He died of the plague in 1669.
During the plague of A.D.
One bad plague or invading horde would leave pretty much everyone starving.
The plague does not touch him.
She raced up the steps, wondering if men who could not be trusted would plague her entire life.
The plague of 1348 marks an epoch in English agriculture.
The plague of 1665, carried hither from London, almost depopulated this village, and the name of the rector, William Mompesson, attracted wide notice on account of his brave attempts to combat the outbreak.
Local annals specially mention the plague of 1648, the flood of 1651 and the earthquake of 1829.
In 1348 the island was devastated by the plague described by Boccaccio.
But in the ensuing summer, after a terrible outbreak of plague had ravaged the crowded city, the people became thoroughly demoralized.
Bubonic plague, to be sure, is a disease.
One memorable feature was associated with 1877 in that this was the last year in which the dreaded cattle plague (rinderpest) made its appearance in England.
Most of our cases proved to be runaways or missing persons and our limitations due to non-specific known time or age of the event continued to plague us.
But Johnson, and "The Plague" and everything else must wait a few minutes this afternoon, while I say, thank you, my dear Mrs. Hutton....
We'll be friends again and you'll stop treating me like I've got the plague? he asked, half-teasing.
Pisa and Perugia were threatened with extinction, and Florence dreaded the advance of the Visconti arms, when the plague suddenly cut short his career of treachery and conquest in the year 1402.
In other words, the mercy already experienced in the removal of the plague is taken as a pledge of future grace not to stop short till all God's old promises are fulfilled.
Here occurred some of the earliest cases of the plague which spread over London in 1664-1665.
He died of the plague in the eighty-first year of his age (365).
It is the Lord's Passover; when He sees the blood He will pass over you and there will be no plague upon you.
the city lost all its privileges; repeated visitations of the plague and the horrors of the Thirty Years' War completed its ruin.
Despite the capture of the ark after the disastrous battle of Shiloh, Yahweh had in the end shown himself through a destructive plague superior in might to the Philistine Dagon.
After unsuccessful attempts to rid themselves of the mice, the farmers appealed to the United States Biological Survey, and alfalfa hay poisoned with strychnia sulphate was used successfully in the Humboldt Valley in January 1908 and in the Carson Valley, where a similar plague threatened, in April 1908.5 Minerals.
But the plague, which had carried off two of his sons and a sister, had left its mark also on Pericles himself.
In 1771 their headquarters were fixed at Moscow, in the Rogoshkiy cemetery assigned to them during the plague; here they had a monastery, seminary and consistory, until they were ejected by the emperor Nicholas I.
In August 1529 the plague known as the sweating sickness, which prevailed throughout the country, was specially severe at Cambridge, and all who had it in their power forsook the town for the country.
had been devastated by a great plague) and some of the cities.
During the disastrous plague of 1347-1348 Clement did all he could to alleviate the distress, and condemned the Flagellants and Jew-baiters.
to aid in the reform of the calendar; and there he died, most likely of the plague, on the 6th of July 1476.
c. 70) revoked all former acts, and defined disease to mean cattle plague, pleuro-pneumonia, foot-and-mouth disease, sheep-pox, sheep-scab and glanders, together with any disease which the Privy Council might by order specify.
He was carried off suddenly in his prime by the plague at Basel on the 1st of August 1541.
The religious significance of the plague of drought and locusts is expressed in ch.
6, 7); and then the great day of judgment, which had seemed to overshadow Jerusalem in the now averted plague, shall draw near with awful tokens of blood and fire and darkness.
In 1779 a rupture on this account was only averted through the mediation of the French ambassador, coupled with the fact that Turkey was in no condition to enter upon hostilities, owing to the outbreak of plague in her army.
The king is not mentioned - which on Credner's view is explained by assuming that the plague fell in the minority of Joash, when the priest Jehoiada held the reins of power - and the princes, councillors and warriors necessary to an independent state, and so often referred to by the prophets before the exile, are altogether lacking.
The churches of San Giorgio Maggiore and of the Redentore, a votive church for liberation from the plague, are both by Palladio.
4 It is hardly possible to doubt that in the original form of the rite described in Exodus the blood offering was made to the plague demon (" the destroyer ") and possessed over him a magic power of arrest.
After seeing his comrades decimated by the plague at Constantinople he resolved to change his mode of life, and, on his return to Italy, after a rigorous pilgrimage and a period of ascetic retreat, became a monk in the Cistercian abbey of Casamari.
For two years more the fighting continued with varying success, until Charles of Valois, who had been sent by Boniface to invade Sicily, was forced to sue for peace, his army being decimated by the plague, and in August 1302 the treaty of Caltabellotta was signed, by which Frederick was recognized king of Trinacria (the name Sicily was not to be used) for his lifetime, and was to marry Eleonora, the daughter of Charles II.; at his death the kingdom was to revert to the Angevins (this clause was inserted chiefly to save Charles's face), and his children would receive compensation elsewhere.
East Siberia suffers less from this plague than the marshy Baraba steppe; but on the Amur and the Sungari large gnats are an intolerable plague.
The plague of 1544 drove him to Bologna and thence to Padua as student of philosophy and medicine.
He negotiated with Alexis Comnenus at Constantinople, re-established at Nicaea some discipline among the crusaders, caused the siege of Antioch to be raised and died in that city of the plague on the 1st of August 1098.
In the first the prophet speaks in his own name, addressing himself to the people in a lively description of a present calamity caused by a terrible plague of locusts which threatens the entire destruction of the country, and appears to be the vehicle of a final consuming judgment (the day of Yahweh).
In 1522 Douglas was stricken by the plague which raged in London, and died at the house of his friend Lord Dacre.
A plague smote the city, and when it was removed to Ekron, pestilence followed in its wake.
The re-introduction of cattle plague into England in 1877 led to the passing of the Act 41 & 42 Vict.
Cattle plague, or rinderpest, has not been recorded in Great Britain since 1877.
Many of the houses are roofless and untenanted; for, after five centuries of prosperity under Venetian or Hungarian rule, an outbreak of plague in 1456 swept away the majority of the townsfolk, and ruined the survivors.
Odd noises, moving objects and lights turning on and off are said to plague the haunted building.
At least four species of fleas (including Pulex irritans) which infest the common rat are known to bite man, and are believed to be the active agents in the transmission of plague from rats to human beings.
In 1883 the veterinary department of the Privy Council - which had been constituted in 1865 when the country was ravaged by cattle plague - was abolished by order in council, and the " Agricultural Department " was substituted, but no alteration was effected in the work of the department, so far as it related to animals.
In1597-1598a terrible visitation of plague attacked the town, in which, according to an old inscription on the church, 2260 persons perished in Penrith, by which perhaps is meant the rural deanery.
The army was visited by a plague, and the fleet was prevented from sailing by the total absence of wind.
The most remarkable part of the book is the eschatological picture with which it closes; and the way in which the plague of locusts appears to be taken as foreshadowing the final judgment - the great day or assize of Yahweh, in which Israel's enemies are destroyed - is so unique as greatly to complicate the exegetical problem.
In 1632 Baldassare Longhena built the fine church of Santa Maria della Salute, also a votive church, erected by the state to commemorate the cessation of the plague of 1630.
The state has suffered severely from plague.
Galgano (infra), built in black and white marble, was begun in the early years of the 13th century, but interrupted by the plague of 1248 and wars at home and abroad, and in 1317 its walls were extended to the baptistery of San Giovanni; a further enlargement was begun in 1339 but never carried out, and a few ruined walls and arches alone remain to show the magnificence of the uncompleted design, which would have produced one of the largest churches in the-world.
In 1903 the city was devastated by an epidemic of plague.
In the 17th century the corms were worn by some of the German peasantry as a charm against the plague.
Owing to the noxious exhalations of the surrounding forests the town is so extremely unhealthy during the hot weather as to have acquired the title of the "Abode of the Plague."
places under the control of the Hospitallers, with the stipulation that the prior and servants alone shall necessarily be of German birth.(fn1) But it is amidst the privations and plague which attended the siege of Acre, during the third Crusade, that the first certain beginnings of the Order appear.
In September of the same year he was able to announce results which pointed to the means of securing immunity from the dreaded plague.
To meet this situation, the Statute of Labourers 1351) enacted that no man should refuse to work at the same rate of wages as prevailed before the plague.
Farel was called to Neuchatel in July 1538, but his position there was made untenable, though he remained at his post during a visitation of the plague.
During his reign the emperor Carus attacked the Persians and conquered Ctesiphon (283), but died by the plague.
St Sebastian is specially invoked against the plague.
Owing to the uncertainty of the periodical rains in Cutch, the country is liable to severe famines, and it has suffered greatly from plague.
Ile obtained his early education in Aberdeenshire, and at ten entered Pembroke Hall, Cambridge; after a short while he went to Paris, and, driven thence by the plague, to Louvain, whence by order of the pope he was transferred with several other Scottish students to the papal seminary at Rome.
