Pilgrim Sentence Examples
All were silent, only the pilgrim woman went on in measured tones, drawing in her breath.
Hsiian Tsang, the celebrated Chinese pilgrim, visited Benares in the 7th century A.D.
The most meritorious act that a pilgrim can perform is to walk from the sea to the source of the river and back along the opposite bank.
Commissioned by Mehemet Ali to inform him about the situation in Nejd brought about by the rising power of Abdallah Ibn Rashid, Wallin left Cairo in April 1845, and crossing the pilgrim road at Ma`an, pushed on across the Syrian desert to the Wadi Sirhan and the Jauf oasis, where he halted during the hot summer months.
But his community was certainly still in existence in the 4th century A.D., for it is especially mentioned by Fa Hien, the Chinese pilgrim (Legge's translation, p. 62).Advertisement
According to this, a pilgrim returning from the Holy Land was cast by a storm on a desolate island where dwelt a hermit.
Give guests a Thanksgiving favor of a Pilgrim hat or toy ship.
A Hugh de Lusignan appears in the illfated crusade of 110o-1101; another Hugh, the Brown, came as a pilgrim to the Holy Land in 1164, and was taken prisoner by Nureddin.
The theology of the Indian Syrian Christians is of a Nestorian type, and Cosmas Indicopleustes (6th century) puts us on the right track when he says that the Christians whom he found in Ceylon and Malabar had come from Persia (probably as refugees from persecution, like the Huguenots in England and the Pilgrim Fathers in America).
He translated the whole of the Bible and The Pilgrim's Progress into Sechwana.Advertisement
Mus., concluded that the poet and the pilgrim were different persons.
According to the Pilgrim Hall Museum, this feast was not originally called a "Thanksgiving" even though it was held to give thanks to God and was religious in nature.
Before reaching Montserrato, Ignatius purchased some sackcloth for a garment and hempen shoes, which, with a staff and gourd, formed the usual pilgrim's dress.
Pilgrim, the residence of the governor, is a fine mansion about a mile from the city.
He first visited Taif at the invitation of the pasha, thence he proceeded to Mecca, where he spent three months studying every detail of the topography of the holy places, and going through all the ceremonies incumbent on a Moslem pilgrim.Advertisement
How far in all this and in the next vision the author is describing facts, and how far transforming his personal history into a type (after the manner of Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress), the better to impress his moral upon his readers, is uncertain.
At an early age he had made himself familiar with The Pilgrim's Progress, with Locke, On the Human Understanding, and with a volume of The Spectator.
The badges were generally worn fastened to the pilgrim's hat or cape.
The Gallic leuga, or league, is a different unit, being 1.59 British miles by the very concordant itinerary of the Bordeaux pilgrim.
Its position at the junction of the Pilgrim's Way and the road from Southampton to London was important.Advertisement
He read and re-read in early boyhood the Bible, Aesop, Robinson Crusoe, Pilgrim's Progress, Weems's Life of Washington and a history of the United States; and later read every book he could borrow from the neighbours, Burns and Shakespeare becoming favourites.
In 1493 he had gone as a pilgrim to Jerusalem, and had been made a knight of the Holy Sepulchre; but, although he remained throughout life an adherent of the older faith, he seems to have been drawn into sympathy with the reformers, probably through his connexion with the university of Wittenberg.
The idea at the bottom of the "Knight and Death" seems to be a combination of the Christian knight of Erasmus's Enchiridion militis Christiani with the type, traditional in medieval imagery, of the pilgrim on his way through the world.
Thomas's The Pilgrim and others; and some additions have been made to the documentary sources contained in the Letters and Papers by recent works, such as Ehses' Romische Dokumente, and Merriman's Life and Letters of Thomas Cromwell.
The Sepulchre and the Hill of the Crucifixion were lost to the Christian pilgrim; and, consequently, before the era of Constantine, the one holy site in the town of Jerusalem was the so-called Coenaculum, which received its name in later years.Advertisement
She went as a pilgrim to Jerusalem (c. 380), and from there traversed the whole of Palestine, in order to visit every site which was consecrated by memories of the Lord's earthly life.
Of greater antiquity is the concise account of his travels by an anonymous pilgrim, who, in A.D.
