The crucifixion of Jesus was sanctioned by Pontius Pilate, who was procurator of Judaea A.D.
Archelaus, Herod's successor, had far less authority than Herod, and the real power of government at Jerusalem was assumed by the Roman procurators, in the time of one of whom, Pontius Pilate, Jesus Christ was condemned to death and crucified outside Jerusalem.
He conciliated his subjects by his deference to the observances of Judaism, and - the case is probably typical of his policy - he joined in protesting, when Pilate set up a votive shield in the palace of Herod within the sacred city.
But Pilate so conducted affairs as to attract the attention not only of Josephus but also of Philo, who represents for us the Jewish community of Alexandria.
On learning of this, the Jews repaired to Caesarea and besought Pilate to remove these offensive images.
Pilate refused; and, when they persisted in their petition for six days, he surrounded them 'with soldiers and threatened them with instant death.
They protested that they would rather die than dare to transgress the wisdom of the laws; and Pilate yielded.
Pilate came up to Jerusalem and dispersed the petitioners by means of disguised soldiers armed with clubs.
Complaint was made to Vitellius, then legate of Syria, and Pilate was sent to Rome to answer for his shedding of innocent blood.
Towards the 6th century the legend of the woman with the issue of blood became merged in the legend of Pilate, as is shown in the writings known in the middle ages as Cura sanitatis Tiberii and Vindicta Salvatoris.
Forty-two years before his day, under King Pontius Pilate, there had appeared the true prophet Yahya or John son of Zechariah, an incarnation of Hibil, of whose birth and childhood fantastic stories are told.
It was to him that Jesus was sent by Pilate to be tried.
These doctrinal interpretations introduce the economy of blinding the Jews into the parabolic teaching; the declaration as to the redemptive character of the Passion into the sayings; the sacramental, institutional words into the account of the Last Supper, originally, a solemnly simple Messianic meal; and the formal night-trial before Caiaphas into the original Passion-story with its informal, morning decision by Caiaphas, and its one solemn condemnation of Jesus, by Pilate.
2) was acquainted only with the heathen Acts of Pilate, and knew nothing of a Christian work.
PONTIUS PILATE, the Roman governor of Judaea under whom Jesus Christ suffered crucifixion.
Before he arrived Tiberius died, and Pilate disappears from history.
Pilate kept the Roman peace in Palestine but with little understanding of the people.
Philo, who tells how any suggestion of appeal by the Jews to Tiberius enraged him, sums up their view of Pilate in Agrippa's words, as a man " inflexible, merciless, obstinate."
Pilate answered, What is truth?"
Estimates of Pilate's attitude at this point have varied infinitely, from Tertullian's, that he was " already in conviction a Christian " - jam pro sua conscientia Christianus- to Bacon's " jesting Pilate," who would not stay for a reply.
Pilate's place in the Christian tragedy, and perhaps also in the Creed, stimulated legend about him in two directions, equally unhistorical.
The Epistola Pilati gives Pilate's supposed account to Tiberius of the Resurrection; and the Paradosis Pilati relates how Tiberius condemned him and his wife Procla or Procula, both Christian converts.
All this culminates in Pilate being canonized in the Abyssinian Church (June 25), and his wife in the Greek (Oct.
The earlier Pilate literature, to the extent of rTo treatises, chiefly of the 17th and 18th centuries, is enumerated in G.
He calls it " the beautiful confession " to which Christ Jesus had borne witness before Pontius Pilate, and charges Timothy before God, who quickeneth all things, to keep this commandment.
crucified under Pontius Pilate and buried 5.
And crucified under Pontius Pilate, and buried, 5.
Crucified under Pontius Pilate, B, C, D (A, E, F omit because they are theological creeds.
Who for our salvation descended from heaven, was conceived of the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered by suffering under Pontius Pilate, under Herod the King, crucified, buried, descended into hell, trod down the sting of death, rose again the third day, appeared to the apostles.
And was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate, and suffered and was buried, and 5.
(o) Before Pilate (xviii.
I have come into the world that I may bear witness to the truth: everyone that is of the truth, heareth My voice "; Pilate asks sceptically " What is truth ?
(q) Jesus carries His cross to Golgotha, and is crucified there between two others; the cross's title and Pilate's refusal to alter it (xix.
The long scenes with Pilate culminate in the great sayings concerning His kingdom not being of this world and the object of this His coming being to bear witness to the truth, thus explaining how, though affirming kingship (Mark xv.
Outside this group would come what are called the Apocryphal Gospels and Acts (Gospel according to Hebrews, according to Egyptians, of Peter, of Truth, of the Twelve [or Ebionite Gospel], the recently recovered so-called Logia; the Gospel of Nicodemus, the Protevangelium of James, the Gospel of Thomas, the Acts of Pilate, Acts of Paul, Peter, John, Andrew, Thomas; the Preaching of Peter, the Apocalypse of Peter).
Pontius Pilate was on his way back to Rome, after ten years of office, when Tiberius died on the 16th March A.D.
For the Crucifixion " under Pontius Pilate " the Passover of A.D.
Caiaphas was appointed before Pilate's arrival, and was deposed at a Passover apparently not later than that of the year of Herod Philip's death, A.D.
18 or r9) =01.202.4 [this last is a later interpolation from Eusebius] in the Acts of Pilate.