Dipterous insects are also very numerous in species, especially in those of sanguinary habits, such as the mosquito, ilium, maroim, carapana, borochudo, &c. In some places these insects constitute a veritable plague, and the infested regions are practically uninhabitable.
The light and elegant tower (Torre del Mangla) soaring from one side of the palace was begun in 1338 and finished after 1348, and the chapel standing at its foot, raised at the expense of the Opera del Duomo as a public thank-offering after the plague of 1348, begun in 1352 and completed in 1376.
But neither earthquakes nor the plague, to which it was also peculiarly liable, could divert trade and prosperity from it.
He died of the plague in 1596, and was buried in the church of the Carmelites.
Maria della Salute was founded in 1577 to commemorate the plague, he composed a solemn mass for the occasion.
The value of such protective inoculations is demonstrated in the treatment against small-pox (Jenner), cholera, plague (Haffkine) and typhoid (Wright and Semple).
At the same time the discovery of new diseases, unknown to the ancients, and the keener attention which the great epidemics of plague caused to be paid to those already known, led to more minute study of the natural history of disease.
The plague was carefully studied by Isbrand de Diemerbroek, in his De Peste (1646), and others.
Nathaniel Hodges of London (1629-1688) in 1665 seems to have been the first who had the courage to make a post mortem inspection of a plague patient.
Some plagues, such as typhus fever, have been dispelled; others, such as enteric fever, have been almost banished from large areas; and there is much reason to hope that cholera and plague, if introduced, could not get a footing in western Europe, or in any case could be combated on scientific principles, and greatly reduced.
Diphtheria, long no doubt a plague among mankind, was not carefully described until by Pierre Bretonneau in 1826; and since his time our conception of this disease has been extended by the study of later, secondary and incidental phases of it, such as neuritis, which had always formed part of the diphtheritic series, though the connexion had not been detected.
instituted in 1350 after a severe scourge of plague (the so-called Black Death).
The preparations for the coronation of King James were interrupted by a severe visitation of the plague, which killed off as many as 30,578 persons, and it was not till March 25, 1604, that the king, the queen and Prince Henry passed triumphantly from the Tower to Westminster.
London had been ravaged by plague on many former occasions, but the pestilence that began in December 1664 lives in history as "the Plague of London."
On the 4th of September 1665 Pepys writes an interesting letter to Lady Carteret from Woolwich: " I have stayed in the city till above 7400 died in one week, and of them about 6000 of the plague, and little noise heard day or night but tolling of bells."
The plague was scarcely stayed before the whole city was in flames, a calamity of the first magnitude, but one which in the end caused much good, as the seeds of disease were destroyed, and London has never since been visited by such an epidemic. On the 2nd of September 1666 the fire broke out at one o'clock in the morning at a house in Pudding Lane.
Stow, Remarks on London and Westminster (1722); Robert Seymour (John Mottley), Survey of the Cities of London and Westminster (1 734, another edition 1753); William Maitland, History of London (1 739, other editions 1756, 1760, 1769, continued by John Entick 1775); John Entick, A New and Accurate History of London, Westminster, Southwark (1766); The City Remembrancer, Narratives of the Plague 1665, Fire 1666 and Great Storm 1703 (1769); A New and Compleat History and Survey, by a Society of Gentlemen (1770, revised by H.
1327), a confessor whose death is commemorated on the 16th of August; he is specially invoked against the plague.
Coming to Italy during an epidemic of plague, he was very diligent in tending the sick in the public hospitals at Aquapendente, Cesena and Rome, and effected many miraculous cures by entre nous, a la vie, a la mort."
of France extorted large sums from the Florentine merchants and bankers in his dominions by accusing them of usury; in 1 34 o plague and famine wrought terrible havoc in Florence, and riots again broke out between the grandi and the popolo, partly on account of the late unsuccessful wars and the unsatisfactory state of the finances.
In 1347 Florence was again stricken with famine, followed the next year by the most terrible plague it had ever experienced, which carried off three-fifths of the population (according to now threatened Florence in the person of Castruccio p Villani).
According to the legend, the town in the year 1284 was infested by a terrible plague of rats.
He greatly distinguished himself by fidelity to duty during a plague that devastated Amsterdam in 1602.
ST Catherine Of Genoa,' who belonged to the noble family of Fieschi, was born about 1447, spent her life and her means in succouring and attending on the sick, especially in the time of the plague which ravaged Genoa in 1497 and 1501, died in that city in 1510, was beatified by Clement V.
Catherine of Siena is said to have saved Father Matthew from dying of the plague, but in this case it is rather the healer than the healed who was strong in faith.
In 1636, owing to a serious visitation of the plague, 200 families were thrown out of work, and in 1687 so much had its importance declined that it was deprived of its charter.
Meanwhile party strife was stilled by an outbreak of the plague.
The plague ended, Florence was plunged in fresh troubles from Medicean intrigues, and a conspiracy for the restoration of Piero was discovered.
In 1743 the plague carried off 40,000 inhabitants.
These were The Fortunes and Misfortunes of Moll Flanders, The Journal of the Plague Year, and The History of Colonel Jack.
In the Journal of the Plague Year, more usually called, from the title of the second edition, A History of the Plague, the accuracy and apparent veracity of the details is so great that many persons have taken it for an authentic record, while others have contended for the existence of such a record as its basis.
and ii., Colonel Jack, The Cavalier, Duncan Campbell, The Plague, Everybody's Business, Mrs Veal, The Shortest Way with Dissenters, Giving Alms no Charity, The True-Born Englishman, Hymn to the Pillory, and very copious extracts from The Complete English Tradesman.
He had an oracle at Orchomenus, but during a plague it became L silent and remained so in Plutarch's time (De Defectu Oraculorum, 44).
The numbers rose in 1601 to 33,000; in 1614 to 41,084; in 1632 to 50,113; in 1667 to 55,155; :n 1667 11,000 are said to have died of plague out of the total population.
Yet the horrors which it wrought hardly checked the magnificent revels of Edward's court, and neither the plague nor the truce stayed the course of the French war, though what fighting there was was indecisive and on a small scale.
Flying from the country, he encountered the plague at Pinczoff; three of his four children were carried off; and he himself, worn out by age and misfortune, died in solitude and obscurity at Schlakau in Moravia, about the end of 1564.
The year 1666 (called the annus mirabilis, for it included the plague and the fire of London) was marked by fierce fighting and changes of fortune.
The French failed to keep tryst, and De Ruyter was watched by Rupert, who was now in sole command, Monk having been recalled to London to take command amid the confusion caused by the fire and the plague.
The vine-growers were at their wits' end to account for this new plague, which threatened to be even more costly than the oidium.
Locusts occasion much damage, and ants of various kinds are often a plague.
He regularly spent a large income in charity, and he laboured strenuously to stay the progress of the plague and famine which broke out in 1504.
The upper town preserves some part of the fortifications which protected it when, previous to the plague of 1630, the city had upwards of 30,000 inhabitants.
Towards the end of September he fell a victim to the plague which was ravaging the land, and his illness sobered his spirit and brought into his message a deeper note than that merely moral and common-sense one with which, as a polite humanist, he had hitherto been content.
Fortunately mosquitoes are not a serious plague outside a few marshy localities.
An altar was built having an edge double the length of the original; but the plague was unabated, the oracles not having been obeyed.
Locusts are an intermittent plague.
The statute of 1630 forbidding the exportation of wool, followed by the Plague of 1665, led to a serious trade depression, while the former enactment resulted in the vast smuggling trade which spread along the coast, 40,000 packs of wool being smuggled to Calais from Kent and Sussex in two years.
The fortifications of Anklam were dismantled in 1762 and have not since been restored, although the old walls are still standing; formerly, however, it was a town of considerable military importance, which suffered severely during the Thirty Years' and the Seven Years' Wars; and this fact, together with the repeated ravages of fire and of the plague, has made its history more eventful than is usually the case with towns of the same size.
When the plague drove him from Paris, he went to Orleans or Tournehem or St.
After middle life he suffered from the stone, not to mention the common plague of studious men, an irritable mucous membrane.
The intolerance shown to the Protestants, the troubles of the Thirty Years' War, the plague and other causes, soon conspired to change this state of affairs, and in the 18th century the population sank to 12,000.
During the great plague Earle attended the king and queen at Oxford, and there he died on the 17th of November 1665.
In June 1770 Frederick surrounded those of the Polish provinces he coveted with a military cordon, ostensibly to keep out the cattle plague.
At Florence, whither the council of Ferrara had been transferred on account of an outbreak of the plague, was effected in July 1439 a union with the Greeks, which, as the result of political necessities, proved but temporary.
Hong Kong was severely affected, and has never since been entirely free from plague.
Both had been carried off by plague.
He died of the plague on the 18th of April 1530, and was buried at Marburg.
A rudely carved stone lion, which lies on the roadside close to the southern extremity of the city, and by some is supposed to have formed part of a building of the ancient city, is locally regarded as a talisman against famine, plague, cold, &c., placed there by Pliny, who is popularly known as the sorcerer Balinas (a corruption of Plinius).
