He managed with difficulty to reach Pius VI., who had sought refuge in the Certosa of the Val d'Ema, and was present at his death-bed.
In this his diplomatic ability was conspicuously evident, and it was also largely owing to his influence that Cardinal Chiaramonte was elected as Pius VII.
The appointment was an admirable one; for Consalvi possessed just the qualities necessary to supplement those of Pius.
On the death of Pius VII.
By his will he directed that all the presents he had received should be sold, and the proceeds applied to the completion of Thorwaldsen's monument of Pius VII.
In October 1847 he wrote to Pius IX., offering his services to the Church, whose cause he for a moment believed to be that of national liberty.
We cannot even be absolutely certain when the frontier laid out by Pius was equipped with the Pfahlgraben and Teufelsmauer.
In May 1805, on the return of Pope Pius VII.
The first in date and importance is that of 1801, concluded for France between Napoleon, First Consul, and Pius VII.
For the Italian republic, between Napoleon and Pius VII., analogous to the French concordat; abrogated.
It is impossible to designate as a concordat the concessions which were wrested by violence from Pius VII.
A year after the accession of Podebrad Pius II.
All Podébrad's endeavours to establish peace with Rome proved ineffectual, and though the death of Pius II.
The confederacy was from its beginning supported by the Roman see, though Podébrad after the death of his implacable enemy, Pius II., attempted to negotiate with the new pope, Paul II.
The English and French governments made representations to the Vatican, but Pius IX., through the medium of the Civiltd Cattolica, maintained that the question at issue was a spiritual one, outside his temporal jurisdiction.
Excavations on the site of Ostia were only begun towards the close of the 18th century, and no systematic work was done until 1854, when under Pius IX.
Aquinas was canonized in 1323 by Pope John XXII., and in 1567 Pius V.
Before these alterations the relations between the state and the Roman Catholic communion, by far the largest and most important in France, were chiefly regulated by the provisions of the Concordat of 1801, concluded between the first consul, Bonaparte, and Pope Pius VII.
The main promoter of the league was Pope Pius V., but the bulk of the forces was supplied by the republic of Venice and Philip II.
Following his interpretation of the instructions he had received, de Lesseps began negotiations with the existing government at Rome, according to which Pius IX.
In the following year there was a fresh rebellion, when the emperor Frederick was actually crowned king by the malcontents at Vienna-Neustadt (March 4, 1 459); but Matthias drove him out, and Pope Pius II.
Two months later Ferdinand of Naples sought for an armistice, the central duchies were easily overrun, and, early in 1797, Pope Pius VI.
The pope, Pius VI., was forthwith haled away to Siena and a year later to Valence in the south of France, where he died.
The death of the aged Pop Pius VI.
at Valence (August 29, 1799) deprived the French of whatever advantage they had hoped to gain by dragging him into exile; on the 24th of March 1800 the conclave, assembled for greater security on the island of San Giorgio at Venice, electec a new pontiff, Pius VII.
The rule of Pius VII.
For some time past the relations between Napoleon and the pope, Pius VII., had been Napoleon severely strained, chiefly because the emperor insisted ~pacj~ on controlling the church, both in France and in the kingdom of Italy, in a way inconsistent with the traditions of the Vatican, but also because the pontiff refused to grant the divorce between Jerome Bonaparte and the former Miss Patterson on which Napoleon early in the year 1806 laid so much stress.
Against this violence Pius VII.
The pope, Pius VII., who had long been kept under restraint by Napoleon at Fontainebleau, returned to Rome in May 1814, and was recognized by the congress of Vienna (not without some demur on the part of Austria) as the sovereign of all the former possessions of the Holy See.
Under Pius VII.
But on the death of Pius in I823, his successor Leo XII.
Leo died in 1829, and the mild, religious Pius VIII.
before the arrival of Cardinal Gaysruck, Austria s mouthpiece, and in June elected Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti as Pius IX.
In April Pius created a Consulta, or consultative assembly, and soon afterwards a council of ministers and a municipality for Rome.
Rumours of a reactionary plot by Austria and the Jesuits against Pius, induced him to create a national guard and to appoint Cardinal Ferretti as secretary of state.
The Mamiani ministry having failed to achieve anything, Pius summoned Pellegrino Rossi, a learned lawyer who had long been exiled in France, to form a cabinet.
the 18th Pius invited Roman the armed intervention of France, Austria, Naples Republk~ and Spain to restore his authority.
The measure was an amalgam of Cavours scheme for a free church in a free state, of Ricasolis Free Church Bill, rejected by parliament four years previously, and of the proposals presented to Pius IX.
An encyclical of Pius IX.
and years Victor Emmanuel had been the centre point Pius IX.
Before the commotion caused by the death of Victor Emmanuel had passed away, the decease of Pius IX (7th February 1878) placed further demands upon Crispis sagacity and promptitude.
Like Victor Emmanuel, Pius IX.
In this condition of home and foreign affairs occurred disorders at i~ome in connection with the transfer of the remains of Pius IX.
Danger of foreign interference in the relations between Italy and the papacy had never been so great since the Italian occupation of Rome, as when, in the summer of 1881,the disorders during the transfer of the remains of Pius IX.
died, and that same Cardinal Sarto became pope under the style of Pius X.
At the conclave Francesco, Todeschini-Piccolomini was elected as Pius III., and he showed every disposition to be peaceful and respectable, but he was old, and in bad health.
486 ordered the execution of similar repairs, the success of which is recorded in inscriptions, but in the middle ages it was abandoned and impassable, and was only renewed by Pius VI.
Two of these buildings were granaries, and indicate the importance of Corstopitum as a base of the northward operations of Antoninus Pius.
Hadrian adopted, as his successor, Titus Antoninus Pius (uncle of Marcus), on condition that he in turn adopted both Marcus (then seventeen) and Lucius Ceionius Commodus, the son of Aelius Caesar, who had originally been intended by Hadrian as his successor, but had died before him.
