Plague sentence example
He died of the plague in 1669.
One bad plague or invading horde would leave pretty much everyone starving.
She raced up the steps, wondering if men who could not be trusted would plague her entire life.
The plague of 1665, carried hither from London, almost depopulated this village, and the name of the rector, William Mompesson, attracted wide notice on account of his brave attempts to combat the outbreak.
Local annals specially mention the plague of 1648, the flood of 1651 and the earthquake of 1829.Advertisement
Here occurred some of the earliest cases of the plague which spread over London in 1664-1665.
One memorable feature was associated with 1877 in that this was the last year in which the dreaded cattle plague (rinderpest) made its appearance in England.
He died of the plague in the eighty-first year of his age (365).
Bubonic plague, to be sure, is a disease.
But in the ensuing summer, after a terrible outbreak of plague had ravaged the crowded city, the people became thoroughly demoralized.Advertisement
In 1903 the city was devastated by an epidemic of plague.
But the plague, which had carried off two of his sons and a sister, had left its mark also on Pericles himself.
In 1348 the island was devastated by the plague described by Boccaccio.
In other words, the mercy already experienced in the removal of the plague is taken as a pledge of future grace not to stop short till all God's old promises are fulfilled.
Pisa and Perugia were threatened with extinction, and Florence dreaded the advance of the Visconti arms, when the plague suddenly cut short his career of treachery and conquest in the year 1402.Advertisement
Despite the capture of the ark after the disastrous battle of Shiloh, Yahweh had in the end shown himself through a destructive plague superior in might to the Philistine Dagon.
The state has suffered severely from plague.
In 1743 the plague carried off 40,000 inhabitants.
These were The Fortunes and Misfortunes of Moll Flanders, The Journal of the Plague Year, and The History of Colonel Jack.
In the Journal of the Plague Year, more usually called, from the title of the second edition, A History of the Plague, the accuracy and apparent veracity of the details is so great that many persons have taken it for an authentic record, while others have contended for the existence of such a record as its basis.Advertisement
He had an oracle at Orchomenus, but during a plague it became L silent and remained so in Plutarch's time (De Defectu Oraculorum, 44).
Most of our cases proved to be runaways or missing persons and our limitations due to non-specific known time or age of the event continued to plague us.
Flying from the country, he encountered the plague at Pinczoff; three of his four children were carried off; and he himself, worn out by age and misfortune, died in solitude and obscurity at Schlakau in Moravia, about the end of 1564.
The year 1666 (called the annus mirabilis, for it included the plague and the fire of London) was marked by fierce fighting and changes of fortune.
The French failed to keep tryst, and De Ruyter was watched by Rupert, who was now in sole command, Monk having been recalled to London to take command amid the confusion caused by the fire and the plague.Advertisement
The vine-growers were at their wits' end to account for this new plague, which threatened to be even more costly than the oidium.
Locusts occasion much damage, and ants of various kinds are often a plague.
He regularly spent a large income in charity, and he laboured strenuously to stay the progress of the plague and famine which broke out in 1504.
The upper town preserves some part of the fortifications which protected it when, previous to the plague of 1630, the city had upwards of 30,000 inhabitants.
Fortunately mosquitoes are not a serious plague outside a few marshy localities.Advertisement
An altar was built having an edge double the length of the original; but the plague was unabated, the oracles not having been obeyed.
Locusts are an intermittent plague.
The statute of 1630 forbidding the exportation of wool, followed by the Plague of 1665, led to a serious trade depression, while the former enactment resulted in the vast smuggling trade which spread along the coast, 40,000 packs of wool being smuggled to Calais from Kent and Sussex in two years.
The fortifications of Anklam were dismantled in 1762 and have not since been restored, although the old walls are still standing; formerly, however, it was a town of considerable military importance, which suffered severely during the Thirty Years' and the Seven Years' Wars; and this fact, together with the repeated ravages of fire and of the plague, has made its history more eventful than is usually the case with towns of the same size.
When the plague drove him from Paris, he went to Orleans or Tournehem or St.Advertisement
After middle life he suffered from the stone, not to mention the common plague of studious men, an irritable mucous membrane.
The intolerance shown to the Protestants, the troubles of the Thirty Years' War, the plague and other causes, soon conspired to change this state of affairs, and in the 18th century the population sank to 12,000.
During the great plague Earle attended the king and queen at Oxford, and there he died on the 17th of November 1665.
In June 1770 Frederick surrounded those of the Polish provinces he coveted with a military cordon, ostensibly to keep out the cattle plague.
At Florence, whither the council of Ferrara had been transferred on account of an outbreak of the plague, was effected in July 1439 a union with the Greeks, which, as the result of political necessities, proved but temporary.Advertisement
Hong Kong was severely affected, and has never since been entirely free from plague.
If in their relation to fish it must be admitted that many of them plague the living and devour the dead, in return the fish feed rapaciously upon them.
It now appears that she came of a Lithuanian stock, and was one of the four children of a small Catholic yeoman, Samuel Skovronsky; but her father died of the plague while she was still a babe, the family scattered, and little Martha was adopted by Pastor Gliick, the Protestant superintendent of the Marienburg district.
In a great storm in 1 545, 40 houses were destroyed, and the place was scourged.by the plague in 1609.
It was besieged by the Turks.in 1538 and 1657, visited by plague in 1572, and nearly destroyed by earthquakes in 1563 and 1667.Advertisement
This event, and the prevalence of plague and cholera at Teheran, marked somewhat gloomily the new monarchs first year.
Both had been carried off by plague.
He died of the plague on the 18th of April 1530, and was buried at Marburg.
A rudely carved stone lion, which lies on the roadside close to the southern extremity of the city, and by some is supposed to have formed part of a building of the ancient city, is locally regarded as a talisman against famine, plague, cold, &c., placed there by Pliny, who is popularly known as the sorcerer Balinas (a corruption of Plinius).
