Pilchard, herrings, whiting and mackerel are taken, and salmon in the Teign.
Ruins of the so-called "fish palaces" testify to the failure of the pilchard fishery in the 18th century.
It is allied to the European species of shad and pilchard, and, like the latter, approaches the coast in immense shoals, which are found throughout the year in some part of the littoral waters between Maine and Florida, the northern shoals retiring into deeper water or to more southern latitudes with the approach of cold weather.
The sprat, pilchard or sardine and shad are species of the same genus.
Sprats are very often confounded with young herrings, which they much resemble, but can always be distinguished by the following characters: they do not possess any teeth on the palate (vomer), like herrings; their gill-covers are smooth, without the radiating striae which are found in the shad and the pilchard; the anal fin consists of .from seventeen to twenty rays, and the lateral line of forty-seven or forty-eight scales.
They resemble those of the sprat and pilchard in having a segmented yolk and there is no oil globule.
In November 5890 a thousand of the fish were obtained in two days from the pilchard boats fishing near Plymouth; these were caught near the Eddystone.
He set up ironworks in that neighbourhood, opened lead-mines and marblequarries, established a pilchard fishery, and commenced a trade in timber.
Mackerel, however, are landed principally at the southern ports, and the pilchard is taken almost solely off the south-western coast.
On the south coast of England it lives chiefly on pilchard and mackerel, and when in pursuit of these is often taken in the nets.
The egg of the pilchard is very easily distinguished from other pelagic eggs by the unusually large space separating the vitelline membrane from the contained ovum.
On the Pacific coast of America, in New Zealand and in Japan a pilchard occurs (Clupea sagax) which in its characters and habits is so similar to the European pilchard that its general utilization is deserving of attention.
They have a smooth gill-cover, without those radiating ridges of bone which are so conspicuous in the pilchard and other Clupeae.
The pilchard is one of the most important fishes of the English Channel.