Marcus had been, at the age of fifteen, betrothed to Fabia, the sister of Commodus; the engagement was broken off by Antoninus Pius, and he was betrothed to Faustina, the daughter of the latter.
The full name he then bore was Marcus Aelius Aurelius Antoninus, Aelius coming from Hadrian's family, and Aurelius being the original name of Antoninus Pius.
A better guardian than Antoninus Pius could not be conceived.
During the reign of Antoninus Pius (138 to 161), the concord between him and Aurelius was complete; Capitolinus (c. 7) says "nec praeter duas noctes per tot annos mansit diversis vicibus."
The two were associated in the administration and in the simple country occupations of the seaside villa of Lorium, the birthplace of Pius, to which he loved to retire.
Antoninus Pius died in 161, having recommended as his successor Aurelius, then forty years of age, without mentioning Commodus, his other adopted son, commonly called Lucius Verus.
Caecilius Metellus Pius, Marcus Licinius Crassus, Marcus Licinius Lucullus, joined Sulla, and in the following year (82) he won a decisive victory over the younger Marius near Praeneste (mod.
This series of frescoes, including a noted " Baptism of Christ," was ruthlessly destroyed by Pius VI.
The first three eclogues, in the form of dialogues between Coridon and Cornix, were borrowed from the Miseriae Curialium of Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini (Pope Pius II.), and contain an eulogy of John Alcock, bishop of Ely, the founder of Jesus College, Cambridge.
The death of Hadrian and the accession of Antoninus Pius (138), however, gave the dispersed people of Palestine a breathing-space.
In particular, the Roman "North Road" which ran from York through Corbridge and over Cheviot to Newstead near Melrose, and thence to the Wall of Pius, and which has largely been in use ever since Roman times, is now not unfrequently called Watling Street, though there is no old authority for it and throughout the middle ages the section of the road between the Tyne and the Forth was called Dere Street.
of Denmark; and in the early part of the 19th century it was twice the residence of Pius VII., - in 1804 when he came to consecrate the emperor Napoleon, and in 1812-1814, when he was his prisoner.
Napcleon was now able by degrees to dispense with all republican forms (the last to go was the Republican Calendar, which ceased on the 1st of January 1806), and the scene at the coronation in Notre Dame on the 2nd of December 1804 was frankly imperial in splendour and in the egotism which led Napoleon to wave aside the pope, Pius VII., at the supreme moment and crown himself.
Because Pius VII.
On the 6th of July 1809 Pius VII.
It was in vain that the popes sought to gather a new Crusade for its recovery; Pius II., who had vowed to join the crusade in person, only reached Ancona in 1464 to find the crusaders deserting and to die.
Poggio, like Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini (Pius II.), was a great traveller, and wherever he went he brought enlightened powers of observation trained in liberal studies to bear upon the manners of the countries he visited.
The university (founded by Pius II.
Pius X >>
Although ecclesiastical corruption was then at its height, his riotous mode of life called down upon him a very severe reprimand from Pope Pius II., who succeeded Calixtus III.
Alexander's successor on the chair of St Peter was Francesco Todeschini-Piccolomini, who assumed the name of Pius III.
(2) An order of knighthood similar to the Knights of St John, established by Pius II.
Seven years later, 19th December 1853, he received the red hat from Pius IX.
His position in Italy was similar to that of Bishop Dupanloup in France; and, as but a moderate supporter of the policy enunciated in the Syllabus, he was not altogether persona grata to Pius IX.
Nevertheless, he remained in the comparative obscurity of his episcopal see until the death of Cardinal Antonelli; but in 1877, when the important papal office of camerlengo became vacant, Pius IX.
When Pius IX.
It was said that the long pontificate of Pius IX.
led some of the cardinals to vote for Pecci, since his age (within a few days of sixty-eight) and health warranted the expectation that his reign would be comparatively brief; but he had for years been known as one of the few "papable" cardinals; and although his long seclusion at Perugia had caused his name to be little known outside Italy, there was a general belief that the conclave had selected a man who was a prudent statesman as well as a devout churchman; and Newman (whom he created a cardinal in the year following) is reported to have said, "In the successor of Pius I recognize a depth of thought, a tenderness of heart, a winning simplicity, and a power answering to the name of Leo, which prevent me from lamenting that Pius is no longer here."
stood precisely where Pius IX.
The establishment of a diocesan hierarchy in Scotland had been decided upon before the death of Pius IX., but the actual announcement of it was made by Leo XIII.
The worship of Mary, largely developed during the reign of Pius IX., received further stimulus from Leo; nor did he do anything during his pontificate to correct the superstitions connected with popular beliefs concerning relics and indulgences.
His successor was Pius X.
Antoninus Pius punished him who killed his own slave as if he had killed another's.
At this time there were extensive buildings provided for the accommodation of invalids, some of which have been discovered and partially cleared; one was built by Antoninus Pius.
Only scanty relics of antiquity have been found here; a post station was placed here by Pius VI.
In 1764 he was created professor of mathematics in the palatine schools at Milan, and obtained from Pope Pius VI.
the cappa of the Lateran basilica worn by the canons of Westminster cathedral, or the almuce worn, by concession of Pope Pius IX., by the members of the Sistine choir.
Cardinal Sarto became Pope Pius X.
After the reign of Marcus Aurelius (according to Mommsen) the equites were divided into: (a) viri eminentissimi, the prefects of the praetorian guard; (b) viri perfectissimi, the other prefects and the heads of the financial and secretarial departments; (c) viri egregii, first mentioned in the reign of Antoninus Pius, a title by right of the procurators generally.
Petronio; and in 1562, by order of Pius IV., the university itself was constructed close by, by Carlo Borromeo, then cardinal legate.
Of the lower town by the harbour, which had buildings of some importance of the imperial period (amphitheatre, baths, &c.), little is now visible, and its site is mainly occupied by a new quarter built by Pope Pius VI., who restored the Via Appia through the Pomptine Marshes.