Odd noises, moving objects and lights turning on and off are said to plague the haunted building.Advertisement
He stuck to his post throughout the plague year, contenting himself with sending his family away to Wotton.
Between 1536 and 1562 Turin was occupied by the French, and in 1630 it lost 8000 of its citizens by the plague.
Forced to leave his native city in 1668 in consequence of a plague, he settled in Paris, where he resided until his death on the 23rd of October 1688.
It may be that his early death, during the great plague of 1350, at the siege of Gibraltar, only averted a desperate struggle with his legitimate son, though it was a misfortune in that it removed a ruler of eminent capacity, who understood his subjects well enough not to go too far.
Since 1900 there have been several mild outbreaks of bubonic plague.
In the west the Herauch, a thick fog arising from the burning of the moors, is a plague of frequent occurrence.
This dramatic representation of the sufferings of Christ is not a survival of a medieval mystery or miracleplay, but took its rise from a vow made by the inhabitants in 1633, with the hope of staying a plague then raging.
The experience of the French in Algiers shows that it is possible to stamp out a plague of locusts, such as is the greatest danger to the farmer in many parts of Argentina.
As vicar of St Andrewthe-Great, Cambridge, he was conspicuous for his devoted attention to the sufferers from the plague.
In the 18th century it is said to have contained 20,000 inhabitants, but it was almost depopulated by plague in 1814.
He died of the plague at Deventer in 1384, at the age of 44.
A special point of attaction in this jubilee of 1450 was the canonization of Bernardino of Siena; and, in spite of the plague which broke out in Rome, the celebrations ran a brilliant course.
He was afterwards (1662) preferred to the rectory of-St Paul's, Covent Garden, London, where he continued to labour during the plague.
Plague broke out, the missionary establishment was broken up, and in 1832 Kitto returned to England.
Its already evil reputation has been increased of late years by the fact that it is one of the chief disseminators of bubonic plague.
In 1471, on the outbreak of the plague, he removed to Rome, where he continued to act as a teacher of Greek till his death.
Perth was visited by plague in 1512, 1585-1587, 1608 and 1645; by cholera in 1832; and the floods of 1210, 1621, 1740, 1 773 and 1814 were exceptionally severe.
The plague visited Bucharest in" 1718, 1 73 8, 1 793, when an earthquake destroyed a number of old buildings, and in 1813, when 70,000 of the inhabitants died in six weeks.
The appearance of the plague at Padua obliged him to retire to his native city, whence he was, shortly afterwards, called to act as tutor to Ferrante (Ferdinand) Gonzaga, from whom he received the rich abbey of Guastalla.
Maria in Trivio, erected in 1353 in gratitude for the liberation of the city from a plague which devastated it in 1348, is in the style of contemporary brick campanili in Rome, but built mainly of black selce, with white marble columns at the windows.
This proved to be his son, whom he slew in accordance with his vow; whereupon a plague broke out in the island, and Idomeneus was driven out.
His friend and master, after about two years' tenure of the earldom of Devonshire, died of the plague in June 1628, and the affairs of the family were so disordered financially that the widowed countess was left with the task of righting them in the boyhood of the third earl.
In that year the Great Fire of London, following on the Great Plague, roused the superstitious fears of the people, and the House of Commons embodied the general feeling in a bill against atheism and profaneness.
Ricotti, "no citizens in the cities, neither man nor beast in the fields, all the land forest-clad and wild; one sees no houses, for most of them are burnt, and of nearly all the castles only the walls are visible; of the inhabitants, once so numerous, some have died of the plague or of hunger, some by the sword, and some have fled elsewhere preferring to beg their bread abroad rather than support misery at home which is worse than death."
Cholera is endemic in some parts of the vilayet, and before 1875 the same was true of the bubonic plague.
He died of the plague at Lambeth on the 26th of August 1349, forty days after his consecration.
In 1576, when Milan was visited by the plague, he went about giving directions for accommodating the sick and burying the dead, avoiding no danger and sparing no expense.
The terrible plague of 1348, wars with Genoa, against whom the great naval victory of Lojera was won in 1353, many treaties, and the subjugation of the seventh revolt of Zara, are the chief events of his reign.
But the plague went with them and no results were achieved.
In 429 the Peloponnesians were deterred by the plague from invading Attica and laid siege to Plataea in the interests of Thebes.
These eight books of Histories, although mainly occupied with military matters, contain notices of some of the more important domestic events, such as the Nika insurrection at Constantinople in 532, the plague in 542, the conspiracy of Artabenes in 548.
Plague, formerly one of the great scourges of the country, seems to have been stamped out, the last visitation having been in 1844, but cholera epidemics occasionally occur.i Cholera rarely extends south of Cairo.
In January 1791 a terrible plague began to rage in Cairo and elsewhere in Egypt, to which Ismail Bey and most of his family fell victims. Owing to the need for competent rulers IbrghIm and Murad Bey were sent for from Upper Egypt and resumed their dual government.
This is succeeded by a plague of frogs.
The Last Plague, the Deliverance from Egypt, the Institution of the Passover and of the Feast of Unleavened Cakes, the Consecration of the First-born.-This section presents the usual phenomena of a composite narrative, viz.
Pestilences and conflagrations were its ruin; the plague of 1566 wrought great havoc among its inhabitants, and that of 1600 destroyed 15,000.
The empire was only saved by an outbreak of plague amongst the invaders and the bravery of the Bulgarian peasants.
The plague devastated the badly drained towns, new diseases spread death, the fear of the Turks was permanent.
Many victims of the plague were buried in a pit neighbouring to these fields, near the junction of Goswell Road and Old Street.