The place to be visited was not specified; but the pilgrim, who was bound by an open letter of his bishop to disclose himself as a pentitent, lay under the obligation, wherever he went, to repair to the churches and - more especially - the tombs of the saints, and there offer his prayers.
His authority was a Frankish bishop named Arculf, who resided for nine months as a pilgrim in Jerusalem, and visited the remaining holy sites of Palestine in addition to Alexandria and Constantinople.
Consequently hospices arose which were designed exclusively for the pilgrim.
For the old dream of the pilgrim, to view the country where God had walked as man, lived on in the Crusades - a fact which is demonstrated by the letters of Bernard of Clairvaux, with the songs of Walther von der Vogelweide and other Crusaders.
The Venetian pilgrim ships, moreover, carried as many as 1500 souls.
In the 12th century they may be estimated at loo marks of silver (20o) for the ordinary pilgrim.
Fresh pilgrim resorts now began to spring up, and medieval shrines, which had fallen on evil days, to emerge from their obscurity.
In 571 the Haiathalah (Ephthalites, q.v.) of the Oxus, who are supposed to be descendants of the Yue-chi, were shattered by an invasion of the Turkish khakan; and in the following century the Chinese pilgrim Hsuen Tsang found the former empire of the Haiathalah broken up into a great number of small states, all acknowledging the supremacy of the Turkish khakan, and several having names identical with those which still exist.
Marco (now converted into a national museum), a series of frescoes, beginning towards 1443; in the first cloister is the Crucifixion with St Dominic kneeling; and the same treatment recurs on a wall near the dormitory; in the chapterhouse is a third Crucifixion, with the Virgin swooning, a composition of twenty life-sized figures - the red background, which has a strange and harsh effect, is the misdoing of some restorer; an "Annunciation," the figures of about three-fourths of life-size, in a dormitory; in the adjoining passage, the "Virgin enthroned," with four saints; on the wall of a cell, the "Coronation of the Virgin," with Saints Paul, Thomas Aquinas, Benedict, Dominic, Francis and Peter Martyr; two Dominicans welcoming Jesus, habited as a pilgrim; an "Adoration of the Magi"; the "Marys at the Sepulchre."
He went up with the feelings of the medieval pilgrim rather than with the intoxication of the ardent Humanist.
Perhaps the line of the pilgrim road from Damascus to Mecca is the most convenient possible boundary.
That the idols of Bamian, about which so many conjectures have been uttered, were Buddhist figures, is ascertained from the narrative of the Chinese pilgrim, Hsiian-Tsang, who saw them in their splendour in A.D.
Dressed in grey like a pilgrim, and accompanied by five or six trustworthy servants, he would set out on his interminable travels, "ambling along on a good mule."
Vikramaditya, whose court and administration are described by the Chinese pilgrim Fa-hien, and who is supposed to have been the original of the mythical king Vikramaditya, who figures largely in Indian legends.
After the fall of the central power, the scattered Hunnish settlers, like so many before them, became rapidly Hinduized, and are probably the ancestors of some of the most famous Rajput clans.4 The last native monarch, prior to the Mahommedan conquest,' to establish and maintain paramount power in the north was Harsha, or Harshavardhana (also known as Siladitya), for whose reign (606-648) full and trustworthy materials exist in the book of travels written by the Chinese pilgrim Hstian Tsang and the Harsha-charita (Deeds of Harsha) composed by Bana, a Brahman who lived at the royal court.
As the result of the war with the Mogul empire, which lasted from 1686 to 1690, the company perceived that a land war was beyond their strength, but their sea-power could obtain them terms by blockading the customs ports and threatening the pilgrim route to Mecca.
Abu Sa`id al-Jannabi, who had founded a Carmathian state in Bahrein, the north-eastern province of Arabia (actually called Lahsa), which could become dangerous for the pilgrim road as well as for the commerce of Basra, in the year 900 routed an army sent against him by Motadid, and warned the caliph that it would be safer to let the Carmathians alone.
But, to avenge their defeat, they lay in wait for the great pilgrim caravan on its return from Mecca in the first days of 294 (906), and massacred 20,000 pilgrims, making an immense booty.
He is usually represented in the garb of a pilgrim, with a wound in his thigh, and with a dog near him carrying a loaf in its mouth.