Of the ancient harbour constructed by Antoninus Pius (M.
The Piccolomini Library, adjoining the duomo, was founded by Cardinal Francesco Piccolomini (afterwards Pius III.) in honour of his uncle, Pius II.
designed by Bernardo Rossellino, and now the Banca d'Italia; the enormous block of the Monte de' Paschi, a bank of considerable wealth and antiquity, enlarged and partly rebuilt in the original style between 1877 and 1881, the old Dogana and Salimbeni palaces; the Palazzo Spannochi, a fine early Renaissance building by Giuliano da Maiano (now the post office); the Loggia di Mercanzia (15th century), now a club, imitating the Loggia dei Lanzi at Florence, with sculptures of the 15th century; the Loggia del Papa, erected by Pius II.; and other fine buildings.
Thereupon certain Sienese citizens in Rome, headed by Aeneas Piccolomini (a kinsman of Pius II.), entered into negotiations with the agents of the French king and, having with their help collected men and money, marched on Siena and forced their way in by the new gate (now Porta Romana) on 26th July 1552.
To the 15th century belongs Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini (Pius II.), humanist, historian and political writer.
at the funeral ceremony of Antoninus Pius.
On the 9th of February, 1879, the death of Pius IX.
Antoninus Pius, hearing of his fame, appointed him tutor to his adopted sons Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus.
The letters consist of correspondence with Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, in which the character of Fronto's pupils appears in a very favourable light, especially in the affection they both seem to have retained for their old master; and letters to friends, chiefly letters of recommendation.
Created cardinal (11th June 1847), he was chosen by Pius IX.
On the 10th of March 1848 Antonelli became premier of the first constitutional ministry of Pius IX., a capacity in which he displayed consummate duplicity.
After the assassination of Pellegrino Rossi (15th November 1848) he arranged the flight of Pius IX.
To the overtures of Ricasoli in 1861, Pius IX., at Antonelli's suggestion, replied with the famous "Non possumus," but subsequently (1867) accepted, too late, Ricasoli's proposal concerning ecclesiastical property.
Hanbury quotes a faculty granted by Pope Pius V.
The office was abolished in France at the Revolution in 1789, revived by Pius IX.
The common chaplains were instituted by Alexander VII., and in 1907 were definitely allowed the title "Monsignore" by Pius X.
Thus some have made him out to be the Hermas to whom salutation is sent at the end of the Epistle to the Romans, others that he was the brother of Pius, bishop of Rome in the middle of the 2nd century, and others that he was a contemporary of Clement, bishop of Rome at the close of the 1st century.
His expectations of the cardinalate were disappointed by Pius V.'s death in 1572, and Sanders spent the next few years at Madrid trying to embroil Philip II., who gave him a pension of 300 ducats, in open war with Elizabeth.
This is the period indicated by the evidence of the Muratorian Canon, which assigns it to the brother of Pius, Roman bishop c. 1 391 54.
96, and lived during the reigns of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius.
During the brief pontificate of Pius III., who succeeded Alexander VI.
The most celebrated handbook, however, is the Institutiones of Gaius, who lived under Antonius Pius - a model of what such treatises should be.
For, though the form of the old cults was long preserved and even Antoninus Pius was honoured in an inscription for his care of the ancient rites of religion, the vital spirit was almost gone.
In such circumstances Pius IX.
He was present at the death of Pius IX.
- For our present purpose the distinctive features of Roman Catholicism may be said to be summed up in the decrees of the council of Trent and the creed of Pope Pius IV.
articles, usually called the Creed of Pius IV., which reaffirmed the Nicene Creed, and dealt with the preservation of the apostolic and ecclesiastical traditions, the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures " according to the sense which our Holy Mother Church has held," the seven sacraments, the offering of the mass, transubstantiation, purgatory, the veneration of saints, relics, images, the efficacy of indulgences, the supremacy of the Roman Church and of the bishop of Rome as vicar of Christ.
In the dilapidated episcopal palace Pope Pius II.
The election of Pope Pius IX.
In 1564 he was made cardinal by Pius IV., and, in the following year, sent to Spain as legate.
On the 13th of May 1572 he was chosen pope to succeed Pius V.
He resided successively in Florence and Paris, and travelled about Europe as private physician to Prince Jerome Bonaparte, but when Pius IX.
Pius, wishing to counteract the effect of this policy, sent Farini to Charles Albert, king of Sardinia, to hand over the command of the papal contingent to him.
He resigned office on the proclamation of the republic after the flight of the pope to Gaeta in 1849, resumed it for a while when Pius returned to Rome with the protection of French arms, but when a reactionary and priestly policy was instituted, he went into exile and took up his residence at Turin.
It was re-fashioned by Pius VI., but went with other treasure as part of the indemnity to Napoleon.
On the election in 1846 of Pius IX., who appeared to be a Liberal and an Italian patriot, the eyes of a]1 Italy were turned on him as the heaven-born leader who was to rescue the country from the foreigner.
His father, Vincenzo, a tenant farmer on a large scale at La Manziana, had taken part in the defence of the Roman Republic under Garibaldi in 1849, was exiled by Pius IX., and reentered Rome in 1870 through the breach of Porta Pia.
Aeneas Sylvius issued, immediately after his accession to the papacy as Pius II.
He had French troops at the gates of Rome, by means of which he could easily have frightened the conclave and induced them to elect him; but he was persuaded to trust to his influence; the troops were dismissed, and an Italian was appointed as Pius III.; and again, on the death of Pius within the month, another Italian, Julius II., was chosen (1503).
was recaptured by Quintus Metellus Pius; it then became a municipium, but in 43 B.C. its territory was assigned to the veterans of the triumvirs, and it became a colony once more.
This became the standing type of an assertion which, while favoured by the church and on the very verge of dogma, was yet not a dogma 3 - till the definition came through Pius IX.
The remains of Hadrian, who died at the neighbouring town of Baiae, were buried at Puteoli, and Antoninus Pius, besides.
