She wiped away the pine needles clinging to her clothes.
A few pieces of fat pine were a great treasure.
Her gaze went to the pine trees with suspicion.
Deidre started down the trail, holding out her hands to the pine trees.
Araucaria excelsa, the Norfolk Island pine, a native of Norfolk Island and New Caledonia, was discovered during Captain Cook's second voyage, and introduced into Britain by Sir Joseph Banks in 1793.
Perhaps it might be called Yellow Pine Lake, from the following circumstance.
The warm sun shone on the pine trees and drew out all their fragrance.
Every little pine needle expanded and swelled with sympathy and befriended me.
At a sufficient distance over the woods this sound acquires a certain vibratory hum, as if the pine needles in the horizon were the strings of a harp which it swept.
to the south-east is the pine forest of Castel Fusano, taking its name from a castle erected by the marchese Sacchetti in the 6th century.
Deidre's eyes were caught by the gardens but drifted to the pine trees beyond the walls.
In one heavy thunder-shower the lightning struck a large pitch pine across the pond, making a very conspicuous and perfectly regular spiral groove from top to bottom, an inch or more deep, and four or five inches wide, as you would groove a walking-stick.
In the course of the summer I had discovered a raft of pitch pine logs with the bark on, pinned together by the Irish when the railroad was built.
She crossed the road and walked into the pine forest, towards the small town.
My "best" room, however, my withdrawing room, always ready for company, on whose carpet the sun rarely fell, was the pine wood behind my house.
It is delightful here, smelling of sun-drenched pine and a hint of campfires.
Araucaria brasiliana, the Brazil pine, is a native of the mountains of southern Brazil, and was introduced into Britain in 1819.
Here goes lumber from the Maine woods, which did not go out to sea in the last freshet, risen four dollars on the thousand because of what did go out or was split up; pine, spruce, cedar--first, second, third, and fourth qualities, so lately all of one quality, to wave over the bear, and moose, and caribou.
When I first paddled a boat on Walden, it was completely surrounded by thick and lofty pine and oak woods, and in some of its coves grape-vines had run over the trees next the water and formed bowers under which a boat could pass.
Shadows danced in tune with a slight breeze from the inch of open window and a sentinel pine tree beyond.
You will export such articles as the country affords, purely native products, much ice and pine timber and a little granite, always in native bottoms.
She forced herself to notice how dark the sky was, the rich scent of earth in the air, the tickle of the pine needles that brushed her skin.
All my early lessons have in them the breath of the woods--the fine, resinous odour of pine needles, blended with the perfume of wild grapes.
I have sometimes disturbed a fish hawk sitting on a white pine over the water; but I doubt if it is ever profaned by the wind of a gull, like Fair Haven.
My employment out of doors now was to collect the dead wood in the forest, bringing it in my hands or on my shoulders, or sometimes trailing a dead pine tree under each arm to my shed.
Early in May, the oaks, hickories, maples, and other trees, just putting out amidst the pine woods around the pond, imparted a brightness like sunshine to the landscape, especially in cloudy days, as if the sun were breaking through mists and shining faintly on the hillsides here and there.
And fairer still were the faraway blue mountains beyond the river, the nunnery, the mysterious gorges, and the pine forests veiled in the mist of their summits...
He quickly entered the small reception room with its still-unplastered wooden walls redolent of pine, and would have gone farther, but Anton ran ahead on tiptoe and knocked at a door.
If you are craving something warm and filling for your picnic meal, try baked polenta with zucchini and tomato sauce or a flaky spinach pie topped with pine nuts.
The verdant pines outside the fortress wall were beautiful, and she watched their long pine needles stir in an early morning breeze.
The scent of pine and blooming flowers was thick in the air.
Stepping quickly onto the patio, she was able to make out the shapes of tall pine trees.
There were a number of different routes, but the Deans chose the two-mile town site loop, a nearly flat path that first traversed a scented pine forest and then opened to a spectacular view of the surrounding mountains.
She rearranged the fuel and added some pine needles and leaves.
A gust of pine and jet fuel scented wind whipped by her.
"I know it," she said, recalling the rustic mansion nestled among pine trees next to a lake.
Ten minutes of walking later, she crouched beneath the lowest branch of a massive pine tree and inched her way to the scene.
She leaned against a pine tree, her gaze falling on a little green snake with stripes on it.
Even the bathroom had hardwood floors and stained pine walls.
Radiator, pattern tiled floor, pine spindled balustrade to staircase off.
Like the gentle dove in the fable she was to pine apart from me....
Seafood is a specialty, and standout dishes include the sweet and sour sea bass with pine nuts and the hot pots (available in meat, seafood and vegetarian varieties).
The forest was cold, the rustle of pine trees against one another faint.
Moreton Bay pine is chiefly known by the utility of its wood.
The town, built of grey granite, presents a handsome appearance, and being delightfully situated in the midst of the most beautiful pine and birch woods in Scotland, with pure air and a bracing climate, is an attractive resort.
In 1831 Wheatstone by his " magic lyre" experiment showed that, when the sounding-boards of two musical instruments are connected together by a rod of pine wood, a tune played on one will be faithfully reproduced by the other.
The hammock was covered with pine needles, for it had not been used while my teacher was away.
The turrets of a convent stood out beyond a wild virgin pine forest, and far away on the other side of the Enns the enemy's horse patrols could be discerned.
There was a four foot wide Double Christian Door, Indian Shutters and "Pumpkin Pine" colored wide board flooring.
He smelled of pine trees and a bonfire, his earthy scent mixed with the softer scent of soap.
The food of this species seems to consist of the seeds and buds of many sorts of trees, though the staple may very possibly be those of some kind of pine.
It cannot be grown in the open air in Britain, as it requires protection from frost, and is more tender than the Brazilian pine.
There are also several extremely valuable soft timbers, the principal being red cedar (Cedrela Toona), silky oak (Grevillea robusta), beech and a variety of teak, with several important species of pine.
The woods consist chiefly of pine and hazel upon theApennines, and upon the Calabrian, Sicilian and Sardinian mountains of oak, ilex, hornbeam and similar trees.
The chestnut is of great value for its wood and ~ is furnished by the oak and beech, and pine and fir forests ~ S~ of the Alps and Apennines.
pentandra), birch, and pine, when these grow in marshy places.
Or to take the small but welldefined group of five-leaved pines, all the species of which may be seen growing side by side at Kew under identical conditions: we have the Weymouth pine (Pinus Strobus) in eastern North America, P. monlicola and the sugar pine (P. Lambertiana) in California, P. Ayacahwite in Mexico, the Arolla pine (P. Cembra) in Switzerland and Siberia, P. Peuce in Greece, the Bhotan pine (P. excelsa) in the Himalayas, and two other species in Japan.
Conifers are rare, and the Scotch pine, which is abundant on the sandy plains, takes the place of the Abies.
On the other hand, several Asiatic species (Siberian pine, larch, cedar) grow freely in the N.E., while numerous shrubs and herbaceous plants, originally from the Asiatic steppes, have found their way into the S.E.
The Scotch pine still grows on all sandy spaces, and the maple (Acer tatarica and A.
But there are long stretches of pine loam in the South where branch lines can be, and are, built and equipped for £2400 or less per mile, while the construction of new main line in the prairie region of the West ought not to cost more than £4000 per single-track-mile, under present conditions.
GLUCKSBURG, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein, romantically situated among pine woods on the Flensburg Fjord off the Baltic, 6 m.
From the valley of the Humboldt river southward the plateau gradually rises until the divide between this stream and the Colorado river, in the vicinity of the White Pine Mountains, is reached.
In very limited spaces on other mountains there are scattered trees - the pinon (nut pine) and the juniper at an altitude between 5000 and 7000 ft.
(White Pine county).
Considerable quantities of the following minerals have been found: barytes (heavy spar), magnetite (magnetic iron ore), and pyrolusite (manganese dioxide) in Humboldt county; roofing slate in Esmeralda county; cinnabar (ore containing quicksilver) in Washoe county; haematite in Elko and Churchill counties; cerussite and galena (lead ores) in Eureka county; and wolframite (a source of tungsten) at Round Mountain, White Pine county.