The Cape of Good Hope subsequently " became not a colony of the Republic of the United Provinces, but a dependency of the ` Netherlands Chartered General East India Company ' for mercantile purposes; and to this fact principally can be traced the slow progress, in all but extension of territory, of a country which was settled by Europeans within thirty years of the time when the Pilgrim Fathers, the founders of a mighty empire, landed at Plymouth to plant democratic institutions and European civilization in the West."
Very striking is the description, like that given six centuries later by Marco Polo, of the quasi-supernatural horrors that beset the lonely traveller in the wilderness - the visions of armies and banners; and the manner in which they are dissipated singularly recalls passages in Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress.
The pilgrim next entered on a circuit of the most famous sites of Buddhist and of ancient Indian history, such as Ajodhya, Prayaga (Allahabad), Kausambhi, Sravasti, Kapilavastu, the birth-place of Sakya, Kusinagara, his death-place, Pataliputra (Patna, the Palibothra of the Greeks), Gaya, Rajagriha and Nalanda, the most famous and learned monastery and college in India, adorned by the gifts of successive kings, of the splendour of which he gives a vivid description, and of which traces have recently been recovered.
Macpherson, Arculfus' Pilgrimage in the Holy Land, was published by the Pilgrim's Text Society (London, 1889).
The great pilgrim route of Buddhist days was that which connects the ancient Buddhist cities of the Takla Makan in Chinese Turkestan with Chitral (Kashkar), by the Baroghil Pass across the Hindu Kush.
The only work of fiction, in all probability, with which he could compare his Pilgrim was his old favourite, the legend of Sir Bevis of Southampton.
It is now generally supposed that Bunyan wrote his Pilgrim's Progress, not during his twelve years' imprisonment, but during a short period of incarceration in 1675, probably in the old gaol on the bridge.
The Pilgrim's Progress was published in February 1678.
In Scotland, and in some of the colonies, the Pilgrim was even more popular than in his native country.
In 1680 appeared the Life and Death of Mr Badman; in 1684 the second part of the Pilgrim's Progress.
In 1682 appeared the Holy War, which if the Pilgrim's Progress did not exist, would be the best allegory that ever was written.
He was buried in Bunhill Fields; and many Puritans, to whom the respect paid by Roman Catholics to the reliques and tombs of saints seemed childish or sinful, are said to have begged with their dying breath that their coffins might be placed as near as possible to the coffin of the author of the Pilgrim's Progress.
It is a significant circumstance that, for a long time all the numerous editions of the Pilgrim's Progress were evidently meant for the cottage and the servants' hall.
The Pilgrim's Progress is perhaps the only book about which the educated minority has come over to the opinion of the common people.
The Pilgrimage of Tender Conscience, the Pilgrimage of Good Intent, the Pilgrimage of Seek Truth, the Pilgrimage of Theophilus, the Infant Pilgrim, the Hindoo Pilgrim, are among the many feeble copies of the great original.
It was determined to transform the Pilgrim's Progress into a Tractarian book.
Nobody would have discovered from the original Pilgrim's Progress that the author was not a Paedobaptist.
Southey's edition (1830) of the Pilgrim's Progress contained his Life of Bunyan.
But the ancient "fairs of heathenism" were given up, and the traffic of the pilgrim season, sanctioned by the Prophet in Sur.
The mosque is at the same time the university hall, where between two pilgrim seasons lectures are delivered on Mahommedan law, doctrine and connected branches of science.
The industries all centre in the pilgrimage; the chief object of every Meccan - from the notables and sheikhs, who use their influence to gain custom for the Jidda speculators in the pilgrim traffic, down to the cicerones, pilgrim brokers, lodging-house keepers, and mendicants at the holy places - being to pillage the visitor in every possible way.
The caliphs substituted a covering of figured brocade, and the Egyptian government still sends with each pilgrim caravan from Cairo a new kiswa of black brocade, adorned with a broad band embroidered with golden inscriptions from the Koran, as well as a richer curtain for the door.'
The pilgrim enters the Haram in the antique and scanty pilgrimage dress (ihram), consisting of two cloths wound round his person in a way prescribed by ritual.
To the ordinary pilgrim the omra has become so much an episode of the hajj that it is described by some European pilgrims as a mere visit to the mosque of Ayesha; a better conception of its original significance is got from the Meccan feast of the seventh month (Rajab), graphically described by Ibn Jubair from his observations in A.D.