It is uncertain what official had the charge of the corn supply at Puteoli under the Republic, but in the time of Antoninus Pius we find an Aug(usti) dis(pensator) a frumento Puteolis et Ostis dependent no doubt on a procurator annonae of the two ports.
Inscriptions record repairs to the breakwater by Antoninus Pius in 139 in fulfilment of a promise made by Hadrian before his death.
The great gateway is a fine monumental arch in fair preservation, with an inscription to Antoninus Pius.
The foundation of the present buildings, however, dates from Antoninus Pius, and their dedication from Septimius Severus, whose coins first show the two temples.
Columns stood in front, whose bases still exist and bear the names of Antoninus Pius and Julia Domna.
It was the statue of Hippolytus, a work at any rate of the 3rd century; at the time of Pius IX.
Towards the close of the year 1804 Napoleon entrusted to Fesch the difficult task of securing the presence of Pope Pius VII.
Napoleon was inexorable in his demands, and Pius VII.
In June 1812, Pius VII.
The disasters of the years1812-1813brought Napoleon to treat Pius VII.
when he pronounced the treaty of Westphalia null and void; of Pius IX.
Since, however, on the one hand - in virtue of a theory advanced by Pius IX.
and Pius VII.
The growth of the Jesuitical influence at Rome - more especially after the return of Pius IX.
140, but probably represents a more or less prolonged prophetic activity on the part of its author, the brother of Pius, the Roman bishop of his day (c. 139-154).
After the final downfall of Waterloo, she took up her residence at Rome, where Pope Pius VII.
However, it was valid according to American law, and Pope Pius VII.
Caecilius Metellus Pius in 82 B.C. In the census of Vespasian a woman of Faventia is said to have given her age as 135.
Typical examples of "piety" are Aeneas and Antoninus Pius, who founded games called Eusebeia at Puteoli in honour of Hadrian.
1-3 (Berlin, 1856); Aus den Annaten-Registern der Pdpste Eugen IV., Pius II., Paul II.
He may also have been unfavourably impressed with the promulgation by Pius IX.
On the 8th of December 1864 Pius IX.
formally confirmed it in 1350, and Pius VI.
In 1792 Pius VI.
In 1820 Pius VII.
He was succeeded by Pius VIII.
Eight years before the death of Vegio, Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini (Pius II.) had composed a brief treatise on education in the form of a letter to Ladislaus, the young king of Bohemia and Hungary.
Not a few Christian prophets a y e known to us by name: as Agabus, Judas, and Silas in Jerusalem; Barnabas, Simon Niger, &c., in Antioch; in Asia Minor, the daughters of Philip, Quadratus, Ammia, Polycarp, Melito, Montanus, Maximilla and Priscilla; in Rome, Hermas; among the followers of Basilides, Barkabbas and Barkoph; in the community of Apelles, Philumene, &c. Lucian tells us that the impostor Peregrinus Proteus, in the time of Antoninus Pius, figured as a prophet in the Christian churches of Syria.
The council of Trent in 1563 resolved on an authoritative work which was finally carried through by two small papal commissions, and issued in 1566 by Pius V.
When the council reassembled under Pius IV., Laynez and Salmeron again attended in the same capacity.
During the third generalate, Pius V.
rescinded both these injunctions in 1573; and indeed, as regards the hours, all that Pius V.
He also threw Lorenzo Ricci, the general, into prison, first in the English college and then in the castle of St Angelo, where he died in 1775, under the pontificate of Pius VI., who, though not unfavourable to the Society, and owing his own advancement to it, dared not release him, probably because his continued imprisonment was made a condition by the powers who enjoyed a right of veto in papal elections.
They elected three Poles successively as generals, taking, however, only the title of vicars, till on the 7th of March 1801 Pius VII.
It advanced steadily under Gregory XVI., and, though it was at first shunned by Pius IX., it secured his entire confidence after his return from Gaeta in 1849, and obtained from him a special breve erecting the staff of its literary journal, the Civiltd Cattolica, into a perpetual college under the general of the Jesuits, for the purpose of teaching and propagating the faith in its pages.
But the usual sequence has been observed under Pius X., who appeared to be greatly in favour of the Society and to rely upon them for many of the measures of his pontificate.
His tomb in St Peter's acquired fame for miraculous cures, and he was pronounced blessed by Pius IX.
This is seen by a comparison of other confessions with the Profession of Catholic Faith in accordance with the council of Trent, in the bull of Pius IV., which runs thus: " I profess that in the Mass is offered to God a true, proper and propitiatory sacrifice, for the living and the dead, and that in the most holy sacrament of the Eucharist there is truly really and in substance the body and blood, together with the soul and divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ, and that there does take place a conversion of the entire substance of the bread into the body, and of the entire substance of the wine into the blood, which conversion the Catholic Church doth call Transubstantiation.
The place was originally called Corsignano and owes its present name to Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini, Pope Pius II.
In 1796 Pius VI.
declared him "venerable"; he was beatified by Pius VII.
in 1839, and finally declared one of the nineteen "Doctors of the Church" by Pius IX.
One of the inscriptions preserved in the old cathedral records the erection of four silver statues, of Antoninus Pius, his wife Faustina and their two sons.
1825), who had formerly acted semi-officially on behalf of the British government at the court of Pius VI.
The Stuart archives, once the property of Cardinal York, were subsequently presented by Pope Pius VII.
In 1821 Pope Pius VII.
In 1800 he became a member of the Academy of the Catholic Religion, founded by Pius VII., to which he contributed a number of memoirs on theological and philosophical questions and in 1805 was made abbot of San Gregorio on the Caelian Hill.
When Pius VII.
On the 2nd of February 1831 he was, after sixty-four days' conclave, unexpectedly chosen to succeed Pius VIII.
The years of his pontificate were marked by the steady development and diffusion of those ultramontane ideas which were ultimately formulated, under the presidency of his successor Pius IX., by the council of the Vatican.