The various species of rapacious animals are disappearing, together with the colonies of marmots; the insectivores are also becoming scarce in consequence of the destruction of insects; while vermin, such as the suslik, or pouched marmot (Spermophilus), and the destructive insects which are a scourge to agriculture, become a real plague.
He stuck to his post throughout the plague year, contenting himself with sending his family away to Wotton.
Between 1536 and 1562 Turin was occupied by the French, and in 1630 it lost 8000 of its citizens by the plague.
Forced to leave his native city in 1668 in consequence of a plague, he settled in Paris, where he resided until his death on the 23rd of October 1688.
It may be that his early death, during the great plague of 1350, at the siege of Gibraltar, only averted a desperate struggle with his legitimate son, though it was a misfortune in that it removed a ruler of eminent capacity, who understood his subjects well enough not to go too far.
Since 1900 there have been several mild outbreaks of bubonic plague.
In the west the Herauch, a thick fog arising from the burning of the moors, is a plague of frequent occurrence.
This dramatic representation of the sufferings of Christ is not a survival of a medieval mystery or miracleplay, but took its rise from a vow made by the inhabitants in 1633, with the hope of staying a plague then raging.
The experience of the French in Algiers shows that it is possible to stamp out a plague of locusts, such as is the greatest danger to the farmer in many parts of Argentina.
As vicar of St Andrewthe-Great, Cambridge, he was conspicuous for his devoted attention to the sufferers from the plague.
In the 18th century it is said to have contained 20,000 inhabitants, but it was almost depopulated by plague in 1814.
He died of the plague at Deventer in 1384, at the age of 44.
A special point of attaction in this jubilee of 1450 was the canonization of Bernardino of Siena; and, in spite of the plague which broke out in Rome, the celebrations ran a brilliant course.
He was afterwards (1662) preferred to the rectory of-St Paul's, Covent Garden, London, where he continued to labour during the plague.
Plague broke out, the missionary establishment was broken up, and in 1832 Kitto returned to England.
Its already evil reputation has been increased of late years by the fact that it is one of the chief disseminators of bubonic plague.
In 1471, on the outbreak of the plague, he removed to Rome, where he continued to act as a teacher of Greek till his death.
Perth was visited by plague in 1512, 1585-1587, 1608 and 1645; by cholera in 1832; and the floods of 1210, 1621, 1740, 1 773 and 1814 were exceptionally severe.
The plague visited Bucharest in" 1718, 1 73 8, 1 793, when an earthquake destroyed a number of old buildings, and in 1813, when 70,000 of the inhabitants died in six weeks.
The appearance of the plague at Padua obliged him to retire to his native city, whence he was, shortly afterwards, called to act as tutor to Ferrante (Ferdinand) Gonzaga, from whom he received the rich abbey of Guastalla.
died of the plague that was raging in the city; whereupon the clergy and people unanimously chose Gregory as his successor.
Maria in Trivio, erected in 1353 in gratitude for the liberation of the city from a plague which devastated it in 1348, is in the style of contemporary brick campanili in Rome, but built mainly of black selce, with white marble columns at the windows.
This proved to be his son, whom he slew in accordance with his vow; whereupon a plague broke out in the island, and Idomeneus was driven out.
His friend and master, after about two years' tenure of the earldom of Devonshire, died of the plague in June 1628, and the affairs of the family were so disordered financially that the widowed countess was left with the task of righting them in the boyhood of the third earl.
In that year the Great Fire of London, following on the Great Plague, roused the superstitious fears of the people, and the House of Commons embodied the general feeling in a bill against atheism and profaneness.
Ricotti, "no citizens in the cities, neither man nor beast in the fields, all the land forest-clad and wild; one sees no houses, for most of them are burnt, and of nearly all the castles only the walls are visible; of the inhabitants, once so numerous, some have died of the plague or of hunger, some by the sword, and some have fled elsewhere preferring to beg their bread abroad rather than support misery at home which is worse than death."
Cholera is endemic in some parts of the vilayet, and before 1875 the same was true of the bubonic plague.
He died of the plague at Lambeth on the 26th of August 1349, forty days after his consecration.
The power of the Magyars w~s not indeed destroyed, but it was crippled, and the way was prepared for the effective liberation of Germany from an intolerable plague.
In 1576, when Milan was visited by the plague, he went about giving directions for accommodating the sick and burying the dead, avoiding no danger and sparing no expense.
The terrible plague of 1348, wars with Genoa, against whom the great naval victory of Lojera was won in 1353, many treaties, and the subjugation of the seventh revolt of Zara, are the chief events of his reign.
87) that 4400 died in the great plague.
it meant the ruin of the landed class, it tended co spoil the moral of those who from the walls of Athens annually watched the wasting of their homesteads, and it involved the many perils of an overcrowded city - a peril increased by, if not also the cause of, the plague.
Shortly after he entered Attica plague broke out in Athens, borne thither by traders from Carthage or Egypt (Holm, Greek History, ii.
But the plague went with them and no results were achieved.
In 429 the Peloponnesians were deterred by the plague from invading Attica and laid siege to Plataea in the interests of Thebes.
After the capture of Ravenna in 540 Procopius seems to have returned to Constantinople, since he minutely describes the great plague of 542 (op. cit.
These eight books of Histories, although mainly occupied with military matters, contain notices of some of the more important domestic events, such as the Nika insurrection at Constantinople in 532, the plague in 542, the conspiracy of Artabenes in 548.
Plague, formerly one of the great scourges of the country, seems to have been stamped out, the last visitation having been in 1844, but cholera epidemics occasionally occur.i Cholera rarely extends south of Cairo.
i A vivid description of Cairo during the prevalence of plague in 1835 will be found in A.
In January 1791 a terrible plague began to rage in Cairo and elsewhere in Egypt, to which Ismail Bey and most of his family fell victims. Owing to the need for competent rulers IbrghIm and Murad Bey were sent for from Upper Egypt and resumed their dual government.
of the country 0 EgyP. was deplorable; in 1842 a murrain of cattle was followed by a destructive Nile flood; in 1843 there was a plague of locusts, whole villages were depopulated.
10), (f) the institution of the Passover and of the Feast of Unleavened Cakes, the last plague, and Israel's departure from Egypt (xii.
The name of Aaron has certainly been introduced by a later hand in J's account of the plague of frogs (viii.
This is succeeded by a plague of frogs.
i f.); (2) on each occasion he makes a formal demand; (3) on Pharaoh's refusal the plague is announced, and takes place at a fixed time without any human intervention; (4) when the plague is sent, Pharaoh sends for Moses and entreats his intercession, promising in most cases to accede in part to his request; when the plague is removed, however, the promise is left unfulfilled, the standing phrase being "and Pharaoh's heart was heavy (7f)," or "and Pharaoh made heavy (-r»n) his heart"; (5) the plagues do not affect the children of Israel in Goshen.
12, 13a, 14a, 15b) is more fragmentary, having been doubtless superseded in most cases by the fuller and more graphic narrative of J, but the plague of darkness (x.
Throughout the P sections Aaron is associated with Moses, and the regular command given to the latter is "Say unto Aaron": no demand is ever made to Pharaoh, and the description of the plague is quite short.
The Last Plague, the Deliverance from Egypt, the Institution of the Passover and of the Feast of Unleavened Cakes, the Consecration of the First-born.-This section presents the usual phenomena of a composite narrative, viz.
Pestilences and conflagrations were its ruin; the plague of 1566 wrought great havoc among its inhabitants, and that of 1600 destroyed 15,000.
The empire was only saved by an outbreak of plague amongst the invaders and the bravery of the Bulgarian peasants.
The plague devastated the badly drained towns, new diseases spread death, the fear of the Turks was permanent.
Many victims of the plague were buried in a pit neighbouring to these fields, near the junction of Goswell Road and Old Street.
Between 1826 and 1835 as many as 1562 Thugs were apprehended indifferent parts of British India, and by the evidence of approvers the moral plague spot was gradually stamped out.
There were in addition several epidemics of small-pox and plague, and from about 1880 onward the continual decline in the price of sugar seriously affected the islanders, especially the Creole population.
There he died, probably from the plague, though Merwan was accused of having killed him.
The god-hero came from Epidaurus to the shrine at Sicyon in the form of a serpent, and the serpent sent from Epidaurus to stay a plague at Rome remained there, and a temple was erected to Aesculapius.
PLAGUE (in Gr.
pestis, pestilentia), in medicine, a term given to any epidemic disease causing a great mortality, and used in this sense by Galen and the a ncient medical writers, but now confined to a special disease, otherwise called Oriental, Levantine, or Bubonic Plague, which may be shortly defined a specific infectious fever, one variety being characterized by buboes (glandular swellings) and carbuncles.
There is a certain resemblance between all these, but they were very different from Oriental plague.
"Plague" was formerly divided into two chief varieties: (1) mild plague, pestis minor, larval plague (Radcliffe), peste fruste, in which the special symptoms are accompanied by little fever or general disturbance; and (2) ordinary epidemic or severe plague, pestis major, in which the general disturbance is very severe.