By them the pilgrim becomes as pure from sin as when he was born, and gains for the rest of his life the honourable title of bajj.
Neglect of many other parts of the pilgrim ceremonial may be compensated by offerings, but to miss the "stand" (woquf) at Arafa is to miss the pilgrimage.
He therefore leaves Mecca in pilgrim garb on the 8th of Dhu'l Hijja, called the day of tarwiya (an obscure and pre-Islamic name), and, strictly speaking, should spend the night at Mina.
Next forenoon the pilgrim is free to move about, and towards midday he may if he please hear a sermon.
These are the days of Mina, a fair and joyous feast, with no special ceremony except that each day the pilgrim is expected to throw seven stones at the jamrat al `agaba, and also at each of two similar cairns in the valley.
He was then about fifteen, and his taste for writing, bred thus far upon the quaint Journals of Friends, the Bible and The Pilgrim's Progress, was at once stimulated.
Of his later books of verse may be mentioned The Tent on the Beach (1867), The Pennsylvania Pilgrim (1872), The Vision of Echard (1878), The King's Missive (1881), At Sundown, his last poems (1890).
The mass of the crusaders became weary of the political factions which divided some of their leaders; and Godfrey, who was more of a pilgrim than a politician, becomes the natural representative of this feeling.
From the statements of older travellers, like the Venetian Marco Polo (13th century) and the Chinese pilgrim Hsiian Tsang (7th century), as well as from other data, it is perfectly evident, not only that this country is suffering from a progressive desiccation, but that the sands have actually swallowed up cultivated areas within the historical period.
As a child he was remarkably precocious; at six he is said to have been able to repeat large parts of the Bible and of Pilgrim's Progress by heart.
Aribo, however, refused to perform this ceremony for Gisela, as she was within the prohibited degrees of affinity, and she was crowned some days later at Aix-laChapelle by Pilgrim, archbishop of Cologne.
Reigate (Cherchefelle, Regat, Reygate) owed its first settlement to its situation at a cross-road on the Pilgrim's Way, at the foot of the North Downs; and its early importance to the castle which was the stronghold of the De Warennes in the 12th, 13th and 14th centuries.
The principal places are Sa`da, the residence of the Imam, an important town on the old pilgrim road 120 m.
Though still the market of the nomads, the surer and cheaper sea route has almost destroyed the transit trade to which it once owed its wealth, and has even diminished the importance of the annual pilgrim caravan to Mecca.
It was first seriously assailed by Adolf Holtzmann (Untersuchungen fiber das Nib., Stuttgart, 1854), who argued that the original could not have been strophic in form - the fourth lines of the strophes are certainly often of the nature of "padding" - that it was written by Konrad (Kuonrat of the Klage), writer to Bishop Pilgrim of Passau about 970-984, and that of existing MSS.
Devon sustained a broken ankle and a head injury and was taken by ambulance to Pilgrim Hospital for treatment.
Most inhabitants of present day New York would be regarded as highly deviant by the Pilgrim Fathers, and vise versa.
That is one reason I give no apology for introducing a spiritual dimension to a conference dedicated to the Practical Pilgrim.
The first is Saint James in his pilgrim's garb, as if about to set out for Santiago de Compostella.
Innocent in the House Joseph Pilgrim is the eponymous hero of Andy McSmith's fictional debut.
As soon as the pilgrim assumes the ihram or pilgrim dress he must abstain from cutting his hair or nails.
There's no discouragement shall make him once relent His first avowed intent to be a pilgrim.
But it is Santiago de Compostela, the goal of the medieval pilgrim, which calls us.
It is a souvenir of a medieval pilgrim 's visit to the Shrine of St. Alban.
News from St. Albans Diocese Join the pilgrim trail There's still time to join the pilgrim trail to Spain and Turkey next year.
The Pilgrim Fathers introduced apples to the New World, planting pips that they had taken with them from England.
Whether used by crusader, pilgrim or cleric, these maps provided spiritual rather than geographical guidance.
The events of his reign are related by Hsiian Tsang, the Chinese pilgrim, and by Bana, a Brahman author.