It is met at several points by lines which serve the rich mining districts to the south; at Cobre by the Nevada Northern from Ely in White Pine county in the Robinson copper mining district; at Palisade by the Eureka & Palisade, a narrow-gauge railway, connecting with the lead and silver mines of the Eureka District; at Battle Mountain by the Nevada Central, also of narrow gauge, from Austin; at Hazen by the Nevada & California (controlled by the Southern Pacific) which runs to the California line, connecting in that state with other parts of the Southern Pacific system, and at Mina, Nevada, with the Tonopah & Goldfield, which runs to Tonopah and thence to Goldfield, thus giving these mining regions access to the Southern Pacific's transcontinental service; and at Reno, close to the western boundary, by the Virginia & Truckee, connecting with Carson City, Minden, in the Carson Valley, and Virginia City, in the Comstock District, and by the Nevada-California-Oregon, projected to run through north-eastern California into Oregon, in 1910, in operation to Alturas, California.
The most valuable species for lumber are the long-leaf pine which is predominant in the low southern third of the state, sometimes called the "cow-country"; the short-leaf pine, found farther north; the white oak, quite widely distributed; cotton-wood and red gum, found chiefly on the rich alluvial lands; and the cypress, found chiefly in the marshes of the Delta.
Of inferior quality are the yellow loam of the hills in the north-east and the sandy loam in the pine belt of the south.
The greatest relative advance between 1889 and 1899 in any branch of agriculture was made in the growth of market-garden produce and small fruits; for old pine lands, formerly considered useless, had been found valuable for the purpose.
From the extreme south most of the merchantable timber had been cut, but immediately north of this there were still vast quantities of valuable long-leaf pine; in the marshes of the Delta was much cypress, the cotton-wood was nearly exhausted, and the gum was being used as a substitute for it; and on the rich upland soil were oak and red gum, also cotton-wood, hickory and maple.
Pine stumps and waste limbs are utilized, notably at Hattiesburg, for the manufacture of charcoal, tar, creosote, turpentine, &c. Fisheries Fishing is a minor industry, confined for the most part to the Mississippi Sound and neighbouring waters and to the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers.
In the swamps are the bald cypress, the white cedar and the live oak, usually draped in southern long moss; south of Cape Fear river are palmettos, magnolias, prickly ash, the American olive and mock orange; along streams in the Coastal Plain Region are the sour gum, the sweet bay and several species of oak; but the tree that is most predominant throughout the upland portion of this region is the long-leaf or southern pine.
In the Mountain Region at the bases of the mountains are oaks, hickories, chestnuts and white poplars: above these are hemlocks, beeches, birches, elms, ashes, maples and limes; and still higher up are spruce, white pine and balsam; and all but a comparatively few of the higher mountains are forest-clad to their summits.
All of the species of pine and of magnolia, and nearly all of the species of oak, of hickory and of spruce, indigenous to the United States, are found in North Carolina.
The destruction of pine forests to meet the demands for naval stores, and the introduction and increased use of the refrigerator car, resulted in much attention to the growth of garden produce for Northern markets.
The trees of the greatest commercial value are oak and chestnut at the foot of the mountains and yellow pine on the uplands of the Coastal Plain.
But mixed with the oak and chestnut or higher up are considerable hickory, birch and maple; farther up the mountain sides are some hemlock and white pine; and on the swamp lands of the Coastal Plain are much cypress and some cedar, and on the Coastal Plain south of the Neuse there is much long-leaf pine from which resin is obtained.
The mountain-sides are commonly clothed with pine forests, and the plains with grasses or shrubs.
The northern limit of the pine in Siberia is about 70° N.
Only one pine is found below 8000 ft., above which several other Coniferae occur.
Cattle and pine lumber are sent to Cuba, and Havana tobacco and fine grades of Cuban timber are imported.
The oak, pine, beech, hornbeam and birch are the chief varieties of trees.
FIR, the Scandinavian name originally given to the Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris), but at present not infrequently employed as a general term for the whole of the true conifers (Abietineae); in a more exact sense, it has been transferred to the "spruce" and "silver firs," the genera Picea and A bies of most modern botanists.
above the sea, though in Swedish Lapland it is found on the slope of the Sulitelma as high as 1200 ft., its upper limit being everywhere lower than that of the pine.
Other Conifers Araucaria inzbricata, Chile pine or monkey-puzzle).
Where not exposed to the weather the wood is probably as lasting as that of the pine, but, not being so resinous, appears less adapted for out-door uses.
Small masts and spars are often made of it, and are said to be lighter than those of pine.
A variety of the spruce, abounding in some parts of Nor way, produces a red heartwood, not easy to distinguish from that of the Norway B pine (Scotch fir), and imported with it into England as "red deal" or "pine."
The resinous products of the Norway spruce, though yielded by the tree in less abundance than those furnished by the pine, are of considerable economic value.
As a picturesque tree, for park and ornamental plantation, it is among the best of the conifers, its colour and form contrasting yet harmonizing with the olive green and rounded outline of oaks and beeches, or with the red trunk and glaucous foliage of the pine.
Along the upper courses of the rivers are willows and wild olive trees; round the chief settlements the eucalyptus and the pine have been planted.
They may be divided into three classes: the pine lands, which often have a surface of dark vegetable mould, under which is a sandy loam resting on a substratum of clay, marl or limestone - areas of such soil are found throughout the state; the " hammocks," which have soil of similar ingredients and are interspersed with the pine lands - large areas of this soil occur in Levy, Alachua, Citrus, Hernando, Pasco, Gadsden, Leon, Madison, Jefferson and Jackson counties; and the alluvial swamp lands, chiefly in E.
m., chiefly in the northern part of the state, including about half of the peninsula, yellow pine being predominant, except in the coastal marsh lands, where cypress, found throughout the state, particularly abounds.
The manufacture of turpentine and rosin, material for which is obtained from the pine forests, had increased greatly in importance between 1890 and 1900, the product in 1890 being valued at only $191,859, that of 1900 at $6,469,605, and from the latter sum it increased in 1905 to $9,901,905, an increase of more than one-half.
With the co-operation of the Indians under their chief Saturiba he captured Fort San Mateo in the spring of 1568, and on the spot where the garrison of Fort Caroline had been executed, he hanged his Spanish prisoners, inscribing on a tablet of pine the words, " I do this not as unto Spaniards but as to traitors, robbers and murderers."
The eastern slopes are comparatively bare of trees; but the western are well supplied with oak, terebinth and pine.
In the neighbourhood of the town are the villages of Ginneken and Prinsenhage, situated in the midst of pretty pine woods.
of Petoskey, on Lake Michigan and Pine Lake, which are connected by Pine river and Round Lake.
The village is best known as a summer resort; it is built on bluffs and on a series of terraces rising from Round and Pine lakes and affording extensive views; and there are a number of attractive summer residences.
Some of these are: Jack pine (Pinus Banksiana), Rocky Mountain pine (Pinus flexilis), black pine (Pinus Murrayana), white spruce (Picea alba), black spruce (Picea nigra), Engelman's spruce (Picea Engelmanni), mountain balsam (Abies subalpina), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga Douglasii), mountain larch (Larix Lyallis).
They feed chiefly on grass, but also on moss, lichens and tender shoots of the willow and pine.
The lower parts of the Riesengebirge are clad with forests of oak, beech, pine and fir; above 1600 ft.
only the dwarf pine (Pinus Pumilio).
the " pine flats," generally wet, which are N.
of Lake Pontchartrain, between the alluvial lands and the pine hills, and, in the S.E.
On drier and higher soils are the persimmon, sassafras, red maple, elm, black haw, hawthorn, various oaks (in all 10 species occur), hickories and splendid forests of longleaf and loblolly yellow pine.
Nevertheless, in 1900 the cypress forests remained practically untouched, only slight impression had been made upon the pine areas, and the hard-wood forests, except that they had been culled of their choicest oak, remained in their primal state (U.S. census).
Pond pine occurs only near the Pearl river.
Curly pine is fairly abundant.
The eastern pine belt is composed of the long-leaf pine, interspersed with some loblolly.
m., and occasionally interspersed with short-leaf pine.