Cases which are rapidly fatal from the general disturbance without marked local symptoms have been distinguished as fulminant plague (pestis siderans, peste foudroyonte).
The first historical notice of the plague is contained in a fragment of the physician Rufus of Ephesus, who lived in the time of Trajan, preserved in the Collections of Oribasius.
(2) Rufus speaks of the buboes called pestilential as being specially fatal, and as being found chiefly in Libya, Egypt and Syria, He refers to the testimony of a physician Dionysius, who lived probably in the 3rd century B.C. or earlier, as and to Dioscorides and Posidonius, who fully described these buboes in a work on the plague which prevailed in Libya in their time.
Whatever the precise date of these physicians may have been, this passage shows the antiquity of the plague in northern Africa., which for centuries was considered as its home.
The great plague referred to by Livy (lx.
It is not till the 6th century of our era, in the reign of Justinian, that we find bubonic plague in Europe, a s a part of the great cycle of pestilence, accompanied by extraordinary natural phenomena, which lasted fifty years, and is described with a singular misunderstanding of medical terms by Gibbon in his forty-third chapter.
(3) The plague of Justinian began at Pelusium in Egypt in A.D.
542; it spread over Egypt, and in the same or the next year passed to Constantinople, where it carried off io,000 persons in one day, with all the symptoms of bubonic plague.
Whether the numerous pestilences recorded in the 7th century were the plague cannot now be said; but it is possible the pestilences in England chronicled by Bede in the years 664, 672, 679 and 683 may have been of this disease, especially as in 690 pestis inguinaria is again recorded in Rome.
Whether in all the pestilences known by this name the disease was really the same may admit of doubt, but it is clear that in some at least it was the bubonic plague.
Contemporary observers agree that the disease was introduced from the East; and one eyewitness, Gabriel de Mussis, an Italian lawyer, traced, or indeed accompanied, the march of the plague from the Crimea (whither it was said to have been introduced from Tartary) to Genoa, where with a handful of survivors of a Genoese expedition he landed probably at the end of the year 1347.
The nature of this pestilence has been a matter of much controversy, and some have doubted its being truly the plague.
But when the symptoms are fully described they seem to justify this conclusion, one character only being thought to make a distinction between this and Oriental plague, viz.
Moreover, as this complication was a marked feature in certain epidemics of plague in India, the hypothesis has been framed by Hirsch that a special variety of plague, pestis indica, still found in India, is that which overran the world in the 14th century.
plague epidemics, even in the latest, that in Russia in 1878-1879, and, moreover, according to the latest accounts, are not a special feature of Indian plague.
398) " haemorrhage is not an ordinary accompaniment " of Indian plague, though when seen it is in the form of haemoptysis.
It seems, therefore, impossible to make a special variety of Indian plague, or to refer the black death to any such special form.
In the 15th century the plague recurred frequently in nearly all parts of Europe.
In 1438-1439 the plague was in Germany, and its occurrence at Basel was described by Aeneas Sylvius, afterwards Pope Pius II.
In 1448-1450 Italy (Kircher), Germany (Lersch, from old chronicles), France and Spain, were ravaged by a plague supposed to have arisen in Asia, scarcely less destructive than the black death.
England was probably seldom quite free from plague, but the next great outbreak is recorded in 1472 and following years.
In 1466, 40,000 persons died of plague in Paris; in1477-1485the cities of northern Italy were devastated, and in 1485 Brussels.
(1499-1500) a severe plague in London caused the king to retire to Calais.
The 16th century was not more free from plague than the 15th.
Simultaneously with a terrible pestilence which is reported to have nearly depopulated China, plague prevailed over Germany, Holland, Italy and Spain, in the first decade of the century, and revived at various times in the first half.
In 1529 there was plague in Edinburgh; in London in 1 537- 1 539, and again 1547-1548; and also in the north of England, though probably not absent before.
Some of the epidemics of this period in Italy and Germany are known by the accounts of eminent physicians, as Vochs, Fracastor, Mercurialis, Borgarucci, Ingrassia, Massaria, Amici, &c., (3) whose writings are important because the question of contagion first began to be raised, and also plague had to be distinguished from typhus fever, which began in this century to appear in Europe.
In Paris about this time plague was an everyday occurrence, of which some were less afraid than of a headache (Borgarucci).
In 1570, 200,000 persons died in Moscow and the neighbourhood, in 1572, 50,000 at Lyons; in 1568 and 1574 plague was at Edinburgh, and in 1570 at Newcastle.
When, however, in 1575 a new wave of plague passed over Europe, its origin was referred to Constantinople, whence it was said to have spread by sea to Malta, Sicily and Italy, and by land through the Austrian territories to Germany.
Others contended that the disease originated locally; and, indeed, considering previous history, no importation of plague would seem necessary to explain its presence in Europe.
In 1585 Breslau witnessed the most destructive plague known in its history.
The great plague of 1592 in London seems to have been a part of the same epidemic, which was hardly extinguished by the end of the century, and is noted in London again in 1599.
On the whole, this century shows a decrease of plague in Europe.
In the first half of the 17th century plague was still prevalent in Europe, though considerably less so than in the middle ages.
The works of English physicians of this period are of little medical value; but Lodge's Treatise of the Plague (London, 1603) deserves mention.
in 1603 was marked by a very destructive plague which killed 38,000 in London.
In the same year (1603) one million persons are said to have died of plague in Egypt.
This plague is said to have lasted eight years in London.
At all events in 1609 we have the second great plague year, with a mortality of 11,785.
After this there is a remission till about 1620, when plague again began to spread in northern Europe, especially Germany and Holland, which was at that time ravaged by war.
In 1625 (the year of the siege of Breda in Holland) is the third great London plague with 35,417 deaths - though the year 1624 was remarkably exempt, and 1626 nearly so.
In 1630 was the great plague of Milan, described by Ripamonti.
(1) In 1632 a severe epidemic, apparently plague, was in Derbyshire.
1636 is the fourth great plague year in London with a mortality of 20,400, and even in the next year 3082 persons died of the same disease.
The same year 7000 out of 20,000 inhabitants of Newcastle died of plague; in 2635 it was at Hull.
About the same time, 1635-1637, plague was prevalent in Holland, and the epidemic of Nijmwegen is celebrated as having been described by Diemerbroeck, whose work (Tractatus de peste, 4to, 1641-1665) is one of the most important on the subject.
The army diseases of the Civil Wars were chiefly typhus and malarial fevers, but plague was not unknown among them, as at Wallingford Castle (Willis, " Of Feavers," Works, ed.
From this time till 1664 little was heard of plague in England, though it did not cease on the Continent.
The preceding enumeration will have prepared the reader to view the great plague of1664-1665in its true relation to others, and not as an isolated phenomenon.
The preceding years had been unusually free from plague, and it was not mentioned in the bills of mortality till in the autumn of 1664 (Nov.
The total number of deaths from plague in that year, according to the bills of mortality, was 68,596, in a population estimated at 460,000, 3 out of whom two-thirds are supposed to have fled to escape the contagion.
This number is likely to be rather too low than too high, since of the 6432 deaths from spotted fever many were probably really from plague, though not declared so to avoid painful restrictions.
In December there was a sudden fall in the mortality which continued through the winter; but in 1666 nearly 2000 deaths from plague are recorded.
For this period see Index to Remembrancia in Archives of City of London 1579-1664 (London, 2878); Richardson, Plague and Pestilence in North of England (Newcastle, 1852).
According to some authorities, especially Hodges, the plague was imported into London by bales of merchandise from Holland, which came originally from the Levant; according to others it was introduced by Dutch prisoners of war; but Boghurst regarded it as of local origin.
It is in favour of the theory that it spread by some means from Holland that plague had been all but extinct in London for some seventeen years, and prevailed in Holland in 1663-1664.
But from its past history and local conditions, London might well be deemed capable of producing such an epidemic. In the bills of mortality since 1603 there are only three years when no deaths from plague are recorded.
The disease was, as always, most destructive in squalid, dirty neighbourhoods and among the poor, so as to be called the " poor's plague."
Dr George Thomson, a chemist and a disciple of Van Helmont, followed the example, and nearly lost his life by an attack which immediately followed.4 The plague of 1665 was widely spread over England, and was 4 On the plague of 1665 see Nath.
Hodges, Loimologia sive pestis nuperae apud populum londinensem narratio (London, 1672) 8vo - in English by Quincy (London, 1720), (the chief authority); Aommoypa41a or an Experimental Relation of the last Plague in the City of London, by William Boghurst, apothecary in St Giles's-in-the-Fields (London, 1666), - a MS. in British Museum (Sloane 349), containing important details; George Thomson, Aoimotomia, or the Pest Anatomized, 8vo (London, 1666); Sydenham, " Febris pestilentialis et pestis annorum 1665-1666," Opera, ed.
Greenhill, p. 96 (London, 2844); Collection of Scarce Pieces on the Plague in 1665 (London, 1721), 8vo; Defoe's fascinating Journal of a Citizen, which should be read and admired as a fiction, but accepted with caution as history; T.