Between 1826 and 1835 as many as 1562 Thugs were apprehended indifferent parts of British India, and by the evidence of approvers the moral plague spot was gradually stamped out.
There were in addition several epidemics of small-pox and plague, and from about 1880 onward the continual decline in the price of sugar seriously affected the islanders, especially the Creole population.
There he died, probably from the plague, though Merwan was accused of having killed him.
The god-hero came from Epidaurus to the shrine at Sicyon in the form of a serpent, and the serpent sent from Epidaurus to stay a plague at Rome remained there, and a temple was erected to Aesculapius.
There is a certain resemblance between all these, but they were very different from Oriental plague.
Cases which are rapidly fatal from the general disturbance without marked local symptoms have been distinguished as fulminant plague (pestis siderans, peste foudroyonte).
The first historical notice of the plague is contained in a fragment of the physician Rufus of Ephesus, who lived in the time of Trajan, preserved in the Collections of Oribasius.
Whatever the precise date of these physicians may have been, this passage shows the antiquity of the plague in northern Africa., which for centuries was considered as its home.
It is not till the 6th century of our era, in the reign of Justinian, that we find bubonic plague in Europe, a s a part of the great cycle of pestilence, accompanied by extraordinary natural phenomena, which lasted fifty years, and is described with a singular misunderstanding of medical terms by Gibbon in his forty-third chapter.
Whether the numerous pestilences recorded in the 7th century were the plague cannot now be said; but it is possible the pestilences in England chronicled by Bede in the years 664, 672, 679 and 683 may have been of this disease, especially as in 690 pestis inguinaria is again recorded in Rome.
Whether in all the pestilences known by this name the disease was really the same may admit of doubt, but it is clear that in some at least it was the bubonic plague.
Contemporary observers agree that the disease was introduced from the East; and one eyewitness, Gabriel de Mussis, an Italian lawyer, traced, or indeed accompanied, the march of the plague from the Crimea (whither it was said to have been introduced from Tartary) to Genoa, where with a handful of survivors of a Genoese expedition he landed probably at the end of the year 1347.
The nature of this pestilence has been a matter of much controversy, and some have doubted its being truly the plague.
But when the symptoms are fully described they seem to justify this conclusion, one character only being thought to make a distinction between this and Oriental plague, viz.
Moreover, as this complication was a marked feature in certain epidemics of plague in India, the hypothesis has been framed by Hirsch that a special variety of plague, pestis indica, still found in India, is that which overran the world in the 14th century.
It seems, therefore, impossible to make a special variety of Indian plague, or to refer the black death to any such special form.
In the 15th century the plague recurred frequently in nearly all parts of Europe.
In 1438-1439 the plague was in Germany, and its occurrence at Basel was described by Aeneas Sylvius, afterwards Pope Pius II.
In 1448-1450 Italy (Kircher), Germany (Lersch, from old chronicles), France and Spain, were ravaged by a plague supposed to have arisen in Asia, scarcely less destructive than the black death.
England was probably seldom quite free from plague, but the next great outbreak is recorded in 1472 and following years.
In 1466, 40,000 persons died of plague in Paris; in1477-1485the cities of northern Italy were devastated, and in 1485 Brussels.
The 16th century was not more free from plague than the 15th.
Simultaneously with a terrible pestilence which is reported to have nearly depopulated China, plague prevailed over Germany, Holland, Italy and Spain, in the first decade of the century, and revived at various times in the first half.
In 1529 there was plague in Edinburgh; in London in 1 537- 1 539, and again 1547-1548; and also in the north of England, though probably not absent before.
Some of the epidemics of this period in Italy and Germany are known by the accounts of eminent physicians, as Vochs, Fracastor, Mercurialis, Borgarucci, Ingrassia, Massaria, Amici, &c., (3) whose writings are important because the question of contagion first began to be raised, and also plague had to be distinguished from typhus fever, which began in this century to appear in Europe.
In Paris about this time plague was an everyday occurrence, of which some were less afraid than of a headache (Borgarucci).
In 1570, 200,000 persons died in Moscow and the neighbourhood, in 1572, 50,000 at Lyons; in 1568 and 1574 plague was at Edinburgh, and in 1570 at Newcastle.
When, however, in 1575 a new wave of plague passed over Europe, its origin was referred to Constantinople, whence it was said to have spread by sea to Malta, Sicily and Italy, and by land through the Austrian territories to Germany.
Others contended that the disease originated locally; and, indeed, considering previous history, no importation of plague would seem necessary to explain its presence in Europe.
In 1585 Breslau witnessed the most destructive plague known in its history.
The great plague of 1592 in London seems to have been a part of the same epidemic, which was hardly extinguished by the end of the century, and is noted in London again in 1599.
On the whole, this century shows a decrease of plague in Europe.
In the first half of the 17th century plague was still prevalent in Europe, though considerably less so than in the middle ages.
The works of English physicians of this period are of little medical value; but Lodge's Treatise of the Plague (London, 1603) deserves mention.
In the same year (1603) one million persons are said to have died of plague in Egypt.
This plague is said to have lasted eight years in London.
At all events in 1609 we have the second great plague year, with a mortality of 11,785.
After this there is a remission till about 1620, when plague again began to spread in northern Europe, especially Germany and Holland, which was at that time ravaged by war.
In 1625 (the year of the siege of Breda in Holland) is the third great London plague with 35,417 deaths - though the year 1624 was remarkably exempt, and 1626 nearly so.
In 1630 was the great plague of Milan, described by Ripamonti.
The same year 7000 out of 20,000 inhabitants of Newcastle died of plague; in 2635 it was at Hull.
About the same time, 1635-1637, plague was prevalent in Holland, and the epidemic of Nijmwegen is celebrated as having been described by Diemerbroeck, whose work (Tractatus de peste, 4to, 1641-1665) is one of the most important on the subject.