Bright or yellow plug and smoking leaf are grown on the pine uplands and pine " flats," and a small amount of cigar tobacco on the flats, prairies and " bluffs."
Of the rarer woods particular mention may be made of curly pine, yielding a wood of beautiful figure and polish; magnolia, hard, close-grained, of fine polish and of great lasting qualities; and cypress, light, strong, easily worked and never-rotting.
B.M., of which two-thirds were of yellow pine and most of the remainder of cypress.
In some localities, especially in the " Florida parishes," small quantities of rosin and turpentine are taken from the long-leaf pine, but this industry was unimportant in Louisiana before 1908.
For building and miscellaneous purposes, in addition to the rare woods above named, there are cedars (used in great quantities for cigar boxes); the pine, found only in the W., where it gives its name to the Isle of Pines and the province of Pinar del Rio; various palms; oaks of varying hardness and colour, &c. The number of alimentary plants is extremely great.
Providence is known as the "pine barrens," from the tree which principally grows in this rocky soil.
West of the Narenta, their flanks are in places covered with forests of beech and pine, but north-east of that river they present for the most part a scene of barren desolation.
Farther south, in central Bosnia, the oak rarely mounts beyond the foothills, being superseded by the beech, elm, ash, fir and pine, up to 5000 ft.
The third zone is characterized by the predominance, up to 6000 ft., of the fir, pine and other conifers.
Pine forests surround the town, and oaks and elms of more than a century's growth shade its streets.
The northern sides and tops of the lower heights are often covered with dense forests of oak, cork, pine, cedar and other trees, with walnuts up to the limit of irrigation.
In the northern part of the state the great pine belt stretches from the head of Lake Superior westward to the confines of the Red River Valley, while along the north border and in the north-east the forest growth is almost exclusively tamarack and dwarf pine.
It was made of "gopher" wood, which has been variously identified with cypress, pine and cedar.
The hills also, as far as possible, are terraced for cultivation and in some instances are planted with dwarf pine and scrub oak.
On the temperate uplands of the southern states there are imposing forests of South American pine (Araucaria brasiliensis), whose bare trunks and umbrella-like tops give to them the appearance of open woodland.
Prompt action by Sir Benjamin Pine, then lieutenant-governor of the colony, together with help from the Cape and Basutoland, prevented the success of Langalibalele's plan, and his own tribe, numbering some io,000 persons, was the only one which rebelled.
But there were those, including Bishop Colenso, who thought the treatment of the Amahlubi wrong, and their agitation induced the British government to recall Sir Benjamin Pine, Sir Garnet Wolseley being sent out as temporary governor.
The famous Panama hats, fine qualities of which were at one time worth £20 to £30 each, are made from the leaves of the screw pine, Carludovica palmata.
This same character is also exhibited by the bottoms of the broad valleys, while the more elevated and hilly portions of the territory, especially on their northern slopes, are covered with larch, cedar, pine and deciduous trees belonging to the Siberian flora; where the forests fail they are marshy or assume the character of Alpine meadows - e.g.
The forests are chiefly composed of oak, fir, pine, ash and alder.
He was president of Hampden-Sidney College from 1796 to 1807, with a short intermission (in 1801-1802), and in 1807 became pastor of Pine Street Church, Philadelphia.
There were 163,000 orange trees and nearly 60,000 other citrus trees, 430,000 grape vines, 276,000 pine plants and 78,000 banana plants.
In its lower course it meanders through pleasant pastures, bogland and pine forests in succession, receives the waters of various mountain streams, passes close by Bunzlau and through Sagan, and finally, after a course of 160 m., joins the Oder at Crossen.
It is the terminus of some important narrow-gauge mining railways and steam tramways, which place it in communication with the mining districts of Guipuzcoa and Navarre, and with the valuable oak, pine and beech forests of both provinces.
The soil is very fertile; wheat, Indian corn, olives, vines, fruit trees of many kinds cover both the plain and the surrounding hills; the chief non-fruit-bearing trees are the stone pine, the cypress, the ilex and the poplar, while many other varieties are represented.
The three isomeric cresols are found in the tar obtained in the destructive distillation of coal, beech-wood and pine.
On the west slope of Pine Hill is Alfred University (co-educational), which embraces a college (non-sectarian), an academy (non-sectarian) and a theological seminary (Seventh-Day Baptist).
A few of the higher mountains have the Aleppo pine and the juniper; elsewhere only an infrequent wild terebinth is to be seen.
are reached in places, and in all the upper parts of this table-land there is fairly abundant vegetation, grass and herbage with low junipers, but with no pine trees.
There are a few stretches of pine forest, and in the S.
Thus the red pine (aka-matsu or pinus densiflora), which is the favorite garden tree, has to be subjected twice a year to a process of spraydressing which involves the careful removal of every weak or aged needle.
The object to be lacquered, which is generally made of thin white pine, is subjected to singularly thorough and painstaking treatment.
In these the predominant trees are the fir and pine, but many others, such as the chestnut, are well represented.
south of Hilversum, and composed of pine woods and sandy heaths.
Characteristic trees are the locust tree and the stone pine; in Melia Azedarach and Ficus Sycomorus (Beirut) is an admixture of foreign and partially subtropical elements.
Higher up, between 3700 and 4200 ft., a tall pine, Pinus Brutia, is characteristic. Between 4200 and 6200 ft.
Above this grows a species of pine, which becomes dwarfed and disappears at an altitude of about 6000 ft., beyond which is a zone of lichen and moss covered or almost bare rock.
of which, covering a large part of the state, are magnificent forests of long-leaf pine, and lesser lowland growths of oak, ash, magnolia, cypress and other valuable timber.
Every field is carefully fenced with pine branches, or protected by a stone wall.
Here there are one or two important villages and a well-known shrine marked by a group of pine trees which is unique in this part of Afghanistan.
Some of the mountains are almost entirely composed of naked calcareous rock, but most of them wereformerly covered to their summits with forests of oaks, chestnuts, or pine trees, now destroyed to provide fuel.
After the war he invested extensively in pine lands in Michigan, and accumulated a large fortune in the lumber business.
The arboreal flora of Louisiana and Arkansas extends into north-eastern Texas, conformable with the Coastal Plain, where, immediately south of the Colorado river, the great pine belt of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts terminates.
The long-leaf pine is the dominant forest tree on the uplands of the Coastal Plain, north of the Colorado river, for 100 m.
or more from the coast; farther inland and especially in the north-eastern corner of the state, it is succeeded by the short-leaf pine.
Between the rising swells of long-leaf pine lands are impenetrable thickets of hawthorn, holly, privet, plane trees and magnolias.
Loblolly pine, cypress, oaks, hickory, ash, pecan, maple, beech and a few other deciduous trees are interspersed among both the long-leaf and the short-leaf pines, and the proportion of deciduous trees increases to the westward.
The area of yellow pine forests (the stand is estimated at 67,568.5 million ft.), and the lesser one of hardwood, together with considerable softwood, represent lumber-producing possibilities of much economic importance.
The pine and hardwood areas occur chiefly in the north-eastern part of the state, and are bordered on the west by scattering growths of hardwood, extending as far westward as Austin.
The cut, consisting almost entirely of yellow pine, was valued in 1900 at $16,296,473.
In the N.E., also, small cedar and pine are found.
Seen from the Adriatic, Monte Corno, as it is someti, mes called, from its resemblance to a horn, affords a magnificent spectacle; the Alpine region beneath its summit is still the home of the wild boar, and here and there are dense woods of beech and pine.
There are, however, extensive oak, pine and beech forests in the highlands, and many beautiful oases in the deeply sunk valleys, and along the rivers, especially beside the Ebro, which is, therefore, often called the "Nile of Aragon."
In the Adirondack region the trees were principally white pine, spruce, hemlock and balsam, but mixed with these were some birch, maple, beech and basswood, and smaller numbers of ash and elm; in the swamps of this region were also larch and cedar.
half of the state contained pine, but here such hardwood trees as oak, chestnut, hickory, maple and beech were more common.
The original varieties of trees still abound, though in less numbers, on lands illadapted to agriculture, and in the Adirondack and Catskill Mountains, where the state has established forest preserves, and the Forest, Fish and Game Commissioner began reforesting in 1901, principally with pine, spruce and larch.