Judaeos correctly as Rubellius Geminus and Fufius (or Rufius) Geminus, but in Hippolytus and the Acts of Pilate as Rufus and Rubellio.
Judaeos, and the Acts of Pilate (according to all extant MSS.
1.1) had seen copies of the Acts of Pilate in which the day given was not 25th March, but a.d.
Coming to Judaea, he entered the service of Pontius Pilate as page, and during this period committed the first two of the crimes which had been expressly foretold.
It produced a great effect upon many Jews; the Acta Pilati says that Pilate trembled when he heard of it, and, according to Bayle's Dictionary, Spinoza declared that if he were persuaded of its truth he would become a Christian.
Thus the night passed, and in the morning Jesus was taken to Pilate, for the Jewish council had no power to execute their decree of death.
Pilate's question, " Art Thou the King of the Jews?"
Pilate, discerning that it was the envy of the rulers which sought to destroy an inconvenient rival, offered " the King of the Jews " as the prisoner to be released.
Pilate fulfilled his pledge by giving them the man of their choice, and Jesus, whom he had vainly hoped to release on a satisfactory pretext, he now condemned to the shameful punishments of scourging and crucifixion; for the cross, as Jesus had foreseen, was the inevitable fate of a Jewish pretender to sovereignty.
These women watched His burial, which was performed by a Jewish councillor, to whom Pilate had granted the body after the centurion had certified the reality of the unexpectedly early death.
(I) the condemnation by Pilate, (2) the reception of the cross, (3) Christ's first fall, (4) the meeting with His mother, (5) Simon of Cyrene carrying the cross, (6) Veronica wiping the face of Jesus, (7) the second fall, (8) the exhortation to the women of Jerusalem, (9) the third fall, (io) the stripping of the clothes, (i 1) the crucifixion, (12) the death, (13) the descent from the cross, (14) the burial.
And, further, this matter seems to belong to the same cycle of tradition as the story of Pilate's wife and his throwing the guilt of the Crucifixion of Jesus upon the Jews, and the testimony borne by the Roman guard (as well as the centurion) who kept watch by the cross (xxvii.
He is mentioned by the Four Evangelists, who are in substantial agreement concerning him: after the Crucifixion he went to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus, subsequently prepared it for burial and laid it in a tomb.
43), and the Gospel of Peter describes him as a "friend of Pilate and of the Lord."
They include the History of Adam and Eve, the Legend of the Cross, The Apocalypse of Abraham, the History of the Sibyl, the Legends of Solomon; numerous New Testament apocryphal tales, starting with legends of St John the Baptist; a very remarkable version of the Gospel of Nicodemus; and the Epistle of Pilate.
And in the name of Jesus Christ, who was crucified under Pontius Pilate, and in the name of the Holy Ghost, who through the prophets foretold all things about Jesus, he who is illuminated is washed."
But Jerome 79, to Augustine) says that they believed in Christ the Son of God, born of the Virgin Mary, who suffered under Pontius Pilate, and rose again, but adds that, "desiring to be both Jews and Christians, they are neither the one nor the other."
25.6), speaking of the followers of Marcellina, says that "they possess images, some of them painted, and others formed from different kinds of material; and they maintain that a likeness of Christ was made by Pilate at that time when Jesus lived among men.
belieeover, Pilate seemed ready to yield to pressure, rather belying his reputation for being deliberately antagonistic.
sepulchrepposedly went to Pilate to get him to seal the sepulcher so that he could not escape and recover.
When Pilate asked Jesus this question, it was a sarcastic question because it lacked sincerity.
So the revolt was put down, but the excessive zeal of the soldiers and Pilate's obstinate adherence to his policy widened the breach between Rome and the stricter Jews.
But the death of Sejanus in 31 set Tiberius free from prejudice against the Jews; and, when Pilate put up the votive shields in Herod's palace at Jerusalem, the four sons of Herod came forward in defence of Jewish principles and he was ordered to remove them.
Sir James Fitzjames Stephen, in his Liberty, Equality and Fraternity (1873), p. 87, starts the question, " Was Pilate right in crucifying Christ: " his somewhat paradoxical answer is criticised in The Trial of Jesus Christ, a legal monograph, by A.
9): "Be ye deaf, therefore, when any man speaketh to you apart from Jesus Christ, who was of the race of David, who was the Son of Mary, who was truly born and ate and drank, was truly persecuted under Pontius Pilate, was truly crucified and died in the sight of those in heaven and those on earth and those under the earth; who, moreover, was truly raised from the dead, His Father having raised Him, who in the like fashion will so raise us also who believe on Him - His Father, I say, will raise us - in Christ Jesus, apart from whom we have not true life."
of believing in one God Almighty, maker of the world, and in His Son Jesus Christ, born of Mary the Virgin, crucified under Pontius Pilate; the third day raised from the dead, received in the heavens, sitting now at the right hand of the Father, about to come and judge quick and dead through the resurrection also of the flesh."
He has the phrases " Maker of heaven and earth," " suffered," and " crucified," with " under Pontius Pilate " after instead of before it.
They supposedly went to Pilate to get him to seal the sepulcher so that he could not escape and recover.
Pilate inaugurated his term of office by ordering his troops to enter Jerusalem at night and to take their standards with them.
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