From this time till 1664 little was heard of plague in England, though it did not cease on the Continent.
The preceding enumeration will have prepared the reader to view the great plague of1664-1665in its true relation to others, and not as an isolated phenomenon.
The total number of deaths from plague in that year, according to the bills of mortality, was 68,596, in a population estimated at 460,000, 3 out of whom two-thirds are supposed to have fled to escape the contagion.
This number is likely to be rather too low than too high, since of the 6432 deaths from spotted fever many were probably really from plague, though not declared so to avoid painful restrictions.
In December there was a sudden fall in the mortality which continued through the winter; but in 1666 nearly 2000 deaths from plague are recorded.
For this period see Index to Remembrancia in Archives of City of London 1579-1664 (London, 2878); Richardson, Plague and Pestilence in North of England (Newcastle, 1852).
According to some authorities, especially Hodges, the plague was imported into London by bales of merchandise from Holland, which came originally from the Levant; according to others it was introduced by Dutch prisoners of war; but Boghurst regarded it as of local origin.
It is in favour of the theory that it spread by some means from Holland that plague had been all but extinct in London for some seventeen years, and prevailed in Holland in 1663-1664.
But from its past history and local conditions, London might well be deemed capable of producing such an epidemic. In the bills of mortality since 1603 there are only three years when no deaths from plague are recorded.
The disease was, as always, most destructive in squalid, dirty neighbourhoods and among the poor, so as to be called the " poor's plague."
Dr George Thomson, a chemist and a disciple of Van Helmont, followed the example, and nearly lost his life by an attack which immediately followed.4 The plague of 1665 was widely spread over England, and was 4 On the plague of 1665 see Nath.
Hodges, Loimologia sive pestis nuperae apud populum londinensem narratio (London, 1672) 8vo - in English by Quincy (London, 1720), (the chief authority); Aommoypa41a or an Experimental Relation of the last Plague in the City of London, by William Boghurst, apothecary in St Giles's-in-the-Fields (London, 1666), - a MS. in British Museum (Sloane 349), containing important details; George Thomson, Aoimotomia, or the Pest Anatomized, 8vo (London, 1666); Sydenham, " Febris pestilentialis et pestis annorum 1665-1666," Opera, ed.
After 1666 there was no epidemic of plague in London or any part of England, though sporadic cases appear in bills of mortality up to 1679; and a column filled up with " o " was left till 1703, when it finally disappeared.
The disappearance of plague in London was attributed to the Great Fire, but no such cause existed in other cities.
It has also been ascribed to quarantine, but no effective quarantine was established till 1720, so that the cessation of plague in England must be regarded as spontaneous.
A similar cessation of plague was noted soon after in the greater part of western Europe.
In the Netherlands there was plague in 1667-1669, but there are no definite notices of it after 1672.
France saw the last plague epidemic in 1668, till it reappeared in 1720.
In the years1675-1684a new plague epidemic appeared in North Africa, Turkey, Poland, Hungary, Austria and Germany, progressing generally northward.
The plague of Vienna in 1679 was very severe, causing 76,000 or probably more deaths.
Prague in 1681 lost 83,000 by plague.
Many North German cities suffered about the same time; but in 1683 the plague disappeared from Germany till the epidemic of 1707.
At the beginning of this period plague was very prevalent in Constantinople and along the Danube.
At the same time the plague spread westward from the Danube to Transylvania and Styria, and (1713) appeared in Austria and Bohemia, causing great mortality in Vienna.
Haser states that the plague disappeared everywhere in Europe after the great hurricane of the 27th of February 1714.
It thus appears that each successive invasion had a more easterly western limit, and that the gradual narrowing of the range of plague, which began in the 17th century, was still going on.
This process suffered a temporary interruption by the outbreak of plague of southern France in 1720-1722.
In 1720 Marseilles became affected with an epidemic plague, the origin of which was attributed by some to contagion through the ship of a Captain Chataud which arrived on the 10th of May 1720, from Syria, where plague at that time prevailed, though not epidemically when he sailed.
Six of the crew had died on the voyage to Leghorn, but the disease was declared not to be plague.
Cases of plague occurred, however, on the ship, and on the 22nd of June among porters unloading the cargo.
In December 1721 the plague passed away, though isolated cases occurred in 1722.
An outbreak of plague at Messina in 1743 is important, not only for its fatality, but as one of the strongest cases in favour of the theory of imported contagion.
Messina had been free from plague since 1624, and the Sicilians prided themselves on the rigour of the quarantine laws which were thought to have preserved them.
The ship and cargo were burnt, but soon after cases of a suspicious form of disease were observed in the hospital and in the poorest parts of the town; and in the summer a fearful epidemic of plague developed itself which destroyed 40,000 or 50,000 persons, and then became extinct without spreading to other parts of Sicily.
After destroying, it is said, 300,000 persons, and without being checked by any quarantine regulations, the plague died out finally in March 1771, being remarkable for its short duration and spontaneous limitation (Haser).
In another direction the plague spread over Little Russia in 1770, and desolated Kieff, while in the next year it broke out in Moscow and produced one of the most destructive epidemics of modern.
Plague appeared at Constantinople in 1802-1803, about the same time in Armenia (Kars),.
These localities are interesting, as being near those where plague appeared in 1877-1878.
In 1808 plague was at Constantinople, in 1809 at Smyrna.
In 1813 a severe plague at Bucharest is supposed to have been brought from Constantinople.
About the same time plague prevailed in Bosnia, and is supposed to have passed thence to Dalmatia in 1815.
The most northerly points reached by the plague were near Czernowitz on the frontier of Bessarabia and Bukowina, and its limitation was as before attributed to the Russian and Austrian military cordons.