On the summits of the Adirondacks are a few alpine species, such as reindeer moss and other lichens; on the shores of Long Island, Staten Island and Westchester county are a number of maritime species; and on Long Island are several species especially characteristic of the pine barrens of New Jersey.
The porcupine is common, but the Canada pine marten or American sable, fisher, and red fox are rare, and the black bear and grey wolf are found only in small numbers.
Originally white pine was the principal timber of the Adirondacks, but most of the merchantable portion has been cut, and in 1905 nearly one-half of the lumber product of this section was spruce, the other half mainly hemlock, pine and hardwoods (yellow birch, maple, beech and basswood, and smaller amounts of elm, cherry and ash).
The state is reforesting portions of its preserve chiefly with pine, spruce and larch.
In the Catskills and in the farming regions the lumber product consists largely of hardwoods (mostly oak, chestnut and hickory), smaller amounts of hemlock and pine, and a very little spruce.
Camden, first known as Pine Tree Hill, is one of the oldest interior towns of the state, having been settled in 1758; in 1768 the present name was adopted in honour of Lord Chancellor Camden.
The Norfolk Island pine (Araucaria excelsa) is a magnificent tree, with a height sometimes exceeding 200 ft.
The Puget Sound Basin and the neighbouring slopes of the Cascade and Olympic Mountains are noted for their forests, consisting mainly of giant Douglas fir or Oregon pine (Pseudotsuga Douglasii), but containing also some cedar, spruce and hemlock, a smaller representation of a few other species and a dense undergrowth.
slope of the Cascades the red fir ceases to be the dominant tree, and between this elevation and the region of perpetual snow, on a few of the highest peaks, rise a succession of forest zones containing principally: (1) yellow pine, red and yellow fir, white fir and cedar; (2) lodgepole pine, white pine, Engelmann spruce and yew; (3) subalpine fir, lovely fir, noble fir, Mertens hemlock, Alaska cedar and tamarack; (4) white-bark pine, Patton hemlock, alpine larch and creeeping juniper.
slope of the Cascades and most of the Okanogan Highlands are clothed with light forests consisting chiefly of yellow pine, but containing also Douglas fir, cedar, larch, tamarack and a very small amount of oak.
In the eastern part of the Okanogan Highlands there is some western white pine, and here, too, larch is most abundant.
The mountain valleys are covered with little except grasses; on the higher parts of the mountains there are barren rocks or only a scant growth of timber; but many of the lower mountain slopes, especially those along the western border, are clothed with heavy timber, ponderosa pine, lodgepole pine, Douglas-fir and western larch being the principal species.
Other species include - western red cedar, Engelmann spruce, alpine fir, whitebark pine, limber pine, alpine larch and occassionally western white pine.
More than one-half of the product is yellow pine and the remainder is principally red fir and tamarack.
The timber was white pine.
The roadway is of pine blocks dowelled.
thick, arid were lined with staves of pine 3 in.
In its neighbourhood, surrounded by pine forests, are the baths of Bartfa, with twelve mineral springs - iodate, ferruginous and alkaline - used for bathing and drinking.
Most of the forest consists of yellow pine, but the spruce, aspen, white birch, bur oak, box elder, red cedar, white elm and cottonwood are among the other varieties found.
The remainder was divided into six smaller reservations, Standing Rock, lying partly in North Dakota, and Cheyenne River, Lower Brule, Crow Creek, Rosebud, and Pine Ridge in South Dakota.
The most valuable trees for lumber are spruce, white pine, hemlock, cedar, white birch, ash, maple and basswood; all excepting pine and hemlock and poplar in addition are ground into wood pulp for the manufacture of paper.
The tulip tree produces a good clear lumber known as white wood or poplar, and is also a source of pulp. In the south both white and yellow pine abounds.
Many trees of the eastern forest, such as basswood, sugar, river and red maple, red, white and black ash, red and rock elm, black and bur oak, white and red pine and red cedar find their western limit here.
The timber used, chiefly white pine, is obtained from the Zuni mountains.
Here the oscilla were hung on trees, such as the vine and the olive, oak and the pine, and represented the faces of Liber, Bacchus or other deity connected with the cultivation of the soil (Virg.
Coccus pinicorticis causes the growth of patches of white flocculent and downy matter on the smooth bark of young trees of the white pine in America.
The western group, corresponding with the ancient Pityusae or Pine Islands, also comprises two relatively large islands, Iviza (Spanish, Ibiza or, formerly, Ivica) and Formentera, with the islets of Ahorcados, Conejera, Pou and Espalmador.
Le Touquet, in the midst of pine woods, and the neighbouring watering-place of Paris-Plage, 3 i m.
Among the more common trees are several species of oak, pine, hickory, gums and maple, and the chestnut, the poplar, the beech, the cypress and the red cedar; the merchantable pine has been cut, but the chestnut and other hard woods of West Maryland are still a product of considerable value.
The neighbourhood of Marietta witnessed for the next fortnight very heavy fighting, notably at Pine Mountain on the 14th and Kenesaw on the 27th, both actions being frontal assaults gallantly pushed home and as gallantly repulsed.
of the mountainous country near the coast are covered with forests of various species of oak, pine, fir, cedar, elm, ash, maple, olive, many of them of gigantic size, and other trees; and on the slopes of the mountains up to 3800 ft.
oak, ash, elm, &c.; the articles FIR and Pine treat of two large groups of conifers; general information is provided by the articles Plants and Gymnosperms; tree cultivation will be found under Forests And Forestry and Horticulture; and the various types of tree whose wood is useful for practical purposes under Timber.
The narrow mountain belt is part of the western edge of the Appalachian Mountain Province in which parallel ridges of folded mountains, the Cumberland and the Pine, have crests2000-3000ft.
Extensive forest areas still remain both in the east and the west, In the east oak, maple, beech, chestnut, elm, tulip-tree (locally " yellow poplar "), walnut, pine and cedar trees are the most numerous; in the west the forests are composed largely of cypress, ash, oak, hickory, chestnut, walnut, beech, tulip-tree, gum and sycamore trees.
Owing to the pine forests pitch and tar were important manufactures in early times.
These widely divergent conditions give to Mexico a flora that includes the genera and species characteristic of nearly all the zones of plant life on the western continents - the tropical jungle of the humid coastal plains with its rare cabinet-woods, dye-woods, lianas and palms; the semi-tropical and temperate mountain slopes where oak forests are to be found and wheat supplants cotton and sugar-cane; and above these the region of pine forests and pasture lands.
In the Southern Sierra Madre, the " oyamel " and " ocote pine are the giants of the forest, sometimes rising to a height of 100 ft.
Oaks are everywhere common and the " ocote " pine on the Gulf coast is found as far down as 6300 ft.
In southern Mexico the pine is found at even lower elevations where the tropical growth has been destroyed by cultivation and fire.
In some localities the characteristic types of the two climatic extremes, the palm and the pine, are to be found growing side by side.
In the valleys of some of these denuded slopes oak and pine are succeeding the tropical species where fires have given them a chance to get a good foothold.
Then follows the creation, when the creators said " Earth," and the earth was formed like a cloud or a fog, and the mountains appeared like lobsters from the water, cypress and pine covered the hills and valleys, and their forests were peopled with beasts and birds, but these could not speak the name of their creators, but could only chatter and croak.
Except on the summits of the higher mountains New Hampshire was originally an unbroken forest of which the principal trees were the white pine, hemlock, sugar maple, yellow birch, beech, red oak, and white oak in the S., red spruce, balsam, and white birch on the upper mountain slopes, and red spruce, white pine, sugar maple, white spruce and white cedar in the other parts of the N.
yellow birch, sugar maple and beech have to a considerable extent supplanted spruce, white pine and hemlock, and that wherever forest fires have occurred there is much bird cherry, yellow birch and aspen.
All except a few scattered trees of the white pine, which was once abundant in all parts of the state below 1500 ft.
South Carolina and Georgia furnish the broadest and most typical section of this important physiographic province: here the more sandy and hilly interior parts are largely occupied by pine forests, which furnish much hard or yellow pine lumber, tar and turpentine.