After 1666 there was no epidemic of plague in London or any part of England, though sporadic cases appear in bills of mortality up to 1679; and a column filled up with " o " was left till 1703, when it finally disappeared.
The disappearance of plague in London was attributed to the Great Fire, but no such cause existed in other cities.
It has also been ascribed to quarantine, but no effective quarantine was established till 1720, so that the cessation of plague in England must be regarded as spontaneous.
A similar cessation of plague was noted soon after in the greater part of western Europe.
In the Netherlands there was plague in 1667-1669, but there are no definite notices of it after 1672.
France saw the last plague epidemic in 1668, till it reappeared in 1720.
In the years1675-1684a new plague epidemic appeared in North Africa, Turkey, Poland, Hungary, Austria and Germany, progressing generally northward.
The plague of Vienna in 1679 was very severe, causing 76,000 or probably more deaths.
Prague in 1681 lost 83,000 by plague.
Many North German cities suffered about the same time; but in 1683 the plague disappeared from Germany till the epidemic of 1707.
At the beginning of this period plague was very prevalent in Constantinople and along the Danube.
At the same time the plague spread westward from the Danube to Transylvania and Styria, and (1713) appeared in Austria and Bohemia, causing great mortality in Vienna.
Haser states that the plague disappeared everywhere in Europe after the great hurricane of the 27th of February 1714.
It thus appears that each successive invasion had a more easterly western limit, and that the gradual narrowing of the range of plague, which began in the 17th century, was still going on.
This process suffered a temporary interruption by the outbreak of plague of southern France in 1720-1722.
In 1720 Marseilles became affected with an epidemic plague, the origin of which was attributed by some to contagion through the ship of a Captain Chataud which arrived on the 10th of May 1720, from Syria, where plague at that time prevailed, though not epidemically when he sailed.
Six of the crew had died on the voyage to Leghorn, but the disease was declared not to be plague.
Cases of plague occurred, however, on the ship, and on the 22nd of June among porters unloading the cargo.
In December 1721 the plague passed away, though isolated cases occurred in 1722.
An outbreak of plague at Messina in 1743 is important, not only for its fatality, but as one of the strongest cases in favour of the theory of imported contagion.
Messina had been free from plague since 1624, and the Sicilians prided themselves on the rigour of the quarantine laws which were thought to have preserved them.
The ship and cargo were burnt, but soon after cases of a suspicious form of disease were observed in the hospital and in the poorest parts of the town; and in the summer a fearful epidemic of plague developed itself which destroyed 40,000 or 50,000 persons, and then became extinct without spreading to other parts of Sicily.
Spread of Plague from the East.
- Independent of the episodes of Marseilles and Messina, the spread of plague from the East continued to exhibit the above-mentioned law of limitation.
In 1 7551 757 plague prevailed in parts of European Turkey, whence it on one occasion extended into Transylvania, in the neighbourhood of Cronstadt, where it was checked (25.5° E.).3 In 1770 a destructive plague arose in Moldavia during the RussoTurkish War, and shortly afterwards in Wallachia, apparently endemic in the former country at least.
After destroying, it is said, 300,000 persons, and without being checked by any quarantine regulations, the plague died out finally in March 1771, being remarkable for its short duration and spontaneous limitation (Haser).
In another direction the plague spread over Little Russia in 1770, and desolated Kieff, while in the next year it broke out in Moscow and produced one of the most destructive epidemics of modern.
Plague appeared at Constantinople in 1802-1803, about the same time in Armenia (Kars),.
These localities are interesting, as being near those where plague appeared in 1877-1878.
6 The plague remained in the Caucasus and Georgia till 1819 at least.
In 1808 plague was at Constantinople, in 1809 at Smyrna.
In 1813 a severe plague at Bucharest is supposed to have been brought from Constantinople.
About the same time plague prevailed in Bosnia, and is supposed to have passed thence to Dalmatia in 1815.
The most northerly points reached by the plague were near Czernowitz on the frontier of Bessarabia and Bukowina, and its limitation was as before attributed to the Russian and Austrian military cordons.
In 1831 another epidemic occurred in Constantinople and Roumelia; in 1837 again in Roumelia and in Odessa - its last appearance in these regions, and the last on the European continent except an isolated outbreak in Dalmatia in 1840, and one in Constantinople in 1841.4 The plague-epidemics in Egypt between 1833 and 1845 are very important in the history of plague, since the disease was almost for the first time scientifically studied in its home by skilled European physicians, chiefly French.
In 1853 plague appeared in a district of western Arabia, the Asir country in North Yemen, and it is known to have occurred in the same district in 1815, as it did afterwards in 1874 and 187 9.
From the scantiness of population the mortality was not great, but it became clear that this is one of the endemic seats of plague.'
In June 1858 intelligence was received in Constantinople of an outbreak of disease at the small town Benghazi, in the district of Barca, province of Tripoli, North Africa, which though at first misunderstood was clearly bubonic plague.
The disease did not spread, and ceased in the autumn, to 1 Faulkner, On the Plague in Malta (London, 1820), 8vo; J.
Tully, History of the Plague in Malta, Gozo, Corfu and Cephalonia (London, 1821), 8vo; White, Treatise on the Plague (at Corfu) (London 1847); Calvert, " On the Plague in Malta, 1813," Med.-Chi.
In the autumn of 1873 it returned, but came again to a spontaneous termination.6 After the epidemic of Benghazi in 1856-1859, plague was next heard of in the district of Maku, in the extreme north-west of Persia in November 1863.
In 1867 an outbreak of plague was reported in Mesopotamia (Irak), among the marshes of Hindieh bordering on the lower Euphrates.
But numerous cases of nonfatal mild bubonic disease (mild plague or pestis minor) occurred both before and after the epidemic, and according to Tholozan similar cases had been observed nearly every year from 1856 to 1865.8 The next severe epidemic of plague in Irak began in December 1873.
But facts collected by Tholozan show that pestis minor, or sporadic cases of true plague, had appeared in 1868 and subsequent years.
In 1877 plague also occurred at Shuster in south-west Persia, probably conveyed by pilgrims returning from Irak, and caused great mortality.
The existence of plague in Bagdad or Mesopotamia was not again announced till the year 1884, when accounts again appeared in the newspapers, and in that July the usual official statement was made that the plague had been stamped out.
The epidemic appears, however, to have died out in 1871, and no further accounts of plague there were received.
The district had suffered in the great epidemic of plague in Persia in 1829-1835.
In the winter1876-1877a disease which appears to have been plague appeared in two villages in the extreme north of the province of Khorasan, about 25 leagues from the south-east angle of the Caspian Sea.
In March 1877 plague broke out in Resht, a town of 20,000 inhabitants, in the province of Ghilan, near the Caspian Sea at its south-west angle, from which there is a certain amount of trade with Astrakhan.
In 1832 a very destructive plague had carried off half the inhabitants.
In 1877 the plague was very fatal.
In 1878 plague again occurred in Kurdistan in the district of So-uj-Bulak, said by Dr Tholozan to be the same as in the district of Mukri where it occurred in 1870-1871.
These scattered outbreaks of plague in Persian territory are the more remarkable because that country 6 Tholozan, La Peste en Turquie dans les temps modernes (Paris, 1880).
Netten Radcliffe, Report of the Medical Officer of the Privy Council, &c. (1875); also in Papers on Levantine Plague, presented to parliament (1879), p. 7.
9 See his report cited by Radcliffe, Papers on Levantine Plague (1879).
had been generally noted for its freedom from plague (as compared with Asiatic Turkey and the Levant).
A few cases of plague occurred in January 1877 at Baku on the west shore of the Caspian, in Russian territory.'
An outbreak of plague on European soil in1878-1879on the banks of the Volga caused a panic throughout Europe.'
In the summer of 1877 a disease prevailed in several villages in the neighbourhood of Astrakhan and in the city itself, which was clearly a mild form of plague (pestis minor).
from Astrakhan on the right bank of the Volga, which seem to have puzzled the physicians who first observed them, but on the 30th of November were recognized as being but the same mild plague as had been observed the year before near Astrakhan by Dr Ddppner, chief medical officer of the Cossacks of Astrakhan.
In the other villages there were about 62 deaths from plague, and not more than two or three cases of recovery.
In consequence of the alarm excited by this appearance of plague upon European soil, most European governments sent special commissions to the spot.
It used to be held as a maxim that plague never appeared east of the Indus; nevertheless it was observed during the 19th century in more than one distinct centre in India.
The symptoms of this disease, called maha murree or mahamari by the natives, were precisely those of oriental plague.
Oriental plague was observed in the Chinese province of Yunnan from 1871, and also at Pakhoi, a port in the Tongking Gulf, in 1882 - being said to have prevailed there at least fifteen years.
In both places the symptoms were the same, of undoubted bubonic plague.
In 1880 therefore plague existed or had existed within ten years, in the following parts of the world: (I) Benghazi, Africa; (2) Persian Kurdistan; (3) Irak, on the Tigris and Euphrates; (4) the Asir country, western Arabia; (5) on the lower Volga, Russia; (6) northern Persia and the shores of the Caspian; (7) Kumaon and Gurhwal, India; (8) Yunnan and Pakhoi, China.