'Alrlrcavos), of Alexandria, Roman historian, flourished during the reigns of Trajan, Hadrian and Antoninus Pius.
We know only that about 142 Hadrian's successor, Antoninus Pius, acting through his general Lollius Urbicus, advanced from the Tyne and Solway frontier to the narrower isthmus between Forth and Clyde, 36 m.
The work of Pius brought no long peace.
In Scotland excavation has been more active, in particular at the forts of Birrens, Newstead near Melrose, Lyne near Peebles, Ardoch between Stirling and Perth, and Castle Cary, Rough Castle and Bar Hill on the wall of Pius.
ANNIA GALERIA FAUSTINA, the younger, daughter of Antoninus Pius, and wife of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus.
When Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini was elected pope as Pius II.
In spite of his infirmity and the brief duration of his reign, Pius II.
If we except the Eastern question, Pius II.
The humanist Pius II.
He led the movement for a reform of the Empire and the opposition to the papal encroachments, supporting the theory of church government enunciated at Constance and Basel and condemned in Pius II.'s bull Execrabilis.
The short reign of the noble Pius III.
explains the fact that, after his decease, a more worldlyminded pope was again elected in the person of Cardinal Giovanni Angelo de' Medici - Pius IV.
To his own relatives, however, Pius IV.
The three great successors of Pius IV.
In the rest of Italy also Pius V.
But his greatest joy was that he succeeded where Pius II.
The renewed vigour which this internal reformation had infused into the Church was now manifest in its external effects; and Pius V., the pope of reform, was followed by the popes of the Catholic restoration.
He created a special Congregation to deal with episcopal affairs, and organized the Congregation of the Index, instituted by Pius V.
Under Pius VI.
In the decade previous to the outbreak of the French Revolution the foreign policy of Pius VI.
The majority of the priests and bishops refused to swear assent to what they held to be an invasion of the divine right of the hierarchy, and after some months of unfortunate indecision Pius VI.
His successor Pius VII., elected at Venice on the 14th of the following March, soon entered Rome and began his reign auspiciously by appointing as secretary of state Ercole Consalvi, the greatest papal diplomatist of the 19th century.
The indignation of the pope and his advisers was not deep enough to prevent the ratification in 1803 of a somewhat similar concordat for the Italian Republic. In 1804 Pius consented to anoint Napoleon emperor, thus casting over a conquered crown the halo of legitimacy.
At length, in 1809, Napoleon annexed the papal states; and Pius, who excommunicated the invaders of his territory, was removed to France.
Pius entered Rome amid great rejoicing on the 24th of May 1814, a day which marks the beginning of a new era in the history of the papacy.
In the sixteen months' reign of Pius VIII.
The dual position of the pope, as supreme head of the Church on earth and as a minor Italian prince, was destined to break down through its inherent contradiction; it was the task of Pius IX.
The reign of Pius IX.
Towards such a solution Pius IX.
those liberties which Pius IX.
By heading off reactionary Austria Napoleon hoped to conciliate the French Liberals; by helping the pope, to satisfy the Catholics; by concessions to be wrung both from Pius and from the Roman triumvirs, to achieve a bloodless victory.
If France was the right arm and Italy the scourge of the papacy under Pius IX., the Spanish-speaking countries were its The papacy obedient tools.
In the non-Catholic countries of Europe during the reign of Pius IX., and in fact during the whole 19th century, the important gains of Rome were in strategic position rather - than in numbers.
The remarkable extension of the Catholic hierarchy by Pius IX.
In 1854 Pius IX.
The eight years that Pius IX.
The purely ecclesiastical policy of Pius IX.
But the party that needed for its purposes an infallible pope readily persuaded Pius IX.
The consequence was the bull Pastor aeternus, which Pius IX.
No one could expect that Pius IX.
It was quite in keeping that Pius IX.
Although the Liberal record of the pope was a thing of the past, and his policy had, since Gaeta, become firmly identified with the reactionary policy of Antonelli, yet the early years of his pontificate were in such lively recollection as to allow of Pius IX.'s appearing to some extent in the light of a national hero.
The hitherto unpublished correspondence of the pope with Victor Emmanuel contains remarkable proofs in support of this contention, and a further corroboration can also be preceived in the conciliatory attitude of Pius IX.
Pius died on the 7th of February 1878, only a few weeks later than his opponent.
There was hardly a sovereign or a government in Christendom against which Pius IX.
But the name he assumed, Pius X., was significant; and, even had he had the will, it was soon clear that he had not the power to make any material departure from the policy of the first " prisoner of the Vatican."
That under Pius X.
In pursuance of the task of strengthening the Holy See, the Vatican policy under Pius X.
Under Revival of Pius VI.
Pius X., by the constitution Sapienti Consilio of the 29th of June 1908, proceeded to a general reorganization of the Roman Curia: Congregations, tribunals and offices.
We will now give the nomenclature of the Roman Congregations, as they were until 1908, and mentioning the modifications made by Pius X.
It was attached by Pius X.
The Congregation oa the Visitation was suppressed by Pius X.
(5) The Congregation on the discipline of the sacraments (Sacra Congregatio de Disciplina Sacramentorum), established by Pius X., thus comes to occupy the third rank.
On the 26th of May 1906, Pius X.
in 1695, and that on the condition of the regular clergy (Congregatio super Statu Regularium), established by Pius IX.
In 1908 Pius X.
a number of cardinals whose duty it is to interpret the disciplinary Council decrees of the council of Trent, was instituted by Pius IV.
Thus the hierarchy was re-established in England in 1850 by Pius IX., in 1878 by Leo XIII.
(9) The Congregation of the Index (Congregatio indicis librorum prohibitorum), founded by St Pius V.
In 1904 Pius X.
In 1908 these powers were taken away from it by Pius X., and transferred to the Congregation of the Council, which already exercised some of them.
(14) The Congregation of Loretto (Congregatio Lauretana) discharged the same functions for the sanctuary of that name; its temporal administration was latterly very much reduced, and in 1908 it was united by Pius X.