South Park, directly west of Pikes Peak, is one of the highest basins (nearly 10,000 ft.), and gains its name from the scattered, park-like growth of large pine trees; it is drained chiefly by the South Platte river (Missouri-Mississippi system), through a deep gorge in the dissected mass of the plateau-like Front Range.
The Austroriparian zone has the long-leaf and loblolly pines, magnolia and live oak on the uplands, and the bald cypress, tupelo and cane in the swamps; and in the semi-tropical Gulf strip are the cabbage palmetto and Cuban pine; here, too, Sea Island cotton and tropical fruits are successfully cultivated.
The river is rarely navigable above Fort Smith, and during a considerable part of the year not above Pine Bluff.
In the "Timber Belt" the forests of long leaf pine have an estimated stand of 21,192 million ft.; and in 1905 the product of sawed lumber was valued at $13,563,815.
The best kind of charcoal is that of close-grained pine or alder; it is cut in short prisms, having a flat smooth surface at right angles to the rings of growth.
Adjoining this region are the pine barrens, which extend S.
It is remarkably tough, resisting a rending strain better than any of the fir or pine woods in common use, though not as elastic as some; properly seasoned, it is as little liable to shrink as to split; the boughs being small compared to the trunk, the timber is more free from large knots, and the small knots remain firm and undecayed.
On the Grampians and neighbouring hills the larch will flourish at a greater elevation than the pine, and will grow up to an altitude of 1700 or even 1800 ft.; but it attains its full size on lower slopes.
The imports include wheat, flour, Indian corn, jerked beef (carne secca), lard, bacon, wines and liquors, butter, cheese, conserves of all kinds, coal, cotton, woollen, linen and silk textiles, boots and shoes, earthenand glasswares, railway material, machinery, furniture, building material, including pine lumber, drugs and chemicals, and hardware.
Marshall is situated in a region growing cotton and Indian corn, vegetables, small fruits and sugar-cane; in the surrounding country there are valuable forests of pine, oak and gum.
5-8) Attis emasculates himself under a pine tree, which the Great Mother bears into her cave as she and Agdistis together wildly lament the death of the youth.
In the vicinity Sea Island cotton, rice, potatoes and other vegetables are raised - the truck industry having become very important; and there are groves of yellow pine and cypress.
About four-fifths of the park is covered with dense forests of black pine (Pinus Murrayana), balsam, fir, spruce, cedar and poplar.
In many districts where such woods once existed, their place has been occupied by the Scottish pine and spruce, which suffer less from the ravages of goats, the worst enemies of tree vegetation.
In the pine forests of the Alps the prevailing species are the common spruce and the silver fir; on siliceous soil the larch flourishes, and surpasses every other European species in height.
The Scottish pine is chiefly found at a lower level and rarely forms forests.
The mughus, creeping pine, or Krummholz of the Germans, is common in the Eastern Alps, and sometimes forms on the higher mountains a distinct zone above the level of its congeners.
In the Northern Alps the pine forests rarely surpass the limit of 6000 ft.
On the upper verge of the pine forests, or in the scrubby vegetation just beyond, the following are not uncommon - black woodpecker (Picus martius), ring-ousel (Turdus torquatus), Bonelli's warbler (Phylloscopus Bonellii), crested tit (Parus cristatus), citril finch (Citrinella alpina), siskin (Chrysomitris spinus), crossbill (Loxia curvirostra), nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes), blackcock (Tetrao tetrix), and the alpine varieties of the marsh-tit (Parus palustris, borealis) and tree-creeper (Certhia familiaris, costae).
The frame ground, including melon and pine pits, should occupy some well-sheltered spot in the slips, or on one side of the garden, and adjoining to this may be found a suitable site for the compost ground, in which the various kinds of soils are kept in store, and in which also composts may be prepared.
Plant houses constructed of the best Baltic pine timber are very durable, but the whole of the parts should be kept as light as possible.
Somewhat heavy loam y are best for potting pine apples, for melons and strawberries, fruit trees in pots, &c., and may be used with the addition of manures only; but for ornamental plants a loam of a somewhat freer texture is preferable and more pleasant to work.
Pinus - Pine.
Sciadopitys - Umbrella Pine.
In the north the pine tree (Pinus Merkusii) has advanced almost to the equator, and in the south are a variety of species characteristic of the Australian region.
Is sometimes called the pine marten, and is found in quantity in the wooded and mountainous districts of Russia, Norway, Germany and Switzerland.
The governor, Mr Richard Pine, urged the advisability of an advance on Kumasi, but this the British government would not allow.
PINE BLUFF, a city and the county-seat of Jefferson county, Arkansas, U.S.A., situated at an altitude of about 200 ft.
It has an active river trade with St Louis, Memphis and New Orleans, and five railway outlets - the Missouri Pacific and its branch, the Pine Bluff & Western, and the St Louis South-Western and its two branches, the Pine Bluff Arkansas River and the Aitheimer.
Pine Bluff has shops of the St Louis South-Western railway.
Pine Bluff was laid out in 1832 and chartered as a city in 1885.
Coniferous forests, consisting mostly of pine (Pinus sylvestris) and birch, cover large tracts in Mazovia in the north, extend across the Baltic lake-ridge southwards as far as the confluence of the Bug with the Narew, and join in the south-east the Polysie of the Pripet.
The pine covers the Lysa Gora hills and the hills in the extreme south-west.
Chamois feed in summer on mountain-herbs and flowers, and in winter chiefly on the young shoots and buds of fir and pine trees.
All trees were long little thought of in comparison with the pine, but of late years poplar and spruce have proved of great value in the making of paper pulp, and hard-wood (oak, beech, ash, elm, certain varieties of maple) is becoming increasingly valuable for use in flooring and the making of furniture.
But again, abundant traces of ancient extensive forests of fir and pine are found in the numerous.
In Bornholm, it should be mentioned, the flora is more like that of Sweden; not the beech, but the pine, birch and ash are the most abundant trees.
Above this belt the firs gradually disappear and are succeeded by the shortleaved Pinus montezumae, or Mexican " ocote " - one of the largest species of pine in the republic. These continue to the upper tree-line, accompanied by red and purple Pentstemon and light blue lupins in the open spaces, some ferns, and occasional masses of alpine flowers.
Situated in the midst of a region covered with dense forests of pine and cypress, Beaumont is one of the largest lumber centres of the southern states; it is also the centre of a large rice-growing region.
Alexandria is on a level plain in the centre of the Louisiana long-leaf pine forests, in which pine is interspersed with various hardwoods.
The wild cat may yet be found in the Highlands, and the polecat, ermine and pine marten still exist, the golden eagle and the white-tailed eagle haunt the wilder and more remote mountainous districts, while the other large birds of prey, like the osprey and kite, are becoming scarce.
The age at which the northern pine and Norway fir arrive at maturity is between seventy and one hundred years.
Many of the soft woods, such as pine and fir, are sold by the standard.
The numerous varieties of pine which are used more extensively than any other kind of wood are included in this class.
The northern pine (Pinus sylvestris) has a number of othe r names and may be referred to under any of the following: Scotch fir, red deal, red fir, yellow deal, yellow fir, Baltic pine, Baltic fir.
The colour of the wood of the different growths of northern pine varies considerably, the generu1 characteristics being a light reddish yellow colour.
Like the northe pine, it is called by several names, such as "spruce," "while deal," "white wood," "Norway fir."
It is easy to work, but rather inferior in all respects to the northern pine.
The red pine (Pinus resinosa or P. rubra) is also known as "Canadian pine" and "American deal."
In Canada it is called "Norway pine" and "red pine" from the colour of the bark.
The white pine (Pinus strobus) is exported from the northern parts of the United States of America and from Canada.
Other names for this timber are "yellow pine" and "Weymouth pine," the last name originating in the fact that the earl of Weymouth first introduced it into England.
The wood when cut is white or yellowish white, straight in grain and easily worked, but is not so tough, elastic or durable as the northern pine, and therefore is not so suitable for constructional work.
The Kauri pine (Dammara australis) is a native of New Zealand.
The pitch pine (Pinus rigida) is a native of Canada and is common throughout the United States of America.