In 1831 another epidemic occurred in Constantinople and Roumelia; in 1837 again in Roumelia and in Odessa - its last appearance in these regions, and the last on the European continent except an isolated outbreak in Dalmatia in 1840, and one in Constantinople in 1841.4 The plague-epidemics in Egypt between 1833 and 1845 are very important in the history of plague, since the disease was almost for the first time scientifically studied in its home by skilled European physicians, chiefly French.
In 1853 plague appeared in a district of western Arabia, the Asir country in North Yemen, and it is known to have occurred in the same district in 1815, as it did afterwards in 1874 and 187 9.
From the scantiness of population the mortality was not great, but it became clear that this is one of the endemic seats of plague.'
In June 1858 intelligence was received in Constantinople of an outbreak of disease at the small town Benghazi, in the district of Barca, province of Tripoli, North Africa, which though at first misunderstood was clearly bubonic plague.
In 1867 an outbreak of plague was reported in Mesopotamia (Irak), among the marshes of Hindieh bordering on the lower Euphrates.
But numerous cases of nonfatal mild bubonic disease (mild plague or pestis minor) occurred both before and after the epidemic, and according to Tholozan similar cases had been observed nearly every year from 1856 to 1865.8 The next severe epidemic of plague in Irak began in December 1873.
But facts collected by Tholozan show that pestis minor, or sporadic cases of true plague, had appeared in 1868 and subsequent years.
In 1877 plague also occurred at Shuster in south-west Persia, probably conveyed by pilgrims returning from Irak, and caused great mortality.
The existence of plague in Bagdad or Mesopotamia was not again announced till the year 1884, when accounts again appeared in the newspapers, and in that July the usual official statement was made that the plague had been stamped out.
The epidemic appears, however, to have died out in 1871, and no further accounts of plague there were received.
The district had suffered in the great epidemic of plague in Persia in 1829-1835.
In the winter1876-1877a disease which appears to have been plague appeared in two villages in the extreme north of the province of Khorasan, about 25 leagues from the south-east angle of the Caspian Sea.
In March 1877 plague broke out in Resht, a town of 20,000 inhabitants, in the province of Ghilan, near the Caspian Sea at its south-west angle, from which there is a certain amount of trade with Astrakhan.
In 1832 a very destructive plague had carried off half the inhabitants.
In 1877 the plague was very fatal.
In 1878 plague again occurred in Kurdistan in the district of So-uj-Bulak, said by Dr Tholozan to be the same as in the district of Mukri where it occurred in 1870-1871.
These scattered outbreaks of plague in Persian territory are the more remarkable because that country 6 Tholozan, La Peste en Turquie dans les temps modernes (Paris, 1880).
Netten Radcliffe, Report of the Medical Officer of the Privy Council, &c. (1875); also in Papers on Levantine Plague, presented to parliament (1879), p. 7.
A few cases of plague occurred in January 1877 at Baku on the west shore of the Caspian, in Russian territory.'
An outbreak of plague on European soil in1878-1879on the banks of the Volga caused a panic throughout Europe.'
In the summer of 1877 a disease prevailed in several villages in the neighbourhood of Astrakhan and in the city itself, which was clearly a mild form of plague (pestis minor).
In the other villages there were about 62 deaths from plague, and not more than two or three cases of recovery.
In consequence of the alarm excited by this appearance of plague upon European soil, most European governments sent special commissions to the spot.
It used to be held as a maxim that plague never appeared east of the Indus; nevertheless it was observed during the 19th century in more than one distinct centre in India.
The symptoms of this disease, called maha murree or mahamari by the natives, were precisely those of oriental plague.
Oriental plague was observed in the Chinese province of Yunnan from 1871, and also at Pakhoi, a port in the Tongking Gulf, in 1882 - being said to have prevailed there at least fifteen years.
In both places the symptoms were the same, of undoubted bubonic plague.
Benedictus, De observatione in pestilentia, 4to (Venice, 1 493); Nicolaus Massa, De febre pestilentia, 4to (Venice, 1556, &c.); Fioravanti, Regimento della peste, 8vo, Venice, 1556; John Woodall, The Surgeon's Mate, folio (London, 1639); Van Helmont, Tumulus pestis, 8vo (Cologne, 1644, &c.); Muratori, Trattato del governo della peste, Modena, 1714; John Howard, An Account of Lazarettoes in Europe, &c., 4to (London, 1789); Patrick Russell, A Treatise of the Plague, 4to (London, 1791); Thomas Hancock, Researches into the Laws of Pestilence, 8vo (London, 1821); Fodere, Lecons sur les epide'mies, &c., 4 vols.
Those lying most to the west were the first 4 On Indian plague, see Francis, Trans.
Radcliffe, Reports of Local Government Board (1875, 1876, 1877 and for 1879-1880); Parliamentary Papers (1879); Frederick Forbes, On Plague in North-West Provinces of India (Edinburgh, 1840) (Dissertation); Hirsch, Handbuch der historischen-geogr.
After this plague only appeared in the south-east of Europe, where in turn it gradually died away during the first half of the 19th century.
And even in the East plague was confined to more or less clearly localized epidemics; it showed no power of pandemic diffusion.
In short, if we regard the history of this disease as a whole, it appears to have lost such power from the time of the Great Plague of London in 1665, which was part of a pandemic wave, until the present day.
Emerging from the remote endemic centres to which it had retreated, plague has once more taken its place among the zymotic diseases with which Western communities have to reckon, and that which has for more than a century been little more than a name and a tradition has become the familiar object of investigation, carried on with all the ardour and all the resources of modern science.
The movements of plague cannot be followed in the same way.
What we mean is that there is evidence to show that under various names a disease identical with plague has been more or less continuously prevalent for a number of years, but how long and how continuously is not known.
Whether any of them are permanent homes of plague the evidence does not enable us to say.
In all the countries named plague appears to behave very much as it used to do in Europe from the time of the Black Death onwards.
