores which remain colorless, and serve simply as starch-f ormers in parts of the plant not exposed to the light, are called leucoplasts or amyloplasts.
HaberIandt has shown that in plant cells, when any new formation of membrane is to take place in a given spot, the nucleus is found in its immediate vicinity; and Klebs found that only that portion of the protoplasm of a cell which contains the nucleus is capable of forming a cell-wall; whilst Townsend has further shown that if the non-nucleated mass is connected by strands of protoplasm to the nucleated mass, either of the same cell or of a neighboring cell, it retains the power of forming a cell-membrane.
In plant cells its presence has been demonstrated in the Thallophytes and Bryophytes.
It may also take place where rapid proliferation of the cell is going on, as in the budding of the Yeast plant.
The cytological evidence for this appears to be made stronger for animal than for plant cells.
These tubes penetrate to all parts of the plant and occur in all parts of the root, stem and leaves.
The cells not only fuse together in longitudinal and transverse rows, but put out transverse projections, which fuse with others of a similar nature, and thus form an anastomosing network of tubes which extends to all parts of the plant.
connecting threads has recently been ~~ ___________ demonstrated throughout all the ______ tissues of the plant.
The presence of these threads between all the cells of tfie plant shows that the plant body must be regarded as a connected whole; the threads themselves probably play an important part in the growth of the cell-wall, the conduction of food and water, the process of secretion and the transmission of impulses.
ix.; The Genesis and Development of the Wall and Connecting Threads in the Plant Cell.
Consequently all parts of the plant, except the stem, are modified leaves.
The root is an axis which never bears either leaves or the proper reproductive organs (whether sexual or asexual) of the plant.
In endeavouring to trace the causation of adaptation, it is obvious that it must be due quite as much to properties inherent in the plant as to the action of external conditions; the plant must possess adaptive capacity.
In other words, the plant must be irritable to the stimulus exerted from without, and be capable of responding to it by changes of form and structure.
Adaptive characters are often hereditary, for instance, the seed of a parasite will produce a parasite, and the same is true of a carnivorous plant.
Under such circumstances the earths vegetation would be very different from what it is, and the study of plant distribution would be a simple affair.
Palaeontological evidence conclusively proves that the surface of the earth has been successively occupied by vegetative forms of increasing complexity, rising from the simplest algae to the most highly organized flowering plant.
Schimper, Plant Geography, transl.
The influence of physical environment becomes clearer and stronger when the distribution of plant and animal life is considered, and if it is less distinct in the case of man, the reason is found in the modifications of environment consciously produced by human effort.
Thus he demonstrated that the forms of the land exercise a directive and determining influence on climate, plant life, animal life and on man himself.
The viceroys of Peru still persevered in their attempts to plant a colony in the hypothetical southern continent.
Different species of organisms come to perfection in different climates; and it may be stated as a general rule that a species, whether of plant or animal, once established at one point, would spread over the whole zone of the climate congenial to it unless some barrier were interposed to its progress.
(6) The tropical forest, which represents the maximum of plant luxuriance, stimulated by the heaviest rainfall, greatest heat and strongest light.
Plant life, utilizing solar light to combine the inorganic elements of water, soil and air into living substance, is the basis of all animal life.
A large municipal electric-lighting plant was completed in 1908.
COLCHICUM, the Meadow Saffron, or Autumn Crocus (Colchicum autumnale), a perennial plant of the natural order Liliaceae, found wild in rich moist meadow-land in England and Ireland, in middle and southern Europe, and in the Swiss Alps.
Colchicum was known to the Greeks under the name of KoXXucov, from KoXXIs, or Colchis, a country in which the plant grew; and it is described by Dioscorides as a poison.
The dried ripe seeds of this plant are also used in medicine.
Others thrive in a greenhouse; such are C. asiaticum, a widely distributed plant on the sea-coast of tropical Asia, C. capense and C. longiflorum, from the Cape, and C. Macowani and C. Moorei from Natal.