More than 300 trees were cut down and experimented with, the species under test embracing ten different kinds of pine and five different varieties of hard-wood trees.
The following is a list of the best timbers for different situations: for general construction, spruce and pine of the different varieties; for heavy constructions, pitch pine, oak (preferably of English growth), teak, jarrah; for constructions immersed in water, Baltic pine, elm, oak, teak, jarrah; for very dry situations, spruce, pines, mahogany, teak, birch, sycamore.
Canaria was said to abound in palms and pine trees.
The species of timber almost exclusively planted are the red fir (Picea excelsa) and the mountain pine (Pinus montana).
The region is heavily forested with spruce, pine and broad-leaved trees.
On the alpine range itself and its immediate branches, at a height of 6000 to 10,000 ft., we have abundant growth of large forest trees, among which conifers are the most noble and prominent, such as Cedrus Deodara, Abies excelsa, Pinuslongifolia, P. Pinaster,P. Pinea (the edible pine) and the larch.
The pine and oak were sacred to him, and his offerings were goats, lambs, cows, new wine, honey and milk.
lat., while in Siberia its range extends to the Arctic Circle; in Norway its upper limit is said to coincide with that of the pine; trees exist near the western coast having stems 15 ft.
Bridges are made of posts, carrying a framework either covered with timber or with pine branches and earth.
It was there that the patriot Theodorus Kolokotrones was imprisoned, and a large pine tree is still called after him.
Its large variety of trees and shrubs, including oak, hickory, elm, maple, chestnut, birch, ash, cedar, pine, larch and sumach, its flower gardens, a palm house, ponds, a lake of 61 acres for boating, skating and curling, a parade ground of 40 acres for other athletic sports, a menagerie, and numerous pieces of statuary, are among its objects of interest or beauty.
angustifolia, leaves of the date palm (Phoenix sylvestris), of the dwarf palm (Chamaerops Ritchiana), of the Palmyra palm (Borassus flabelliformis), of the coco-nut palm (Cocos nucifera)andof the screw pine (Pandanus odoratissimus), the munja or munj grass (Saccharum Munja) and allied grasses, and the mat grasses Cyperus textilis and C. Pangorei, from the last of which the well-known Palghat mats of the Madras Presidency are made.
The valley region embraces the bottom-lands along the Mississippi, and up the Arkansas as far as Pine Bluff, and the cypress swamp country of the St Francis.
The yellow pine, the white oak and the cypress are the most valuable growths.
The northern woods are mainly hard; the yellow pine is most characteristic of the heavy woods of the south central counties; and magnificent cypress abounds in the north-east.
Fort Smith (pop. 11,587 in 1900), Little Rock, the state capital (38,307), and Pine Bluff (11,496) lie in the valley of the Arkansas.
A branch 'normal school, established 1873-1875 at Pine Bluff, provides for coloured students, who enjoy the same opportunities for work, and are accorded the same degrees, as the students at Fayetteville; they are about a fourth as numerous.
In 1905-1906 there were 497 students in the college of liberal arts, sciences and engineering, 548 in the preparatory school and 26 in the conservatory of music and arts, all in Fayetteville; 171 in the medical school and 46 in the law school in Little Rock; and 240 in the branch normal college at Pine Bluff.
The variation is from dwarf mountain pine to giant cactus and dates.
Nut pine, juniper and true sage-brush (Artemisia tridentata) characterize the upper Sonoran, - although the latter grows equally in the transition zone.
Three main wood belts cover the flanks of the Sierra: the lower or main pine belt, the silver fir belt, and the upper pine belt.
The sugar pine, the yellow or silver pine and the Douglas spruce (considerably smaller than in Oregon and Washington), are rivals in stature and nobility, all attaining 200 ft.
Above the firs come the tamarack, constituting the bulk of the lower Alpine forest; the hardy long-lived mountain pine; the red cedar or juniper, growing even on the baldest rocks; the beautiful hemlock spruce; the still higher white pine, nut pine, needle pine; and finally, at io,000 to 12,000 ft., the dwarf pine, which grows in a tangle on the earth over which one walks, and may not show for a century's growth more than a foot of height or an inch of girth.
is covered with the nut pine down to the sage plains.
The redwood is a general utility lumber second only to the common white pine, and the drain on the woods has been continuous since 1850.
cut in 1903, 4 6 5,4 60, 000 were of redwood, and 264,890,000 of yellow pine; fir and sugar pines contributing another 104,600,000, and spruce and cedar 17,670,000 ft.
Cotton and leather are manufactured; the country around is fertile, and in the neighbourhood are large forests of oak, beech, elm, chestnut and pine, the timber of which is partly used locally and partly exported to Constantinople.
The yellow pine is the most important tree in the Bighorns, and small lodge-pole pine makes up the greater part of the N.W.
The Douglas spruce and Rocky Mountain white pine are common in the forests of the Medicine Bow Mountains, from which much of the native lumber used in the S.
The saleable timber consists almost entirely of yellow pine, though there is a relatively small growth of other conifers and of hard-wood trees.
It is a feeble base, and gives a cherry-red coloration with a pine shaving.
high is made out of the fine single trunk of a Douglas pine.
The mountains on the north coast are clothed with dense forests of pine, fir, cedar, oak, beech, &c. On the Taurus range the forests are smaller, and there is a larger proportion of pine.
On the west coast the ilex, plane, oak, valonia oak, and pine predominate.
The Coastal Plain of Virginia is covered with pine forests which merge westward with the hard woods of the Piedmont Belt, where oaks formerly prevailed, but where a second growth of pine now constitutes part of the forest.
The Blue Ridge and Newer Appalachian regions are covered with pine, hemlock, white oak, cherry and yellow poplar; while that portion of these provinces lying in the S.W.
The timber area originally comprised three divisions: the mountain regions growing pine and hard woods and hemlock; the Piedmont region producing chiefly oaks with some pine; and the lands below the "Fall Line," which were forested with yellow pine.
Most of the pine of the mountain region has been cut, and the yellow pine and hard woods have also largely disappeared.
In 1900 the value of the product was $12,137,177, representing chiefly yellow pine.
The city is situated in the borders of the pine timber region, and the lumber industry predominates.
New Mexico has such a great range of elevations that all four of the zones of vegetation into which the South-West has been divided according to altitude are found within its limits; namely, the zone of cactus, yucca and agave (3000-3500 ft.), where grass is scanty; the zone of greasewood and sage-brush (3500-4900 ft.), where there is little grass, and the cactus species are less numerous; the zone of the cedar (4900-6800 ft.); and the zone of the pine and fir (6800 - 10,800 ft.), in which grass is more abundant.
The chief varieties of timber are the red fir, Engelmann's spruce and yellow pine.
At the present day the whole plain of the Mesaoria is naturally bare and treeless, and it is only the loftiest and central summits of Mount Olympus that still retain their covering of pine woods.
Agriculture, Evc. - The most important species of the few trees that remain in the island are the Aleppo pine, the Pinus laricio, cypress, cedar, carob, olive and Quercus alnifolia.
The town lies on high ground near the Santee river, in a region abounding in swamps, limestone cliffs and pine forests.
The fir (Pinus sylvestris) and pine (Pinus abies) are the predominating trees Spruce is common, and even predominates in the higher parts (between the great valleys and immediately below the birch-belt) in the north of Norrland.
South of the southern limit indicated, in the midland district of the great lakes, the oak (Quercus pedunculata) appears as well as pine and fir; and, as much of this area is under cultivation, many other trees have been introduced, as the ash, maple, elm and lime.
One of the most striking forest trees is the pehuen or Chilean pine (Araucania imbricata), which often grows to a height of too ft.
Of the two-leaved species, sylvestris, the pine of northern Europe, may be taken as a type.
Nowhere more abundant than in the Scandinavian peninsula, this tree is the true fir (fur, fura) of the old Norsemen, and still retains the name among their descendants in Britain, though botanically now classed as a pine.
It grows vigorously in Lapland on the lower ground, and is found even at an elevation of 700 ft., while in south Norway it occurs up to 3000 ft., though the great forests from which "Norway pine " timber is chiefly derived are on the comparatively lower slopes of the southeastern dales: in the highest situations it dwindles to a mere bush.