It did not fully gather way till 1896, when plague appeared in Bombay, but our modern knowledge of the disease dates from 1894, when it attacked Hong Kong and first presented itself to accurate observation.
Plague was recognized at Hong Kong in May 1894, and there can be little doubt that it was imported from Canton, where a violent outbreak-said to have caused ioo,000 deaths-was in progress a few months earlier, being part of an extensive wave of infection which is believed to have come originally out of the province of Yunnan, one of the recognized endemic centres, and to have invaded a large number of places in that part of China, including Pakhoi and other seaports.
Plague appears to have been equally persistent and destructive on the mainland in southern China during the period indicated, but no accurate details are available.
In addition to the provinces of Yunnan, Kwang-si and Kwang-tung in southern China, plague is reported to have been present for several years in a district in Mongolia to the north of Peking, and distant about " twelve days' ride."
Japan itself has had a certain amount of imported plague, but not on a large scale.
Simpson in his Report on the Causes of the Plague in Hong Kong (1903) reports the endemicity of the plague in that colony to be maintained by (a) infection among rats often connected with infectious material in rat runs or in houses, the virus of which has not been destroyed, (b) retention of infection in houses which are rat-ridden, and (c) infected clothing of people who have been ill or died of plague.
In 310 cases of plague examined by Simpson 56% were bubonic, 40% septic and 4% pneumonic.
In 1896 plague appeared in the city of Bombay.
It is not even known when or in what part of the city it began (Condon, The Bombay Plague).
The native form of plague, known as mahamari, is confined to the southern slopes of the Himalaya.
It is at least probable from these notes that even before the undoubted outbreak, which began in Cutch in 1812, India was no stranger to epidemic plague.
The population of the city is 821,764, but during the earlier plague period large numbers fled, so that the foregoing figures do not give the true plague incidence according to population.
Not all these provinces suffered alike, but on the whole plague steadily strengthened its hold on India generally, and hardly relaxed it in any part.
The most noteworthy details available are as follows, taken from the plague mortality returns published June 1908.
Outside China and India plague has caused no great mortality in any of the countries in which it has appeared, with the exception perhaps of Arabia, about which very little is known.
The earliest victim was an attendant named Barisch, employed in the pathological laboratory of the Vienna General Hospital, and told off to look after the animals and bacteriological apparatus devoted to the investigation of plague, cultures of which had been brought from India by the medical commissioners sent by the Royal Academy of Science in 1897.
Plague was suspected, but Dr Muller, who attended the man and had studied the disease in India, would not admit the diagnosis on clinical grounds, nor was it bacteriologically established until the 19th of October.
Both died of pneumonic plague, from which also Barisch had undoubtedly suffered.
The next occurrence of special interest is the appearance of plague in Portugal in 1899, after an absence of more than 200 years.
The conclusion reached, after careful investigation by Dr Jorge, the medical officer of health, that the commencement really dated from June, is confirmed by the fact that about that time the riverside labourers, who were first affected, began to notice an illness among themselves sufficiently novel to attract their attention and that of an English shipowner, who from their description suspected plague.
Through him the suspicion was conveyed to the Medical Times and Gazette, in which the suggestion of plague at Oporto was made before any public mention of it in the town itself.
The only other appearance of plague in Europe in 1899 was on the Volga.
A commission appointed by the Russian government pronounced the disease to be undoubtedly plague, and it appears to have been very fatal.
The most interesting extensions of plague in 1900 were those in Australia and Glasgow.
In none of these, with the exception of Sydney, did plague obtain a serious hold.
In 1901 plague invaded South Africa, and obtained a distinct footing both at Cape Town and Port Elizabeth.
Nothing is known of its natural history outside the body, but on cultivation it is apt to undergo numerous involution forms. Its presence in a patient is regarded as positive diagnostic proof of plague; but failure to find or to identify it does not possess an equal negative value, and should not be too readily accepted, for many instances are recorded in which expert observers have only succeeded in demonstrating its presence after repeated attempts.
According to the Plague Research Committee of Bombay, the predisposing causes are " those leading to a lower state of vitality," of which insufficient food is probably the most important.
Very mild cases occurring in the course of an outbreak of typical plague may be explained by greater power of resistance in individuals, but the epidemic prevalence of a mild illness preceding the appearance of undoubted plague suggests some difference or modification of the exciting cause.
Of course plague does not stand alone in this respect.
Of the lower animals, mice, rats, guinea-pigs, rabbits, squirrels and monkeys are susceptible to the bacillus; horses, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and cats are more or less resistant, but cats and dogs have been known to die of plague (Oporto, Daman, Cutch and Poona).
In the Great Plague of London they were believed to carry the infection, and were killed in vast numbers.
It is necessary to say this, because a misleading use of the word " bubonic " has given rise to the erroneous idea that true plague is necessarily bubonic, and that non-bubonic types are a different disease altogether.
The word " plague " - or " pest," which is the name used in other languages - had originally a general meaning, and may have required qualifications when applied to this particular fever; but it has now become a specific label, and the prefix "bubonic" should be dropped.
There is nothing, however, in all these symptoms positively distinctive of plague, unless it is already prevalent.
He demonstrated the presence of the bacilli in the sputa, and showed that the inflammation in the lungs was set up by primary plague infection.
Similarly, the comparatively small destructiveness of modern plague, even in India, may be explained by the improved sanitary conditions and energetic measures dictated by modern knowledge.
It appears, therefore, that plague is less fatal to Europeans than cholera.
When plague is prevalent in a locality, the diagnosis is easy in fairly well-marked cases of the bubonic type, but less so in the other varieties. When it is not prevalent the diagnosis is never easy, and in pneumonic and septicaemic cases it is impossible without bacteriological assistance.