In germination of the seed the root of the embryo (radicle) grows out to get a holdfast for the plant; this is generally followed by the growth of the short stem immediately above the root, the so-called "hypocotyl," which carries up the cotyledons above the ground, where they spread to the light and become the first green leaves of the plant.
The size and manner of growth of the adult plant show a great variety, from the small herb lasting for one season only, to the forest tree living for centuries.
The city is lighted by gas and electricity, - it was one of the first cities in the United States to adopt electric lighting, - and has a good watersupply system, owned by a private corporation, with a 41 acre filter plant of 18,000,000 gallons per diem capacity and an additional supply of water pumped from deep wells outside the city.
cornubiense is a very elegant plant with finely-divided fronds; var.
P. dryopteris, generally known as oakfern, is a very graceful plant with delicate fronds, 6 to 12 in.
The leaves of a closely allied plant, Empleurum serratulum, are employed as a substitute or adulterant for buchu.
The vegetable-feeders attack leaves, herbaceous or woody stems and roots; frequently different parts of a plant are attacked in the two active stages of the life-history; the cockchafers, for example, eating leaves, and their grubs gnawing roots.
The larva pierces the vessels of the plant with sharp processes at the hinder end of its body.
The tea plant thrives and is being planted fairly rapidly on the Black Sea littoral in Transcaucasia.
A dispute between Selinus and Segesta (probably the revival of a similar quarrel about 454, when an Athenian force appears to have taken part 2) was one of the causes of the Athenian expedition of 415 B.C. At its close the former seemed to have the latter at its mercy, but an appeal to Carthage was responded 1 The plant was formerly thought to be wild parsley.
The duty of a railway with deficient plant or facilities would seem to be to make up for their absence by moderating the speeds of its trains, but public sentiment in America appears so far to have approved, at least tacitly, the combination of imperfect railways and high speeds.
Machine shops are usually provided to enable minor repairs to be executed; the tendency, both in England and America, is to increase the amount of such repairing plant at engine sheds, thus lengthening the intervals between the visits of the engines to the main repairing shops of the railway.
The quality of the last is a matter of great importance; when it is unsuitable, the boilers will suffer, and the installation of a water-softening plant may save more in the expenses of boiler maintenance than it costs to operate.
Their primary object being the development and peopling of the land, they have naturally been made as cheaply as possible; and as in such cases the cost of the land is inconsiderable, economy has been sought by the use of lighter and rougher permanent way, plant, rolling stock, &c. Such railways are not " light " in the technical sense of having been made under enactments intended to secure permanent lowness of cost as compared with standard lines.
so that a known animal may give rise to another known animal of a different race, species, genus, or even family, or to a plant, or vice versa.
The maintenance of the requisite plant and the high wages current render such repairs somewhat costly.
In Turkish cemeteries the cypress "Dark tree, still sad when others' grief is fled, The only constant mourner o'er the dead" is the most striking feature, the rule being to plant one for each interment.
cultivated by them as a decorative plant, in many forms, including dwarf forms not exceeding a foot in height.
from a railway, had an electriclighting plant, an ice plant and a hotel.
According to another view, Erysichthon is the destroyer of trees, who wastes away as the plant itself loses its vigour.
The planting of eucalyptus trees is out of favour at present, but it appears to have been successful in Portugal, not from any prophylactic virtues in the plant, but through the great absorption of moisture by its deep roots, which tends to dry the subsoil.
The city added to its waterworks a filtration plant, with a total capacity of 150,000 gal.
The municipality owns and operates its waterworks and its electric-lighting plant.
Venus's fly-trap (Dionaea muscipula), a rare plant, is found only south of the Neuse river; and there are several varieties of Sarracenia, carnivorous pitcher plants.
The city owns and operates its own water-supply system and electric-lighting plant.
Many species of aphid migrate from one plant to another at certain stages in their life-cycle when their numbers have very largely increased, and F.
Cross fertilization, or the impregnation of any given flower by pollen from another flower of the same species on the same or on another plant, has been proved to be of great - g advantage to the plant by securing a more FIG.
Besides the plant beds extensive outflows of basic lava rest directly upon the Cambrian and Ordovician strata.