Benedictus, De observatione in pestilentia, 4to (Venice, 1 493); Nicolaus Massa, De febre pestilentia, 4to (Venice, 1556, &c.); Fioravanti, Regimento della peste, 8vo, Venice, 1556; John Woodall, The Surgeon's Mate, folio (London, 1639); Van Helmont, Tumulus pestis, 8vo (Cologne, 1644, &c.); Muratori, Trattato del governo della peste, Modena, 1714; John Howard, An Account of Lazarettoes in Europe, &c., 4to (London, 1789); Patrick Russell, A Treatise of the Plague, 4to (London, 1791); Thomas Hancock, Researches into the Laws of Pestilence, 8vo (London, 1821); Fodere, Lecons sur les epide'mies, &c., 4 vols.
- The most striking feature of the early history of plague summarized above is the gradual retrocession of plague from the west, after a series of exceedingly destructive outbreaks extending over several centuries, and its eventual disappearance from Europe.
Those lying most to the west were the first 4 On Indian plague, see Francis, Trans.
Radcliffe, Reports of Local Government Board (1875, 1876, 1877 and for 1879-1880); Parliamentary Papers (1879); Frederick Forbes, On Plague in North-West Provinces of India (Edinburgh, 1840) (Dissertation); Hirsch, Handbuch der historischen-geogr.
After this plague only appeared in the south-east of Europe, where in turn it gradually died away during the first half of the 19th century.
And even in the East plague was confined to more or less clearly localized epidemics; it showed no power of pandemic diffusion.
In short, if we regard the history of this disease as a whole, it appears to have lost such power from the time of the Great Plague of London in 1665, which was part of a pandemic wave, until the present day.
Emerging from the remote endemic centres to which it had retreated, plague has once more taken its place among the zymotic diseases with which Western communities have to reckon, and that which has for more than a century been little more than a name and a tradition has become the familiar object of investigation, carried on with all the ardour and all the resources of modern science.
The movements of plague cannot be followed in the same way.
What we mean is that there is evidence to show that under various names a disease identical with plague has been more or less continuously prevalent for a number of years, but how long and how continuously is not known.
Whether any of them are permanent homes of plague the evidence does not enable us to say.
In all the countries named plague appears to behave very much as it used to do in Europe from the time of the Black Death onwards.
It did not fully gather way till 1896, when plague appeared in Bombay, but our modern knowledge of the disease dates from 1894, when it attacked Hong Kong and first presented itself to accurate observation.
Plague was recognized at Hong Kong in May 1894, and there can be little doubt that it was imported from Canton, where a violent outbreak-said to have caused ioo,000 deaths-was in progress a few months earlier, being part of an extensive wave of infection which is believed to have come originally out of the province of Yunnan, one of the recognized endemic centres, and to have invaded a large number of places in that part of China, including Pakhoi and other seaports.
Plague appears to have been equally persistent and destructive on the mainland in southern China during the period indicated, but no accurate details are available.
In addition to the provinces of Yunnan, Kwang-si and Kwang-tung in southern China, plague is reported to have been present for several years in a district in Mongolia to the north of Peking, and distant about " twelve days' ride."
Japan itself has had a certain amount of imported plague, but not on a large scale.
Simpson in his Report on the Causes of the Plague in Hong Kong (1903) reports the endemicity of the plague in that colony to be maintained by (a) infection among rats often connected with infectious material in rat runs or in houses, the virus of which has not been destroyed, (b) retention of infection in houses which are rat-ridden, and (c) infected clothing of people who have been ill or died of plague.
In 310 cases of plague examined by Simpson 56% were bubonic, 40% septic and 4% pneumonic.
In 1896 plague appeared in the city of Bombay.
It is not even known when or in what part of the city it began (Condon, The Bombay Plague).
The native form of plague, known as mahamari, is confined to the southern slopes of the Himalaya.
It is at least probable from these notes that even before the undoubted outbreak, which began in Cutch in 1812, India was no stranger to epidemic plague.
The population of the city is 821,764, but during the earlier plague period large numbers fled, so that the foregoing figures do not give the true plague incidence according to population.
Not all these provinces suffered alike, but on the whole plague steadily strengthened its hold on India generally, and hardly relaxed it in any part.
The most noteworthy details available are as follows, taken from the plague mortality returns published June 1908.
Outside China and India plague has caused no great mortality in any of the countries in which it has appeared, with the exception perhaps of Arabia, about which very little is known.
The earliest victim was an attendant named Barisch, employed in the pathological laboratory of the Vienna General Hospital, and told off to look after the animals and bacteriological apparatus devoted to the investigation of plague, cultures of which had been brought from India by the medical commissioners sent by the Royal Academy of Science in 1897.
Plague was suspected, but Dr Muller, who attended the man and had studied the disease in India, would not admit the diagnosis on clinical grounds, nor was it bacteriologically established until the 19th of October.
Both died of pneumonic plague, from which also Barisch had undoubtedly suffered.
The next occurrence of special interest is the appearance of plague in Portugal in 1899, after an absence of more than 200 years.
The conclusion reached, after careful investigation by Dr Jorge, the medical officer of health, that the commencement really dated from June, is confirmed by the fact that about that time the riverside labourers, who were first affected, began to notice an illness among themselves sufficiently novel to attract their attention and that of an English shipowner, who from their description suspected plague.
Through him the suspicion was conveyed to the Medical Times and Gazette, in which the suggestion of plague at Oporto was made before any public mention of it in the town itself.
The only other appearance of plague in Europe in 1899 was on the Volga.
A commission appointed by the Russian government pronounced the disease to be undoubtedly plague, and it appears to have been very fatal.
The most interesting extensions of plague in 1900 were those in Australia and Glasgow.
In none of these, with the exception of Sydney, did plague obtain a serious hold.
In 1901 plague invaded South Africa, and obtained a distinct footing both at Cape Town and Port Elizabeth.
Nothing is known of its natural history outside the body, but on cultivation it is apt to undergo numerous involution forms. Its presence in a patient is regarded as positive diagnostic proof of plague; but failure to find or to identify it does not possess an equal negative value, and should not be too readily accepted, for many instances are recorded in which expert observers have only succeeded in demonstrating its presence after repeated attempts.
According to the Plague Research Committee of Bombay, the predisposing causes are " those leading to a lower state of vitality," of which insufficient food is probably the most important.
Very mild cases occurring in the course of an outbreak of typical plague may be explained by greater power of resistance in individuals, but the epidemic prevalence of a mild illness preceding the appearance of undoubted plague suggests some difference or modification of the exciting cause.
" It is impossible," writes Sir Richard Thorne (Local Government Board Report, 1898-1899), " to read the medical history of this disease in almost every part of the world without being impressed with the frequency with which recognized plague has been preceded by ailments of such slight severity, involving some bubonic enlargement of glands and some rise in body-temperature, as to mask the real nature of the malady."
Of course plague does not stand alone in this respect.
The Bombay Plague Research Committee, whose experience is unequalled, say: " In a number of instances points of inoculation were found on the extremities of patients, from which plague cultures were obtained, and in these cases buboes were found above the point of inoculation.
Of the lower animals, mice, rats, guinea-pigs, rabbits, squirrels and monkeys are susceptible to the bacillus; horses, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and cats are more or less resistant, but cats and dogs have been known to die of plague (Oporto, Daman, Cutch and Poona).
In the Great Plague of London they were believed to carry the infection, and were killed in vast numbers.
One of the results of recent observation is the classification of plague cases under three heads, which have already been mentioned several times: (1) bubonic, (2) pneumonic, (3) septicaemic. (The word " pesti-caemic " is also used instead of " septi-caemic," and though etymologically objectionable, it is otherwise better, as " septicaemic " already has a specific and quite different meaning.) It should be understood that this classification is a clinical one, and that the second and third varieties are just as much plague as the first.
It is necessary to say this, because a misleading use of the word " bubonic " has given rise to the erroneous idea that true plague is necessarily bubonic, and that non-bubonic types are a different disease altogether.
The word " plague " - or " pest," which is the name used in other languages - had originally a general meaning, and may have required qualifications when applied to this particular fever; but it has now become a specific label, and the prefix "bubonic" should be dropped.
There is nothing, however, in all these symptoms positively distinctive of plague, unless it is already prevalent.
(2) Pneumonic plague was observed and described in many of the old epidemics, and particularly by two medical men, Dr Gilder and Dr Whyte, in the outbreak in Kathiawar in 1816; but its precise significance was first recognized by Childe in Bombay.
He demonstrated the presence of the bacilli in the sputa, and showed that the inflammation in the lungs was set up by primary plague infection.
Similarly, the comparatively small destructiveness of modern plague, even in India, may be explained by the improved sanitary conditions and energetic measures dictated by modern knowledge.
It appears, therefore, that plague is less fatal to Europeans than cholera.