In plague countries the diseases with which it is most liable to be confounded are malaria, relapsing fever and typhus, or broncho-pneumonia in pneumonic cases.
The treatment of plague is still symptomatic. The points requiring most attention are the cerebral symptoms - headache, sleeplessness, delirium, &c. - and the state of the heart.
The ambulatory plague patient goes far to explain the spread of the disease without leaving any track.
In the Glasgow case the wife of a laundryman employed in handling plague linen contracted the disease.
Two little girls had plague at Argoncilhe, a suburb some miles from Oporto, and were the only cases which occurred in that place.
He was not ill, but several cases of plague occurred in the house in which he lodged.
This view is borne out by the experience in hospitals and with " contacts," which goes to show that with reasonable care and under fair conditions the risk of infection from ordinary plague patients is very small.
Discharges - vomited matters, sputa, urine and faeces - are possible media by which plague is spread from person to person.
Failure to catch or induce plague from clothing that has been worn by plague patients proves nothing.
Attention has been concentrated on rats, and some observers seem disposed to lay upon them the whole blame for the propagation and spread of plague, which is held to be essentially a rat-borne disease.
The susceptibility of rats has been noted from remote times and in many countries, particularly in China, but it has never attracted so much attention as during the recent prevalence of plague.
From one place after another a great mortality among rats was reported, and the broad fact that they do die of plague is incontestable.
Mortality among rats is said to precede the appearance of human plague, but the evidence of this is always retrospective and of a very loose character.
Personal connexion was traced in every case, and rats excluded; there was no mortality among them, and of 300 caught and examined none had plague (Chalmers).
Again, a comparison between ratinfested and rat-free districts in Bombay showed a much higher incidence of plague in the latter.
Healthy rats contracted plague from infected rats when the only apparent means of communication between the two was the rat flea (pulex cheopis).
In 21 experiments out of 38, 55% of healthy rats living in flea-proof cages have contracted plague after receiving fleas collected from rats either dead or dying of septicaemic plague; consequently it is proved the rat flea can transmit plague from rat to rat.
Guinea-pigs set free in plague-infected houses become infected with the rat flea and develop plague in a certain percentage.
Guinea-pigs placed in plague-infected houses do not contract plague if they are protected from fleas; those placed in cages protected by a border of sticky paper at least six inches in radius, which the fleas cannot jump over, do not contract plague; the others not similarly protected, do.
Chronic plague may prevail in rats.
Very little light has been thrown on the conditions which favour the prevalence of plague.
Plague got into this quarter, but did not spread there; on the other hand, it appeared in other and vastly superior parts of the town.
A simpler explanation is that the people live more indoors, and are so more exposed to infection during the plague season.
These are just the conditions which prevailed in Europe in the old plague days.
It may be concluded, with some confidence, from experience and theory alike, that localities where they do not prevail may fail to keep plague out, but have very little to fear from it, except the disturbance of trade caused by the traditional terrors that still cling to the name.
The risk of importing plague from India has been materially lessened by medical inspection of outward-bound ships at the principal ports.
When plague is present in a place, the measures to be taken are the usual ones for dealing with infectious disease, with some additions.
It is especially desirable for hospital and ambulance staffs to be inoculated with a vaccine prepared from sterilized cultures of plague bacillus.
At Hubli, where nearly the whole population was inoculated between the lath of May and the 27th of September ' The system of inoculation against plague with a fluid prepared from sterilized virus of the disease was introduced in India by Professor Haffkine early in 1897.
The composition of this fluid was subjected to a searching inquiry by the Indian Plague Commission, who pronounced its employment to be free from danger, and it was used on a large scale in various parts of India without producing injurious effects.
In September 1902 the standard method of manufacturing this fluid was changed by the director of the Plague Institute on his own authority, with the object of expediting the process, and thus meeting the heavy demand then being made by the Punjab government in connexion with a large scheme of inoculation.
They also expressed the opinion that carbolic acid was a valuable agent in restraining tetanus growth when added to plague prophylactic, ' and they, therefore, thought that its omission was a grave mistake.
The main authorities for the researches into plague are in the official reports of recent years from India and elsewhere.
The government decided, on the advice of the director, that only the standard fluid should be manufactured at the plague institute.
This fluid was sterilized by methods approved by the Indian Plague Commission and contained the requisite proportion of carbolic acid.
They agreed that there was strong evidence to show that " the contamination took place when the bottle was opened at Malkowal, owing to the abolition by the plague authorities of the technique prescribed by the Bombay laboratory, and to the consequent failure to sterilize the forceps which were used in opening the bottle, and which during the process were dropped on the ground "; and they complained of the inadequacy of the inquiries made by the Indian government, and called for Mr Haffkine's exoneration.
In 1858 and again in 1874 the town was devastated by plague (see also TRIPOLI and CYRENAICA).
A similar increase in virulence appears to occur in plague, where animals, especially rats and mice, seem to be affected before human beings, and not only increase the virulence of the microbes, but convey the infection.
An outbreak of the plague in 1555 caused the boys to return home, and for the next few years Joseph was his father's constant companion and amanuensis.
In 1384 a Castilian army invested Lisbon, but encountered a heroic resistance, and after five months an outbreak of plague compelled them to raise the siege.
The process of decay was hastened by frequent outbreaks of plague, sometimes followed by famine; a contemporary manuscript estimates that no fewer than 500 persons died daily in Lisbon alone during July, August and September 1569, and in some other years the joint effects of plague and famine were little less disastrous.
On the 2nd of April four commissioners were appointed to superintend the construction of the new castle ordered in the Isle of Sheppey, which when finished was called Queenborough, the purchases and payments, not the works, being under the beloved clerk, Wykeham, In this year came the second visitation of the Black Death, the Second Plague, as it was called, and carried off four bishops and several magnates, with many clerics, whose vacated preferments were poured on Wykeham.