(r5) The Congregation for extraordinary ecclesiastical affairs (Sacra Congregatio super negotiis ecclesiasticas extraordinariis), established by Pius VI.
at the end of the 18th century to study the difficult questions relative to France, was afterwards definitively continued by Pius VII.; and there has been no lack of fresh extraordinary matters.
The following is the list of the tribunals and offices, including the changes introduced by the reorganization of the Curia by Pius X.
Bulls are written in the name of the pope, who styles himself "(Pius) Episcopus servus servorum Dei; (Pius), bishop, servant of the servants of God."
They were formerly dated by kalends and from the era of the Incarnation, which begins on the 25th of March, but in 1908 Pius X.
It is practically only bulls of canonization which are signed by the pope and all the cardinals present in Rome; the signature of the pope is then "(Pius) Episcopus Ecclesiae catholicae," while his ordinary signature bears only his name and number, "Pius PP. X."
Further, Pope Pius confined the functions of the chancery to the sending out of bulls under the leaden seal (sub plumbo), for the erection of dioceses, the provision of bishoprics and consistorial benefices, and other affairs of importance, these bulls being sent out by order of the Consistorial Congregation.
It has at its head a cardinal formerly called the pro-datarius, the datarius having formerly been a prelate; and now datarius, since the reform by Pius X.
To it belongs the internal administration of the apostolic palaces, with the library, archives, museums, &c. In 1908 Pius X.
They are written in the pope's name, but he only takes the less solemn style of: "Pius PP. X."
The reform of Pius X.
Among the prelates we should mention the protonotaries, the successors of the old notaries or officials of the papal chancery in the earliest centuries; the seven protonotarii participantes were restored by Pope Pius X.
Among the bishops of the see, which still exists, with its seat in Frauenberg, may be mentioned Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini, afterwards Pope Pius II., and Cardinal Stanislaus Hosius (1504-1579), the founder of the Jesuit college in Braunsberg.
- Dalma i lc Ur i'OPE Pius V.
Both Pius VI.
(1717) and Pius VII.
Under the half-dome were placed twenty-one marble statues, representing the family of Antoninus Pius, of Marcus Aurelius, and of the founder, Herodes Atticus.
In 1567 Pius V.
It was re-established at the instance of Emmanuel Philibert by Pope Pius V.
The arrangement and constitution of the papal orders was remodelled by a brief of Pius X.
The Order of Pius was founded in 1847 by Pius IX.; there are now three classes; the badge is an eight-pointed blue star with golden flames between the rays, a white centre bears the founder's name; the ribbon is blue with two red stripes at each border.
A special section (erected by Pius IX.) has charge of the affairs of all the Oriental rites in union with the Roman see.
He was honoured as a saint immediately after his death, and beatified by Pius IX.
He flourished probably towards the close of the 1st century A.D., or perhaps during the reign of Antoninus Pius.
The Pontine Marshes (q.v.) included in the latter division, were drained, according to the plan of Bolognini, by Pius VI., who restored the ancient Via Appia to traffic; but though they have returned to pasture and cultivation, their insalubrity is still notorious.
In 1561 pope Pius IV.
Ill-health, the commercial interests he had left behind at Venice, and the coldness shown him by pope Pius V., induced him at various times and for several reasons to leave Rome.
in 1773, and restored by Pius VII.
On the death of Alexander (1503) he returned to Italy and supported the election of Pius III., who was then suffering from an incurable malady, of which he died shortly afterwards.
In 1560 his uncle, Cardinal Angelo de'Medici, was raised to the pontificate as Pius IV.
Owing to his influence over Pius IV., he was able to facilitate the final deliberations of the council of Trent, and he took a large share in the drawing up of the Tridentine catechism (Catechismus Romanus).
On the death of Pius IV.
At the 25th session (4th December 1563) this committee of the council was reported to have completed its work, but as the subject did not seem (on account of the great number and variety of the books) to admit of being properly discussed by the council, the result of its labours was handed over to the pope (Pius IV.) to deal with as he should think proper.
The government wished to come to some agreement by friendly discussion with Rome, but Pius IX.
For although its title there corresponds to that given by the Armenian fragment and by Eusebius, it begins with a formal inscription to "the emperor Titus Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius"; and Dr R.
If this be the case, it must be placed somewhere in the long reign of Antoninus Pius (138-161).
Behind the high altar is the banner sent by Pope Pius V.
In November 1848 Pope Pius IX., after his flight in disguise from Rome, found a refuge at Gaeta, where he remained till the 4th of September 1849.
About 1552 he came under the notice of Cardinal Carpi, protector of his order, Ghislieri (later Pius V.) and Caraffa (later Paul IV.), and from that time his advancement was assured.
He hurried back to Rome upon the accession of Pius V., who made him apostolic vicar of his order, and, later (1570), cardinal.
In 1846 Mahony became correspondent at Rome to the Daily News, and his letters from that capital gave very vivid pictures of the first years of the reign of Pius IX.
The monastery is described by Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini (Pope Pius II.) in his Commentaria.
It possessed many other temples, repaired by Antoninus Pius, who was born close by, as was also Commodus.
The neighbourhood, which is now covered with vineyards, contains remains of many Roman villas, one of which is traditionally attributed to Antoninus Pius.
Nicholas himself was a man of vast erudition, and his friend Aeneas Silvius (later Pope Pius II.) said of him that "what he does not know is outside the range of human knowledge."
In 1820 Pope Pius VII.
The reading of the passage from John on days which had not a proper gospel was first enjoined by Pius V.
Antoninus Pius paved the great east to west artery with granite.
Rome is said, indeed, to have recovered the whole land up to the Wall of Pius in A.D.
After the battle of Lepanto (1st Sunday in October 1571), which was won while the members of the confraternity at Rome were making supplication for Christian success, Pius V.
(1832) and placed in charge of the Dominican order by Pius IX.