But in 1369 he was assassinated, and the last romantic figure of the Crusades died, leaving only the legacy of his memory to his chancellor de Mezieres, who for nearly forty years longer continued to be the preacher of the Crusades to Europe, advocating - what always continued to be the "dream of the old pilgrim"- a new order of knights of the Passion of Christ for the recovery and defence of Jerusalem.
The tomb of St Silvester could be identified, and that of Pope Siricius " at his feet," as the pilgrim noted (Bullett., 1890, pp. 106-119).
His name and legends still filled the land, or at least the Buddhist portion of it, 600 years later, when the Chinese pilgrim, Hsiian Tsang, travelled in India; they had even reached the great Mahommedan philosopher, traveller and geographer, Abu-r-Raihan Muhammad al-Biruni (see Biruni), in the i, th century; and they are still celebrated in the Mongol versions of Buddhist ecclesiastical story.
For, as not a single pilgrim passes through the Wicket Gate in infancy, and as Faithful hurries past the House Beautiful without stopping, the lesson which the fable in its altered shape teaches, is that none but adults ought to be baptized, and that the eucharist may safely be neglected.
I did not care especially for "The Pilgrim's Progress," which I think I did not finish, or for the "Fables."
A pilgrim from Ireland who returning from a pilgrimage to the Holy Land settled as a hermit near Modena in Italy.
No pilgrim is allowed for any reason to harm a human being or an animal during his sojourn in the city.
If a cat allows you to costume it, you can dress it as a leprechaun, bunny, Pilgrim or bee.
Every major costume shop sells colonial costumes, so you should browse to see what you like - whether it's a Pilgrim costume or a little gentleman or lady.
Coloring books with Pilgrim, Indian and turkey pictures are sure to lift his spirits during an enduring trip.
The site also has both detailed line drawings (good for older children) and simple cartoons such as pilgrim faces for younger kids still struggling to stay between the lines.
According to Hakluyt, it was brought into England from Tripoli by a pilgrim, who hid a stolen corm in the hollow of his staff.
Setting out shortly after Christmas, he had a meeting with abbot Hugo of Cluny at Besancon, where he was joined by the young monk Hildebrand, who afterwards became Pope Gregory VII.; arriving in pilgrim garb at Rome in the following February, he was received with much cordiality, and at his consecration assumed the name of Leo IX.
In France St Martin remained the chief goal of the pilgrim; while Notre Dame de Sous-Terre in Chartres (with a portrait of the "black Virgin"), Le Puy-en-Velay (dep. Haute Loire), and others, also enjoyed considerable celebrity.
The pilgrimage thither must have attained great importance as early as the 15th century; for the popes of the Renaissance found themselves constrained to erect an imposing pilgrim church above the "Holy House."
They are hymns of the laity, describing with much beauty and depth of feeling the emotions of the pilgrim when his feet stood within the gates of Jerusalem, when he looked forth on the encircling hills, when he felt how good it was to be camping side by side with his brethren on the slopes of Zion (cxxxiii.), when a sense of Jehovah's forgiving grace and the certainty of the redemption of Israel triumphed over all the evils of the present and filled his soul with humble and patient hope.
Indeed the two states may contradict each other, as in the case of the 4th-century Christian pilgrim to Jerusalem who boasted that she had not washed her face for eighteen years for fear of removing therefrom the holy chrism of baptism.
From him he learned that amid the rocks was a chasm communicating with purgatory, from which rose perpetually the groans of tortured souls, the hermit asserting that he had also heard the demons complaining of the efficacy of the prayers of the faithful, and especially of the monks of Cluny, in rescuing their victims. On returning home the pilgrim hastened to inform the abbot of Cluny, who forthwith set apart the 2nd of November as a day of intercession on the part of his community for all the souls in purgatory.
The pilgrimage retained its importance for the commercial well-being of Mecca; to this day the Meccans live by the Hajj - letting rooms, acting as guides and directors in the sacred ceremonies, as contractors and touts for land and sea transport, as well as exploiting the many benefactions that flow to the holy city; while the surrounding Bedouins derive support from the camel-transport it demands and from the subsidies by which they are engaged to protect or abstain from molesting the pilgrim caravans.
Harvard Pilgrim Health Care estimates a total of up to a 13% increase in health insurance premiums for 2007.
The Egyptian pilgrim road crosses the peninsula from Suez to Akaba, passing the post of An Nakhl, with a reservoir and a little cultivation, about half way; a steep descent leads down from the edge of the Tih plateau to Akaba.