The absence of the ordinary bright green colours of vegetation is another peculiarity of this flora, almost all the plants having glaucous or whitened stems. Foliage is reduced to a minimum, the moisture of the plant being stored up in massive or fleshy stems against the long-continued drought.
Though the Turks have profoundly affected the whole of eastern Europe, the result of their conquests has been not so much to plant Asiatic culture in Europe as to arrest development entirely, the countries under their rule remaining in much the same condition as under the moribund Byzantine empire.
The plant is a native of India, but is now widely spread throughout the tropical zone.
The water-supply system and electric-lighting plant are owned and operated by the city.
The city owns its gas works, water works and an electric-lighting plant (1910) for municipal lighting.
This stage in the life-history was formerly regarded as a distinct fungus with the name Roestelia cancellata; it is now known, however, that the spores germinate on young juniper leaves, in which they give rise to this other stage in the plant's history known as Gymnosporangium.
The introduction of new plants, which made it possible to dispense with the bare fallow, and still later the application to husbandry of scientific discoveries as to soils, plant constituents and manures, brought about a revolution in farming.
Wheat and barley were the chief crops, and another plant, perhaps identical with the durra, i.e.
The work on agriculture' of Ibn-al-Awam, who lived in the 12th century A.D., treats of the varieties of soils, manuring, irrigation, ploughing, sowing, harvesting, stock, horticulture, arboriculture and plant diseases, and is a lasting record of their skill and industry.
It is, in fact, fully established that these leguminous crops acquire a considerable amount of nitrogen by the fixation of the free nitrogen of the atmosphere under the influence of the symbiotic growth of their root-nodule-microbes and the higher plant.
The field experiments on leguminous plants at Rothamsted have shown that land which is, so to speak, exhausted so far as the growth of one leguminous crop is concerned, may still grow very luxuriant crops of another plant of the same natural order, but of different habits of growth, and especially of different character and range of roots.
The growth, year after year, on the same soil of one kind of plant unfits it for bearing further crops of the kind which has exhausted it, and renders them:_less vigorous and more liable to disease.
In 1890, at Plymouth, competitions took place of light portable engines (a) using solid fuel, (b) using liquid or gaseous fuel, grist mills for use on a farm, disintegrators, and cider-making plant for use on a farm.
In 1901, at Cardiff, competition was invited in portable oil engines, agricultural locomotive oil engines and small ice-making plant suitable for a dairy.
With such subterranean pests little can be done beyond rolling the land to keep it firm, and thus preventing them from moving rapidly from plant to plant.
In some years three or four sowings have to be made before a "plant" is produced, enormous loss in labour and cost of seed alone being thus involved.
- The Hop Aphis (Phorodon After the Coccidae the next most important insects male; C, ovigerous wingless female; economically are r the plant lice or A phididae.
Aphides often ruin whole crops of fruit, corn, hops, &c., by sucking out the sap, and not only check growth, but may even entail the death of the plant.
Some aphides live only on one species of plant, others on two or more plants.
The chief industries are the manufacture of railway plant, cloth, wool, soap, shoddy, furniture, bricks and cement.
True to his Corsican instinct of attachment to the family, and contempt for legal and dynastic claims, he now began to plant his brothers and other relatives in what had been republics established by the French Jacobins.
(i) The subject of plant souls is referred to in connexion with animism; but certain aspects of this phase of belief demand more detailed treatment.
This plant, known only in cultivation, is usually regarded as native to the West Indies.
Whatever may be its true botanical name it is the plant known in commerce as " Sea Island " cotton, owing to its introduction and successful cultivation in the Sea Islands and the coastal districts of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.
hirsutum is the most important cottonyielding plant, being the source of American cotton, i.e.
The cotton plant requires certain conditions for its successful cultivation; but, given these, it is very little affected by seasonal vicissitudes.
An idea of the requirements of the plant will perhaps be afforded by summarizing the conditions which have been found to give the best results in the United States.
Clay and " bottom " lands produce a large, leafy plant, yielding less lint in proportion.
When the weather is not favourable at the fruiting stage, the otherwise hardy cotton plant displays its great weakness in this way.