It was a municipium under the early empire, but was converted into a colonia under Antoninus Pius by Herodes Atticus, who provided it with a water-supply.
In 1 459 he had acted as governor of Rome during the absence of his friend Pope Pius II.
Shortly after the accession of Pius IX.
On his arrival from Rome in 1847 he acted as informal diplomatic envoy from the pope, to ascertain from the government what support England was likely to give in carrying out the liberal policy with which Pius inaugurated his reign.
The Roman Catholic Church in England was governed by vicars-apostolic from 1685 until 1850, when Pope Pius IX.
In the first constitutional cabinet, presided over by Cardinal Antonelli, Minghetti held the portfolio of public works, but after the allocution by Pius IX.
Resigning to his brother the archbishopric of Cosenza, offered to him by Pope Pius IV., he began to lecture at Naples and finally founded the academy of Cosenza.
South-east is another temple, a square stone building with the name of Antoninus Pius over one of the entrances.
A Roman imperial coin of Antoninus Pius shows us on a reduced scale the general composition of the figure; while contemporary Argive coins of the 5th century give a fairly adequate rendering of the head.
The king was at Gaeta, whither the grand-duke of Tuscany and Pius IX.
In 1847 the condemnation of 1835 was confirmed by Pius IX.
" Pius P.P.X.," the signature of bulls is "Pius episcopas ecclesiae catholicae," and the heading, "Pius episcopus, servus servorum Dei," this latter formula going back to the time of St Gregory the Great.
In 1438-1439 the plague was in Germany, and its occurrence at Basel was described by Aeneas Sylvius, afterwards Pope Pius II.
Carlo Borromeo (1563) and Pope Pius V.
The town is dominated by the medieval castle (1655 ft.), built by Cardinal Albornoz (1367) and added to by Popes Pius II.
Below the town to the south-west, close to the station, is the large pilgrimage church of Santa Maria degli Angeli, begun in 1569 by Pope Pius V., with Vignola as architect; but not completed until 1640.
When Archbishop Bayley was transferred to the see of Baltimore in 1873, Pius IX.
Its use was forbidden in Roman Catholic countries by Pope Pius IX., but it is still worn by Roman Catholic dignitaries as part of their out-of-door dress in certain Protestant countries.
It was defined in the canons of the council of Trent, as promulgated by Pope Pius IV.
Accordingly, in 180t he negotiated with Pius VII.
In 1798 French troops had entered the papal states, proclaimed a republic in Rome, and kept Pius VI.
In 1808 Napoleon arrested his successor, Pius VII., threw the papal states into his new Italian kingdom, and dragged Pius about from prison to prison till the eve of his own fall in 1814.
In 1846 Gregory died, and was succeeded by Pius IX., one of the youngest of the cardinals, and well known for his popular sympathies.
But the first step thereto was deliverance from the Austrian yoke; and Pius, the Italian prince, was grievously hampered by his position as head of the Church.
Accordingly Pius soon drew back, and his popularity waned.
The pope's prime minister, Count Rossi, was murdered, and Pius himself, escaping to Gaeta, threw himself under Neapolitan protection.
In Rome Mazzini proclaimed a republic. Once more France and Austria intervened; in 1850 Pius went back to Rome, and ruled there under the shadow of foreign bayonets.
This last - about one-third of the papal states - was all that was left to Pius; and even this was only held for him by French troops.
In the following September, ten days after the final collapse of Louis Napoleon at Sedan, the troops of Victor Emmanuel entered Rome; and the temporal power of Pius came to an end.
Pius might no longer rule over the papal states; but there was consolation in the thought that, within the realm of conscience, his power had increased by leaps and bounds.
It found what it asked for, when the Jesuits, whom Pius VII.
Under the fostering care of Pius IX., this " neo-Scholasticism " spread from Italy to the German Catholic universities, and especially the seminaries of France.
In thirty years Pius IX.
That these things only widened the breach between the Church and the outside world was of no account to Pius.
In other words, Pius utterly rejected the whole principle of toleration, and declared that the Church would still impose itself by force, whenever it got the chance to do so.
But Pius and his immediate circle argued that this was not enough.
But this view was too extreme for the council; the most Pius could hope for was to be declared immune from error, instead of positively inspired.
These limitations were the work of the moderate infallibilists, but the real hero of the day was Pius.
On the death of Pius IX.
was in every way a complete contrast to Pius IX.
Pius had fed on inspirations; Leo was a man of calm, deliberate judgment, little likely to po ' 'L pe eo XIII.
Hence he followed in the steps of Pius IX.
was spared from seeing the failure of his policy of reconciliation with the French Republic; for the " denunciation of the concordat " (December 1905) and consequent separation of Church and State took place under his P successor, Pius X.
Nor is it yet possible to forecast the result of the only other sensational event that the reign of Pius X.
This began as an attempt to break loose from the neo-Scholasticism so ardently patronized Y P both by Pius IX.
F.), while the whole movement was condemned in bitter and scathing language by Pius X.'s encyclical (Pascendi gregis) against the Modernists.
The line of division became much more acute when Pius V.
In 1850 came the " restoration of the hierarchy " by Pope Pius IX., when England was mapped out into an archbishopric of Westminster 4 and twelve suffragan sees, since increased to fifteen (sixteen including the Welsh see of Menevia).
Its citizens lived in such luxury that Aeneas Sylvius (Pope Pius II.) has left it on record that a simple burgher of Nuremberg was better lodged than the king of Scotland.
and the accession of Pius IV.
With the accession of Pius V.
Under Vespasian they submitted to Petillius Cerealis, but were not finally subdued till the time of Antoninus Pius (Tac. Agricola, 17; Pausan.
Meanwhile, in Holland itself the Roman Catholic hierarchy had been restored by Pope Pius IX.
the Paris Breviary of 1680 by Archbishop Francois de Harlay (1625-1695) and that of 1736 by Archbishop Charles Gaspard Guillaume de Vintimille (1655-1746) - show a deep knowledge of Holy Scripture, and much careful adaptation of different texts; but during the pontificate of Pius IX.
and Paul III., and permitted as a substitute for the unrevised Breviary, until Pius V.