The annual pilgrim caravan or haj, numbering some 6000 people with Io,000 pack animals, is escorted by a few Turkish irregulars known as agel; small fortified posts have been established at the regular halting-places some 30 m.
Arrangements were accordingly made with the Wahhabis, and on the 10th of April Ahmad Feizi Pasha left aina, ostensibly with the object of protecting the pilgrim road, and joined the Medina column by the end of the month.
These " pilgrim signs " are frequently alluded to in literature - notably in the Canterbury Tales and in Piers Plowman.
His reign was remarkable for a naval conflict between the Egyptians and the Portuguese, whose fleet interfered with the pilgrim route from India to Mecca, and also with the trade between India and Egypt; KgnsUh caused a fleet to be built which fought naval battles with the Portuguese with varying results.
In the 13th century a knight with two squires, one groom, and the requisite horses, had to disburse 82 marks of silver for his passage; while for a single pilgrim the rate was rather less than r mark.
Here the attraction for the pilgrim was the supposed possession of the body of James the son of Zebedee.
Our knowledge of the Indian Hunas is chiefly derived from coins, from a few inscriptions distributed from the Punjab to central India, and from the account of the Chinese pilgrim Hsuan Tsang, who visited the country just a century after the death of Mihiragula.
The Egyptian pilgrim route from Cairo, across the Sinai peninsula and down the Midian coast to El Wijh, joins the Syrian route at Badr Hunen.
Early in 1848 he again returned to Arabia, avoiding the long desert journey by landing at Muwela, thence striking inland to Tebuk on the pilgrim road, and re-entering Shammar territory at the oasis of Tema, he again visited Hail; and after spending a month there travelled northwards to Kerbela and Bagdad.
Shammar was crossed without difficulty, and the party was welcomed by the amir and hospitably entertained for a month, after which they travelled northwards in company with the Persian pilgrim caravan returning to Kerbela and Bagdad.
In the present day the Syrian pilgrim route, or Darb el Haj, from Damascus to Medina and Mecca is the most used.
The confession of faith issued by the London-Amsterdam church (the original of the Pilgrim Fathers' churches) in 1596 declares that the Christian congregation having power to elect its minister has also power to excommunicate him if the case so require (Walker, Creeds and Platforms of Congregationalism, p. 66).
The first of Navasard, the Armenian new year's day, was the feast of a god Vanatur or Wanadur (who answered to Zeus EvLos) in the holy pilgrim city of Bagawan.
Travelling down from Damascus in 1875 with the Haj caravan, he stopped at El Hajr, one of the pilgrim stations, with the intention of awaiting the return of the caravan and in the meantime of exploring the rock-cut tombs of Medain Salih and El Ala.
The only ports of importance are Yambu and Jidda, which serve respectively Medina and Mecca; they depend entirely on the pilgrim traffic to the holy cities, without which they could not exist.
The first recorded case of the formation of an hermandad occurred in the 12th century when the towns and the peasantry of the north united to police the pilgrim road to Santiago in Galicia, and protect the pilgrims against robber knights.
In conformity with old Semitic usage, pilgrimages were made at definite seasons to certain deities, and the Sabaean pilgrim month, Dhu Hijjatan, is the northern Dhu'l-Hijja.
The large pillars erected at intervals of two miles the whole way, to mark the daily halting-place of the imperial pilgrim, are still extant.
I have often held in my hand a little model of the Plymouth Rock which a kind gentleman gave me at Pilgrim Hall, and I have fingered its curves, the split in the centre and the embossed figures "1620," and turned over in my mind all that I knew about the wonderful story of the Pilgrims.
Pilgrim Hall, a large stone building erected by the Pilgrim Society (formed in Plymouth in 1820 as the successor of the Old Colony Club, founded in 1769) in 1824 and remodelled in 1880, is rich in relics of the Pilgrims and of early colonial times, and contains a portrait of Edward Winslow (the only extant portrait of a "Mayflower" passenger), and others of later worthies, and paintings, illustrating the history of the Pilgrims; the hall library contains many old and valuable books and manuscripts - including Governor Bradford's Bible, a copy of Eliot's Indian Bible, and the patent of 1621 from the Council for New England - and Captain Myles Standish's sword.