The tree is not at present indigenous in southern Britain, but when planted in suitable ground multiplies rapidly by the wind-sown seeds; on many of the sandy moors and commons natural pine woods of large extent have been thus formed during the last fifty years.
The Scotch fir is a very variable tree, and certain varieties have acquired a higher reputation for the qualities of their timber than others; among those most prized by foresters is the one called the Braemar pine, the remaining fragments of the great wood in the Braemar district being chiefly composed of this kind; it is mainly distinguished by its shorter and more glaucous leaves and ovoid cones with blunt recurved spines, and especially by the early horizontal growth of its ultimately drooping boughs; of all varieties this is the most picturesque.
On the European continent the Hagenau pine of Westphalia is esteemed for the straightness and good quality of its timber.
Corsican Pine (Pinus Laricio).
Cluster Pine (Pinus Pinaster).
Stone Pine (Pinus Pinea).
Weymouth Pine (Pinus Strobus).
In Norway the tree, growing in dense forests, is generally of but moderate girth, and probably this pine nowhere reaches a greater size than in the Scottish woods; a plank from Glenmore forest measured nearly 51 ft.
is not an unusual diameter for a British pine tree.
In England the pine is largely employed as a " nurse " for oak trees, its conical growth when young admirably adapting it for this purpose; its dense foliage renders it valuable as a shelter tree for protecting land from the wind; it stands the sea gales better than most conifers, but will not flourish on the shore like some other species.
The pine is an important tree in the economy of the northern nations of Europe.
Large quantities of turpentine are extracted from this pine in Sweden and Russia by removing a strip of bark, terminating below in a deep notch cut in the wood, into which the turpentine runs, and from which it is scooped as it accumulates; but the product is not equal to that of the silver fir and other species.
Closely allied to the Scotch pine, and perhaps to be regarded as a mere alpine form of that species, is the dwarf P. montana (or P. Pumilio), the " kummholz " or " knieholz " of the Germans - a recumbent bush, generally only a few feet high, but with long zigzag stems, that root occasionally at the knee-like bends where they rest upon the ground.
The red pine of Canada and New England (so called from the colour of its bark), P. resinosa, is a tree of considerable size, sometimes attaining the dimensions of P. sylvestris.
Nearly allied is P. Banksiana, the grey or Labrador pine, sometimes called the scrub pine from its dwarfish habit; it is the most northerly representative of the genus in America, and is chiefly remarkable for its much recurved and twisted cones, about 2 in.
P. Laricio, the Corsican pine, is one of the noblest trees of this group, growing to a height of too or even 150 ft., with a straight trunk and branches in regular whorls, forming in large trees a pyramidal head; the slender leaves, of a dark green tint, are from 4 to 7 in.
This pine abounds in Corsica, and is found in more or less abundance in Spain, southern France, Greece, and many Mediterranean countries; it occurs on the higher mountains of Cyprus.
The black pine, P. austriaca, generally now regarded as a variety of P. Laricio, derives its name from the extreme depth of its foliage tints - the sharp, rigid, rather long leaves of a dark green hue giving a sombre aspect to the tree.
Southern Austria and the adjacent countries are the natural habitats of this pine; it seems to flourish best on rocky mountain sides, but in England grows well on sandy soils.
P. brutia, the Calabrian pine, is regarded as the same species.
P. pinaster, the cluster pine or pinaster, is an important species from its vigorous growth in the sand-drifts of the coast, for the purpose of binding which it has been grown more extensively and successfully than any other tree, especially on the dunes of the Bay of Biscay.
On the drift-sands of France, especially in the Gironde, forests have been formed mainly of this pine; the seeds, sown at first under proper shelter and protected by a thick growth of broom sown simultaneously, vegetate rapidly in the sea-sand, and the trees thus raised have, by their wind-drifted seed, covered much of the former desert of the Landes with an evergreen wood.
P. Pinea is the stone pine of "Italy; its spreading rounded canopy of light green foliage, supported on a tall and often branchless trunk, forms a striking feature of the landscape in that country, as well as in some other Mediterranean lands.
P. mitis, the yellow pine of the northern and middle states of America, is rather allied to the three-leaved section, but the leaves are mostly in pairs.
The yellow pine is one of the most important timber trees of the genus; the heart-wood being very durable is largely employed in ship-building and for house timber, being nearly equal to that of P. sylvestris; large quantities are exported to Britain under the name of " New York yellow pine "; the sapwood is perishable.
The three-leaved group includes several of the most valuable trees of America; among them is P. rigida, the pitch pine of the northern states, a tree of from 40 to 50 ft.
P. palustris (or P. australis) is the " Georgia pitch pine," or yellow pine of the southern states; it abounds on the sandy soils that cover so much of Georgia, the Carolinas, and Florida, and on those dry lands attains its highest perfection, though occasionally abundant on moist ground, whence its name.
The tall columnar trunk furnishes the most valued pine timber of the states; close-grained and resinous, it is very durable and polishes well; it is largely employed in American shipyards, and immense quantities are exported, especially to Britain and the West Indies.
P. Taeda, the " loblolly pine " of the backwoodsman, a tall tree with straight trunk and spreading top, covers great tracts of the " pine-barrens " of the southern states, but also frequently spreads over deserted arable lands that have been impoverished by long and bad farming; hence the woodsmen call it the " old-field " pine, while, from the fragrance of its abundant resin, it is also known as the frankincense pine.
The timber of this pine is indifferent, but the forests of it are of importance from the quantity of turpentine they yield; the trees also furnish much firewood of good quality.
P. ponderosa, the yellow pine of the Pacific coast of America, belongs to this section; it is a fine timber tree deserving of notice from the extreme density of its wood, which barely floats in water; it abounds in some parts of the western range of the Rocky Mountains, and is the most widely distributed pine tree of the mountain forests of western North America.
The beautiful Monterey pine, P. insignis, distinguished by the brilliant colour of its foliage, has the leaves in tufts of three or four; the lower cone-scales have recurved points.
This fine pine has been planted in the south-west of England, but is scarcely hardy.
The most important economic species is the well-known white pine, P. Strobus, from its large growth and abundance, as well as the soft even grain of its white wood, one of the most valuable of North American timber trees.
The tree abounds from Canada to Georgia, but in the eastern states has been so long sought for by the lumberer that most of the old trees have long disappeared, and large white pine timber is now only found in quantity in the Canadian Dominion.
The wood of the white pine is durable for indoor use, especially when protected by paint, but when exposed to moist air it rapidly decays, and it is very liable to dry rot; it is said to be best when grown on sandy soils.
In England where it is generally known as the " Weymouth pine," it succeeds well on deep light soils when well-drained; trees have attained occasionally a height of zoo ft.
Nearly approaching this is P. excelsa, the Bhotan pine, which differs chiefly in its longer cones and drooping glaucous foliage.
The Bhotan pine is quite hardy in southern England, and has been largely planted of late as an ornamental tree.
P. Lambertiana, the giant pine or sugar pine of California, is the largest of the genus, rising to the height of 200 ft., with a trunk 20 to 30 ft.
P. Cembra is the stone pine of Siberia and central Europe.
It is a straight-growing tree, with grey bark and whorls of horizontal branches giving a cylindro-conical outline; the leaves are short, rigid and glaucous; the cones, oblong and rather pointing upwards, grow only near the top of the tree, and ripen in the second autumn; the seeds are oily like those of P. Pinea, and are eaten both on the Alps and by the inhabitants of Siberia; a fine oil is expressed from them which is used both for food and in lamps, but, like that of the Italian pine, it soon turns rancid.
P. occidentalis, a five-leaved pine with pale-green foliage and small ovate cones, is found on the high mountains of Santo Domingo and Cuba.
P. Ayacahuite, the common white pine of Mexico, spreads southwards on to the mountains of Guatemala, it is a large tree with glaucous foliage like P. Strobus, and yields a valuable resin.
The site was covered by pine trees, which were much used for ship-building, and for this reason it was known as Mast Swamp. In 1751 a mill was erected, but there were few, if any, residences until 1800.
Among the timber trees are species of pine, cedar, ebony, ironwood, stinkwood and sneezewood.