- Climatic conditions in Egypt differ radically from those in the United States, the rainfall being so small as to be quite insufficient for the needs of the plant, very little rain indeed falling in the Nile Delta during the whole growing season of the crop: yet Egypt is in order the third cottonproducing country of the world, elaborate irrigation works supplying the crop with the requisite water.
Pests and Diseases of the Cotton Plant.
- It is common knowledge that when any plant is cultivated on a large scale various diseases and pests frequently appear.
In one instance Mr Rivers found one healthy plant in a badly affected field.
The roots are prevented from fulfilling their function of taking up water and salts from the soil; the leaves accordingly droop, and the whole plant wilts and in bad attacks dies.
A field is gone over carefully, and perhaps some 5 o of the best plants selected; a second examination in the field reduces these perhaps to one half, and each plant is numbered.
The simplest possible case in which only one plant is finally selected is illustrated in the diagram.
One plant is selected again from these 500, and the general crop of seed is used to sow about five acres for the 3rd year, from which seed is obtained for the general crop in the 4th year.
One special plant is selected each year from the Soo raised from the previous season's test plant, and in four years' time the progeny of this plant constitutes the " general crop."
The practice may be modified according to the size of estate by selecting more than one plant each year, but the principle remains unaltered.
Mr Webber, in summing up, says, " When Sea Island cotton was first introduced into the United States from the West Indies, it was a perennial plant, unsuited to the duration of the season of the latitude of the Sea Islands of S.
1300 that the plant was grown on any considerable scale.
Conditions are well adapted to the cultivation of the plant, and since the cessation of the RussoJapanese War the Japanese have undertaken the development of the industry.
Japan received cotton from India before China, and the plant is extensively grown, especially in West and Middle Japan.
The city maintains a workhouse (1882), also two market houses, and owns and manages an electric-lighting plant.
The indigo plant is grown in large quantities in the plain country to the north of Mukden, and is transported thence to the coast in carts, each of which carries rather more than a ton weight of the dye.
Plant (1819-1899) and once formed a part of the so-called " Plant System " of railways.
The municipality owns its water-works and electric-lighting plant.
dissecare, to cut apart), the separation into parts by cutting, particularly the cutting of an animal or plant into parts for the purpose of examination or display of its structure.
Here is situated the Dreher brewery, the largest in the monarchy; and there are also important smelting and iron works, cotton-spinning, factories of electrical plant, &c. The meeting at Schwechat of the emperor Leopold I.
They also eschewed the luxuries and pursuits of settled life, and lived in tents, refusing to sow grain as well as to plant vineyards.
Heliotrope or cherry-pie (Heliotropium peruvianum) is a well-known garden plant.
Liquorice was largely grown as early as 1700-1701, when the corporation prohibited the sale of buds or sets of the plant.
This mullah, Mahommed bin Abdullah by name, had made several pilgrimages to Mecca, where he had attached himself to a sect which enjoined strict observance of the tenets of Islam and placed an interdiction on the use of the leaves of the kat plant - much sought after by the coast Arabs and Somali for their stimulating and intoxicating properties.
The municipality owns and operates its waterworks and natural gas plant.
The plant is now extinct in Lower Egypt, but is found in the Upper Nile regions and in Abyssinia.
10) states that it likewise grew in Syria; and, according to Pliny, it was also a native plant of the Niger and Euphrates.
The first accurate description of the plant is given by Theophrastus, from whom we learn that it grew in shallows of 2 cubits (about 3 ft.) or less, its main root being of the thickness of a man's wrist and 10 cubits in length.
From this root, which lay horizontally, smaller roots pushed down into the mud, and the stem of the plant sprang up to the height of 4 cubits, being triangular and tapering in form.
The various uses to which the papyrus plant was applied are also enumerated by Theophrastus.
Of the stem of the plant were made boats, sails, mats, cloth, cords, and, above all, writing materials.