It already, however, bore within it the germ of decay; the accumulation of treasure in the capital had led to a corruption of the simple manners of the earlier times; the exhaustion of the tribes through the heavy blood tax had roused discontent among them; the plundering of the holy places, the attacks on the pilgrim caravans under the escort of Turkish soldiers, and finally, in 1810, the desecration of the tomb of Mahomet and the removal of its costly treasures, raised a cry of dismay throughout the Mahommedan world, and made it clear even to the Turkish sultan that unless the Wahhabi power were crushed his claims to the caliphate were at an end.
The Corporation for the Promoting and Propagating of the Gospel of Jesus Christ in New England (founded in 1649) bore the expense of printing both the New Testament and the Bible as a whole (Cambridge, Mass., 1663 - the earliest Bible printed in.America), which John Eliot, one of the Pilgrim Fathers, translated into "the language of the Massachusetts Indians," whom he evangelized.
In the restoration of the outlines of ancient and medieval geography in Asia Sven Hedin's discoveries of the actual remains of cities which have long been buried under the advancing waves of sand in the Takla Makan desert, cities which flourished in the comparatively recent period of Buddhist ascendancy in High Asia, is of the very highest interest, filling up a blank in the identification of sites mentioned by early geographers and illustrating more fully the course of old pilgrim routes.
The conclusions arrived at by earlier writers are combated by Joseph Bedier in the first volume, "Le Cycle de Guillaume d'Orange" (1908), of his Legendes epiques, in which he constructs a theory that the cycle of Guillaume d'Orange grew up round the various shrines on the pilgrim route to Saint Gilles of Provence and Saint James of Compostella - that the chansons de geste were, in fact, the product of 11th and 12th century trouveres, exploiting local ecclesiastical traditions, and were not developed from earlier poems dating back perhaps to the lifetime of Guillaume of Toulouse, the saint of Gellone.
He, too, travelling as a Moslem pilgrim, noted the whole ritual of the pilgrimage with the same keen observation as Burckhardt, and while amplifying somewhat the latter's description of Medina, confirms the accuracy of his work there and at Mecca in almost every detail.
Here he was on new ground, but unfortunately he gives little or no description of his route thither, or of his journey northwards by the Persian pilgrim road, already traversed by Huber in 1881.
His administration is described in the work of Fa-hien, the earliest Chinese pilgrim, who visited India in A.D.
Hsiian Tsang, the famous Chinese pilgrim, tells a quaint story of a Dhammapala of Kanchipura (the modern Konjevaram).
These religious sectaries attacked and plundered all Mussulmans not conforming to their peculiar tenets; they overran Kerbela and the Hejaz, sacking the holy cities and closing the pilgrim routes.
After two weeks he left, having received the blessing of Pope Adrian VI., and proceeded by Padua to Venice, where he begged his bread and slept in the Piazza di San Marco until a rich Spaniard gave him shelter and obtained an order from the doge for a passage in a pilgrim ship bound for Cyprus, whence he could get to Jaffa.
His attacks on the pilgrim caravans, begun in 1783 and constantly repeated, startled the Mahommedan world,' and compelled the attention of the sultan, as the nominal protector of the faithful.
There was one pilgrim, a quiet pockmarked little woman of fifty called Theodosia, who for over thirty years had gone about barefoot and worn heavy chains.
The cathedral (dedicated to St Nicholas the Pilgrim, a Greek assassinated at Trani in 1094 and canonized by Urban II.), on a raised open site near the sea, was consecrated, before its completion, in 1143; it is a basilica with three apses, a large crypt and a lofty tower, the latter erected in1230-1239by the architect whose name appears on the ambo in the cathedral of Bitonto, Nicolaus Sacerdos.
Once, when in a room with a lamp dimly lit before the icon Theodosia was talking of her life, the thought that Theodosia alone had found the true path of life suddenly came to Princess Mary with such force that she resolved to become a pilgrim herself.
Arber's Story of the Pilgrim Fathers (London, 1897), the two last containing excerpts from the leading sources.
The Yemen pilgrim route, known as the Haj el Kabsi, led from Sada through Asir to Tail and Mecca, but it is no longer used.
In 1395 Niccolo da Martoni, a pilgrim from the Holy Land, visited Athens and wrote a description of a portion of the city.