He renewed direct relations with the Vatican, and at last induced Pope Pius IX.
for Holy Week in 1821 by order of Pope Pius VII., has taken a permanent place in the services of the Sistine chapel during Passion Week.
Caecilius Metellus Pius, who had been specially sent against him from Rome, out of Lusitania, or Further Spain as the Romans called it.
18, 1 559), and took part in the election of Pius IV.
Ochino, in the twenty-eighth of his Dialogi XXX., 1563 has a colloquy on the treatment of heretics, between Pius IV.
Pius (Bologna, 1520), and the principal editions since have been those by Barth (1623), P. Burman (1731, in his edition of the minor Latin poets), Wernsdorf (1778, part of a similar collection), Zumpt (1840), and the critical edition by Lucian Muller (Teubner, Leipzig, 1870), and another by Vessereau (1904); also an annotated edition by Keene, with a translation by G.
At least it made their traditional religion possible for those many French Catholics who clung passionately to the benefits the Revolution had brought them; and had it prevailed, it might have spared France and the world that fatal gulf between Liberalism and Catholicism which Pius IX.'s Syllabus of 1864 sought to make impassable.
In contrast to his immediate predecessor Pius X., who was of humble origin, and whose ministerial experience was mainly pastoral, Benedict XV.
On Dec. 16 1907, Pius X.
of that year, and the death of Pius X.
In 140 he was summoned by Antoninus Pius to undertake the education of Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, and received many marks of favour, amongst them the consulship (143).
Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini (Pius II.) had discovered Otto of Freising and Jordanes.
The chair was suppressed by the viceroy in 1808, but again rehabilitated on the restoration of Pius VII.
Popes Boniface VIII., Martin V., Sixtus V., and Pius VI.
He also wrote to Pope Pius IX., asking that a Roman Catholic bishop should be sent to him.
Tradition places on the island a temple of Apollo, which was destroyed by an earthquake in the reign of the emperor Antoninus Pius.
6), 1904 was made the occasion for a public declaration by Pope Pius X.
The lives, which (with few exceptions) are arranged in chronological order, are distributed as follows: - To Spartianus: the biographies of Hadrian, Aelius Verus, Didius Julianus, Septimius Severus, Pescennius Niger, Caracallus, Geta (?); to Vulcacius Gallicanus: Avidius Cassius; to Capitolinus: Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, Verus, Pertinax, Clodius Albinus, the two Maximins, the three Gordians, Maximus and Balbinus, Opilius Macrinus (?); to Lampridius: Commodus, Diadumenus, Elagabalus, Alexander Severus; to Pollio: the two Valerians, the Gallieni, the so-called Thirty Tyrants or Usurpers, Claudius (his lives of Philip, Decius, and Gallus being lost); to Vopiscus: Aurelian, Tacitus, Florian, Probus, the four tyrants (Firmus, Saturninus, Proculus, Bonosus), Carus, Numerian, Carinus.
Having made these general observations, we must now consider the history of those texts and collections of canons which to-day form the ecclesiastical law of the Western Church: (1) up to the Decretum of Gratian, (2) up to the council of Trent, (3 and 4) up to the present day, including the codification ordered by Pius X.
The commission of the Correctores roman, established about 1563 by Pius IV., ended its work under Gregory The "CorXIII., and the official edition, containing the text and the glosses, appeared at Rome in 1582.
In consequence of the prohibition issued by Pius IV., they have not of the been published separately from the dogmatic texts council of and other acts, and have not been glossed; 3 but their Trent.
On the 19th of March 1904, Pius X.
In 1870 came the great crisis in the Roman Catholic world over the promulgation by Pius IX.
Ehses, Festschrift zu elfhundertjdhrigen Jubilaum des Campo Santo (Freiburg, 1897); Aus den AnnatenRegistern der Pdpste Eugen IV., Pius II., Paul II.
In 1856 Pius IX.
By the beginning of the 13th century the liturgical use of the cope had become finally fixed, and the rules for this use included by Pope Pius V.
and was unanimously and unexpectedly elected the successor of Pius II.
(Prague, 1860-1865); Aus den Annalen-Registern der Pcipste Eugen IV., Pius IL, Paul II., u.
The long projected codification of the whole of the ecclesiastical law of the Church of Rome, a work of gigantic labour, was not taken in hand until the pontificate of Pius X.
This was significantly foreshadowed when Pius IV.
put forward by his own act what is known as the creed of the Council of Trent; and, after the coldness of the 18th century and the evil days of the French Revolution, an Ultramontane revival, relying with enthusiasm on the papacy, grew more and more strong until it became all-powerful under Pius IX.
seine Zeit (1853-1860), Papst Pius VII.
referred it again to the pope, and after six months a fresh bull arrived from Pius V.
He was an accomplished Oxonian, who made a speech at Rome in such good Latin as to draw tears from the eyes of that great patron of letters Pope Pius II.
The remnant of the Roman Catholic aristocracy would have granted it; even Pius VII.
Another Alberto Pio (1475-1531), who was French ambassador in Rome, won fame as a man of learning, and Cardinal Rodolfo Pio (1516-1564) was a trusted adviser to Pius III.
Germany, to stem which Pitt, back in power, appealed once more to an Anglo-Austro-Russian coalition against this new Charlemagne, who was trying to renew the old Empire, who was mastering France, Italy and Germany; who finally on the 2nd of December 1804 placed the imperial crown upon his head, after receiving the iron crown of the Lombard kings, and made Pius VII.
But the application of the Cc,ncordat and the taking of Naples led to the first of those struggles with the pope, in which were formulated two antagonistic doctrines: Napoleon declaring himself Roman emperor, and Pius VII.
Siena was annexed (1559); the title of grand duke of Tuscany was conferred on that ruler in 1 567 by Pope Pius V.