It is not only the loftiest part of the sierra, but also the highest land in the whole Ionian group. The name "Black" was given from the darkness of the pine woods which still constitute the most striking feature in Cephalonian scenery, although their extent has been greatly curtailed by fire.
The plateau is covered with a fairly thick growth of the chilghosa or " edible " pine, and a sprinkling of juniper, on the higher slopes.
18 Oaks, juniper, pinon, cedars, yellow pine, fir and spruce grow on the mountains and over large areas of the plateau country.'
The Coconino forest is one of the largest unbroken pine forests (about 6000 sq.
The flora is on the whole poor, although the higher regions carry good forests of larch, pitch pine, cedar, birch and alder, with rhododendrons and species of Berberis and Ribes.
from its centre by a thick belt of pine woods, the Jungfernheide, the Spandauer Forst, and the Grunewald, the last named stretching away in a south-westerly direction as far as Potsdam, and fringing the beautiful chain of Havel lakes.
up to April 1907 by the United States government); four-fifths of the cut in 1900 was yellow pine.
The beauty of this range of mountains consists in its pure crystalline torrents, in the numerous blue lakes of its valleys, and above all in the magnificent forests of oak and pine with which its sides are covered.
North of this southern hardwood forest there were pine forests on the sandier land, mixed hardwoods and conifers on the loam and clay, and tamaracks and cedar in the swamps.
The tamarack and cedar swamps now have a growth, especially on their edges, of spruce, balsam, white pine, soft maple, ash and aspens.
In 1909 about 25% of the area was "cut over" or "burned over" lands, mostly the old pine woods, the region of the old hardwood forest was almost entirely farmland, and about 40% of the state was still in woods.
1 During the same period, however, the value of the products of the lumber and timber industry, which in 1870, 1880 and 1890 was greater than that of any other state, and in 1900 was still more than twice as great as that of the products of any other manufacturing industry in the state and was exceeded only by that of the product of Wisconsin, decreased from $83,121,969 in 1890 to $53,9 1 5, 6 47 (35.1%) in 1900, and to $40,569,335 in 1904, this decrease being due to the fact that the large quantities of raw material (both hard wood and pine) formerly found in the forests of Michigan had become so far exhausted that much of it had to be brought in from other states and from Canada.
This plateau and the interior slopes of the ridges are covered with chilghosa (edible pine) forests.
His mother Agave having joined the revellers on Mount Cithaeron, Pentheus followed and climbed a lofty pine to watch the proceedings.
The body of the latter was carried by a dolphin to the Isthmus of Corinth and deposited under a pine tree.
The rock formations are of sand stone and limestone, while the forests are either a tangled growth of pine and spruce or a scattered growth of small trees on a sandy soil.
These have been or are largely used in connexion with pine lumbering operations.
The original forest has been entirely removed, but a young growth of the same tree species, chiefly pitch pine with a variety of oaks, replaces it.
These are sparsely clothed with prostrate pitch pine, scrub oak and laurel.
Tories were active in New Jersey throughout the struggle; among them were bands known as " Pine Robbers," who hid in the pines or along the dunes by day and made their raids at night.
The dry and unusually equable temperature (mean for winter 50° F., for spring 57° F., and for autumn 64° F.) and the balmy air laden with the fragrance of the pine forests have combined to make Aiken a health and pleasure resort; its climate is said to be especially beneficial for those afflicted with pulmonary diseases.
They were built from overlapping strips of American pine, planed smooth and covered with glued canvas.
Georgia pine - and a plank became entangled in the framework of the machine.
It is largely a region of oak and pine trees, in contrast to the beech of the Chalk Downs.
The chief streets, Smith, West and Pine, are in the lower town, parallel to one another and to the bay.
In Pine Street is the Central railway station and the spacious Market House.
Maine was formerly covered with forests, principally of white pine and spruce, but mixed with these were some hemlock, tamarack, cedar, and, on the south slope, birch, poplar, oak, maple and beech.
A new growth of white pine and other timber is gradually becoming valuable.
The commonest species of trees are such as grow in central Europe, namely, ash, fir, pine, beech, acacia, maple, birch, box, chestnut, laurel, holm-oak, poplar, elm, lime, yew, elder, willow, oak.
Among the many varieties of trees and plants found are the date palm, mimosa, wild olive, giant sycamores, junipers and laurels, the myrrh and other gum trees (gnarled and stunted, these flourish most on the eastern foothills), a magnificent pine (the Natal yellow pine, which resists the attacks of the white ant), the fig, orange, lime, pomegranate, peach, apricot, banana and other fruit trees; the grape vine (rare), blackberry and raspberry; the cotton and indigo plants, and occasionally the sugar cane.
The higher plateaus, the Uinta and Wasatch mountains, bear forests of fir, spruce and pine, and the lower slopes are dotted with piiion, juniper, and scrub cedar.
The only timber of commercial importance is found in the Uinta Range in the north-eastern corner of the state, and is chiefly yellow pine.
The interior is characterized by wooded dunes, covered with pine, fir, birch and oak, with swamps and lakes, and fertile patches between.
Sinaia resembles a large model village, widely scattered among the pine forests of the lower Carpathians, and along the banks of the Prahova, a swift alpine stream.
He was killed in the fighting in front of Marietta, while reconnoitring near Pine Mountain, Georgia, on the 14th of June 1864.
excelsa, the Norfolk Island pine, many pines and firs, cedars and other genera illustrate the pyramidal form.
Artificially induced dwarfed plants of Pinus, Cupressus, Sciadopitys (umbrella pine) and other genera are commonly cultivated by the Japanese.
The dying off of older branches and the vigorous growth of shoots nearer the apex of the stem produce a form of tree illustrated by the stone pine of the Mediterranean region (Pinus Pinea), which Turner has rendered familiar in his " Childe Harold's Pilgrimage " and other pictures of Italian scenery.
A characteristic feature of the genus Agathis (Dammara) the Kauri pine of New Zealand, is the deciduous habit of the branches; these become detached from the main trunk leaving a well-defined absciss-surface, which appears as a depressed circular scar on the stem.
A pine cone reaches maturity in two years; a single year suffices for the full development in Larix and several other genera.
Abies pectinata, &c.) the ripe cone differs from those of Pinus, Picea and Cedrus in the large size of the carpellary scales, which project as conspicuous thin appendages beyond the distal margins of the broader and more woody seminiferous scales; the long carpellary scale is a prominent feature also in the cone of the Douglas pine (Pseudotsuga Douglasii).
in length, of the sugar pine of California (Pinus Lambertiana) and other species.
The precise method of fertilization in the Scots Pine was followed by V.
In a radial section of a pine stem each ray is seen to consist in the median part of a few rows of parenchymatous cells with large oval simple pits in their walls, accompanied above and below by horizontal tracheids with bordered pits.
A pine needle grown iji continuous light differs from one grown under ordinary conditions in the absence of hypodermal fibres, in the absence of the characteristic infoldings of the mesophyll cell-walls, in the smaller size of the resin-canals, &c. The endodermis in Pinus, Picea and many other genera is usually a well-defined layer of cells enclosing the vascular bundles, and separated from them by a tissue consisting in part of ordinary parenchyma and to some extent of isodiametric tracheids; but this tissue, usually spoken of as the pericycle, is in direct continuity with other stem-tissues as well as the pericycle.
In northern Europe this belt is characterized by such species as Picea excelsa (spruce), which extends south to the mountains of the Mediterranean region; Pinus sylvestris (Scottish fir), reaching from the far north to western Spain, Persia and Asia Minor; Juniperus communis, &c. In north Siberia Pinus Cembra (Cembra or Arolla Pine) has a wide range; also Abies sibirica (Siberian silver fir), Larix sibirica and Juniperus Sabina (savin).
In the North American area Picea alba, P. nigra, Larix americana, Abies balsamea (balsam fir), Thuja canadensis (hemlock spruce), Pinus Strobus (Weymouth pine), Thuja occidentalis (white cedar), Taxus canadensis are characteristic species.
In the Mediterranean region occur Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus Pinea (stone pine), species of juniper, Cedrus atlantica, C. Libani, Callitris quadrivalvis, Pinus montana, &c. Several conifers of economic importance are abundant on the Atlantic side of North America - Ju