Oc, Pigmented ectodermal cells; 1, lens.
Pigmented patch of ecto- ect, Ectoderm.
From near the entrance of the optic nerve, through the original choroidal fissure, arises the much-folded pecten, deeply pigmented and very vascular, far into the vitreous humour.
Following up this line of investigation, Major Ronald Ross in 1895 found that if a mosquito sucked blood containing the parasites they soon began to throw out flagellae, which broke away and became free; and in 1897 he discovered peculiar pigmented cells, which afterwards turned out to be the parasites of aestivo-autumnal malaria in an early stage of development, within the stomachwall of mosquitoes which had been fed on malarial blood.
The wings, which are not capable of being folded, are usually transparent, but occasionally pigmented and adorned with coloured spots, blotches or bands; the wing-membrane, though sometimes clothed with minute hairs, seldom bears scales; the wing-veins, which are of great importance in the classification of Diptera, are usually few in number and chiefly longitudinal, there being a marked paucity of cross-veins.
The three pairs of pigmented spots show the position of the eyes on the dorsal surface.
The network is partly formed out of pigmented cells which are excavated and join to form tubes, the socalled botryoidal tissue, not found among the Rhynchobdellidae at all.
- Dorsal surface of the Limpet removed from its shell and deprived of its black pigmented epithelium; the internal organs are seen through the transparent body-wall.
They are found one on each cephalic tentacle, and are simply minute open pits or depressions of the epidermis, the epidermic cells lining them being pigmented and connected with nerves (compare fig.
The manufacture of overshoes and fishing boots is an analogous process, only the canvas base is more thickly coated with a highly pigmented rubber of low quality.
Pigmented cell with resting nucleus.
Many workers following certain occupations show pigmented scars due to the penetration of carbon and other pigments from superficial wounds caused by gunpowder, explosions, &c.
The periodical histolysis may be partly due to the absence of specific excretory organs and to the accumulation of pigmented excretory substances in the wall of the alimentary canal.
Rudimentary cephalic eyes occur in the Mytilidae and in Avicula at the base of the first filament of the inner gill, each consisting of a I pigmented epithelial fossa containing a cuticular lens.
Albus, white), in the usual acceptation, for a pigmentless individual of a normally pigmented race.
Among some flowering plants, however, the character has become one of specific rank, and among animals we have in the polar bear and the Greenland hare instances where partial albinism - for in them the eyes are black and other parts may be pigmented - has also become a specific character.
There is some reason to believe, as we shall see later, that in spite of the presence of a little pigment and of occasional wholly pigmented young ones, Himalayans must be regarded as true albinoes.
Some animals are wholly pigmented during the summer and autumn, but through the winter and spring they are in the condition of extreme partial albinism and become almost complete albinoes.
The condition of albinism thus assumed as a seasonal variation is never complete, for the eyes at least retain their pigmented state.
Occasionally the piebald patches tend to be symmetrically arranged, and sometimes the eyeballs are pigmentless (pink) and sometimes pigmented (black).
He has examined subjects in which the whole of the hair of the body is white, but the eyeballs are pigmented, often deeply; and, conversely, he has seen cases in which the eyes are pink but the hair is pigmented.
Miss Durham interprets her results as indicating that the skin of these pigmented animals normally secretes one or more tyrosinases.
We may conceive, then, that a pigmented animal owes its colour to the power that certain tissues of its body possess to secrete both tyrosinases and chromogenic substances.
A moment's consideration, however, will show that, while an albino may be an individual in which one or more of the complementary bodies of pigmentation are absent, a pigmented animal is something more than an individual which carries all the factors necessary for the development of colour.
And this brings us to the question as to whether in a piebald animal the pigmented hairs are in any way different from the pigmentless or white hairs.
For it is to be expected a priori that, since albinoes were derived from pigmented progenitors and may at any time appear, side by side with pigmented brothers, in a litter from pigmented parents, they would be carrying the pattern determinants of some one or other of their pigmented ancestors.
The hairs which occupy the region which in the pigmented individual is black, are longer, thinner and more widely separated than those in the regions which are white.