In the last decade of the 19th century the chief discoveries were of the bacillus of influenza (1892), of the bacillus of plague (1894) and of the bacillus of dysentery (1898).
In 1430 the plague carried off a great number of the inhabitants.
On the death of the queen in 1603 he was reappointed by her successor; but he did not long enjoy the honour, for he died, probably of the plague, on the 30th of November (loth of December, N.S.) 1603, either in London or in Colchester.
The prosperity of the residency was further affected by a cattle plague in 1879, followed by a fever epidemic which carried off 50,000 people, and except in the rice season there is a considerable emigration of natives.
Calcutta and Bombay have long contested the position of the premier city of India in population and trade; but during the decade 1891-1901 the prevalence of plague in Bombay gave a considerable advantage to Calcutta, which was comparatively free from that disease.
Calcutta has been comparatively fortunate in escaping the plague.
The plague returned in 1899 and caused a heavy mortality during the early months of the following year; but the population was not demoralized, nor was trade interfered with.
Laura died of the plague on the 6th of April 1348.
Lord Canning, the governor-general, who had at first hoped that he had only to deal with isolated cases of disaffection, at last recognized that the plague was epidemic, and that only stern measures could stay it.
When the plague broke out he retired with his children to the house of Sir John Danvers in Chiswick, and for a time he disappeared so completely that a rumour arose that he was dead.
Hunger, plague, the treachery of his captains and internal discontent at last forced him to surrender (November 1405).
During the decade 1891-1901 Bengal was fortunate in escaping to a great extent the two calamities of famine and plague which afflicted central and western India.
Plague first appeared at Calcutta in a sporadic form in April 1898, but down to April of the following year the total number of deaths ascribed to plague throughout the province was less than 1000, compared with 191,000 for Bombay.
In the early months of 1901, plague again appeared in the same regions.
The number of factories increased from fifty-three in 1881 to eighty-three in 1890, and that decade saw the influx of a great industrial population from the surrounding districts; but the decade 1891-1901 witnessed at least a temporary set-back owing to the ravages caused by plague and the effects of over-production.
In addition to the actual mortality it inflicted, the plague caused an exodus of the population from the island, disorganized the labour at the docks and in the mills, and swallowed up large sums which were spent by the municipality on plague operations and sanitary improvements.
But a variety of causes set back the development of the city, notably the prevalence of plague and cholera due to the silting up of the creeks that divided its component islands; and it was not till after the amalgamation of the old and new companies in 1708 that the governor's seat was transferred from Surat to Bombay.
Bombay, however, soon recovered herself, and in 1891 was more prosperous than ever before; but during the ensuing decade great havoc was played by plague (q.v.) with both her population and her trade.
The public health is good, and fevers and plague are unknown.
It was during his papacy that the siege of Rome by Alaric (408) took place, when, according to a doubtful anecdote of Zosimus, the ravages of plague and famine were so frightful, and help seemed so far off, that papal permission was granted to sacrifice and pray to the heathen deities; the pope was, however, absent from Rome on a mission to Honorius at Ravenna at the time of the sack in 410.
It is most probable that she was invented at the time of the introduction of Asclepius, after the sufferings caused by the plague had directed special attention to sanitary matters.
The city suffered severely from plague in 1899 and 1900.
During the decade 1891-1901 the mill industry passed through a period of depression due to widespread plague and famine, but on the whole there has been a marked expansion of the trade as well as a great improvement in the class of goods produced.
During recent times the entire history of Bombay has been sadly affected by plague and famine.
Down to the end of October 1902 over 531,000 deaths had taken place due to plague.
In Nasik district, in January 1898, the native chairman of the plague committee was brutally murdered by a mob.
At such time I found the method of Infinite Series; and in summer 1665, being forced from Cambridge by the plague, I computed the area of the Hyperbola at Boothby, in Lincolnshire, to two and fifty figures by the same method."
Both in 1665 and in 1666 Trinity College was dismissed on account of the plague.
Newton must have left college before August 1665, as his name does not appear in the list of those who received extra commons on that occasion, and he tells us himself in the extract from his commonplace book already quoted that he was " forced from Cambridge by the plague " in the summer of that year.
The disease, on which the 14th century bestowed this name, was the bubonic plague, still familiar in the East.
Among the monastic orders, whose crowded common life seems to have been particularly favorable to the spread of the plague, there were cases where a whole community, from the abbot down to the novices, perished.
Jerusalem was saved eventually by a plague, which decimated the Assyrian army and obliged Sennacherib to return to Nineveh.
Identifying himself with Brahmanical orthodoxy he bitterly opposed social reforms. His violent condemnation in 1897 of the plague prevention regulations was followed by the assassination of the local plague commissioner (Mr. Rand) and a young British officer driving with him at the time.
If it worked-- and I don't know if it did-- you'd see something like the black plague in Europe, only it wouldn't kill people, just turn them into vamps, Iggy said.
But visions of gigantic piles of BB sized oats continued to plague his brain as he donned his coat and gloves to clear the steps and walk-ways of the overnight snow.
It is now known that the plague was caused by a bacillus transmitted by rat fleas.
Plague reduced the legions of Marcus Aurelius and northern barbarians took advantage.
Other infections (including brucellosis, psittacosis, plague ).
Transgenic'super fish ' could deplete natural ocean zones of all fauna and flora and'super mice ' could spread bubonic plague at will.
Apparently, rat catchers were held in high esteem in the community due to the locals ' fear of the Black Plague.
These include plague, cholera, diphtheria, yellow fever, dengue and TB.
In the past the roots were boiled in wine to make a cordial to protect against the plague.
Signal crayfish also carry crayfish plague, which is fatal to the native crayfish.
Why the Asiatic plague that nearly depopulated London a couple of centuries ago.