That the plant was itself used also as the principal material in the construction of light skiffs suitable for the navigation of the pools and shallows of the Nile, and even of the river itself, is shown by sculptures of the fourth dynasty, in which men are represented building a boat with stems cut from a neighbouring plantation of papyrus (Lepsius, Denkm.
11 -13) has transmitted to us of the manufacture of the writing material from the papyrus plant should be taken strictly to refer to the process followed in his own time; but, with some differences in details, the same general method of treatment had doubtlessly been practised from time immemorial.
The old idea that it was made from layers or pellicules growing between the rind and a central stalk has been abandoned, as it has been proved that the plant, like other reeds, contains only a cellular pith within the rind.
The stem was in fact !'cut into longitudinal strips for the purpose of being converted into the writing material, those from the centre of the plant being the broadest and most valuable.
The best quality, formed from the middle and broadest strips of the plant, was originally named hieratica, but afterwards, in flattery of the emperor Augustus, it was called, after him, Augusta; and the charta Livia, or second quality, was so named in honour of his wife.
The widespread use throughout the ancient world of the writing material manufactured from the papyrus plant is attested by early writers, and by documents and sculptures.
It is not probable, however, that it was ever manufactured from the native plant anywhere but in Egypt.
As to cultivation of the plant in Europe, according to Strabo the Romans obtained the papyrus plant from Lake Trasimene and other lakes of Etruria, but this statement is unsupported by any other ancient authority.
At a later period, however, a papyrus was cultivated in Sicily, which has been identified by Parlatore with the Syrian variety (Cyperus syriacus), far exceeding in height the Egyptian plant, and having a more drooping head.
But in the 13th century it began to fail, and in 1591 the drying up of the Papireto caused the extinction of the plant in that district.
It is with this Syracusan plant that some attempts have been made in modern times to manufacture a writing material similar to ancient papyrus.
38), writing in the 6th century, indulges in a high-flown panegyric on the plant and its value.
In the worship the drink prepared from the haoma (Indian soma) plant had a prominent place.
Since the same plant, owing to peculiarities of climate, soil and situation, degree of exposure to light and other influences may vary greatly according to the locality in which it occurs, it is only by gathering together for comparison and study a large series of examples of each species that the flora of different regions can be satisfactorily represented.
The majority of plant specimens are most suitably fastened on paper by a mixture of equal parts of gum tragacanth and gum arabic made into a thick paste with water.
When the leaves are finely divided, as in Conium, much trouble will be experienced in lifting a half-dried specimen from one paper to another; but the plant may be placed in a sheet of thin blotting paper, and the sheet containing the plant, instead of the plant itself, can then be moved.
The plant can then be at any time examined under the microscope without injuring the mounted specimen.
The larger species of fungi, such as the Agaricini and Polyporei, &c., are prepared for the herbarium by cutting a slice out of the centre of the plant so as to show the outline of the cap or pileus, the attachment of the gills, and the character of the interior of the stem.
As it is impossible to preserve the natural colours of fungi, the specimens should, whenever possible, be accompanied by a coloured drawing of the plant.
They are then preserved in envelopes attached to a sheet of paper of the ordinary size, a single perfect specimen being washed, and spread out under the envelope so as to show the habit of the plant.
Four or five annual crops grow from one plant, but not more than three can be marketed, unless locally, as the product deteriorates.
Since these compounds are essential to plant life, it becomes necessary to replace the amount abstracted from the soil, and hence a demand for nitrogenous manures was created.
The municipality owns its water-works and its electric-lighting plant.
The cultivators, on the other hand, may not plant tobacco without permits from the regie, although the power of refusing a permit, except to known smugglers or persons of notoriously bad conduct, seems to be doubtful; nor may they sell to any purchaser, unless for export, except to the regie, while they are bound to deposit the whole of the tobacco crops which they raise in any one year in the entrepots of the regie before the month of August of the year following, [[Table A]].-Showing Revenues ceded to Ottoman Public Debt Administration at Various Periods to 1907-1908.
Should a proprietor of emiriye plant trees or vines, or erect buildings upon it, with the consent of the state, they are considered as mulk; an annual tax representing the value of the tithes on the portions of emiriye thus utilized is levied.