When plague is prevalent in a locality, the diagnosis is easy in fairly well-marked cases of the bubonic type, but less so in the other varieties. When it is not prevalent the diagnosis is never easy, and in pneumonic and septicaemic cases it is impossible without bacteriological assistance.
In plague countries the diseases with which it is most liable to be confounded are malaria, relapsing fever and typhus, or broncho-pneumonia in pneumonic cases.
The treatment of plague is still symptomatic. The points requiring most attention are the cerebral symptoms - headache, sleeplessness, delirium, &c. - and the state of the heart.
The ambulatory plague patient goes far to explain the spread of the disease without leaving any track.
In the Glasgow case the wife of a laundryman employed in handling plague linen contracted the disease.
Two little girls had plague at Argoncilhe, a suburb some miles from Oporto, and were the only cases which occurred in that place.
He was not ill, but several cases of plague occurred in the house in which he lodged.
This view is borne out by the experience in hospitals and with " contacts," which goes to show that with reasonable care and under fair conditions the risk of infection from ordinary plague patients is very small.
Discharges - vomited matters, sputa, urine and faeces - are possible media by which plague is spread from person to person.
Failure to catch or induce plague from clothing that has been worn by plague patients proves nothing.
Attention has been concentrated on rats, and some observers seem disposed to lay upon them the whole blame for the propagation and spread of plague, which is held to be essentially a rat-borne disease.
The susceptibility of rats has been noted from remote times and in many countries, particularly in China, but it has never attracted so much attention as during the recent prevalence of plague.
From one place after another a great mortality among rats was reported, and the broad fact that they do die of plague is incontestable.
Mortality among rats is said to precede the appearance of human plague, but the evidence of this is always retrospective and of a very loose character.
Personal connexion was traced in every case, and rats excluded; there was no mortality among them, and of 300 caught and examined none had plague (Chalmers).
Again, a comparison between ratinfested and rat-free districts in Bombay showed a much higher incidence of plague in the latter.
Healthy rats contracted plague from infected rats when the only apparent means of communication between the two was the rat flea (pulex cheopis).
In 21 experiments out of 38, 55% of healthy rats living in flea-proof cages have contracted plague after receiving fleas collected from rats either dead or dying of septicaemic plague; consequently it is proved the rat flea can transmit plague from rat to rat.
Guinea-pigs set free in plague-infected houses become infected with the rat flea and develop plague in a certain percentage.
Guinea-pigs placed in plague-infected houses do not contract plague if they are protected from fleas; those placed in cages protected by a border of sticky paper at least six inches in radius, which the fleas cannot jump over, do not contract plague; the others not similarly protected, do.
Chronic plague may prevail in rats.
(I) Plague can be carried by fleas from an unhealthy rat.
(2) A flea can retain the plague bacilli alive for seven or eight days.
Very little light has been thrown on the conditions which favour the prevalence of plague.
Plague got into this quarter, but did not spread there; on the other hand, it appeared in other and vastly superior parts of the town.
A simpler explanation is that the people live more indoors, and are so more exposed to infection during the plague season.
These are just the conditions which prevailed in Europe in the old plague days.
It may be concluded, with some confidence, from experience and theory alike, that localities where they do not prevail may fail to keep plague out, but have very little to fear from it, except the disturbance of trade caused by the traditional terrors that still cling to the name.
(a) Healthy are those free from plague throughout the voyage; (2) suspected, those in which plague has occurred, but no fresh case within twelve days; (3) infected, those in which plague has occurred within twelve days.
The risk of importing plague from India has been materially lessened by medical inspection of outward-bound ships at the principal ports.
When plague is present in a place, the measures to be taken are the usual ones for dealing with infectious disease, with some additions.
It is especially desirable for hospital and ambulance staffs to be inoculated with a vaccine prepared from sterilized cultures of plague bacillus.
At Hubli, where nearly the whole population was inoculated between the lath of May and the 27th of September ' The system of inoculation against plague with a fluid prepared from sterilized virus of the disease was introduced in India by Professor Haffkine early in 1897.
The composition of this fluid was subjected to a searching inquiry by the Indian Plague Commission, who pronounced its employment to be free from danger, and it was used on a large scale in various parts of India without producing injurious effects.
In September 1902 the standard method of manufacturing this fluid was changed by the director of the Plague Institute on his own authority, with the object of expediting the process, and thus meeting the heavy demand then being made by the Punjab government in connexion with a large scheme of inoculation.
They also expressed the opinion that carbolic acid was a valuable agent in restraining tetanus growth when added to plague prophylactic, ' and they, therefore, thought that its omission was a grave mistake.
The main authorities for the researches into plague are in the official reports of recent years from India and elsewhere.
Simpson, A Treatise on Plague (1905).
H.) protection against plague; (2) on the comparative liability of each fluid to contamination; and (3) on the probable origin of tetanus virus in the Malkowal cases.
(2) The Institute is of opinion that in the hands of more or less unskilled workers it is easier to ensure freedom from contamination by Haffkine's ` standard method ' of manufacturing plague vaccine than with the ` water agar process ' as employed by him.
The government decided, on the advice of the director, that only the standard fluid should be manufactured at the plague institute.
This fluid was sterilized by methods approved by the Indian Plague Commission and contained the requisite proportion of carbolic acid.
They agreed that there was strong evidence to show that " the contamination took place when the bottle was opened at Malkowal, owing to the abolition by the plague authorities of the technique prescribed by the Bombay laboratory, and to the consequent failure to sterilize the forceps which were used in opening the bottle, and which during the process were dropped on the ground "; and they complained of the inadequacy of the inquiries made by the Indian government, and called for Mr Haffkine's exoneration.
If in their relation to fish it must be admitted that many of them plague the living and devour the dead, in return the fish feed rapaciously upon them.
It now appears that she came of a Lithuanian stock, and was one of the four children of a small Catholic yeoman, Samuel Skovronsky; but her father died of the plague while she was still a babe, the family scattered, and little Martha was adopted by Pastor Gliick, the Protestant superintendent of the Marienburg district.
In a great storm in 1 545, 40 houses were destroyed, and the place was scourged.by the plague in 1609.
It was besieged by the Turks.in 1538 and 1657, visited by plague in 1572, and nearly destroyed by earthquakes in 1563 and 1667.
This event, and the prevalence of plague and cholera at Teheran, marked somewhat gloomily the new monarchs first year.
In 1858 and again in 1874 the town was devastated by plague (see also TRIPOLI and CYRENAICA).
A similar increase in virulence appears to occur in plague, where animals, especially rats and mice, seem to be affected before human beings, and not only increase the virulence of the microbes, but convey the infection.
In one, Haffkine employs the toxins obtained by growing plague bacilli in broth for five or six weeks, and then heating the whole to 65° or 70° C. so as to destroy the bacilli.
An outbreak of the plague in 1555 caused the boys to return home, and for the next few years Joseph was his father's constant companion and amanuensis.
In 180 B.C., on the occasion of a plague, vows were made to Apollo, Aesculapius and Salus (Livy xl.
In 1384 a Castilian army invested Lisbon, but encountered a heroic resistance, and after five months an outbreak of plague compelled them to raise the siege.
The process of decay was hastened by frequent outbreaks of plague, sometimes followed by famine; a contemporary manuscript estimates that no fewer than 500 persons died daily in Lisbon alone during July, August and September 1569, and in some other years the joint effects of plague and famine were little less disastrous.
On the 2nd of April four commissioners were appointed to superintend the construction of the new castle ordered in the Isle of Sheppey, which when finished was called Queenborough, the purchases and payments, not the works, being under the beloved clerk, Wykeham, In this year came the second visitation of the Black Death, the Second Plague, as it was called, and carried off four bishops and several magnates, with many clerics, whose vacated preferments were poured on Wykeham.
was on the throne of England and the plague was devastating London.
with diplomatic missions; he was nuncio (1536) to Ferdinand, king of the Romans, and legate to the diet of Spires (1542) having successfully resisted the transfer of the diet to Hagenau on account of the plague (1J40).
In the last decade of the 19th century the chief discoveries were of the bacillus of influenza (1892), of the bacillus of plague (1894) and of the bacillus of dysentery (1898).
Haffkine in the case of cholera (1893) and plague (1896), and more recently by Wright and Semple in the case of typhoid fever.
A similar phenomenon has been demonstrated in the case of Malta fever, cholera, plague, infection with B.
In 1430 the plague carried off a great number of the inhabitants.
On the death of the queen in 1603 he was reappointed by her successor; but he did not long enjoy the honour, for he died, probably of the plague, on the 30th of November (loth of December, N.S.) 1603, either in London or in Colchester.
The prosperity of the residency was further affected by a cattle plague in 1879, followed by a fever epidemic which carried off 50,000 people, and except in the rice season there is a considerable emigration of natives.
According to the legend, he travelled throughout the country, living without food and riding on a golden arrow, the gift of the god; he healed the sick, foretold the future, worked miracles, and delivered Sparta from a plague (Herod.
Calcutta and Bombay have long contested the position of the premier city of India in population and trade; but during the decade 1891-1901 the prevalence of plague in Bombay gave a considerable advantage to Calcutta, which was comparatively free from that disease.