He was able by appropriate experiments to demonstrate that when an albino is derived (extracted) from a coloured ancestry, and is then crossed with a coloured individual, both the colour of the pigmented parent and of the pigmented ancestry of the albino may appear among the individuals of the offspring.
C. C. Hurst, more recently, has shown that albino rabbits, whether pure bred for eight generations at least, or extracted from pigmented parents, may carry the determinants for black or for black and grey.
Some of the individuals will be one or other of the two colours, the determinants of which were borne by the albino, and others the colour of the pigmented parent.
A popular conception exists that albinoes are less constitutionally strong than the pigmented individuals of the same species.
Partial albinism in this case was undoubtedly correlated with some inherent constitutional defect, in virtue of which the individuals characterized by it were injuriously affected by the juices of a plant quite innocuous to their pigmented brethren.
Heusinger has shown that white sheep and pigs are injured by the ingestion (A) N b X N ?--,r N(A)+N of certain plants, while the pigmented individuals may eat them without harm.
But the question as to whether albinoes are more or less constitutionally vigorous than pigmented individuals of the same species may be tested by exact measurement.
Brodie, in ascertaining the physiological properties of nucleo-proteids, found that when they were intravascularly injected into pigmented rabbits, coagulation of the blood resulted, but of the eight albinoes which they used, none clotted.
Pickering showed that the three synthesized colloids of Grimaux in the same way produced coagulation in pigmented animals, but failed to do so in albinoes.
Pickering, still later, showed, in the case of four Norway hares, two of which were injected while in their pigmented or summer coat, and two while in their albino or winter coat, that coagulation occurred in the former cases but not in the latter.
Moreover, it was found that all the failures of coagulation occurred when the nucleo-proteid used was obtained from pigmented animals.
The Himalayan rabbits reacted like complete albinoes, and 12% of them failed to clot when injected with nucleo-proteid extracted from pigmented animals.
This would give for albinoes and pigmented individuals the amount per kilogramme of body-weight required to kill in each case, and would afford a measurement of the relative resistance of the two races.
It was found that the resistance of albinoes towards the coagulative effects of injected nucleo-proteids was to that of pigmented individuals as.
Durham, "Tyrosinases in the Skins of Pigmented Vertebrates," Proc. Roy.
A pit or depression, known as "the cerebral organ," opens into the brain just above the mouth; this usually divides into two limbs, which are deeply pigmented and have been called eyes.
2, Pigmented pit leading to brain.
In addition to the cerebral eyespot there are large numbers of minute black pigmented bodies beside and below the central canal of theneuro chord, commencing from the level of the third myotome.
- a, Atrium; al, alimentary canal; y blood-vessel; cv, cerebral vesicle; df, dorsal section of myocoel (= fin spaces); e, " eyespot"; end, endostyle; gl, club-shaped gland; lm, edge of left metapleur; m, lower edge of mouth; n, notochord; nt, pigmented nerve tube; ps, primary gill-slits, I, 9, and 14; rc, renal cells on atrial floor; rm, edge of right metapleur; so, sense organ opening into praeoral pit; ss, thickenings, the rudiments of the row of secondary gill-slits.
The discoveries that some species of nitrifying bacteria and perhaps pigmented forms are capable of carbon-assimilation, that others can fix free nitrogen and that a number of decompositions hitherto unsuspected are accom fished by Schizomycetes have ut thequestions of P Y Y, P d nutrition and fermentation in quite new lights.
In the next stage of complication, seen in the supernumerary (seventh) ocellus of Charybdaea, the patch of pigmented and sensory epithelium is pushed in to form a little pit, in the T Aurelia aurita.
8); the primitively open cup has now closed over to form a vesicle lying beneath the ectoderm; the outer wall of the vesicle becomes thickened to form a cellular lens (1), while the proximal wall consists of sensory and pigmented cells and forms a retina.
It is marked by a number of rings of papillae placed transversely to its long axis, the dorsal of which are pigmented like the dorsal surface of the body, and the ventral like the ventral surface.
Dorsal surface arched and more darkly pigmented than the flat ventral surface.
Like so many coloured Protista, they frequently possess a pigmented " eye-spot " in which may be sunk a spheroidal refractive body (" lens ").
All pigmented animals clotted when the nucleo-proteid was derived from either source.