Calcutta has been comparatively fortunate in escaping the plague.
The plague returned in 1899 and caused a heavy mortality during the early months of the following year; but the population was not demoralized, nor was trade interfered with.
Laura died of the plague on the 6th of April 1348.
Lord Canning, the governor-general, who had at first hoped that he had only to deal with isolated cases of disaffection, at last recognized that the plague was epidemic, and that only stern measures could stay it.
When the plague broke out he retired with his children to the house of Sir John Danvers in Chiswick, and for a time he disappeared so completely that a rumour arose that he was dead.
Hunger, plague, the treachery of his captains and internal discontent at last forced him to surrender (November 1405).
outside the town, was consecrated in 1399 as an act of thanksgiving for the cessation of the plague, and has a curious collection of ex voto pictures (wax figures), and also the tombs of the Gonzaga family.
During the decade 1891-1901 Bengal was fortunate in escaping to a great extent the two calamities of famine and plague which afflicted central and western India.
Plague first appeared at Calcutta in a sporadic form in April 1898, but down to April of the following year the total number of deaths ascribed to plague throughout the province was less than 1000, compared with 191,000 for Bombay.
In the early months of 1901, plague again appeared in the same regions.
I.) a procession of the clergy and people round the city, in which relics of St Remigius were carried and litanies chanted in order to avert the plague.
to pray for rain or fine weather, in time of storm, famine, plague, war, or, in quacunque tribulatione, processions of thanksgiving, translation of relics, the dedication of a church or cemetery.
The number of factories increased from fifty-three in 1881 to eighty-three in 1890, and that decade saw the influx of a great industrial population from the surrounding districts; but the decade 1891-1901 witnessed at least a temporary set-back owing to the ravages caused by plague and the effects of over-production.
In addition to the actual mortality it inflicted, the plague caused an exodus of the population from the island, disorganized the labour at the docks and in the mills, and swallowed up large sums which were spent by the municipality on plague operations and sanitary improvements.
But a variety of causes set back the development of the city, notably the prevalence of plague and cholera due to the silting up of the creeks that divided its component islands; and it was not till after the amalgamation of the old and new companies in 1708 that the governor's seat was transferred from Surat to Bombay.
Bombay, however, soon recovered herself, and in 1891 was more prosperous than ever before; but during the ensuing decade great havoc was played by plague (q.v.) with both her population and her trade.
The public health is good, and fevers and plague are unknown.
It was during his papacy that the siege of Rome by Alaric (408) took place, when, according to a doubtful anecdote of Zosimus, the ravages of plague and famine were so frightful, and help seemed so far off, that papal permission was granted to sacrifice and pray to the heathen deities; the pope was, however, absent from Rome on a mission to Honorius at Ravenna at the time of the sack in 410.
It is most probable that she was invented at the time of the introduction of Asclepius, after the sufferings caused by the plague had directed special attention to sanitary matters.
2 The new moon celebration was nocturnal; the road to Tanim, the Mas`a, and the mosque were brilliantly illuminated; and the appearing of the moon was greeted with noisy music. A genuine old Arab market was held, for the wild Bedouins of the Yemen mountains came in thousands to barter their cattle and fruits for clothing, and deemed that to absent themselves would bring drought and cattle plague in their homes.
The city suffered severely from plague in 1899 and 1900.
m., and had in 1901 a population of 89,599, showing a decrease of 15% in the decade, due to plague.
During the decade 1891-1901 the mill industry passed through a period of depression due to widespread plague and famine, but on the whole there has been a marked expansion of the trade as well as a great improvement in the class of goods produced.
During recent times the entire history of Bombay has been sadly affected by plague and famine.
Down to the end of October 1902 over 531,000 deaths had taken place due to plague.
In Nasik district, in January 1898, the native chairman of the plague committee was brutally murdered by a mob.
At such time I found the method of Infinite Series; and in summer 1665, being forced from Cambridge by the plague, I computed the area of the Hyperbola at Boothby, in Lincolnshire, to two and fifty figures by the same method."
Both in 1665 and in 1666 Trinity College was dismissed on account of the plague.
Newton must have left college before August 1665, as his name does not appear in the list of those who received extra commons on that occasion, and he tells us himself in the extract from his commonplace book already quoted that he was " forced from Cambridge by the plague " in the summer of that year.
" Amidst these thoughts I was forced from Cambridge by the Intervening Plague, and it was more than two years before I proceeded further.
The disease, on which the 14th century bestowed this name, was the bubonic plague, still familiar in the East.
Among the monastic orders, whose crowded common life seems to have been particularly favorable to the spread of the plague, there were cases where a whole community, from the abbot down to the novices, perished.
When the worst of the plague was over, and panic had died down, it was found that the social conditions of England had been considerably affected by the visitation.
The landless laborers, who might have been hired to supply the deficiency, were so reduced in numbers that they could command, if free competition prevailed, double and triple rates of payment, compared with their earnings in the days before the plague.
The villeins, as hard hit as their masters, resented the tightening of old duties, which in some cases had already been commuted for small money rents during the prosperous years preceding the plague.
The latter, hard hit by the manorial difficulties that followed the plague o~f 1348-1349, found their rents stationary or even diminishing, while the price of the commodities from which the former made their wealth had permanently risen.
A compromise attempted broke down, and the difficulty was left to plague the next generation.
This decrease was due partly to the famines of 1896-1897 and 1900-1901, partly to the epidemics of cholera and fever which accompanied them, and partly to the plague which attacked the state in as great measure as the surrounding presidency.
gave it its last governing charter, and four years afterwards parliament was held in Stirling on account of the plague in the capital, but the outbreak of the pest in Stirling caused the legislators to remove to Perth.
On the 12th of September 1812, he started with two Armenian servants, crossed the Araxes, rode from Tabriz to Erivan, from Erivan to Kars, from Kars to Erzerum, from Erzerum to Chiflik, urged on from place to place by a thoughtless Tatar guide, and, though the plague was raging at Tokat (near Eski-Shehr in Asia Minor), he was compelled by prostration to stop there.
Gadflies and mosquitoes are a veritable plague around the lakes of the lowlands in the hot weather.
A terrible outbreak of plague occurred in Moscow in 1771, and the populace began to throng round an image of the Virgin to which they attributed supernatural healing power.
A new plague, that of the English, Gascon and Algerine pirates, marked the close of the 16th century and opening of the 17th, causing widespread panic and some devasta tion in 1579,1613-1616and 1627.
When Filelfo arrived at Venice with his family in 1427, he found that the city had almost been emptied by the plague, and that his scholars would be few.
Filelfo reached Milan to find that his wife had died of the plague in his absence, and was already buried.
Though a plague carried off 10,000 of the inhabitants in 1376, the town seems to have remained tolerably prosperous until the 16th century.
The plague having visited Noyon, the young Hangests were sent to Paris in August '523, and Calvin accompanied them, being enabled to do so by the income received from his benefice.
After occupying the island for 300 years they were all carried off by a plague and were buried at Tallaght (Ir.
It has been suggested that Tara was abandoned during the plague of 548-549.
Speaking at Leeds on the 7th of October, Gladstone said " the resources of civilization were not exhausted," adding that Parnell " stood between the living and the dead, not like Aaron to stay the plague, but to spread the plague."
At the same time a plague of rats - survivors of a shipwrecked vessel - wrought much havoc among the crops.
With the Restoration the city pageant was revived, but interregnums occurred during the years of the plague and fire, and in 1683 when a quarrel broke out between Charles and the city, ending in the temporary abrogation of the charter.
The Lincean Academy collapsed with the death of Prince Federigo Cesi, its founder and president; an outbreak of plague impeded communication between the various Italian cities; and the imprimatur was finally extorted, rather than accorded, under the pressure of private friendship and powerful interest.
His sister-in-law and her whole family, who came to live with him on his return from Rome, perished shortly afterwards of the plague; and on the 2nd of April 1634 died, to the inexpressible grief of her father, his eldest and bestbeloved daughter, a nun in the convent of San Matteo at Arcetri.
In 750 plague, following on drought and famine, swept away thousands of conquered and conquerors alike.
His death at the age of thirty-eight, during the great plague, and while he was besieging Gibraltar, was a misfortune to Spain.
As the present constitution was adopted in the year after a grasshopper plague, which had caused great financial loss, it limited the salary of the governor, auditor of public accounts and treasurer, as well as that of the judges of the supreme and district courts, to $2500 each and that of other important officers (including the secretary of state, the attorney-general and the superintendent of public instruction) to $2000.
The Magyars had, however, to pay dearly for this crowning victory, the hero dying of plague in his camp three weeks later (11th August 1456).
During the dark days of 430, after the unsuccessful expedition of Pericles to Peloponnesus, and when the city was devastated by the plague, Cleon headed the opposition to the Periclean regime.
Such serums are injected subcutaneously in diphtheria, tetanus, streptococcic infections, plague, snake-poisoning, cholera and other similar diseases.
rocrroM with the extraordinary meaning of " plague " as in Jer.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.